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About Paper

Coated products

About Paper
Coated products


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Table of contents

1. Definition of coated products
2. Coated paper
2.1. Art paper
2.2. Triple-layer paper
2.3. Double-layer paper
2.4. 1/s coated paper
3. Cast coated products
3.1. Types of cast coated products
4. Carbonless products
4.1. Types of carbonless coated products
4.2. Uses of carbonless paper
A. Self-separating glue
B. De-sensitizing ink
C. Revealing sprays or felt-tipped markers
5. Thermal paper
5.1. Types of thermal paper
6. Metallized paper
6.1. Types of metallized paper
7. Solid bleached board (SBB)
7.1. Types of solid bleached board
8. Folding boxboard
9. Boxboard
10. Self-adhesive products
10.1.Types of self-adhesive products
A. Types of face material
B. Types of release liner
C. Types of adhesive
Summary




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1. Definition of coated products
A coated product is one that has a covering consisting of a mix (or layer of coating) of
mineral and organic components, which is sometimes produced in its basic form, and
sometimes with added plastic or aluminium elements. The main aim of the coating is to
make the product more suitable for being printed on.
Coated products can have different numbers of layers of coating depending on the
quality required, and also different structural characteristics according to whether they
are going to be printed on in the form of sheets or reel.
Coated products are essentially intended for the publishing and advertising
sectors, although if we look at the market for cardboard and folding
boxboard varieties, we are entering into the heart of the packaging
products sector.
Below is a list of the different types of coated products which we will talk about during
the course of this unit.
Coated paper
Cast coated paper
Carbonless paper.
Thermal paper.
Metallized paper
Solid Bleached Board
Folding boxboard
Boxboard
Self-adhesive products
2. Varieties of coated paper
The varieties of coated paper which we produce can basically be differentiated in terms
of the concepts listed below:
The number of layers of coating applied to the paper (determining whether the
paper will be art paper, triple-layer paper, etc.).
The printing system to be used with the paper (rotogravure, offset, etc).
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The type of machine used for printing (for sheets or for reels).
In terms of the concepts mentioned above, the four varieties of coated paper described
below will be produced:
Art paper.
Triple-layer paper.
Double-layer paper.
1/s coated paper.
2.1. Art paper
Art paper is defined as paper having three layers of coating on both sides of the
sheet. The amount of coating is usually quite large, coming to as much as 40 g/m
2
on
each side of the sheet in the case of substances higher than 200 g/m
2
.

It should be borne in mind that the amount of coating to be applied to paper can vary
according to its substance, since the layers of coating reduce the stiffness of the paper,
which for its part always requires a minimum amount of fibre.
Given its high level of coating, this type of paper gives a very high quality of printing, so
that it is important that it should be used for catalogues of products that demand a high
level of accuracy in the reproduction of the colours of the original product (catalogues
for furniture, catalogues for the sale of prestige products, etc.). These varieties usually
have a gloss, semi-matt or embossed finish and are printed on exclusively with the
sheet offset system.

The basic uses of art paper varieties are to be found almost exclusively in
the advertising sector. They can also, exceptionally, be used for publishing,
but the books concerned need to be of a very high quality, and their use for
this purpose is not very common.
In Figure no.1 can be seen an example of work completed on art coated paper.

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Fig. 1: Printing on art coated paper.
2.2. Triple-layer paper
Triple-layer paper is similar to art paper, but with a thinner layer of coating, which
makes its quality of printing slightly inferior. This is the variety which currently has the
highest sales within the coated paper range.
The layer substance for this type of paper can vary between 25 and 30 g/m
2
on each
side of the sheet. It is found with a gloss, semi-matt or embossed finish, and is mainly
printed in sheet offset, although it can occasionally be printed using the rotogravure
system (normally for low substances) or using flexography (when used as part of self-
adhesive product face material).
The main uses of triple-layer paper are especially in the advertising
sector, although this type of paper can also be found in the high-quality
publishing sector.
In Figure no.2 are shown some products printed using this type of paper:

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Fig. 2: Printing on triple-layer paper.

In the following table is a list of the basic uses both of art paper and of triple-layer
coated paper:
MAIN USES OF ART AND
TRIPLE-LAYER COATED PAPER
Luxury
publishing
Prestige
advertising
Catalogues
and
brochures
Memoirs
Calendars
Book covers
Post-cards
Posters
Files
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2.3. Double-layer paper
A characteristic of double-layer paper is that the substance of the layer of coating is
about 20 g/m
2
on both sides of the sheet. This type of paper can have a gloss, semi-
matt, matt and even thick matt finish. The difference between the last two types of finish
is in the release liner, which in the case of the thick matt finish will have a lower level of
mineral composition (or load) so as to try to achieve a higher caliper.
Double-layer paper, also known as " industrial or modern coated paper" , is
used in the publishing sector, for colour supplements, magazines,
catalogues, etc.
In the following illustration can be seen some examples of printing on double-layer
paper:

Fig. 3: Printing on double-layer paper.
Double-layer paper can be printed on in sheets, but printing on reels is also quite
frequent. In the case of our paper varieties, printing both in sheets and in reels is
essentially carried out using the offset system. When printing on sheets, the action of
this variety in the paper machine is similar to that of the previous varieties (art and
triple-layer paper), although the profile of the print is less marked due to its thinner layer
of coating. In the case of printing on reels, the paper passes through the rotary drying
device known as the heat set, in which the temperature of the paper web can rise as
high as about 130

C.
One particularity of the "heat set" printing system is that both sides of the sheet are
printed simultaneously, and the drying process is carried out at the end. Due to the high
temperature attained by the paper, any water it contains evaporates, making it come off
the surface. This evaporation of the water may cause a problem of blistering, given that
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the paper contains ink on both sides and usually in large quantities. Obviously, the
problem will be less important if the quantities of ink concerned are small, and by the
same token will be more critical in the case of gloss paper varieties, because they are
more calendered and thus more closed in and less porous.
In order to avoid the problem of blistering, the release liner paper will be produced with
a lower level of coating (so that it is more porous and will allow the water to emerge
more easily). In such cases, the level of substance of the paper is not usually higher
than 150 g/m
2
, due to the fact that when the substance increases, the porousness of
the paper diminishes and the chances of blistering occurring increase. Paper on reels is
also produced with a lower degree of humidity, so as to avoid problems both of
blistering and of register.
In the case of double-layer paper, there is currently a variety with a quality of 80 g/m
2

which is used as wrapping paper for cigarette packets and which replaces the old
wrapping paper for cartons of ten packets. This type of product is printed using the
rotogravure system.
In the following table the main uses of double-layer coated paper are listed:
MAIN USES OF DOUBLE-LAYER/
THICK COATED PAPER
School books
Direct Marketing
Diccionaries
Correspondence
Encyclopaedias
Magazines
Catalogues and
brochures
Advertising
Memoirs

2.4. 1/s Coated Paper
1/s coated paper (with the coating on one side only) represents a speciality product
within the range of double-layer coated paper varieties. It nearly always has a gloss
finish, although it sometimes also has an embossed finish.
This type of paper always has a special treatment on the reverse side so as to avoid
curling up of the edges, which is a very complicated problem that appears during
printing, and is more frequent in this type of paper than in those with coatings on both
sides due precisely to the fact of having a difference between the two sides of the
sheet.
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The market for 1/s coated paper is basically centred on labels, although the
product also has a significant share in other markets, such as cigarettes (in
terms of the soft packet sector), chocolate wrappers, book covers, etc.
1/s coated paper is considered a special paper, due not so much to the printing systems
used with it (which are normally the conventional ones) as to the multiple treatments to
which it is subsequently subjected, such as guillotining, die-cutting, or being used in
"labelling devices".

Depending on the end uses to which it is put, 1/s coated paper has numerous
specialized varieties, such as the following:
Standard 1/s coated paper. This is a product which is used for labels that do
not need any additional treatment, such as those used for wine or spirit bottles
that are non-returnable (fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Label for non-returnable bottle.

WS 1/s coated paper. This is the paper which is used for labels for products
sold in returnable bottles. Its treatment gives the paper a high level of resistance
to humidity, so that when the bottles are washed before being re-filled and re-
labelled, the old labels can be removed from the bottles without getting torn
during the "washing" process. If this were not the case, they would cause
dirtiness and make it necessary to change the washing water, which would
greatly increase costs.
The designation WS (wet strength, or resistance to humidity) is also used for
other products intended for the returnable bottle market, which we shall talk
about later.
RH 1/s coated paper. This product is suitable for rotogravure printing and is
essentially intended for yoghurt labels. This variety's main characteristic is that it
needs a high degree of smoothness and compressibility in order to be able to be
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printed on satisfactorily, in addition to a reverse side that can accept the
attachment of heat-sealable glue so that the label can be attached to the plastic
container of the yoghurt through the effects of heat.

Fig. 5: Yoghurt labels.

Fungicidal 1/s coated paper. This variety contains a bactericidal ingredient in
order to be able to maintain suitable conditions for the product of which it forms
the packaging (usually soap or other types of detergent). As far as printing is
concerned, its characteristics are the same as those of a standard paper variety.
1/s coated paper for cigarette packets. This is normally used specifically for
so-called "soft" packets, since "hard" packets are made with coated cardboard,
which we will discuss below. Its basic characteristics are a high degree of
smoothness and compressibility, since it is printed on using the rotogravure
process. Its percentage of stress is lower than that of a standard 1/s coated
paper variety, since it requires a high degree of stiffness in order to be able to
withstand adequately its final stage of preparation, bearing in mind the high
speed at which cigarette-packing machines operate.
1/s coated paper for self-adhesive products. The basic difference between
this variety intended for self-adhesive products and other standard 1/s coated
paper varieties is that it must have a higher degree of tensile strength so as to be
able to withstand matrix stripping when the self-adhesive product is handled in
reels. The printing systems used for this product are flexography, when printing
takes place in reels, and offset, when printing is onto sheets.
In order to understand the matrix stripping process we can see the following
illustration, in which a machine for printing self-adhesive paper can be observed, with a
view of a blank reel and of a printed reel, as well as of the remaining part of the web.
The web is usually fairly thin in order to make the most of the product, and thus if it is
not strong enough it can break, and this will make it necessary to stop the machine.

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Fig. 6: Matrix stripping in a machine for printing self-adhesive paper.
In the following table the main uses of 1/s coated paper are listed:
MAIN USES OF 1/s COATED
PAPER
Labels
Wrappings (chocolate, soaps, etc.)
Book covers
Cigarette packets (soft packets)
Various compound products

3. Cast coated products
The characteristic feature of cast-coated paper varieties is that in their case the gloss is
produced through heat rather than through friction, which to some extent conditions
both the purposes for which they are used and the printing system to be applied. This
type of paper is used basically when coated on one side only, although very
occasionally it can be coated on both sides.
The consumption of this product has evolved over time, and if it was formerly common
to find it in the high-quality packaging market, its consumption today is centred on the
market for labels, especially of the self-adhesive variety. Nevertheless, it continues to
be manufactured in high substances for packaging, files, menus, etc., although in some
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of these markets it is being substituted by other products which we will discuss later.
The reason for its abandonment in the packaging market may be its low level of
resistance to rubbing, which makes it necessary to plasticize it in order to give it greater
resistance. Logically carrying out this operation reduces the need for the product to be
cast-coated, since the high gloss effect can be achieved through the use of the plastic.
Cast-coated paper can be white or, alternatively have coloured finishes. The printing
system most used with it is usually offset, although in the case of coloured products it is
necessary to know how the colour has been applied in terms of the use of the different
inks.
In the case of certain products, the colour comes from the coating mix
itself. In this case, the product can be printed on with the same inks as if
it were white. In other cases, the colour is applied through a printing
system that totally closes up the pores of the paper, and for this reason it
is necessary to use inks with completely oxidative drying processes.

3.1. Types of cast coated products
Within the market for cast coated paper there are various different products, as
described below:
Standard cast coated paper. This is used in the markets for labels (with low
substances) and for packaging (for high substances). Printing is usually by the
offset process.


Fig. 7: Applications of cast coated paper.

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WS cast coated paper. As has already been noted, products classified by the
designation "WS" are used for the labelling of "returnable bottles". In this market,
this product is less frequently found than "1/s WS cast coated paper" due to its
high price, although it is also used, especially for bottling high-quality products.


Fig. 8: Applications of WS cast coated paper.

Cast coated paper for self-adhesive products. This product is intended for
manufacturers of self-adhesive products, including Adestor. As has already been
noted with reference to 1/s cast coated paper, the product needs to have a
greater tensile strength than standard paper types in order to be able to
withstand the matrix stripping that takes place in reel printing machines. It can
also be used in the same way as the "WS" paper type if it is intended to be used
for the labels of returnable bottles.
Cast coated board. This product takes the form of folding boxboard or folding
carboard (the product type will be defined later in this unit) with cast coating. It is
used for packaging, but is found less and less frequently.
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Fig. 9: Applications of cast coated cardboard.
Cast coated coloured paper. This variety is manufactured exclusively with a
substance of 250 g/m
2
, and is used for packaging, menus, invitations, etc. As
has been already noted, it is important to know the colour is added, so as to use
the right ink for the printing process.


Fig. 10: Applications of cast coated coloured paper.

2/s cast coated paper. This product is not very frequently found, but it is
sometimes used purely for advertising purposes, and thus its final uses are a
little different from the most common applications of 1/s cast coated products. In
some cases, the production process simply consists of sticking together the
reverse sides of two 1/s cast coated products; in other cases, the product is cast-
coated separately on each of its sides.
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Fig. 11: Application of 2/s cast coated paper.
In the following table there is a summary of the end uses of cast coated products, with
coating on one side and also on both sides.

PRINCIPAL APPLICATIONS OF
CAST COATED PAPER
1/s cast coated 2/s cast coated
Labels for spirits, wine,
champagne, etc.
Gift wrapping-paper
Bags
Decorative packaging
High-quality advertising
Displays
Boxes for luxury gifts
Brochures
Files

4. Carbonless coated paper
Carbonless paper is defined as paper that is capable of producing copies without the
need to use carbon paper. In some markets it is also sometimes known as chemical
paper, since copies are produced as a consequence of a chemical reaction between a
layer of "transmitting" coating and another layer of "reactive" (or "receiving") coating.
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The transmitting layer is formed by microcapsules containing the colour former, which is
given this name (rather than that of colouring) because the colour is produced in the
copy as soon as the colour former reacts with the coating of the receiving sheet.
The copy is usually black, although in some countries, a blue copy is produced, even if
this is becoming less and less common. The only difference is in the colour former
used.
Although carbonless paper also belongs to the sector of coated products, with this type
of paper the aim of the layer of coating is not to obtain a higher quality of printing, but
simply to produce copies.
According to the paper's intended use, we have the following types of carbonless
coated paper:
CB (coated back) paper. In the market this is also sometimes known as "first-
sheet paper", and represents the original of which the copy is required. On the
reverse side it carries the layer of microcapsules that contains the colour former
of the transmitting layer. It is produced in 56, 60, 70, 80 and 90 g/m
2
.
CF (coated front) paper. It is also sometimes known as "third-sheet paper", and
is the paper that carries the reactive (or receiving) layer that reacts with the
colour former in the microcapsules. It is produced in 57, 70, 80, 90 and 173 g/m
2
.
CFB (coated front and back) paper. Is also called "second sheet paper" and is
used when more than one copy is to be made. All the remaining copies will be
formed by this sheet, which carries the reactive layer on the front side, and the
transmitting layer on the reverse side. It is usually produced in 45, 53, 60 and 70
g/m
2
. Normally, the lower the substance of the paper, the larger the number of
copies that it will be possible to make, although it is unusual to use more than
five copies, with rare exceptions.
When the original and one copy are required, a CB and a CF sheet are used,
respectively. If more than one copy is required, a CFB sheet is used for
each of the intermediate sheets.
Torraspapel's commercial brand name for carbonless paper is Eurocalco. In the
following illustration the operating system for these products is shown.

Fig. 12: Use of carbonless paper.
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4.1. Types of carbonless coated paper
We shall now look at some specialized types of carbonless products:
CB Plus paper. This is a sheet of CB paper which on the front side is coated
with "conventional coating". What is the purpose of this type of product? The
answer is simple: when the user of the end product uses CB paper to issue an
invoice, the front side of the sheet is uncoated, which reduces the quality of the
print. If a sheet is used which is coated on the front side, it is guaranteed that the
final recipient will receive a document with a higher quality of print.
ORC (Optical Character Recognition) CB paper. This is a product of a quality
especially designed for optical character recognition, and in which use is not
made of fluorescent whitening agent, which could interfere with the reading due
to the machines used in these processes.
Self-contained coated paper. This product has the two layers of coating, i.e.,
the transmitting and receiving layers, on the front side of the sheet. This enables
it to be used as a "third sheet", with a first sheet made out of ordinary paper, i.e.,
paper which is not carbonless.
Torraspapel's commercial brand name for its self-contained carbonless paper is UNIT
(fig. 13).

Fig. 13: The use of self-contained coated paper
(Eurocalco UNIT).

CB self-contained carbonless coated paper. In this case, the self-contained
carbonless product could act as a second sheet in a set of three sheets, in which
the first sheet would be ordinary paper and the third sheet a normal CF product,
as shown in figure 14.


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Fig. 14: The use of self-contained carbonless paper
(Eurocalco UNIT CB).
4.2. Uses of carbonless paper
The most frequent applications of carbonless paper are included in the following table:
PRINCIPAL APPLICATIONS OF
CARBONLESS PAPER
Forms
Delivery-notes and invoices
Chequebooks
Carbonless paper normally involves the use of a certain number of special products:
Self-separating glue
De-sensitizing ink
Sprays or felt-tipped markers
The organizations that supply carbonless paper also sell these products. We shall now
briefly look at their methods of use.
A. Self-separating glue
When chequebooks are produced using carbonless paper, this glue is used to facilitate
the separation between the different sets. Imagine that the finished product is a set of
three sheets, i.e., one original and two copies. The printer will therefore buy the same
quantity of each of the three sheets, will print them and will subsequently carry out the
gathering, i.e., will insert each type of sheet in the correct order to make up successive
sets.
In figure no.15 we can see a set of three sheets: CB, CFB and CF. Before this set a CF
sheet from the previous set will have been placed, and after it, a CB from the following
set. Once the gathering has taken place, the sheets will be guillotined along the side on
which they will need to be glued together so that they are all well aligned, and the glue
will then subsequently be applied by brush.

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Fig. 15: Separation of sets of sheets by means of self-separating glue.
If we look at Figure No. 15 again, we can see that, just where one set of sheets ends
and the next one begins there is an uncoated area. At this point the glue will penetrate
very little, whilst in the coated areas the glue will penetrate much more, with the result
that the sheets will be strongly glued together within the same set, but only slightly with
the previous and following sheets. It is precisely for this reason that this type of glue is
known as self-separating glue, because it sticks together the sets of sheets and makes
it easy to separate each set from the others.
B. De-sensitizing ink
This is a colourless type of ink that is used when we require that some of the receiving
sheets have areas in which we do not want the copy to be seen, which occasionally
occurs.
Let us imagine an order form where we do not want the price to be visible
on the sheet sent to the factory. The printer will then apply de-sensitizing
ink to this area of the form, and in this way will prevent it from being
copied.
C. Revealing sprays or felt-tipped markers
Since the de-sensitizing ink is colourless, sprays or markers are used to check that the
ink has been properly applied. Thus, once the ink has been applied, if we spray the
area to which the ink has been applied or we pass the marker pen over it, this will show
any areas to which the ink has not been applied, which will turn black or blue, according
to the colour former which has been used.
If in the area where the ink has been applied black or blue stains appear, this will
indicate that we are applying insufficient ink. On the other hand, if in areas where the
de-sensitizing product has not been applied small colourless areas appear, this means
that an excessive quantity is being applied, and therefore that de-sensitizing ink is being
applied to areas where it is not required.

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5. Thermal paper
Thermal paper is another type of coated paper that has undergone a process of
constant evolution in the last few years. This is a type of paper on which printing takes
place through the effects of heat.
Thermal paper also has two layers of coating (see fig. 16) on the same side of the
paper, although the two layers do not react between each other.
The undercoating (or " U.C." ). This is the lower layer that guarantees a uniform,
smooth surface on which the thermal coating (or thermal layer) is applied. It also
helps provide high resolution and a high quality of image, and prevents the heat
reaching the paper.
The thermal coating. This is the top layer, which is made up of a large number
of chemical compounds that, when subjected to heat, react among themselves
and develop the image without interacting at all with the U.C. layer. The main
components of this layer are: a colouring, a sensitizer (or coreactant) and a
colour former.


Fig. 16: The composition of thermal paper.
The activation of the thermal layer will be triggered by a thermal header (fig. 17) that will
liquefy the layer by making the colouring react with the colour former, thus forming the
final image.

Fig. 17: Printing on thermal paper.
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5.1. Types of thermal paper
Apart from layers of coating, the various types of thermal paper sometimes may have
special protective treatment, whether it be against heat, grease, plasticizers, etc.,
depending on their final use, as well as types of treatment to allow printing.
Furthermore, these types of paper can be classified into non top coated, semi-
topcoated and top coated varieties.
The following table lists the range of thermal papers sold under Torraspapel's Termax
brand-name, according to the substance in which they are manufactured and the use to
which they are put. In this case all the varieties can be classified as "non top
coated", except the last one (Termax TRO), which is "semi-top coated".

TYPES OF THERMAL PAPER (TORRASPAPEL)

Characteristics and
applications
Substance
Termax SF1
Thermal paper for faxes and
standard applications.
Colour: white.
55 g/m
2

Termax SF1C
Thermal paper for receipts
and standard applications.
Colours: yellow, pink, green
and blue.
55 g/m
2

Termax LNC
(Label Non Coated)
Non-protected thermal paper
for labels and self-adhesive
applications.
74 and 105 g/m
2

Termax ONC
(Offset Non Coated)
Thermal paper that is
guaranteed for offset printing
on the thermal side of the
sheet, suitable for receipts,
bank statements and labels.
57 and 77 g/m
2

Termax PRN
(PRinter Non Coated)
Non-protected high-
sensitivity thermal paper.
Suitable for receipts and
tickets.
80 g/m
2

Termax PHR Heat-resistant thermal paper 55 and 75 g/m
2

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(Printer Heat Resistant) used for parking metres and
other applications which
require heat-resistance.
Termax TRO
(Ticket Resistant Offset)
Semi-protected thermal
paper that is resistant to
heat, light and plasticizers,
and which is guaranteed for
offset printing on the thermal
side of the sheet. Its principal
applications are for tickets for
entertainment and labels.
105 g/m
2


All varieties of thermal paper are suitable for printing on, but for certain
types of printing some kind of special protection is required.
6. Metallized paper
Metallized paper has a layer of aluminium on top of the layer of coating. In the following
illustration the structure of metallized paper is shown in schematic form.


Fig. 18: The structure of metallized paper.
The quantity of aluminium used depends on whether we are dealing with metallized
paper with face material or with high-vacuum metallized paper. We shall talk about the
latter case because this is the variety that we produce, although we use both types as
release liners for self-adhesive products.
In the case of high-vacuum metallized paper, the quantity of aluminium that it contains
varies between approximately 0.08 and 0.1 g/m
2
. Our product has the brand-name
Metalvac, and may be either smooth or embossed. Smooth varieties can have a mirror
or matt finish, and in colour are usually either silver (aluminiums normal colour) or gold
(dyed using a special colouring).
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The end uses of this product are varied, although the most important ones are listed
below:
MAIN USES OF
METALLIZED PAPER (METALVAC)
Labels
Cigarettes and tobacco
Self-adhesive products
Gifts
Packaging
Foodstuffs
6.1. Types of metallized paper
Within the range of Metalvac metallized products there are several different varieties,
which we shall describe below:
Metalvac E. This product is used for non-returnable bottles, for example, for
spirits, wines, etc. It is produced in substances of 75, 85 and 95 g/m
2
, and can be
printed on using any printing system.
Metalvac E UV grade is used when printing takes place using UV curing inks.
Metalvac E WS. The initials "WS" ("Wet Strength") indicate that the paper is
resistant when wet. Given that aluminium tends to form a closed-in layer, and
that together with the inks used can make it difficult to remove labels or, on the
other hand, can cause excessive dirtying of the washing basins, there exists a
series of special products that we list below:
Metalvac E WS QR Plus. This product is designed for labels of returnable
containers requiring conventional offset printing. The initials "QR" stand
for "quick removal", i.e., this product is specially designed to allow for
rapid removal of labels in bottle-washing machines without dirtying the
basin. In this case printing on paper with an embossed finish is
recommended.
Metalvac E WS IR. This product is specially designed for rotogravure
printing. Embossing after printing facilitates the removal of labels. The
initials "IR" ("ink retention") indicate that the product has high resistance to
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the loss of ink, which makes it possible to minimize the dirtying of basins
during the washing process.
Metalvac E WS UV. This product grade is suitable for labels that need to
be resistant to humidity and are going to be printed on with UV-curing
inks. It is not appropriate for labels intended for returnable bottles.
The Metalvac E WS grade is produced in 60, 65, 70 and 75 g/m
2
. Substances of 60 and
65 g/m
2
are normally used for bottle neck-labels, whilst 70 and 75 g/m
2
substances are
used for bottles' main front-labels.
Metalvac A. This product is intended for self-adhesive labels. As in other cases,
the product needs to have special tensile strength to withstand the matrix
stripping that takes place during printing of the reels. It is produced in 85 g/m
2
.
Metalvac A WS. This is similar to the previous product, but with a special
treatment to enable it to be used with returnable bottles. Like the previous
product, it is produced in 85 g/m
2
.
Metalvac T. A product which is used as the inside wrapping in cigarette
packets. Its main characteristic is that it must not give off metal dust during the
process of forming the packet, thus avoiding contamination from small particles
of aluminium. It is likewise produced using water-based glaze so as to avoid the
transmission of any type of odour or flavour. It is produced in 50 and 60 g/m
2
,
and is not printed on.
Metalvac R. Is used for gift wrapping, bags and linings for gift boxes, as well as
for decoration. It has a high level of mechanical resistance and a very glossy
finish, and it is compatible with all printing systems. It is produced in 50, 55, 60,
65 and 70 g/m
2
.
Metalvac F. This is used for the production of wrapping for chocolate and for
food products in general. Its main difference in relation to other products in the
range is its special treatment which guarantees the non-diffusion of odours or
flavours that could have a detrimentary effect on the foodstuffs. It can be printed
using any system of printing, including ultraviolet-cured inks. It is produced in
grammages of 85 and 95 g/m
2
.
Metalvac B. This type of paper is specially designed for tablecloths, trimmings
and trays for pastry and confectionery. In addition to not passing odours or
flavours to foodstuffs, it also has special treatment to avoid deterioration when in
contact with alcohol. It is not recommended for printing, and it is produced in 55,
60, 65 and 70 g/m
2
.
Metalvac CS. This is a metallized cardboard specially designed for luxury
packaging for products such as perfumes, cosmetics, champagnes, wines, etc. It
can be printed on using any printing system and it is produced in 300 g/m
2
.
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In the following illustration are shown some of the uses of metallized paper of which we
have already spoken.

Fig. 19: Different uses of metallized paper.

7. Solid Bleached Board (SBB)
The word cardboard is, without any doubt, a word that can cause an enormous amount
of confusion, especially for anybody who does not work in the commercial
department, and the fact is that printers tend to use this name for any product with a
substance higher than 160 or 180 g/m
2
. Given that at the same time there exist other
products, both coated and non-coated, that are known specifically by the term
"cardboard", this causes the confusion of which we have spoken above.
In this section, however, we shall deal exclusively with the types of cardboard known
internationally as SBB (Solid Bleached Board) and which are produced from bleached
chemical pulp.
The first thing to note about this type of product is that the material of which the
cardboard is made is not one single layer as in the case of paper, but is made up of
several layers (it can consist of between 3 and 5 layers of fibre), of which the top layer
is named the "face", the bottom layer is called the "reverse", and the middle layers the
"belly".

Fig. 20: The basic layers of SBB cardboard.

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This multi-layer material of which SBB cardboard is made is produced in a machine with
a humid section that is somewhat different from the conventional paper machine. In
Figure no. 21 is shown a diagram of this type of machine, which is made up of three
entry boxes (C1, C2 and C3) and three webs (T1, T2 and T3). With the left-hand box
(C1) the "face" is produced on the web T1; with box C2, the "belly" on web T2; and with
box C3, the "reverse" on web T3. In some machines the belly is produced with three
entry boxes and three webs, but there will always be a minimum of at least three layers.


Fig. 21: Flat table for the production of cardboard.

This method of production is essentially due to the following reasons:
With high-substance products, as is the case here, it is difficult to obtain a
smooth finish. By using three layers, the grammage of the material is
divided among them, which makes it possible to produce three thinner layers
that therefore have a higher degree of smoothness, leading to a better product
when it is coated.
The stiffness of the final product is increased.
It is possible to combine layers with different types of fibres: e.g., with all the
layers made of chemical pulp; or with some of chemical and others of
mechanically-produced pulp; or even with layers made from recycled paper.
7.1. Types of SBB cardboard
SBB cardboard can be coated on one side or on both, although the basic market
requirement is for one side only. Cardboard coated on one side can occasionally have a
small layer of coating on the reverse side, designed to improve the printing quality on
that side if it has to be printed on, but they are nevertheless two different layers of
coating, so that such a product is still considered as coated on one side only. SBB
cardboard is occasionally also sold uncoated.
In the following example some of these types of cardboard are listed.
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EXAMPLES OF TYPES OF SBB CARDBOARD
GZ, 1/s, SBB cardboard (coated on one side)
GZ, 2/s, SBB cardboard (coated on both sides)
UZ cardboard (uncoated)
The initials GZ indicate that the finish is cast coated, a subject to which we have already
referred above, although this type is used less and less frequently as a form of
packaging. Nevertheless, we also include it here because this type of product still
competes in some markets, although less and less frequently.
There is also another variety of this type of cardboard that is plasticized on one or both
sides with different coats of film (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyester, etc.) and which
is intended for the packaging of frozen or pre-cooked products. It also plays an
important part in the cigarette market as far as hard packets are concerned.
Types of cardboard that are plasticized are not normally coated. The plasticization of
these products is usually carried out before printing; it is occasionally carried out after
printing, but only with the aim of protecting or embellishing, as in the case for example
of postcards.
If plasticization is to be carried out before printing, the product will be treated in the
factory, and, as we have noted above, this will be the case especially for products
designed for use with foodstuffs. They can also have metallized treatment suitable for
high-quality packaging. Plasticization on site in a factory can be carried out on both
sides of the product, in which case the coating on the upper side is usually of higher
quality so as to enhance the quality of the printing, whilst the coating on the reverse
side is applied only through the need for protection (to act as a barrier against too much
light, hot air, grease, etc.).
The plastics most used are polyethylene, polypropylene and polyester. The choice of
using one or the other, or the quantity to be used, depends on the needs of the product
that is to be packaged, as well as the possible uses to be made of the product by the
final customer (for example, the same plastic will not be used for a tray that is going to
be heated in a conventional oven as for one that is going to be heated in a micro-wave,
where the temperatures are lower). Likewise, the degree of resistance to grease
required by a type of cardboard will decide which type of plastic is to be used.
The main uses of SBB cardboard are listed in the following table:


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THE MAIN USES OF
SBB CARDBOARD
Book covers
Catalogues
Postcards and
greetings cards
Advertising material
Cigarettes (hard
packets)
Pacaging for perfumes
and cosmetics
Files
Index cards
Food products
Glasses, plates
Pre-frozen foods
Pharmaceutical
products

8. Folding boxboard
Folding boxboard is a product with the same production system as the various types of
cardboard, but is distinguished from the latter by the fact that the middle layer (belly) is
made from mechanically-produced pulp, which results in greater caliper for the same
grammage, which therefore gives greater stiffness.
Since folding boxboard is a product with a high degree of stiffness it is
used essentially for packaging of products for which a high level of
productivity is required, such as pharmaceutical products, some types of
foodstuffs, etc.
One characteristic of folding boxboard is that the reverse side can be either white or
wood-coloured, giving two different products with the following international
designations:
GC1 (white backed folding boxboard). This product can, in certain market
conditions, replace cardboard. It should nevertheless be borne in mind that the
core of this product is yellow due to the mechanically-produced pulp, and for
certain uses, such as for postcards, a yellowing effect can be produced through
contact with sunlight when the product is placed on public view.

As can be seen in Figure no.22, white backed folding boxboard can be coated on
the reverse side with a thin layer of coating in case it needs to be printed on. It
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does not however always have this coating; this will depend on the individual
manufacturer.


Fig. 22: The structure of white backed folding boxboard.
GC2 (wood backed folding boxboard). This product is used essentially for
packaging. It can sometimes be cast coated, as was mentioned in the section
dealing with this product. The "wood" colour is obtained by reducing the
thickness of the reverse side, thus showing the "belly", which already has the
yellowish colour typical of mechanically-produced pulp.


Fig. 23: The structure of wood backed folding boxboard.

Folding boxboard can also be plasticized at point of manufacture so as to be used for
food packaging requiring this type of protection. In the same way, when both sides are
plasticized, the same criteria are followed as with cardboard varieties.
The two products mentioned above are the types of folding boxboard sold by our
different distributors. Nevertheless, there are also other products existing on the market
with different structures, and which are listed in the box below:

EXAMPLES OF FOLDING BOXBOARD
Kraft floating boxboard, SUS
Non-coated white backed folding boxboard, UC1
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Non-coated wood backed folding boxboard, UC2
AZ folding boxboard (identical to Eurokote CS)
Finally, in the following box is a list of the main end uses of folding boxboard.
MAIN USES
OF FOLDING BOXBOARD
Packaging for pharmaceutical products
Cosmetics
Sweets and confectionery
Cigarettes
Wines and liqueurs
Refrigerated products
Pre-cooked foods

9. Boxboard
Boxboard is a product that is produced with the same structure as folding
boxboard, except that instead of using virgin fibres, use is made of a large amount of
recycled fibres (and sometimes up to 100%). They are essentially used for the
packaging of cleaning products.
In the past there also used to be recycled folding boxboard and cardboard varieties,
although it should be added that since this type of product always needs to be produced
using primary fibres, sales are becoming less and less frequent, although they still
continue.

For identifying varieties of cardboard, folding boxboard and boxboard a
special naming system is used which makes it possible to find out what
type of product it is and what treatment it has received.

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Boxboards can be of two types:
Coated boxboards. Within this category the following are worthy of note:
GT boxboard: this group can be sub-divided into GT1, GT2 and GT3.
GD boxboard: can be subdivided into GD1, GD2 and GD3.
In the following box are listed the characteristics which differentiate each of these types
of coated boxboard.
TYPES OF BOXBOARD
Coated GT Coated GD
GT1 GT2 GT3 GD1 GD2 GD3
Specific
volume
(cm
3
/g)
1.45 1.45 - 1.30 1.30 1.45 1.45 - 1.30 1.30
Whiteness
(%)
82 80 - 81
78 - 80
Elrepho
82 80 - 81
78-80
Elrepho
Reverse
colour
White/
Wood
Wood/
kraft
Wood Grey Grey Grey
Non-coated boxboard. The main products in this group are:
UT boxboard
UD boxboard.
In the following box the end uses of the various types of boxboard are indicated:

MAIN USES OF
BOXBOARD VARIETIES
Cleaning products
Detergents
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In some cases a layer of 200 or 220 g/m
2
boxboard is combined with micro-channel
board. Although the market for corrugated board is different, in some cases this
combination is used, since in view of the fact that the boxboard is coated, the quality of
the printing is much better. It is very common to find this type of product in packaging
for biscuits.
The reason for this combination is that the final product is cheaper, but nevertheless
gives greater stiffness. Its structure can be seen in the following illustration. The
microchannel board is nearly always made from recycled paper, whilst the basic paper
may be made from recycled or virgin fibre, according to the stiffness required for the
end product.

Fig. 24: The structure of boxboard combined with microchannel board.

10. Self-adhesive products
During the course of this unit we have talked about labels and we have seen that many
types of coated paper (1/s, cast coated types, thermal and metallized paper, etc.) can
also be used in self-adhesive form for the production of self-adhesive labels.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that in these cases it is the end users of the products
who have to put the glue on the paper before attaching it to the relevant release-liner.
In the case of self-adhesive products, the glue is already on the product. Obviously, this
will involve using different types of machines to apply the products (see Fig. 25), as well
as a different variety of release liner.

Fig. 25: Machine for applying self-adhesive labels.

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A self-adhesive product is made up of three component parts (see Fig. 26): the face
material, the adhesive and the release liner. The face material is the product that
finishes up as the label, whilst the release liner, which needs to be silicon-coated so that
the self-adhesive adheres to the face product only, will be disposed of after the label
has been stuck to the relevant surface.

Fig. 26: The structure of a self-adhesive product.
Self-adhesive products can be produced in sheets or in reels. In the case of production
in sheets, printing is normally carried out in offset, although it can also sometimes take
place using the silkscreen printing technique, especially when plastic or metallized
release liners are used. In the case of production in reels, the most important printing
system used is flexography, although some letterpress, rotogravure and silkscreen
printing are also used. There are now machines on the market for printing self-
adhesives in reels in which different printing systems are combined.
The main end uses of self-adhesive products are listed in the following table:
MAIN USES OF SELF-
ADHESIVE PRODUCTS
Labels for publicity campaigns
Computer labels
Price-labels
Children's stickers and games
Labels for perfumes, cleaning
products, etc.
It should also be noted that there are products in which basic labels co-exist with self-
adhesive labels, just as there are markets where one of the two products is more
important than the other. Let us give an example.

If we look at the market for " cava" (Spanish champagne-style wine), we can
see that the two types of label co-exist. Thus when talking of the production
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of large quantities of bottles, the labels will be normal; on the other hand, if
we are talking of shorter production lines, the normal practice is to use self-
adhesive labels which, although they are more expensive, are also cleaner
and easier to apply.
If we turn to the market for pharmaceutical products, for cleaning products
or for fruit, etc., the type of label most frequently used is the self-adhesive
variety, whilst in the case of beer or soft drinks, normal labels are the type
most commonly found.
10. 1. Types of self-adhesive product
The different types of self-adhesive product which are produced vary according to the
type of face material, adhesive and release liner used. We list the different types of
product below.

A. Types of face material
Face material for self-adhesives can be obtained from the following types of paper:
FACE MATERIAL USED IN SELF-ADHESIVE PRODUCTS
Uncoated
Double-layer matt coated
Double-layer gloss coated
Triple-layer gloss coated
WS (Wet Strength) coated
High gloss
Colour coated
Fluorescent coated
Matt and gloss laminates
Matt and gloss metallized
coated
Polypropylenese
Opaque polyethylene
Transparent polyethylene
Acetates
CF carbonless
Coated cardboard
Parchment-style paper
Thermal paper
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B. Types of release liner
In the case of release liners we need to distinguish between those used for sheets and
those used for reels, and the different varieties are shown in the following table:
TYPES OF RELEASE LINER FOR SELF-ADHESIVE
PRODUCTS
Sheets
Kraft 80 g/m
2
.
Kraft 87 g/m
2
(yellow).
Kraft 90 g/m
2
.
Kraft 130 g/m
2
for plastic
release liners.

Reels
Glassine 62 g/m
2
(yellow, white
or blue).
Glassine 80 g/m
2
(white).
Kraft 55, 74, 80, 90 and 130
g/m
2
.


The use of the various different release liners depends on the type of face material
used, the system used for applying the label, etc.
C. Types of adhesive
The adhesives used can vary according to the system of application used, the surface
concerned, the end uses, etc. We list the most frequently used adhesives below:
Removable adhesives. Those that can be removed after they have been
applied.
Permanent adhesives. Those that cannot be removed once they have been
applied. Their most frequent uses are:
Stickers.
Fruit.
Returnable bottles.
Non-returnable bottles.
Frozen foods.
Solubles in water.
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Depending on the end use, and on the system used to apply the adhesive, certain
characteristics can be varied. For example, we need to be able to remove a sticker if we
make a mistake when attaching it, and so for this reason it will have a low rate of "tack"
(or initial adhesiveness). On the other hand, in the case of an orange, where the label is
applied automatically, it is important for the label to remain attached to the orange when
it touches it, since otherwise the orange will have no label. This will require a high rate
of "tack". In both cases the adhesives are permanent, but with different characteristics.
Super-permanent adhesives. These are used when the surface to which we
attach the label presents problems of adhesiveness.
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Summary
Coated
products
Those products which have a surface coating (or "coating
mix") made up of a series of mineral and organic
components, and which is applied in order to improve their
printing characteristics.
Coated paper Depending on the number of layers of coating, the method of
presentation and the type of printing system used, the
following types of product can be distinguished:
Art paper. This type of paper has three layers of
coating on each side, which gives a very high quality
of printing. There is usually a choice between gloss,
semi-matt or embossed finishes, and it is printed in
sheets with the offset system. It is mainly used for
advertising purposes and, exceptionally, for very high
quality books.
Triple layer. This type is available with a gloss, semi-
matt or embossed finish, and is mainly printed in
sheets with the offset system, although on occasions
rotogravure or flexography may also be used. It is
mainly used for advertising and, occasionally, for high
quality book publishing.
Double layer. Can be found with a gloss, semi-matt,
matt, and even thick matt finish. Is used for
publishing, magazines, colour supplements,
catalogues, etc. Can be printed in sheets or reels,
mainly in offset printing.
1/s. Usually has a gloss or (occasionally) embossed
finish, as well as a special treatment on the reverse
side to avoid curling at the edges. Is used mainly for
labels, but also for cigarette packets, chocolate
wrappers, book covers, etc.
Cast coated
products
With this product type, coating is carried out mainly on one
side only of the sheet (rarely on both sides), and the gloss
finish is obtained through a heat treatment. It can be printed
in colour and the printing system most frequently used is
offset. There are various different types: standard, WS, self-
adhesive, cardboard, colour, 2/s.
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Its use is mainly for labels (especially self-adhesives),
although it is also still frequently used in high grammages for
packaging, files, menus, etc.
Carbonless
products
These are used to copy original documents by means of a
chemical reaction between a transmitting layer of coating
(made up of micro-capsules that contain the colour former)
and another reactive layer of coating (which reacts with the
colour former).
There are basically three varieties of this product: The CB
or "first sheet" (the original that has the transmitting layer on
its reverse side), the CF or "third sheet" (which has the
reactive layer on the upper face), and the CFB or "second
sheet" (used when there is more than one copy, with a
reactive layer on the top side and a transmitting layer on the
bottom side.
Some varieties of carbonless paper are: CB plus, CB ORC,
self-contained, self-copying self-contained CB. Its basic uses
are for forms, delivery-notes, invoices and cheque-books.
Thermal paper This product has two layers of coating on the same side of
the sheet: a layer of undercoating (UC) and a thermal layer
that contains the components that will react to implement the
printing process. Printing takes place through the effect of
heat by means of a thermal header that activates the thermal
layer. This product sometimes includes special types of
treatment for protection and for printing.
The different types of thermal paper are: Termax SF1,
Termax SF1C, Termax LNC, Termax ONC, Termax PRN,
Termax PHR, and Termax TRO. They are mainly used for
faxes, receipts, labels, etc.
Metallized
paper
This product has a layer of aluminium on top of a layer of
coating, and can be divided into metallized paper with face
material, or high-vacuum metallized paper. The latter
varieties can be smooth or embossed.
The most important uses of metallized paper include: labels,
cigarettes, self-adhesive products, gifts, packaging and other
uses connected with foodstuffs.
Solid Bleached
Board (SBB)
Types of cardboard with high grammages produced from
bleached chemical pulp and characterized by a high level of
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stiffness. They are made up of various layers of fibre: the
face (top layer), the reverse side (bottom layer) and the belly
(the central layer).
This type of cardboard is usually coated, although it can
sometimes be sold without coating. It can also be plasticized,
in which case it is not usually coated. Its uses are highly
varied: book covers, catalogues, postcards and greetings
cards, advertising material, cigarettes (in hard packets),
packaging for perfumes and cosmetics, files, index-cards,
food products, glasses and plates, frozen food, and
pharmaceutical products.
Folding
boxboard
This is a product that is similar to SBB, but with the
difference that the central layer (belly) is made up of
mechanically-made pulp, which gives a greater calibre for
the same level of grammage, and thus a higher degree of
stiffness. The reverse side may be white (GC1) or wood-
coloured (GC2).
Its main uses are: packaging for pharmaceutical products,
cosmetics, sweets and confectionery, cigarettes, wines and
spirits, and for refrigerated and pre-cooked foods. Folding
boxboard can also be plasticized at the point of production
for use in food packaging.
Boxboard This product is produced with the same structure as folding
boxboard, but using a large amount of recycled fibres.
Boxboard can be of two types: coated (GT and GD) and non-
coated (UT and UD). It is basically used for packaging for
cleaning products and detergents.
Self-adhesive
products
These are products to which glue is applied during their
production. They are made up of three parts: the face
material (uncoated, double-layer coated, metallized, cast
coated, etc.), the release liner (for sheets or reels) and the
adhesive (removable, permanent or super-permanent).
Their main uses are: promotional labels, computer labels,
price labels, stickers and children's games, labels for
perfumes, cleaning materials, etc.

TORRASPAPEL, S.A. - Llull, 331 - 08019 Barcelona

2008 TORRASPAPEL, S.A.
Complete or partial reproduction of this document, without express
previous and written authorisation, is strictly prohibited.