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MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology

DepartmentofElectricalEngineeringandComputerScience
6.002Circuits&Electronics
Spring2007
Homework#9
Handout- S07-45
Issued4/12/2007Due4/20/2007
HelpfulReadingforthisHomework:Chapter12.
Exercise 9.1. Find the inductance of the all-inductor network, and the capacitance of the all-capacitor
network,shownbelow.
Exercise 9.2. Each network shownbelow has a non-zero initial state at t = 0 s, as indicated. Find the
networkstatesfort0 s. Hint: whatequivalentresistanceisinparallelwitheachcapacitororinductor,
andwhatdecaytimeresultsfromthiscombination?

Problem9.1. At t= 0 s,thenetworksshownbelowhavezeroinitialstate;theinductorcurrenti(t) and

thecapacitorvoltagev(t) arebothzeroatt= 0 s. Att= 0 s,thecurrentsourceproducesanimpulseof


areaQ,andthevoltagesourceproducesanimpulseofarea.
1
Citeas:AnantAgarwalandJeffreyLang,coursematerialsfor6.002CircuitsandElectronics,Spring2007.
MITOpenCourseWare(http://ocw.mit.edu/),MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.Downloadedon[DDMonthYYYY].
A Derivethedifferentialequationthatrelatesi(t) toI(t) andv(t) toV(t).Hint:considerusingThevenin
and/orNortonequivalentstosimplifythework.
B Find the inductor current i(t) and the capacitor voltage v(t) at both t = 0
+
s and t = . Feelfree
todeterminethestatesthrougheitherphysicalormathematicalreasoning. However,explainyour
reasoninginanycase.
C Next,ndthetimeconstantbywhicheachstategoesfromitsinitialvalueatt= 0
+
stoitsnalvalue
att= .
D Using the previous results, and without necessarily solving the differential equations directly, con-
structi(t) andv(t) fort0 s.Alternatively,ndi(t) andv(t) byanymeansyouchoose,butbesure
toexplainyourreasoning.
E VerifythatthesolutionstopartDarecorrectbysubstitutingthemintothedifferentialequationsfound
inpartA.
Problem9.2.Thisproblemexaminestherelationbetweentransientresponsesoflinearsystems.
I(t)
i
L
L R
A Find the inductor current i
L
(t) for t 0 s in response to the current step I(t) = I
Step
(t) = I
0
u(t).
Assumethati(0) = 0.
B Findtheinductorcurrenti
L
(t) fort 0 sinresponsetothecurrentstepI(t) = I
Ramp
(t) = I
0
tu(t).
Again,assumethati(0) = 0.
d
C ThestepinputcanbeconstructedfromtherampinputaccordingtoI
Step
(t) =

1
dt
I
Ramp
(t).Showthat
theirrespectiveresponsesarerelatedinasimilarmanner. (Note: youcouldhaveusedthisrelation
tosolvepartBgivenyouranswertopartA.)
D WouldtheresultfrompartCholdifi(0) = 0?Whyorwhynot?
Problem9.3.Thenetworkshownatthetopofnextpageincludesaswitchwiththreepositions:A, Band
C.Priortot= 0 s,theswitchisinPositionB,andtheinductorcurrenti(t) andthecapacitorvoltagev(t)
arebothzero.ThevoltagesourceV isconstant.
A At t = 0 the switch moves to Position A, and it remains there until t = T
1
. Find i(t) and v(t) for
0 tT
1
.
B Att = T
1
theswitchmovestoPositionC withoutinterruptingthecurrenti(t), and it remains there
untili(t) goestozero,atwhichtimetheswitchmovesbacktoPositionB.Denethetimeatwhich
i(t) goestozeroast= T
2
.DetermineT
2
,andndbothi(t) andv(t) forT
1
tT
2
.
2
Citeas:AnantAgarwalandJeffreyLang,coursematerialsfor6.002CircuitsandElectronics,Spring2007.
MITOpenCourseWare(http://ocw.mit.edu/),MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.Downloadedon[DDMonthYYYY].
B
A C
+
L
v(t) V C

i(t)
C TheswitchremainsinPositionBuntilt=T
3
.Findbothi(t)andv(t)forT
2
tT
3
D Att=T
3
theswitchmovesagaintoPositionA,anditremainsthereuntilt=T
4
. Find i(t)andv(t)for
T
3
tT
4
.
E Finally, at t = T
4
theswitchmovestoPositionC, and it remains thereuntili(t) rstgoestozero, at
whichtimetheswitchmovesbacktoPositionB. Dene the time at which i(t)againgoestozeroas
T
5
.DetermineT
5
,andndbothi(t)andv(t)forT
4
tT
5
.
F Sketchandclearlylabeli(t)andv(t)for0tT
5
Problem9.4. ThisproblemiscontinuationofProblem9.3. Itexplorestheuseofenergyconservationto
analyzetheoperationofthenetworkdescribedtherein.
A Determinetheenergystoredintheinductoratt=T
1
.
B Theenergystoredintheinductoratt=T
1
isfullytransferredtothecapacitoratt=T
2
.Usethisfactto
determinev(T
2
).ThisanswershouldmatchyouranswerinpartBofProblem9.3whenthelatteris
evaluatedatt=T
2
.
C Determinetheenergystoredintheinductoratt=T
4
.
D Useenergyconservationtodeterminetheenergystoredinthecapacitoratt=T
5
,andthendetermine
v(T
5
).ThisanswershouldmatchyouranswertopartEofProblem9.3whenthelatterisevaluated
att=T
5
.
E NowlettheswitchmoverepetitivelythroughthecycleofPositionsB toAtoC toB. Assumethatin
eachcycletheswitchremainsinPositionAforthedurationT. Further,assumethatswitchalways
movesfromPositionC toPositionBwheni(t)reacheszero.Assumingthatvandiareinitialzero,
determinevattheendofthen
t
hswitchingcycleintermsofn,C,L,T andV.
3
Citeas:AnantAgarwalandJeffreyLang,coursematerialsfor6.002CircuitsandElectronics,Spring2007.
MITOpenCourseWare(http://ocw.mit.edu/),MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.Downloadedon[DDMonthYYYY].