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ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
Stress and strain: What are they?
Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much
deformation occurs? What materials deform least?
CH 6: Mechanical Properties
Plastic behavior: At what point do dislocations
cause permanent deformation? What materials are
most resistant to permanent deformation?
Toughness and ductility: What are they and how
do we measure them?
Hardness: What and how do we measure it?
CHBE213 Dan Samborsky
Students should know this terminology
example: E
x
= modulus in the x-direction
Stress () - Force or load per unit area of cross-section over
which the force or load is acting (tension (+),
compression (-), or shear).
Strain () - Elongation change in dimension per unit length.
(stretching (+), compressing (-)) (it is UNITLESS)
Poissons ratio () ratio of the lateral and axial strains
Students should know this terminology
Poisson s ratio () ratio of the lateral and axial strains.
Youngs modulus (E) - The slope of the linear, elastic region
part of the stress-strain curve (also known as modulus
of elasticity).
Shear modulus (G) - The slope of the linear part of the shear
stress-shear strain curve.
Remember the Glossary in back of book
Review units of stress :
Metric Pascal - Pa (N/m
2
), MPa (N/mm
2
), GPa
[1 MPa= 1x10
6
Pa, 1 GPa = 1 x 10
9
Pa]
English - pound per square inch (psi)
Students should know this terminology
(pound per square foot soils, building loads)
1000 psi = 1 ksi
1 msi = 1,000,000 psi (mostly used for modulus)
approximate conversion factors - 1 MPa = 145 psi
1 GPa = 145 ksi (kips/in
2
)
(ASTM Photo)
We do not know what a material is capable of until we test it.
Mother nature and Murphys Law teach us many things
(Farcus)
OK - ready to test
Even experts are known to make mistakes.
(1930's Life magazine cover?)
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload
Elastic means reversible! (no change)
Elastic Deformation
atomic
bonds
stretch
Elastic behavior is a straight line
on a force - deflection graph.
Material stretches
2
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload
Plastic means permanent!
Plastic Deformation (metals)
Equation 6.1
Stress
F = force (N, lb)
A
o
= original area before loading (mm
2
, m
2
, in
2
, ft
2
)
= stress (Pa, MPa, GPa, psi, ksi), [note: N/m = Pa]
Historically, Tensile forces are POSITIVE. Compressive = NEGATIVE
Equation 6.2
Strain
Historically, Tensile strains
l
i
= length (mm, m, in, ft)
l
o
= original length, before straining (mm, m, in, ft)
= strain (no units) m/m, km/km, in/in, ft/ft...
Strain is always dimensionless. Most times, it is multiplied by 100 and
reported as percent strain (1% strain = 0.01 strain).
NOTE: ALL calculations are performed with strain, NOT % strain.
are POSITIVE. Compressive = NEGATIVE
Equation 6.3
F = shear force (N, lbs)
A
o
= shear area (mm
2
, m
2
, in
2
)
= shear stress (Pa, MPa, psi, ksi)
Shear
shear stress (Pa, MPa, psi, ksi)
Shear strain is the ratio of deformation to the original dimension.
In the case of shear strain, though, it's the amount of deformation perpendicular to a
given line rather than parallel to it. The ratio turns out to be tan , where is the
angle the sheared line makes with its original orientation. With shear strain we are
only concerned about the change in angles.
Shear strain = = Tan
This will be covered more in EM 215 or EM 253
Youngs modulus (E) - The slope of the linear, elastic region
part of the stress-strain curve (also known as modulus
of elasticity).
= E or
Equation 6.5
= E or
= Stress (N, MPa, psi, ksi)
= strain (not % strain (% strain = strain x 100))
E = Modulus of Elasticity (MPa, GPa, psi, ksi, msi)
What does the elastic modulus mean?
E=207 GPa = 30 msi
If two bars are 1 meter long and are stressed to 200 MPa (29
ksi), the steel bar will stretch 0.97 mm and the aluminum will
stretch 2.90 mm (steel is 3 times as stiff as aluminum).
E=69 GPa = 10 msi
Steel, L = L = L(/E) = 1000 mm (200MPa /207,000MPa) = 0.966 mm
Aluminum, L = 1000 mm (200MPa/69,000MPa) = 2.90 mm
3
L
i
= 305 mm
= 276 MPa
E = 110 GPa (= 110,000 MPa) (from Table 6.1)
E i 6 5 E
Another method than the formula simplification method shown on page 140
and E must have the same units
Equation 6.5 = E
= = 276 MPa = 0.00251
E 110,000 MPa
Equation 6.2 = l / l
i
l = (l
i
) = 0.00251 (305 mm) = 0.765 mm
(so the bar changed in length from 305 mm to 305.765 mm)
and E must have the same units
this is the strain
Some materials do not have a linear elastic region
Figure 6.6, Page 139. - Secant modulus and Tangent modulus
Initial linear slope
Interatomic spacing atomic bonds and modulus
Figure 6.7 Force versus interatomic separation for weakly and
strongly bonded atoms. The magnitude of the modulus of elasticity is
proportional to the slope of each curve at the equilibrium interatomic
separation (Force = zero)
Figure 6.7
Figure 2.8
Equation 6.6
Strongly bonded = higher E
Figure 6.8 Since the interatomic separation distance increases with
increasing temperature, the modulus must decrease with increasing
temperature.
Melting temperatures
(depending on alloy)
Tungsten ~ 3410
o
C
Steel ~ 1450
o
C
Aluminum ~ 660
o
C
Stronger bonding = higher E = higher melting point
Youngs Moduli: Comparison
See Figure 1.4, Table 6.1 and Appendix B.2 (Pages A.6-A.9)
Poissons ratio () ratio of the lateral and axial strains.
Equation 6.8
Selected values
metals - 0.26 - 0.42 (most about 0.3)
ceramics - 0.1 - 0.31
plastics - 0.33 - 0.46
Figure 6.9
4
Example: The axial elastic strain on a 0.25 diameter rod
fabricated from solid nickel is 0.0016 when it is axially
loaded. Calculate decrease in the diameter of this bar
when it is under this axial load.
Very important in interference fit applications heating/cooling the pins
Special relations for isotropic materials:
Equation 6.9
Isotropic - (Glossary page G6)
Having identical values of a property in all directions
Or

G=
E
2(1+ v)
Typical values
steels - 76 - 82 GPa (11 12 msi)
aluminum - 26 GPa (3.8 msi)
= Poissons ratio
E = Modulus of elasticity
G = Shear Modulus
Relationship between E and G for selected metals
Testing and Test Coupons
Basically, all test standards (ASTM, ISO...) mandate that the
maximum error in whatever test is performed, is less than 1 percent
EPS 138
Typical tensile specimen (many different geometries)
Uniaxial Stress-Strain Testing
Generally use width
tapered geometries
due to gripping
stress
concentrations
Other types of tests:
compression: brittle materials (e.g., concrete, ceramics)
bending (3 point, 4 point)
torsion: cylindrical tubes, shafts.
Baldwin Universal Testing Machine, 200,000 pound capacity
located in Cobleigh 101
5
Figure 5.3, Smith, Foundations of
Materials Science and Engineering,
3rd edition, P.199
Callister Text
Figure 6.3 (7
th
and 8
th
editions)
There are always textbook errors...
After H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and John Wulff, The Structure and
Properties of Materials, vol. 3: Mechanical Behavior, Wiley, 1965,
Fig. 1.1, P.2.)
To pull straight down, the screws have to be turned in the same direction.
Computer controlled universal test machine, EPS 138
Load cell
Rigid test frame
Crosshead
Hydraulic grips
Actuator
(electric or hydraulic)
test coupon
S beam load cell
Canister load cell
Measuring Force
All force sensing devices deform
under an applied load. We usually
measure this deformation by the use
of strain gages and translate the
measured strain into an applied force.
Bending beam load cell
Strain gages
Decreasing cost
and accuracy
Deflection in bending produces higher strains than pure axial
Extensometers to Measure Strain
(in bending)
Strain gage based extensometer
L
Electrical extensometer design
Dial extensometer on
tension coupon
As the beam bends, the resistance of
the strain gage changes
Strain gages, possible arrangements and
connection circuitry
electrical leads
Electrical resistance increases in
tension, decreases in compression
(change for a 120 strain gage is
about 2.4 per % strain (), (very
small))

Foil strain gage, 0.2 mm thick

Plastic Deformation - and no longer linear


Dislocations are moving.
6
Tensile Stress versus Strain Diagram to Failure
Aluminum 6061-T651
Failure
Yielding (non-linear) starts
58 ksi
43.5 ksi
29 ksi
Tests can be performed to ASTM, ISO or other testing standard.
The test methods are VERY important, if the results are to mean anything.
14.5 ksi
0 ksi
Linear Non-linear
Simple tension test:
(at lower temperatures, T < Tmelt/3)
Plastic (PERMANENT) Deformation
The term PLASTIC has NOTHING to do with a class of materials we call plastics.
Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has occurred.
when
P
= 0.002 or 0.2% strain
Yield Strength,
y
NOTE: ALL calculations are performed
with strain, NOT % strain.
Slope = E
Slope = E
Some materials (very ductile) have essentially no linear
portion to their stress-strain curve, for example, soft
copper or gray cast iron. For these materials, the offset
yield method cannot be used and the usual practice is to
define the yield strength as the stress to produce some
total strain (source www key to steel com) total strain. (source www.key-to-steel.com)
Most brittle materials (ceramics and concrete) do not
have a yield point. In these materials the ultimate
strength is also called the rupture strength.
Maximum possible engineering stress in tension.
Ultimate Tensile Strength, UTS
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

s
t
r
e
s
s
TS
Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are
aligned and about to break.
strain

e
n
g
i

s
Typical response of a metal
7
100 % x
L L
Elongation
o f

=
Stretch
Equation 6.11
We need to know what strains the material capable of for
manufacturing (formability) and under operational loads
Percent elongation (elastic and plastic) and cross sectional area reduction
More common
100 % x
A
A A
reduction Area
o
f o

=
Note:% area reduction and % elongation are often comparable.
-Reason: crystal slip does not change material volume.
-%area reduction can be greater than % elongation if internal voids
form in neck.
100 % x
L
Elongation
o
Equation 6.12
100 % x
L
L L
Elongation
o
o f

=
Ductility = plastic strain
Equation 6.11 has
elastic + plastic strain
43.5 ksi
29 ksi
graphically...
recoil
Total strain = elastic + plastic
14.5 ksi
0 ksi
Typical aluminum 6061-T651 tensile stress - strain diagram
failure
Stress Strain Diagram Example
58 ksi
43.5 ksi
29 ksi
14.5 ksi
0 ksi
Calculation of the elastic modulus, E= /
175
This point is convenient
(you can pick any point)
E = slope = 175 MPa = 70,000 MPa = 70 GPa
0.0025
0.25
0.25% strain = 0.0025
Calculation of the 0.2% strain offset yield stress
E = 70 GPa
320 MPa
E = 70 GPa
The 0.2% offset yield stress = 320 MPa
E = 70 GPa
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 355 MPa
355
Calculation of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and strain to failure
~0.4%
Line drawn parallel to initial
~6.2%
Total strain to failure = 6.7% (Total strain = elastic + plastic)
elastic strain ~ 0.4%
plastic strain = total strain - elastic strain = 6.7 - 0.4 = 6.3%
6.7%
p
portion of the graph
8
Loading and unloading of test coupon
(showing the effect of cold working Ch. 7)
What about compression?... Buckling is a geometry problem
Carbon fiber (Ch.16) modulus will change with stress
This effect is argumentative in metals
Ductility goes up with temperature (hot working, more in Ch. 7)
Points are initially 50 mm apart = L
O
Just prior to failure, points are
59.5 mm apart = L
F
% Elongation example, 6061-T6 Aluminum
Just prior to tensile failure
= (59.5 mm 50 mm) x 100 = 19%
50 mm
Necking of tensile coupon
100 % x
L
L L
Elongation
o
o f

=
59.5 mm
12.15 mm diameter (initial)
(area = 116 mm
2
= A
O
)
% Area reduction example, 6061-T6 Aluminum
Just prior to tensile failure
Necking of tensile coupon
100 % x
A
A A
reduction Area
o
f o

=
9.46 mm diameter
(area = 70 mm
2
= A
F
)
= (116 mm
2
70 mm
2
) x 100 = 40%
116 mm
2
-Modulus (E)
-yield strength (0 2% 0 002 strain offset)
Calculations you will need to know
how to calculate
-yield strength (0.2%, 0.002 strain offset)
-ultimate tensile strength (UTS)
-strain to failure (total = elastic + plastic)
-plastic strain at failure (ductility)
-elastic strain at failure
9
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Higher strain to failure requires more energy
Approximate by the area under the entire stress-strain curve.
Toughness
6.7 True Stress and Strain, page 151
True stress - strain diagrams
An increase in y due to plastic deformation, dislocation movement
o
large hardening
small hardening
o
a
d
o
a
d
o
y
0
o
y
1
Hardening
Dislocation pile up
Curve fit to the stress-strain response:
c
u
n
l
o
r
e
l
o
Equation 6.19
From page 152: For some metals and alloys in the region of the true
stress-strain curve from the onset of plastic deformation to the
point at which necking begins may be approximated by
T
=K
n
T
6.8 Elastic recovery after plastic (and elastic) deformation
The yield strength (and strain to
failure) will change due to
dislocation movement and pile up.
The modulus (E) and ultimate
E
( )
tensile strength (UTS) will NOT
change (E is based on atomic
bonding).
Elastic recovery is also called
spring back or recoil
Surface hardness testing
10
Defined as the Resistance to plastic deformation.
High hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression.
--better wear properties. (wear is a surface problem)
Mostly used as a quality control type of test
e.g.,
10 h
apply known force
(1 to 1000g)
measure size
of indent after
Hardness
10mm sphere
removing load
d D
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness.
Hardness is not an intrinsic material property dictated by precise
definitions in terms of fundamental units of mass, length and time.
A hardness property value is the result of a defined measurement
procedure. It is just a number obtained from a hardness test.
Brinell, Vickers, Knoop and Rockwell Hardness Indenters
ASTM E10
ASTM E384
Table 6.5
Knoop (pronounced nup)
ASTM E18
ASTM D785
from Newage Testing Instruments Inc.
Minor load = 10 kg
Minor load = 3 kg
Table 6.6
The general procedure for all hardness tests is to first apply a
minor load to ensure that the indenter is engaged with the
surface. After the minor load is placed on the indenter, the
position of the indenter is zeroed and the major load is applied.
The deflection under the major load is measured and used to
calculate the number representing the materials hardness.
g
Minor load = 3 kg
Typical Application of Rockwell Hardness Scales
HRA . . . . Cemented carbides, thin steel and shallow case hardened steel
HRB . . . . Copper alloys, soft steels, aluminum alloys, malleable irons, etc.
HRC . . . . Steel, hard cast irons, case hardened steel and other materials harder than 100 HRB
HRD . . . . Thin steel and medium case hardened steel and malleable iron
HRE . . . . Cast iron, aluminum and magnesium alloys, bearing metals
HRF . . . . Annealed copper alloys, thin soft sheet metals
HRG . . . . Phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, malleable irons, Aluminum, zinc, lead
HRK . . . . }
HRL . . . . }
HRM . . . .} . . . . Soft bearing metals, plastics and other very soft materials
HRP } HRP . . . . }
HRR . . . . }
HRS . . . . }
HRV . . . . }
Advantages of the Rockwell hardness method include the direct Rockwell hardness number
readout and rapid testing time. Disadvantages include many arbitrary non-related scales and
possible effects from the specimen support anvil (try putting paper under a test block and take
note of the effect on the hardness reading! Vickers and Brinell methods don't suffer from this
effect).
Relationship between hardness and strength
Figure 6.19, page 160
Remember that we are measuring hardness on the surface
and that the hardness underneath is probably lower
11
Figure 6.18, page 159
Conversion between scales
Material Property Variability
All material properties have variability
Values MUST be attacked with statistics, especially for safety
You MUST know average, standard deviation and range of values
95% confidence might need 30 tests (or more)
99% confidence might need 300 tests (or more)
Material Modulus Range
(msi)
Range %
aluminum 9.86 - 11.9 21
brass 13.1 - 16.0 22
magnesium 6.09 - 6.82 12
Metal (alloys) range of modulus values
g
titanium 13.1 - 17.4 33
cast iron (ductile) 23.9 - 26.1 9
cast iron (gray) 11.6 - 20.0 73
plain carbon steel 29.0 - 31.2 7
low alloy steel 29.7 - 31.5 6
stainless steel 27.4 - 30.5 11
Average
n = number of observations
x
i
= measured values
x = average value
Equation 6.21
Sample standard deviation
Equation 6.22
Example problem 6.6, page 162
TS = 517 MPa
s = 4.6 MPa s 4.6 MPa
NOTE: s = SAMPLE standard deviation. Denominator has (n-1).
1s = 68.3% of sample
2s = 95.4% of sample
3s = 99.7% of sample
Source TS,
MPa
UTS,
MPa
%
EL
Hardness,
HB
ASM handbook,
www.Efunda.com,
Callister textbook
394.7 294.8 36.5 111
Material properties for annealed 1020 steel from
selected web sites and textbooks
Callister textbook
www.Matweb.com 420 350 15 121
Another textbook 480 360 18 140
Know your source !!! and watch significant digits !
Actually know your material.
What temperature and test methods were used????
What heat treatment is the material in (more in CH10)
12
Material Properties change with Temperature
Low carbon, low alloy, structural steels
Material Properties change with Temperature
If coupon = 1000 mm, strain rate = 0.175 mm/s
Material Properties change with Temperature
P
o
i
s
s
oo
n

s

r
a
t
i
o
Material Properties change with Temperature
Design and material uncertainties mean we do not push
the limit of the material.
Factor of safety, N

o
working
=
o
y
N
Often N is
between
1 and 5, or higher
Design or Safety Factors
Equation 6.24
The safety factor can deal with strength, strain, hardness,
weight.....
For strength, we have to indicate what strength???
yield strength or ultimate strength.
So always state factor of safety with respect to yield or
ultimate strength.
13
Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that Yielding does
not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below. Use a factor of safety
of 5 with respect to YIELD STRENGTH.
1045 plain
b t l
d
o
working
=
o
y
N
Design or Safety Factors
carbon steel:
o
y
=310MPa
TS=565MPa
F = 220,000N
L
o

working
N

220, 000N
t d
2
/ 4
|
\

|
.
|
5
Solving for d, d = 47.5 mm (for N=5)
Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Summary
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches sy.
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material (area under stress-strain diagram).
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure (total strain elastic strain).