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General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level SCIENCE (PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY) 5124 SCIENCE (PHYSICS, BIOLOGY) 5125 SCIENCE (CHEMISTRY,

BIOLOGY) 5126 For examination in November 2011

Syllabus

CIE provides syllabuses, past papers, examiner reports, mark schemes and more on the internet. We also offer teacher professional development for many syllabuses. Learn more at www.cie.org.uk

UCLES 2008

Note for Exams Officers: Before making Final Entries, please check availability of the codes for the components and options in the E3 booklet (titled Procedures for the Submission of Entries) relevant to the exam session. Please note that component and option codes are subject to change.

COMBINED SCIENCES
GCE ORDINARY LEVEL CONTENTS
Page

NOTES SCIENCE (PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY) GCE O Level/SC 5124 (November only) SCIENCE (PHYSICS, BIOLOGY) GCE O Level/SC 5125 (November only) SCIENCE (CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY) GCE O Level/SC 5126 (November only) Aims Assessment Objectives Scheme of Assessment Physics Section Chemistry Section Biology Section DATA SHEET RESOURCE LIST MATHEMATICAL REQUIREMENTS SYMBOLS, UNITS AND DEFINITIONS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN SCIENCE PAPERS
Exclusions
Syllabus 5124 must not be offered in the same session with any of the following syllabuses: 0620 Chemistry 0625 Physics 0652 Physical Science 0653 Combined Science 0654 Co-ordinated Sciences (Double Award) 5054 Physics 5070 Chemistry 5125 Science (Physics, Biology) 5126 Science (Chemistry, Biology) 5129 Combined Science 5130 Additional Combined Science Syllabus 5125 must not be offered in the same session with any of the following syllabuses: 0610 Biology 0625 Physics 0653 Combined Science 0654 Co-ordinated Sciences (Double Award) 5054 Physics 5090 Biology 5096 Human and Social Biology 5124 Science (Physics, Chemistry) 5126 Science (Chemistry, Biology) 5129 Combined Science 5130 Additional Combined Science Syllabus 5126 must not be offered in the same session with any of the following syllabuses: 0610 Biology 0620 Chemistry 0653 Combined Science 0654 Co-ordinated Sciences (Double Award) 5070 Chemistry 5090 Biology 5096 Human and Social Biology 5124 Science (Physics, Chemistry) 5125 Science (Physics, Biology) 5129 Combined Science 5130 Additional Combined Science

i 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 11 19 25 26 28 29 30

Notes
Information for Teachers This booklet relates to examinations taken in the year printed on the cover. It is the normal practice of CIE to print and distribute a new version of this booklet each year. Centres should receive copies well in advance of them being required for teaching purposes. Teachers who are about to teach syllabuses in this booklet for the first time, should obtain and study the relevant past examination papers and Subject Reports. Any queries relating to this booklet should be addressed to the Product Manager. Nomenclature The proposals in Signs, Symbols and Systematics (The Association for Science Education Companion to 16-19 Science, 2000)' and the recommendations on terms, units and symbols in Biological Nomenclature (1997)' published by the Institute of Biology, in conjunction with the ASE, will generally be adopted. Reference should be made to the joint statement on chemical nomenclature issued by the GCE boards. In particular, the traditional names sulfate, sulfite, nitrate, nitrite, sulfurous and nitrous acids will be used in question papers. It is intended that, in order to avoid difficulties arising out of the use of l as the symbol for litre, use of dm3 in place of l or litre will be made. In chemistry, full structural formulae (displayed formulae) in answers should show in detail both the relative placing of atoms and the number of bonds between atoms. Hence CONH2 and CO2H are not satisfactory as full structural formulae, although either of the usual symbols for the benzene ring is acceptable. Units and Significant Figures Candidates should be aware that misuse of units and/or significant figures, i.e. failure to quote units where necessary, the inclusion of units in quantities defined as ratios or quoting answers to an inappropriate number of significant figures, is liable to be penalised. Syllabus Revision Attention is drawn to alterations in the syllabus by black vertical lines on either side of the text.

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

GCE ORDINARY LEVEL/SCHOOL CERTIFICATE


(5124, 5125 and 5126 are available in November only)

5124 SCIENCE (PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY) 5125 SCIENCE (PHYSICS, BIOLOGY) 5126 SCIENCE (CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY)

AIMS
These are not listed in order of priority. The aims are to: 1. provide, through well designed studies of experimental and practical science, a worthwhile educational experience for all students, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level and, in particular, to enable them to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to 1.1 become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take or develop an informed interest in matters of scientific import; 1.2 recognise the usefulness, and limitations, of scientific method and to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life; 1.3 be suitably prepared for studies beyond O/SC level in pure sciences, in applied sciences or in science-dependent vocational courses. develop abilities and skills that 2.1 are relevant to the study and practice of science; 2.2 are useful in everyday life; 2.3 encourage efficient and safe practice; 2.4 encourage effective communication. develop attitudes relevant to science such as 3.1 accuracy and precision; 3.2 objectivity; 3.3 integrity; 3.4 enquiry; 3.5 initiative; 3.6 inventiveness. stimulate interest in and care for the environment. promote an awareness that 5.1 the study and practice of science are co-operative and cumulative activities, and are subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations; 5.2 the applications of science may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual, the community and the environment.

2.

3.

4. 5.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES
A Knowledge with Understanding Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to: 1. scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories; 2. scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units contained in `Signs, Symbols and Systematics', Association for Science Education, 2000); 3. scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety; 4. scientific quantities and their determination; 5. scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications. The subject content defines the factual material that candidates need to recall and explain. Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define, state, describe, explain or outline. (See the glossary of terms.)

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

Handling Information and Solving Problems

Students should be able - in words or by using other written, symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of presentation - to: 1. locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources; 2. translate information from one form to another; 3. manipulate numerical and other data; 4. use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences; 5. present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships; 6. make predictions and hypotheses; 7. solve problems. These assessment objectives cannot be precisely specified in the subject content because questions testing such skills may be based on information which is unfamiliar to the candidate. In answering such questions, candidates are required to use principles and concepts that are within the syllabus and apply them in a logical, deductive manner to a novel situation. Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one of the following words: predict, suggest, calculate or determine. (See the glossary of terms.) Weighting of Assessment Objectives A Knowledge with Understanding, approximately 65% of the marks with approximately 30% allocated to recall. B Handling Information and Solving Problems, approximately 35% of the marks.

SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT
Candidates are required to enter for Paper 1 and two of Papers 2, 3 and 4. Paper 1 2 3 4 Type of Paper Multiple Choice Structured and Free Response (Physics) Structured and Free Response (Chemistry) Structured and Free Response (Biology) Duration 1h 1 h 15 min 1 h 15 min 1 h 15 min Marks 40 65 65 65 Weighting 24% 38% 38% 38%

Paper 1 (1 h, 40 marks), consisting of 40 multiple choice questions of the direct choice type providing approximately equal coverage of the two appropriate sections of the syllabus. This paper will be set at the same time for all three subjects, 5124, 5125 and 5126. Paper 2 (1 h 15 min, 65 marks), consisting of two sections. Section A will carry 45 marks and will contain a number of compulsory structured questions of variable mark value. Section B will carry 20 marks and will contain three free response questions, each of 10 marks. Candidates are required to answer any two questions. The questions will be based on the Physics section of the syllabus. Papers 3 and 4 (1 h 15 min, 65 marks), consisting of two sections. These Papers will each have the same structure as Paper 2 but will be based on the Chemistry and Biology sections of the syllabus respectively. Science (Physics, Chemistry), Syllabus 5124 Paper 1 will be based on the Physics and Chemistry sections of the syllabus. Paper 2 will be based on the Physics section of the syllabus. Paper 3 will be based on the Chemistry section of the syllabus.

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

Science (Physics, Biology), Syllabus 5125 Paper 1 will be based on the Physics and Biology sections of the syllabus. Paper 2 will be based on the Physics section of the syllabus. Paper 4 will be based on the Biology section of the syllabus. Science (Chemistry, Biology), Syllabus 5126 Paper 1 will be based on the Chemistry and Biology sections of the syllabus. Paper 3 will be based on the Chemistry section of the syllabus. Paper 4 will be based on the Biology section of the syllabus.

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

SUBJECT CONTENT

PHYSICS SECTION
Students are expected to have adequate mathematical skills to cope with the curriculum. Throughout the course, attention should be paid to showing the relevance of concepts to the students' everyday life and to the natural and man-made world. 1. Physical Quantities and Units Content 1.1 Measurement of length, time and volume

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) use and describe how to use rules, micrometers, vernier scales and calipers to determine lengths (b) use and describe how to use clocks and other devices for measuring an interval of time, including the period of a pendulum (c) use and describe how to use a measuring cylinder to measure a volume 2. Kinematics Content 2.1 Speed, velocity and acceleration 2.2 Graphical analysis of motion 2.3 Free fall

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state what is meant by speed, velocity and acceleration (b) recognise motion for which the acceleration is constant and calculate the acceleration (c) recognise motion for which the acceleration is not constant (d) plot and interpret a speed-time graph (e) recognise from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is (i) at rest (ii) moving with constant speed (iii) moving with constant acceleration (iv) moving with an acceleration that is not constant (f) calculate the area under a speed-time graph to determine the distance travelled for motion with constant speed or constant acceleration (g) show understanding that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant (h) describe qualitatively the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field with and without air resistance (including reference to terminal velocity) 3. Dynamics Content 3.1 Motion 3.2 Friction

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body (b) use the relation between force, mass and acceleration (c) demonstrate an understanding of the effects of friction on the motion of a body

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

4.

Mass, Weight and Density Content 4.1 Mass and weight 4.2 Density

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) demonstrate an understanding that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body (b) demonstrate an understanding of inertia as the property of a mass which resists change from its state of rest or motion (c) describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass (d) demonstrate understanding that two weights, and therefore masses, can be compared using a balance (e) use appropriate balances to measure mass and weight (f) describe experiments to determine the density of a liquid, of a regularly shaped solid and of an irregularly shaped solid (by the method of displacement) and make the necessary calculations 5. Turning Effect of Forces Content 5.1 Moments 5.2 Centre of mass 5.3 Stability

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and give everyday examples (b) perform and describe an experiment to verify the principle of moments (c) make calculations involving the principle of moments (d) perform and describe an experiment to determine the position of the centre of mass of a plane lamina (e) describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of mass on the stability of simple objects 6. Deformation Content 6.1 Elastic deformation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state that a force may produce a change in size and shape of a body (b) plot, draw and interpret extension-load graphs for elastic solids and describe the associated experimental procedure (c) recognise the significance of the term limit of proportionality for an extension-load graph of an elastic solid (d) use proportionality of an elastic solid in simple calculations involving extension or force required 7. Energy, Work and Power Content 7.1 Energy conversion and conservation 7.2 Major sources of energy 7.3 Work 7.4 Power

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) give examples of energy in different forms, its conversion and conservation, and apply the principle of energy conservation to simple examples (b) use the terms kinetic energy and potential energy in context (c) calculate kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

(d)

(e) (f) (g) 8.

describe, and express a qualitative understanding of, processes by which energy is converted from one form to another, including reference to (i) chemical/fuel energy (a re-grouping of atoms) (ii) hydroelectric generation (emphasising the mechanical energies involved) (iii) solar energy (nuclei of atoms in the Sun) (iv) nuclear energy (v) geothermal energy (vi) wind energy show a qualitative understanding of efficiency relate work done to the magnitude of a force and the distance moved and make calculations involving F x d relate power to energy transferred and time taken, using appropriate examples and using the equation P=E/t in simple systems Transfer of Thermal Energy Content 8.1 Conduction 8.2 Convection 8.3 Radiation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe experiments to distinguish between good and bad conductors of heat (b) give a simple molecular account of heat transfer in solids (c) relate convection in fluids to density changes and describe experiments to illustrate convection (d) describe experiments to distinguish between good and bad emitters and good and bad absorbers of infra-red radiation (e) identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection and radiation 9. Temperature Content 9.1 Principles of thermometry 9.2 Liquid-in-glass thermometers

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) appreciate how a physical property which varies with temperature may be used for the measurement of temperature and state examples of such properties (b) recognise the need for, and identify, fixed points (c) show understanding of sensitivity and range (d) apply a given property to the measurement of temperature (e) describe the structure and action of liquid-in-glass thermometers (laboratory and clinical) and of a thermocouple thermometer, showing an appreciation of its use for measuring high temperatures and those which vary rapidly 10. Thermal Properties of Matter Content 10.1 Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases 10.2 Melting, boiling and evaporation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe qualitatively the thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases (b) show an appreciation of the relative order of magnitude of the expansion of solids, liquids and gases (c) identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of thermal expansion (d) describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation in terms of energy transfer without a change in temperature (e) state the meaning of melting point and of boiling point (f) distinguish between boiling and evaporation

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

11.

General Wave Properties Content 11.1 Describing wave motion 11.2 Wave terms 11.3 Longitudinal and transverse waves

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes, springs and by experiments using a ripple tank (b) give the meaning of speed, frequency, wavelength and amplitude and use the equation c=fx (c) distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves and give suitable examples 12. Light Content 12.1 Reflection of light 12.2 Refraction of light 12.3 Thin converging lens

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) perform and describe experiments to illustrate the laws of reflection (b) describe an experiment to find the position of an optical image formed by a plane mirror (c) use the law i = r in reflection (d) perform simple constructions, measurements and calculations for reflection (e) describe and perform experiments to demonstrate refraction of light through glass blocks (f) use the terminology for the angles i and r in refraction and describe the passage of light through parallel-sided transparent material (g) use the equation sin i/sin r = n (refractive index) (h) give the meaning of refractive index (i) describe the action of a thin converging lens on a beam of light (j) use and understand the term focal length (k) draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual images of an object by a lens (l) use and describe the use of a single lens as a magnifying glass 13. Electromagnetic Spectrum Content 13.1 Properties of electromagnetic waves

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same high speed in vacuo and state the magnitude of this speed (b) describe the main components of the electromagnetic spectrum 14. Sound Content 14.1 Sound waves 14.2 Speed of sound

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the production of sound by vibrating sources (b) describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves and describe compression and rarefaction (c) state the approximate range of audible frequencies (d) show understanding that a medium is required in order to transmit sound waves (e) describe an experiment to determine the speed of sound in air and make the necessary calculation (f) state the order of magnitude of the speed of sound in air, liquids and solids

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

15.

Static Electricity Content 15.1 Principles of electrostatics

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) show understanding that there are positive and negative charges and that charge is measured in coulombs (b) show understanding that unlike charges attract and that like charges repel 16. Current Electricity Content 16.1 Electric current 16.2 Electromotive force 16.3 Potential difference 16.4 Resistance

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) show understanding that a current is a rate of flow of charge and is measured in amperes (b) use the equation I = Q/t (c) use and describe the use of an ammeter (d) use the concept that the e.m.f. is measured by-the energy dissipated by a source in driving charge round the complete circuit (e) show appreciation that the volt is given by J/C (f) show understanding that the potential difference across a circuit component is measured in volts (g) use and describe the use of a voltmeter (h) state that resistance = p.d./current and use the equation R = V/I (i) describe an experiment to determine resistance using a voltmeter and an ammeter and make the necessary calculation (j) use quantitatively the relationship between resistance and the length and the cross-sectional area of a wire (k) sketch and interpret the V/I characteristic graphs for metallic (ohmic) and non-ohmic conductors (l) appreciate the limitations of Ohm's Law 17. d.c. Circuits Content 17.1 Current and potential difference in circuits 17.2 Series and parallel circuits

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing sources, switches, resistors (fixed and variable), ammeters, voltmeters, magnetising coils, bells, fuses and relays (b) show understanding that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same (c) use the fact that the sum of the p.d.s in a series circuit is equal to the p.d. across the whole circuit (d) calculate the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series (e) use the fact that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit, the current from the source being larger than the current in each branch (f) calculate the effective resistance of two resistors in parallel

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

18.

Practical Electricity Content 18.1 Electric power and energy 18.2 Dangers of electricity 18.3 Safe use of electricity in the home

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the use of electricity in heating, lighting (including lamps in parallel) and motors (b) use the equations P = VI and E = VIt (c) calculate the cost of using electrical appliances (d) state the hazards of (i) damaged insulation (ii) overheating of cables (iii) damp conditions (e) show understanding of the use of fuses and fuse ratings (f) explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation (g) give the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth (h) wire, and describe how to wire, a mains plug (i) give the reasons for switches and fuses in live leads 19. Magnetism Content 19.1 Laws of magnetism 19.2 Magnetic properties of matter

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state the properties of magnets (b) give an account of induced magnetism (c) distinguish between magnetic and non-magnetic materials (d) describe methods of magnetisation and of demagnetisation (e) describe the use of a plotting compass to plot the field lines of magnetic field (Earth's field excluded) (f) distinguish between the magnetic properties of iron and steel (g) distinguish between the design and use of permanent magnets and electromagnets 20. Electromagnetic Induction Content 20.1 Principles of electromagnetic induction 20.2 The a.c. generator 20.3 The transformer

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe an experiment which shows that a changing magnetic field can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit (b) state the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced e.m.f (c) show understanding that the direction of the induced e.m.f. opposes the change producing it (d) describe a simple form of generator (e.g. rotating coil or rotating magnet) and the use of slip rings (e) sketch a graph of voltage output against time for a simple a.c. generator (f) describe the structure and principle of operation of a basic iron-cored transformer as used for voltage transformations (g) use the equations (Vp/Vs) = (Np/Ns) and VpIp = VS IS (for 100% efficiency)

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

21.

The Nuclear Atom Content 21.1 Atomic model 21.2 Composition of a nucleus 21.3 Proton number and nucleon number 21.4 Nuclide notation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structure of an atom in terms of a nucleus and electrons (b) describe the composition of the nucleus in terms of protons and neutrons (c) use the term nucleon number, A (d) use the term proton number, Z x (e) use the term nuclide and use the nuclide notation A Z 22. Radioactivity Content 22.1 Detection of radioactivity 22.2 Characteristics of the three types of emission 22.3 Nuclear reactions 22.4 Half-life 22.5 Safety precautions

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the detection of alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays (b) show understanding that radioactive emissions occur randomly over space and time (c) state, for radioactive emissions, (i) their nature (ii) their relative ionising effects (iii) their relative penetrating powers (d) show understanding of the meaning of radioactive decay, using equations (involving symbols) to represent changes in the composition of the nucleus when particles are emitted (e) use the term half-life in simple calculations which might involve information in tables or in decay curves (f) describe how radioactive materials are handled, used, stored and disposed of, in a safe way

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COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

CHEMISTRY SECTION
It is important that, throughout the course, attention should be drawn to: (i) the finite life of the world's resources and hence the need for recycling and conservation; (ii) some economic considerations in the chemical industry, such as the availability and cost of raw materials and energy; (iii) the importance of chemicals in industry and in everyday life. 1. Experimental Chemistry Content 1.1 Experimental design 1.2 Methods of purification and analysis 1.3 Identification of ions and gases

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) name and use appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinders (b) design arrangements of apparatus, given information about the substances involved (c) describe and use methods of purification by the use of a suitable solvent, filtration, crystallisation and distillation (including description but not use of fractional distillation) (Refer to the fractional distillation of (i) crude oil (petroleum) (topic 20.2(c)) (ii) fermented liquor (topic 23.1(a)).) (d) suggest suitable purification techniques, given information about the substances involved (e) describe and use paper chromatography and interpret chromatograms (f) identify substances and test their purity by melting point and boiling point determination and by paper chromatography (g) identify nitrate (by reduction with aluminium) carbonate (by reaction with acid and then limewater) chloride and iodide (by reaction with acidified silver nitrate or with acidified lead(II) nitrate) sulfate (by reaction with acidified barium nitrate) (h) identify aluminium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III), zinc and ammonium (by using aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia, as appropriate). (Formulae of complex ions are not required) (i) identify hydrogen (by lighted splint) oxygen (by glowing splint) carbon dioxide (by limewater) chlorine (using indicator paper) ammonia (using indicator paper) 2. Kinetic Particle Theory

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the states of matter and explain their inter-conversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory 3. Atomic Structure Content 3.1 Atomic structure 3.2 Isotopes

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state the relative charge and approximate relative mass of a proton, a neutron and an electron (b) define proton number and nucleon number (c) use and interpret such symbols as 12 C 6

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(d) (e) (f)

use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the Periodic Table, with special reference to the elements of proton number 1 to 20 define isotopes describe the build-up of electrons in shells' and understand the significance of outer electrons and the noble gas electronic structures. (The ideas of the distribution of electrons in s- and p-orbitals and in d-block elements are not required. Note that a copy of the Periodic Table will be available in the examination.) Structure and Properties of Materials

4.

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures, and between metals and non-metals (b) describe alloys, such as brass, as a mixture of a metal with other elements 5. Ionic Bonding Content 5.1 Ion formation 5.2 Ionic bond formation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain (b) describe the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements (e.g. in NaCl and CaCl2) 6. Covalent Bonding Content 6.1 Covalent bond formation 6.2 Physical properties of covalent compounds

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the formation of covalent bonds as the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration (e.g. H2, Cl2, HCl, H2O, CH4 and CO2) (b) deduce the electron arrangement in other covalent molecules (c) construct dot and cross' diagrams to show the outer electrons in covalent molecules (d) describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic and covalent compounds 7. Formulae, Stoichiometry and the Mole Concept Content 7.1 Formulae 7.2 Equations 7.3 Stoichiometric calculations

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state the symbols of the elements and the formulae of the compounds mentioned in the syllabus (b) deduce the formula of a simple compound from the relative numbers of atoms present and vice versa (c) determine the formula of an ionic compound from the charges on the ions present and vice versa (d) construct equations with state symbols, including ionic equations (e) deduce, from experimental results, the identity of the reactants and the products and the balanced chemical equation for a chemical reaction (f) define relative atomic mass, Ar (g) define relative molecular mass, Mr (h) use the mole and the Avogadro constant (i) use molar gas volume, taken as 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure

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COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

(j) (k) 8.

calculate the stoichiometric reacting masses and volumes of gases. (Questions on the gas laws and the conversion of gaseous volumes to different temperatures and pressures will not be set.) use solution concentrations expressed in g/dm3 and mol/dm3. (Calculations based on reacting volumes of solution (e.g. titrimetric data) will not be set.) Energy from Chemicals Content 8.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions 8.2 Photosynthesis

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the meaning of exothermic and endothermic reactions (b) describe bond breaking as an endothermic process and bond forming as an exothermic process (c) describe the use of silver salts in photography as an endothermic process involving the reduction of silver ions to silver (d) describe photosynthesis as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll and using sunlight (energy) to produce glucose 9. Chemical Reactions Content 9.1 Rate of reaction 9.2 Redox

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the effect of concentration, pressure, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes) and temperature on the rates of reactions (b) describe how the above factors are used to explain the danger of explosive combustion with fine powders (e.g. in flour mills) and combustible gases (e.g. in mines) (c) interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with rate of reaction (d) define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss (e) define redox in terms of electron transfer 10. The Chemistry and Uses of Acids, Bases and Salts Content 10.1 Characteristic properties of acids and bases 10.2 pH 10.3 Types of oxides 10.4 Preparation of salts

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the meanings of the terms acid and alkali in terms of the ions they contain or produce in aqueous solution (b) describe the characteristic properties of acids as in their reactions with metals, bases, carbonates and their effects on indicator paper (c) describe the characteristic properties of bases as in their reactions with acids and with ammonium salts and their effects on indicator paper (d) describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole numbers only), measured using Universal Indicator paper (e) describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in soil (f) classify oxides as either acidic, basic, or amphoteric related to metallic/non-metallic character (g) describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of some of the techniques specified in topic 1.2(c): methods of preparing salts to illustrate the practical techniques should include the action of acids with insoluble bases, and acids with insoluble carbonates (h) suggest a method of preparing a given salt from suitable starting materials, given appropriate information

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COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

11.

The Periodic Table Content 11.1 Periodic trends 11.2 Group properties

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the Periodic Table as a method of classifying elements and describe its use in predicting properties of elements (b) describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character across a period (c) describe the relationship between group number, number of outer electrons and metallic/nonmetallic character (d) describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I (the alkali metals) as a collection of relatively soft metals showing a trend in melting point and in reaction with water and with chlorine (e) predict the properties of other elements in Group I, given data, where appropriate (f) describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII (the halogens) as a collection of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour, state, and in their displacement reactions with other halide ions (g) predict the properties of other elements in Group VII, given data, where appropriate (h) identify trends in other groups, given information about the elements concerned (i) describe the noble gases as being unreactive (j) describe the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere (e.g. argon in lamps and helium for filling balloons) 12. Properties of Metals Content 12.1 Physical properties 12.2 Alloys

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the general physical properties of metals (b) explain why metals are often used in the form of alloys (c) identify representations of metals and alloys from diagrams of structures 13. Reactivity Series Content 13.1 Order of reactivity

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) place in order of reactivity calcium, copper, (hydrogen), iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with water (or steam) and dilute hydrochloric acid (b) account for the apparent unreactivity of aluminium in terms of the presence of an oxide layer which adheres to the metal (c) deduce an order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results 14. Extraction and Uses of Metals Content 14.1 Metal ores 14.2 The blast furnace 14.3 Iron and steel 14.4 Aluminium 14.5 Zinc 14.6 Copper

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the ease in obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to the reactivity series

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COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 15.

describe the essential reactions in the extraction of iron from haematite describe the idea of changing the properties of iron by the controlled use of additives to form alloys called steels state the uses of mild steel (car bodies and machinery) and stainless steel (chemical plant and cutlery) state the uses of aluminium (e.g. in the manufacture of aircraft parts because of its strength and low density and in food containers because of its resistance to corrosion) state the uses of zinc for galvanising and for making brass (with copper) state the uses of copper related to its properties (e.g. electrical wiring) Atmosphere and Environment Content 15.1 Air 15.2 Corrosion 15.3 Pollution 15.4 Water

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the volume composition of clean air in terms of 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, with the remainder being noble gases (with argon as the main constituent) carbon dioxide and variable amounts of water vapour (b) name the uses of oxygen in making steel, oxygen tents in hospitals, and with acetylene (a hydrocarbon) in welding (c) describe, in simple terms, the ideas of respiration, combustion and rusting (d) describe methods of rust prevention by painting and other coatings (including galvanising) (e) name common pollutants of air (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and lead compounds) (f) state the source of each of these pollutants (i) carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances (ii) sulfur dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels which contain sulfur compounds (leading to acid rain) (iii) oxides of nitrogen and lead compounds from car exhausts (g) state the adverse effect of acidic pollutants on buildings and plants, and of carbon monoxide and lead compounds on health (h) describe, in outline, the purification of the water supply in terms of filtration and chlorination (i) state some of the uses of water in industry and in the home 16. Hydrogen

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the formation of hydrogen as a product of the reaction between (i) reactive metals and water (ii) metals and acids (b) name the uses of hydrogen in the manufacture of ammonia and margarine, and as a fuel in rockets 17. Nitrogen Content 17.1 Ammonia and the Haber process 17.2 Fertiliser manufacture

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the need for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds in plant life (b) name the use of nitrogen in the manufacture of ammonia (c) describe the essential conditions for the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process (d) name the uses of ammonia in the manufacture of fertilisers such as ammonium sulfate and nitrate

15

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

18.

Carbon and Carbonates Content 18.1 Allotropes of carbon 18.2 Manufacture and uses of lime 18.3 Uses of calcium carbonate

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) name the allotropes of carbon as graphite and diamond (b) relate their structures to the use of graphite as a lubricant and diamond in cutting (c) describe the manufacture of lime (calcium oxide) from calcium carbonate (limestone) in terms of the chemical reaction involved (d) state some uses of lime and slaked lime as in treating acidic soil and neutralising acidic industrial waste products (e) state the uses of calcium carbonate in the manufacture of iron, glass and cement 19. Organic Chemistry Content 19.1 Names of compounds 19.2 Structures of compounds 19.3 Homologous series

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) name, and draw the structure of, the unbranched alkanes, alkenes (not cis-trans), alcohols and acids containing up to four carbon atoms per molecule and the products of the reactions stated in topics 21 to 24. (b) state the type of compound present given a chemical name, ending in -ane, -ene, -ol, or -oic acid, or given a molecular structure (c) describe the general characteristics of a homologous series 20. Fuels Content 20.1 Natural gas and petroleum as energy sources 20.2 Fractional distillation 20.3 Uses of fractions

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) name natural gas and petroleum as sources of fuels (b) name methane as the main constituent of natural gas (c) describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation (d) name the uses of petroleum fractions: petrol (gasoline), as fuel in cars; paraffin (kerosene), for oil stoves and aircraft fuel; diesel, for fuel in diesel engines; oils, for lubricants and making waxes and polishes; bitumen, for making roads 21. Alkanes Content 21.1 Properties of alkanes

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive, except in terms of burning

16

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

22.

Alkenes Content 22.1 Cracking 22.2 Unsaturated hydrocarbons 22.3 Polymerisation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the manufacture of alkenes and of hydrogen by cracking (b) describe the properties of alkenes in terms of burning and addition reactions with hydrogen and steam (c) distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (i) from molecular structures (ii) by using aqueous bromine (d) describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation of monomer units (e) name some uses of poly(ethene) as a typical plastic (e.g. plastic bags) 23. Alcohols Content 23.1 Formation of ethanol 23.2 Combustion and oxidation 23.3 Uses of ethanol

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the formation of ethanol by fermentation and by the catalytic addition of steam to ethene (b) describe the properties of ethanol in terms of combustion and of oxidation (c) name the uses of ethanol (e.g. as a solvent, as a fuel and as a constituent of wine and beer) 24. Acids Content 24.1 Ethanoic acid

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the formation of ethanoic acid as the oxidation of ethanol by the action of atmospheric oxygen (b) describe the reaction of ethanoic acid with ethanol to give an ester (ethyl ethanoate) 25. Macromolecules Content 25.1 Monomers and polymers 25.2 Man-made fibres 25.3 Pollution 25.4 Natural macromolecules

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe macromolecules in terms of large molecules built up from small units, different macromolecules having different units and/or different linkages (b) deduce the structure of the polymer product from a given alkene and vice versa (c) describe the formation of nylon (a polyamide) and Terylene (a polyester) by condensation polymerisation, the structure of nylon represented as

17

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

and the structure of Terylene as

(d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)

(Details of manufacture and mechanisms of these polymerisations are not required.) name some typical uses of man-made fibres such as nylon and Terylene (e.g. clothing) describe the pollution problems caused by non-biodegradable plastics name proteins, fats and carbohydrates as the main constituents of foods describe proteins as possessing the same (amide) linkages as nylon but with different units describe the hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids (structures and names not required) describe fats as esters possessing the same linkages as Terylene but with different units describe soap as a product of the hydrolysis of fats describe the carbohydrate starch as a macromolecule represented as

being formed by the condensation polymerisation of smaller carbohydrate units called sugars, represented as

(l) (m)

describe the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as starch to give simple sugars describe the fermentation of simple sugars to produce ethanol (and carbon dioxide) and its importance to brewing and wine-making (Candidates will not be expected to give the molecular formulae of sugars.)

18

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

BIOLOGY SECTION
1. Cell Structure and Organisation Content 1.1 Plant and animal cells 1.2 Specialised cells

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) examine under the microscope an animal cell (e.g. from fresh liver) and a plant cell (e.g. from Elodea, a moss, or any suitable locally available material), using an appropriate temporary staining technique (b) draw diagrams to represent these observations (cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm for animal cells; cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, sap vacuole and chloroplasts for plant cells) (c) compare the visible differences in structure of the animal and plant cells examined (d) state the function of the cell membrane in controlling the passage of substances into and out of the cell (e) state, in simple terms, the relationship between cell structure and cell function for (i) root hair cells absorption (ii) xylem vessels conduction and support (iii) red blood cells transport of oxygen (f) identify these cells from fresh or preserved materials under the microscope, from diagrams and from photomicrographs 2. Diffusion and Osmosis Content 2.1 Diffusion 2.2 Osmosis

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) define diffusion as the movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration, down a concentration gradient (b) define osmosis as the passage of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration, through a partially permeable membrane (c) describe the importance of water potential gradient in the uptake of water by plants and the effects of osmosis on plant and animal tissues 3. Enzymes Content 3.1 Enzyme action 3.2 Effects of temperature and of pH

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) define enzymes as proteins which function as biological catalysts (b) investigate and describe the effect of temperature and of pH on enzyme activity (c) state the effect of enzymes on the germination of seeds 4. Plant Nutrition Content 4.1 Photosynthesis 4.2 Leaf structure 4.3 Mineral nutrition

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) understand that photosynthesis is the fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials

19

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

(g)

investigate the necessity for chlorophyll, light and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis using appropriate controls, and derive, as far as is possible, the equation (in words or symbols) for photosynthesis investigate and state the effect of varying light intensity and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis (e.g. in submerged aquatic plants, such as Elodea) describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants, the trapping of light energy by chlorophyll, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, the formation of carbohydrates, their subsequent storage, and the release of oxygen explain why most forms of life are completely dependent on photosynthesis identify and label the cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in crosssection under the microscope, and describe the significance of these features in terms of functions (i.e. distribution of chloroplasts photosynthesis; stomata and mesophyll cells gaseous exchange; vascular bundles transport) investigate and state the effect of insufficient nitrogen on plant growth and state the importance of nitrogen-containing ions for protein synthesis and their use in nitrogencontaining fertilisers for agriculture Animal Nutrition Content 5.1 Diet 5.2 Human alimentary canal 5.3 Mechanical and physical digestion 5.4 Chemical digestion 5.5 Absorption and assimilation

5.

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) define a balanced diet as a diet supplying sufficient quantities of protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals, fibre, water and energy to sustain a healthy life (b) explain why diet, especially energy intake, should be related to age, sex, and activity of an individual (c) state the effects of malnutrition in relation to constipation and obesity (d) identify, on diagrams and photographs, and name the main regions of the alimentary canal and the associated organs: mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, ileum, colon, rectum and anus (e) describe the main functions of these parts in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food, as appropriate (f) describe the function of the teeth in reducing the size of food particles (g) state the causes of dental decay and describe the proper care of teeth (h) describe chewing and peristalsis (i) state the reason why most foods must be digested (j) describe the function of a typical amylase, listing the substrate and end products as an example of extracellular digestion in the alimentary canal (k) describe absorption as the passage of soluble products of digestion through the wall of the small intestine and into the blood capillaries (Structure of villi is not required.) (l) state (i) the role of the liver in the metabolism of glucose and amino acids (ii) the role of fat as a storage substance (m) state that the formation of urea and the breakdown of alcohol occur in the liver 6. Transport in Flowering Plants Content 6.1 Water and ion uptake 6.2 Transpiration and translocation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structure and function of root hairs in relation to their surface area, and to water and ion uptake (topic 1.2(e)) (b) define transpiration as the loss of water vapour from stomata (c) investigate, using a suitable stain, the pathway of water in a cut stem (d) describe how wilting occurs

20

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

(e)

state the functions of xylem (support and conduction of water and mineral salts, topic 1.2(e)) and phloem (movement of sugars throughout the plant). (Details of root and stem structure are not required.) Transport in Humans Content 7.1 Circulatory system

7.

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the circulatory system as a system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure oneway flow of blood (b) describe the structure and function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of valves (c) compare the structure and function of arteries, veins and capillaries (d) describe coronary heart disease in terms of blockage of coronary arteries and list the possible causes (e) identify red and white blood cells as seen under the microscope on prepared slides, and in diagrams and photomicrographs (f) list the components of blood as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma (g) state the functions of blood (i) red blood cells haemoglobin and oxygen transport (ii) white blood cells phagocytosis, antibody formation and tissue rejection (iii) platelets fibrinogen to fibrin causing clotting (iv) plasma transport of blood cells, ions, soluble food substances, hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, vitamins and plasma proteins 8. Respiration Content 8.1 Aerobic respiration 8.2 Anaerobic respiration 8.3 Human gaseous exchange

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) define respiration as the release of energy from food substances in living cells (b) define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen (c) state the equation for aerobic respiration, using words only (d) define anaerobic respiration as the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen (e) state the equation for anaerobic respiration, using words only (f) describe the production of lactic acid in muscles during exercise (g) state the differences between inspired and expired air (h) investigate and state the effect of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing (i) identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries (j) describe the role of the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange (Details of the role of the diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing are not required.) 9. Excretion

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) define excretion as the removal of toxic materials and the waste products of metabolism from organisms (b) describe the removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs, and of water and urea through the kidneys (Details of kidney structure and nephron are not required.)

21

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

10.

Co-ordination and Response Content 10.1 Receptors 10.2 Reflex action 10.3 Hormones

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state the principal functions of component parts of the eye in producing a focused image of near and distant objects on the retina (b) describe the pupil reflex in response to bright and dim light (c) outline the functions of sensory neurones in relaying information from receptors to the brain and/or spinal cord, relay neurones in transferring information to other parts of the brain and/or spinal cord, and motor neurones in relaying information to muscles and glands (d) define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver (e) state the role of the hormone adrenaline in boosting blood glucose levels and give examples of situations in which this may occur 11. The Use and Abuse of Drugs Content 11.1 Antibiotics 11.2 Effects of heroin 11.3 Effects of alcohol

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) define a drug as an externally administered substance which modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body (b) describe the medicinal use of antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) for the treatment of bacterial infections (c) describe a drug such as heroin as a drug of abuse and its related effects such as a powerful depressant, problems of addiction, severe withdrawal symptoms, associated problems such as crime and infection (e.g. AIDS/HIV) (d) describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol: reduced self-control, depressant, problems of addiction, severe withdrawal symptoms, associated problems such as crime and infection (e.g. AIDS/HIV) 12. Relationships of Organisms with One Another and with the Environment Content 12.1 Energy flow 12.2 Food chains and food webs 12.3 Carbon and water cycles 12.4 Effects of Man on the ecosystem 12.5 Pollution 12.6 Conservation

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) state that the Sun is the principal source of energy input to biological systems (b) describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (c) define food chain, food web, producer, consumer, herbivore, carnivore and decomposer (d) describe energy losses between trophic levels and the advantages of short food chains (e) describe the carbon cycle in terms of photosynthesis, animal nutrition, respiration and combustion (f) describe the water cycle (g) describe the effects of Man on the ecosystem with emphasis on examples of international importance (tropical rain forests, oceans and rivers) (h) describe the consequences of deforestation in terms of effects on: soil stability, climate (water cycle) and local human populations (i) describe the problems which contribute to famine (unequal distribution of food, drought and flooding and increasing population)

22

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

(j)

(k) (l) 13.

describe the undesirable effects of (i) water pollution by sewage and by inorganic waste (ii) air pollution by sulfur dioxide (acid rain) (iii) pollution due to insecticides state reasons for the conservation of species with reference to plants as sources of useful products such as drugs, timbers, oils, fibres, chemicals (e.g. pyrethrum), and products such as rubber, and to the need to investigate threatened species before they become extinct state reasons for the recycling of materials such as water (sewage) and paper (from trees) Development of Organisms and Continuity of Life Content 13.1 Asexual reproduction 13.2 Sexual reproduction in plants 13.3 Sexual reproduction in humans 13.4 Sexually transmitted diseases

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) define asexual reproduction as the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent (b) describe sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of nuclei to form a zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring (c) identify and draw, using a hand lens if necessary, the sepals, petals, stamens and carpels of one, locally available, named dicotyledonous flower (d) state the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers and carpels (e) outline the process of pollination and describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule followed by fertilisation. (Production of endosperm and details of development are not required.) (f) investigate and describe the structure of a non-endospermic seed in terms of the embryo (radicle, plumule and cotyledons) and the testa, protected by the pericarp (fruit wall) (g) state that seed and fruit dispersal by wind and animals provides a means of colonising new areas (h) investigate and state the environmental conditions which affect germination of seeds (suitable temperature, water and oxygen) (i) identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system and give the functions of testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis (j) identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system and give the functions of: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina (k) compare male and female gametes in terms of size, numbers and mobility (l) describe the menstrual cycle with reference to the alternation of menstruation and ovulation, the natural variation in its length, and the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle (m) state the effect of factors, such as diet and emotional state, which affect the menstrual cycle (n) describe fertilisation and the early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of a ball of cells which becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus, where it develops as the fetus (o) describe the advantages of breast milk compared with bottle-feeding (p) describe the following methods of birth control: natural, chemical (spermicides), mechanical, hormonal and surgical (q) describe the symptoms, signs, effects and treatment of gonorrhoea and syphilis (r) discuss the spread of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and methods by which it may be controlled

23

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

14.

Inheritance Content 14.1 Variation 14.2 Chromosomes and genes

Learning Outcomes: Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the difference between continuous and discontinuous variation and give examples of each (b) define a gene as a unit of inheritance and distinguish clearly between the terms gene and allele (c) state that genes are carried on chromosomes (d) describe complete dominance using the terms dominant, recessive, phenotype and genotype (e) describe mutation as a change in the structure of a gene (sickle cell anaemia) or in the chromosome number (Down's syndrome) (f) name radiation and chemicals as factors which may increase the rate of mutation (g) describe the determination of sex in Man (XX and XY chromosomes)

24

The Periodic Table of the Elements Group I II


1

III H
Hydrogen

IV

VI

VII

0
4

He
Helium

1 7 9 11 12 14 16 19

2 20

Li
Lithium

Be
Beryllium

B
Boron

C
Carbon

N
Nitrogen

O
Oxygen

F
Fluorine

Ne
Neon

3 23

4 24

5 27

6 28

7 31

8 32

9 35.5

10 40

Na
Sodium

Mg
Magnesium

Al
Aluminium

Si
Silicon

P
Phosphorus

S
Sulfur

Cl
Chlorine

Ar
Argon

11 39

12 40 45 48 51 52 55 56 59 59 64 65

13 70

14

15

16 75 79

17 80

18 84

K
Potassium

Ca
Calcium

Sc
Scandium

Ti
Titanium

V
Vanadium

Cr
Chromium

Mn
Manganese

Fe
Iron

Co
Cobalt

Ni
Nickel

Cu
Copper

Zn
Zinc

Ga
Gallium

73 Ge
Germanium

As
Arsenic

Se
Selenium

Br
Bromine

Kr
Krypton

19 85

20 88

21 89

22 91

23 93

24 96

25

26 101

27 103

28 106

29 108

30 112

31 115

32 119

33 122

34 128

35 127

36 131

Rb
Rubidium

Sr
Strontium

Y
Yttrium

Zr
Zirconium

Nb
Niobium

Mo
42 43 184

Tc
44 186

Ru
Ruthenium

Rh
Rhodium

Pd
Palladium

Ag
Silver

Cd
Cadmium

In
Indium

Sn
Tin

Sb
Antimony

Te
Tellurium

I
Iodine

Xe
Xenon

Molybdenum Technetium

25

37 133

38 137

39 139

40 178

41 181

45 190 192

46 195

47 197

48 201

49 204

50 207

51 209

52

53

54

Cs
Caesium

Ba
Barium

La
Lanthanum

Hf
Hafnium

Ta
Tantalum

W
Tungsten

Re
Rhenium

Os
Osmium

Ir
Iridium

Pt
Platinum

Au
Gold

Hg
Mercury

Tl
Thallium

Pb
Lead

Bi
Bismuth

Po
Polonium

At
Astatine

Rn
Radon

55

56 226

57 227

* 72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Fr
Francium

Ra
Radium

Ac
actinium

87

88

89

*58-71 Lanthanoid series 90-103 Actinoid series

140

141

144

150

152

157

159

163

165

167

169

173

175

Ce
Cerium

Pr
59 60

Nd
61 238

Pm
Promethium

Sm
Samarium

Eu
Europium

Gd
Gadolinium

Tb
Terbium

Dy
Dysprosium

Ho
Holmium

Er
Erbium

Tm
Thulium

Yb
Ytterbium

Lu
Lutetium

Praseodymium Neodymium

58
a a = relative atomic mass

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

232

Key
b

X = atomic symbol
b = proton (atomic) number

Th
Thorium

Pa
Protactinium

U
Uranium

Np
Neptunium

Pu
Plutonium

Am
Americium

Cm
Curium

Bk
Berkelium

Cf
Californium

Es
Einsteinium

Fm
Fermium

Md
Mendelevium

No
Nobelium

Lr
Lawrencium

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

The volume of one mole of any gas is 24dm3 at room temperature and pressure (r.t.p)..

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

RESOURCE LIST
Resources Combined Sciences Ordinary Level Science (Physics, Chemistry) 5124 (Physics, Biology) 5125 (Chemistry, Biology) 5126

Combined Science 5129 Additional Combined Science 5130 BOOKS Brian Samual Beckett; Illustrated Biology; Oxford University Press; 0 19 914044 8; Beckett and Gallagher; Co-ordinated Science: Biology; Oxford University Press; 0 19 914653 5; Kevin Byrne; Revise GCSE in a week Science Double & Single Award; BPP (Letts Educational) Ltd; 1 85758 702 2; Gallagher, Ingram and Whitehead; Co-ordinated Science: Chemistry; Oxford University Press; 0 19 914652 7; Pople and Whitehead; Co-ordinated Science: Physics; Oxford University Press; 0 19 914651 9 Activities Books and Teacher's Guides are also available for this series; K Foulds; GCSE Science Double Award Physics; John Murray; 07195 7159; S Gater and V Wood-Robinson; GCE Science Double Award Biology; John Murray; 07195 7157 X; G Hill; Science for GCSE Double Award 2nd ed (June '01); Hodder & Stoughton; Text 0340800445 Pupils' Handbook 034073079X Existing edition has been very highly praised by international teachers teaching IGCSE; K Hirst; The Complete A-Z Double Award Science Handbook; Hodder & Stoughton; 0340730609; Jones and Jones, et al; Balanced Science; Cambridge University Press; Book 1 0521 59979 2 Book 2 0521 59980 6; Also available as a three volume set: Jones and Jones; Cambridge Co-ordinated Science: Biology (2nd ed); Cambridge University Press; 0 521 599814; Jones, Jones and Acaster; Cambridge Co-ordinated Science: Chemistry; Cambridge University Press; 0 521 59983 0; Jones, Jones and Marchington; Cambridge Co-ordinated Science: Physics (2nd ed); Cambridge University Press; 0 521 59982 2; V Slaughter; Living Things 2nd Ed (Sept '01); Hodder & Stoughton; 03407 72816;

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COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

TEACHERS RESOURCES WEBSITES Coordination Group Publications; www.cgpbooks.co.uk; (a useful and extensive set of resources available at an economical price); PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS Royal Society of Chemistry; Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1J 0BA, UK; tel +44 (0) 20 7437 8656; fax +44 (0) 20 7437 8883; website www.rsc.org; Institute of Physics; 76 Portland Place, London W1B 1NT. UK; tel +44 (0)20 7470 4800; fax: +44 (0)20 7470 4848; Email: physics@iop.org; website www.iop.org; Institute of Biology; 20 Queensberry Place, London SW7 2DZ, UK; tel +44(020) 7581-8333; fax: +44(020) 7823-9409; Email: info@iob.org; website www.iob.org;

27

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

MATHEMATICAL REQUIREMENTS
Calculators may be used in all parts of the examination. Candidates should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. add, subtract, multiply and divide; understand and use averages, decimals, fractions, percentages, ratios and reciprocals; recognise and use standard notation; use direct and inverse proportion; use positive, whole number indices; draw charts and graphs from given data; interpret charts and graphs; select suitable scales and axes for graphs; make approximate evaluations of numerical expressions; recognise and use the relationship between length, surface area and volume, and their units on metric scales; use usual mathematical instruments, (ruler, compasses, protractor, set square); understand the meaning of angle, curve, circle, radius, diameter, square, parallelogram, rectangle and diagonal; solve equations of the form x = yz for any one term when the other two are known; recognise and use points of the compass (N, S, E, W).

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COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

SYMBOLS, UNITS AND DEFINITIONS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES


Students should be able to state the symbols for the following physical quantities and, where indicated, state the units in which they are measured.

Quantity Length area volume weight mass time density speed acceleration acceleration of free fall force moment of a force work done energy power pressure atmospheric pressure temperature frequency wavelength focal length angle of incidence. angles of reflection, refraction critical angle potential difference/voltage current charge e.m.f. resistance

Symbol l, h... A V W m, M t d, u, v a g F, P... W, E E P p, P t f f i r c V I E R

Unit km, m, cm, mm m2, cm2 m3, cm3 N kg, g, mg h, min, s g/cm3, kg/m3 km/h, m/s, cm/s m/s2 N Nm J J, kW h W Pa, N/m2 use of millibar C Hz m, cm degree () degree () degree () V, mV A, mA C, A s V

29

COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN SCIENCE PAPERS


During the moderation of a question paper, care is taken to try and ensure that the paper and its individual questions are, in relation to the syllabus, fair as regards balance, overall difficulty and suitability. Attention is also paid to wording to make questions as concise and yet as unambiguous as possible. In many instances, Examiners are able to make appropriate allowance for an interpretation that differs, but acceptably so, from the one intended. It is hoped that the glossary (which is relevant only to Science subjects) will prove helpful to candidates as a guide (i.e. it is neither exhaustive nor definitive). The glossary has been deliberately kept brief not only with respect to the number of terms included but also to their definitions. Candidates should appreciate that the meaning of a term must depend in part on its context. 1. 2. Define (the term(s)...) is intended literally, only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase being required. What do you understand by/What is meant by (the term(s)...) normally implies that a definition should be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned, especially where two or more terms are included in the question. The amount of supplementary comment intended should be interpreted in the light of the indicated mark value. State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument (e.g. a numerical answer that can readily be obtained by inspection). List requires a number of points, generally each of one word, with no elaboration. Where a given number of points is specified, this should not be exceeded. State and explain normally also implies conciseness; explain may imply reasoning or some reference to theory, depending on the context. Describe requires the candidate to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) the main points of the topic. It is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular experiments. In the former instance, the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to (visual) observations associated with the phenomena. In the latter instance, the answer may often follow a standard pattern (e.g. Apparatus, Method, Measurements, Results and Precautions). In other contexts, describe and give an account of should be interpreted more generally (i.e. the candidate has greater discretion about the nature and the organisation of the material to be included in the answer). Describe and explain may be coupled in a similar way to state and explain - see paragraph 5. 7. 8. 9. Discuss requires the candidate to give a critical account of the points involved in the topic. Outline implies brevity (i.e. restricting the answer to giving essentials). Predict implies that the candidate is not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given in the question or may depend on answers extracted in an earlier part of the question. Predict also implies a concise answer with no supporting statement required. 10. Deduce is used in a similar way to predict except that some supporting statement is required (e.g. reference to a law/principle or the necessary reasoning is to be included in the answer).

3. 4. 5. 6.

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COMBINED SCIENCES O LEVEL 2011

11. Suggest is used in two main contexts, i.e. either to imply that there is no unique answer (e.g. in chemistry, two or more substances may satisfy the given conditions describing an unknown), or to imply that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge to a novel situation, one that may be formally not in the syllabus'. 12. Find is a general term that may variously be interpreted as calculate, measure, determine, etc. 13. Calculate is used when a numerical answer is required. In general working should be shown, especially where two or more steps are involved. 14. Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable measuring instrument (e.g. length, using a rule or mass, using a balance). 15. Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula (e.g. Young modulus, relative molecular mass). 16. Estimate implies a reasoned order of magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned, making such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about points of principle and about the values of quantities not otherwise included in the question. 17. Sketch, when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or position of the curve need only be qualitatively correct but candidates should be aware that, depending on the context, some quantitative aspects may be looked for (e.g. passing through the origin, having an intercept, asymptote or discontinuity at a particular value). In diagrams, sketch implies that a simple freehand drawing is acceptable; nevertheless, care should be taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important details.

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