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Geometric

Dimensioning
&Tolerancing
(GD&T)
Level1
Training
Manual
2 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
INDEX
Chapter
1. CourseIntroduction..
Introduction
Hexagonqualityassurancedocumentation
Agenda
Courseobjectives
2. IntroductiontoGeometricalProductSpecifications
IntroductiontoGPS
RequirementsofGPS
3. Datums
Datums
Referenceframes
Axis
Plane
Target
4. FormTolerances
Circularity(Roundness)
Straightness
Flatness
Cylindricity
5. LocationTolerances
Location
RegardlessofFeaturesize
MaximumMaterialCondition(MaximumMaterialReference)
Concentricity/Coaxiality
Symmetry
6. OrientationTolerances.
Parallelism
Perpendicularity
Angularity
7. ProfileTolerances.
Profileofaline
Profileofasurface
8. RunoutTolerances..
Runout
CircularRunout
TotalRunout
9. Appendix..
FurtherMMCoptions
BasicSymbols
Hexagoncontacts
3 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
CourseIntroduction
INTHISCHAPTER
1
1
Introduction
Hexagonqualityassurance
documentation
Agenda
Courseobjectives
4 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
IntroductiontoGD&TTrainingCourse
WelcometoHexagonMetrology
Hexagonmetrologywelcomesyoutodaytotheirmetrologyfacilityand
hopesthatyourvisitwillbeenjoyable,interestingandinformative.
Duringtheintroductionsessionwerespectivelyrequestthatyoutake
noteofanyhealthandsafetyrequirementsandthatyoucompletethe
HexagonMetrologyqualityassurancedocumentation.
Theinformationprovidedwillcontributetofuturedevelopmentofboth
existingandnewtrainingcourses.
IntroductionOverview
Welcome
IntroductiontoHexagonMetrology
Health&Safety
Coursesubsistencearrangements
CourseContentandTimes
Traineeregistrationandbackground
Trainingmanualcontents
Workbookprincipals
Evaluation
Certification
Furthercourses
5 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
CourseAgenda
Pleaseseethefollowingoverviewofthecourseagendaforboththe
Day1
Introduction/Courseaims&Objectives
GD&TTheory
o IntroductiontoGeometricProductSpecifications(GPS)
o OverviewofGeometricDimensioningandTolerancing(GD&T)
o Standards
o Datum Systems
o UnderstandingtheBasicSymbolsofGD&T
o Form
o Location
o Orientation
o Runout
o Profile
o MaximumMaterialCondition
Pleasenote:Coursecontentandorderissubjecttochangeatthediscretion
oftheTrainingInstructor
6 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
CourseObjectives
To achievea BasicunderstandingofGeometricDimensioningand Tolerancing(GD
&T)inthefollowingareas:
IntroductiontoGeometricProductSpecifications(GPS)
OverviewofGeometricDimensioningandTolerancing(GD&T)
Standards
Datum Systems
UnderstandingtheBasicSymbolsofGD&T
MaximumMaterialCondition
TrainingManualandworkbook
Eachtraineewillbeprovidedwithatrainingmanualandworkbookcoveringdifferent
aspectsofthelevel1courseonly
Whatthistrainingmanualis!
The training manual is provided as a reminder to each student of the important
requirements that lead to the successful understanding of GD & T principles and
appropriatemeasurementstrategies.
Whatthistrainingmanualisnot!
Itisnotanotherversionofatechnicalmanual.orstandard
Whatistheworkbook?
The workbook provides evidence of competence achieved by each trainee during
thetrainingcourse.Itwillincludeexercisestocheckthatlearninghastakenplace
Evaluation
Asweallknowevaluationisveryimportant.Theworkbookwillprovideamethodof
evaluatingeachtraineescompetenceandgivethetraineeevidencetotakebackfor
themselves and their employer of their achievements during the course. Based on
the results obtained and evaluated by your training instructor, a certificate will be
issued. The assessment of competence can only be judged at the time of the
course. This does not mean that the trainee can be classed as an expert, it is
important for the trainees to implement the techniques they have learned on their
returntotheirrespectivecompany.
Courseevaluation
Hexagonmetrologytakesprideintheservicesitprovidesandcontinuestostriveto
improvethisqualityservice.Itisimportantforustogetfeedbackaboutourservices.
Aspartofthisprocess,wewillkindlyrequestthatoncompletionofyourcourseyou
completeatrainingevaluationform.
During each sessionof the course the students willbe encouraged to participatein
boththetheoreticalandpracticalelements.
Questionsandanswerssessionsfortheaboveelementsandanyotherrequirements
willbeincludedasrequested.
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GeometricalProduct
Specification(GPS)
INTHISCHAPTER
2
2
IntroductiontoGPS
RequirementsofGPS
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Atthefirstdesignstagesofcomponentparts,thedesignerimaginestheproduct
tobeanideal,perfectobject.Allcomponentpartsareassumedtobeofperfect
formandsize.
Duringthemanufacturingprocessescomponentpartsvaryinmanydifferent
ways,formerrorsandchangestothesurfaceparametersbecomeapparentwhen
usingdifferentmanufacturingmethods.
Theseerrorsandparameterchangescanhaveagreateffectonthefunctionality
ofthecomponent.
Itisthereforecriticalthatthesedefinitionsarestandardisedandunderstood,so
thatthevariationthatisinherenttomanufacturingprocessescanbetakeninto
accounttominimisewasteproductsandassemblies.
Tobeableunderstandthegeometricalvariationswithincomponentpartsasetof
requirementshavebeenproduced.
TheseareknownasGeometricalProductSpecifications(GPS),covering
requirementsonsizesanddimensions,geometricaltolerancesandgeometrical
propertiesofsurface
ExtractedfromtheDTINationalMeasurementGoodPracticeguideNo80FundamentalGood
practiceinDimensionalMetrology.(AvailablefromtheNationalPhysicalLaboratoryNPL
Teddington,Middlesex,UnitedKingdom
Formoflineandsurface
Independentofdatum
Dependentondatum
GPS
Model
Orientation
Location
Circularrunout
Totalrunout
Datum
Roughnessprofile
Wavinessprofile
Primaryprofile
Surfaceimperfections
Size
Distance
Radius
Angle
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TheGPSstandardtechnicalrulesareorganisedintosixchainlinksforanygiven
characteristic
1. Therules,symbolsandhowtounderstandthespecificationsofproduct
documentation
2. Theoreticaldefinitionsoftolerancesandtheirnumericalvalues.
3. Geometryofanonideal,realworkpiecedefinedinrelationtotolerance
symbolsonthedrawing.
4. Theconformance,nonconformanceofrealworkpiecedeviationsto
specificationtakingintoaccountmeasurementuncertainty
5. Generalapproachtomeasurementequipmenttypesandrequirements
6. Calibrationstandards,proceduresandrequirementsofthemeasuring
equipmentusedandtherelinktoNationalandinternationalStandards
ExtractedfromtheDTINationalMeasurementGoodPracticeguideNo80FundamentalGood
practiceinDimensionalMetrology.(AvailablefromtheNationalPhysicalLaboratoryNPL
Teddington,Middlesex,UnitedKingdom)
GeometricDimensioningandTolerancing(GD&T)isauniversallanguageof
symbols,muchliketheinternationalsystemofroadsignsthatadvisedrivershow
tonavigatetheroads.
GD&TsymbolsallowaDesignEngineertopreciselyandlogicallydescribepart
featuresinawaytheycanbeaccuratelymanufacturedandinspected.Todothis
useismadeofanengineeringdrawingorCADmodeltoprovidetheinformation
AnEngineeringDrawingandCADmodelhasapurposetoshowtherequired
designfunctionandthereforeallowallpartiesinvolvedtointerpretthedesign
requirements
GeometricDimensioningandTolerancing(GD&T)isusedinconjunctionwith
standarddimensioningtodescribethegeometryofproductsandtheirrelationship
betweenvariousfunctionalpartsorassemblies
TheinterpretationoftheTechnicalDrawingsusingGD&Tisdoneinvarious
ways.Thedesignerwillmakeuseofvarioussymbolslinkedtodifferent
categories.Eachoptionavailabletothedesignershouldbedefinedbyutilising
someofthefollowing
FeatureControlFrames
GeometricCharacteristics(Symbols)
GeometricReferences(Datums)
ToleranceShapes
ToleranceZones(Values)
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FeatureControl
FramesandDatum
Definitions
INTHISCHAPTER
3
3
FeatureControlFrames
Datums
Axis
Plane
Target
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Geometrictolerancesarenormallyexpressesbyusingacombinationoffeature
controlframesanddatumreferencesymbols.NormallyGD&Tsymbolswillonly
bepartofthedimensioningshownonthedrawingorCADmodel.Remember
standardbilateralandunilateraltoleranceswillbeshownalongwithother
parametersaboutthesurfacetexturerequirementsandmaterialspecifications.
Geometrictolerancesaredefinedwithinfeaturecontrolframes.Theseframesare
specificallydesigned.Somearerelativetoadatumreference,somearerelative
tothemselves.Thefeaturecontrolframeislikeabasicsentencethatcanberead
fromlefttoright.Examplesoffeaturecontrolframesareshownbelow
FeatureControlframes
Geometric
SymbolofControl
(Symbol)
Tolerance
Zoneand
shape
Primary
Datum
Secondary
Datum
Tertiary
Datum
1 2
3
4
OneDatumReference
TwoDatumReferences
ThreeDatumsReferences
NoDatumReference
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Thegeometricsymbolofcontrolisspecifiedonthelefthandside.Thiswillvary
dependingontherequirementandfunctionalityrequiredfromthefeatureand
componentpart
Theshapeandtolerancewithinthefeaturecontrolframedeterminethelimitsof
productionvariability.
Datumexamples
ThePrimaryDatumcanbedefinedbyaminimumof3pointcontactonasurface
orbythegenerationofa3DAxisthroughaminimumof2features.
TheSecondaryDatumcanbedefinedfromaminimumof2points,ofanedgeor
throughanaxisrelativetothePrimarydatum
TheTertiaryDatumcanbedefinedbyaminimumofonepointinrelationtothe
Primaryandsecondarydatums
TechnicalDrawingshowingthedatumdefinitions(Measurementterms:
alignmentorcoordinatesystem)
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TechnicalDrawingshowingthedatumrelationships
FeatureControlFramesDefinitions
NoDatumReference
SingleDatumReference
MultipleDatumReference
0.035
0.145 AB
0.085 A
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TwoDatumReference
ThreeDatumReference
Tolerancezonesoveraspecifiedlength
CombinedToleranceZone
0.01/100
0.01mmoverany100mmlength
0.05mmoverany190mmlength
Overalltolerance0.2mm,
but
0.05/190
0.2
0.145
A B 0.200
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Theoreticallyexactdimensions
Dimensiondefiningthetheoreticalexactpositionaredefinedinabox.Eachof
thesedimensionsshouldhaveafeaturecontrolframeattachedatsomestageto
defineatoleranceotherwisethesedimensionsshouldbeproducedperfectlyto
thesesizeswithnovariation.
Datumsymbols
Thedatumsymbolsusedarenormallyspecifiedasbelow.Theuseofaletteris
theconventionusedofspecifiedwithintheASMEandISOstandards
Thedatumsymbolscanbepositionedindifferentplacesonadrawingtodefine
therequirementsofthecomponentpart.Eachtimethedatumsymbolsareused
thisshouldtellthemanufacturingandmeasurementdepartmentshowtosetup
thepart.Itiscriticalthattheinterpretationofthisiscorrecttoavoidanyerrorsin
thesetupofboththemachinetoolandthemeasurementequipmentused.
A B
38
156
4
6.2
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DatumAxis
DatumPlane
orextension
Drawingexamplesofbothaxisandplane
A A
FeatureOutline FeatureExtension
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Axisandplanewiththealternativeoptionofspecifyingadatum
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DatumTargets
Datumscanbedefinedformanufacturingpurposesastargets.Oftenusedinthe
castingindustry.Theycouldbeusedtocreatethefinaldatumsofthecomponent
part.Thesetargetsarenormallycategorisedasonofthefollowing
Point
Line
Area
Point
Datumtargetpointfromthecornerisdefinedasbelow.Thiscouldbelocatedon
thecomponentbytheuseofapredefinedfixture
Line
Datumtargetlinefromthecornerisdefinedasbelow.Thiscouldbelocatedon
thecomponentbytheuseofapredefinedfixture
C
6
6
90
B1
B1
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Area
Datumtargetareasfromthecorneraredefinedasbelow.Thesecouldbeeither
circularorboxedasshown.Thiscouldbelocatedonthecomponentbytheuseof
apredefinedfixture
ThreedatumtargetareasspecifyingtheprimarydatumA
7
A1
9
4
7
12
2x2
4
A2
12
5
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TwolinesspecifyingthesecondarydatumBandapointspecifyingthe
TertiarydatumC
TwodiametersdefiningtheDatumthroughacommonaxis
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Primaryandsecondarydatumsascheckedbyagauge
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FormTolerance
INTHISCHAPTER
4
4
Circularity(Roundness)
Straightness
Flatness
Cylindricity
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Circularity
CircularityalsoknownasRoundnessinthisexampletheshapeofthe
diametertobeproducedandmeasuredshouldberoundwithinatolerancezone
of0.040
Thetoleranceisspecifiedbyazone
boundedbytwoconcentriccircles
Themeasurementofcircularitycanbeachievedby
differentmethodsnormallybyaspecific
roundnessmeasuringmachineorbyutilising
Coordinatemeasuringmachinesoftware
Diametervaryingwithintoleranceofsizeandform
0.040
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CircularityonaTaper
Circularitymeasurementexampletakenusingadialindicator,standandvee
block
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Circularitymeasurementstakenusingaroundnessmeasuringmachine
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Straightness
Straightnesscanbedefinedasthemaximumallowabledeviationawayfroma
straightlineoraxiswithinthetolerancezone
Definitionoftolerancezones
Onedirection Twodirections,
differentvalues
Onedirection,
tapereddiameter
Onedirection,
cylindricalzone
Onedirection,possible
shapesofpart
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Flatness
Flatnesscanbedefinedasthemaximumallowabledeviationonasurfacewithin
thetolerancezone
Tolerancezoneacrossthreesurfaces
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Flatnessdefinition
Measurementonsurfacetableusing3locationsupportsandadialindicator
andstand
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Cylindricity
Cylindricitycanbedefinedasthemaximumallowabledeviationofallpointsona
surfaceofrevolutionequidistantfromacommonaxiswithintheatolerancezone
definedbytwocylinders
Measurementstakenusingaroundnessmeasuringmachine
0.025
Cylindricity
0.025
0.040
0.040
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LocationTolerances
INTHISCHAPTER
5
5
Location
RegardlessofFeaturesize
MaximumMaterial
Condition(MaximumMaterial
Requirement)
Concentricity/Coaxiality
Symmetry
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TruePosition
Locationtolerancesarealsoknownastruepositionaltolerances.Eitherdefined
asacylindricalzoneorparallelepiped(Boxed/rectangular)
Establishingdimensions
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RegardlessofFeatureSize(RFS)
RegardlessofFeatureSize(RFS)Thesymbolwasusednexttothe
tolerance,withinthefeaturecontrolframeinapreviousANSIstandard
Cylindricalzoneexample
S
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Positionaltoleranceonanedgeataspecificangle
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Bidirectionalpositionaltoleranceofholes
Cylindricaltolerancezoneonapatternofholes
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Positionaltoleranceonasurfaceataspecificangle
DrawingexamplerelativetothreeDatums
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PositionofsurfacerelativetoDatumsAandB
RFSCalculation
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Actualcentrepositionrelativetothenominalcentreposition
Actualpositioncalculationexpressedasadiameteroutput
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MaximumMaterialConditionprinciple
MaximumMaterialCondition(MMC)Aproductfeaturehasthemostamountof
materialwithintheallowedtolerancezone
Internalfeatureisthesmallestsizeallowablewithintheallowedtolerance
zone
Externalfeaturethelargestsizeallowablewithintheallowedtolerancezone
.
TheMMCsymbol canbepositionedwithinthetoleranceframeeithernext
tothetoleranceoranydatumsymbol
MaximumMaterialCondition(MMC)isabasisusedfortheassemblyofdifferent
productsforexampleapinfittingintoaholeoramanifoldfittingontostuds.
MMCprovidesthecombinationofthesmallestholeandthelargestpin,soasto
fittogetherasanassembly.
OncethishasbeenestablisheditisknownastheVirtualConditiontheworst
conditionforthepinandholetoassemble.
Atvirtualconditionthetwofeatureswouldjustfitandchangefromthiscould
resultinaneasierfitbetweenthetwofeatures.
VirtualConditionisaboundarythatisgeneratedbytheeffectsofcombining
theMMCandtheGeometricTolerance.
Internal:MMCConditionvalueminusthegeometrictolerance
External:MMCconditionvalueplusthegeometrictolerance
NoteThisisdependentonthefeaturesremainingwithintolerance
ofsize.
NoteMMCcanbeappliedtoothersymbolssuchasthefollowingStraightness
CircularityAngularity,Symmetry,Parallelism,Perpendicularity,Concentricity/Co
axialityandPosition
M
M
M
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LeastMaterialConditionprinciple
LeastMaterialCondition(MMC)Aproductfeaturehastheleastamountof
materialwithintheallowedtolerancezone
Internalfeatureisthelargestsizeallowablewithintheallowedtolerancezone
Externalfeaturethesmallestsizeallowablewithintheallowedtolerancezone
.
TheLMCsymbol canbepositionedwithinthetoleranceframeeithernext
tothetoleranceoranydatumsymbol
L
L
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MaximumMaterialConditioncalculationonanactualfeature
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MaximumMaterialConditioncalculationonadatumFeature
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MaximumMaterialConditioncalculationonboththeactualanddatum
Features
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ProjectedToleranceZone wherethepositionaltoleranceisprojected
outfromthefeaturebyaspecifiedamount(40and60inthisexample)
P
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ConcentricityorCoaxiality
ConcentricityorCoaxialityisdefinedbythesamesymbol.Allsectionalfeaturestaken
aredefinedasbeingcommontothedatumaxisfeature.Asasimpleexplanationof
thedifferenceconsiderthegeometricelementscircleandcylinder,thesecanbe
definedastwodimensionalandthreedimensionalfeatures.BothConcentricityand
Coaxialitycanbethoughtofinthesameterms.
Concentricity
Coaxialityofanaxistoamultipledatumaxis
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CoaxialityofaxisD2toaxisD1(cylindricalzonearoundaxis)
ConcentricityofoutsidediametercentretodatumAcentre
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Deviationascalculatedfromandaxistoaxis
Measurementofconcentricityonaroundnessmeasuringmachine
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Measurementofcoaxialityonaroundnessmeasuringmachine
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Symmetry
Symmetryalsoknownthemiddleofforequal/equalaboutthecentre.Intheexample
thetoleranceisappliedtothemedianplanecreatedbythetwoinsidesurfacesofthe
slottodatumAcreatedfromthemedianplaneofthetwooutsidesurfaces
Tolerancezoneinonedirectionappliedtothecentre(medianplane)
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ThetoleranceappliedtothecrossholecentrelineistothecentreofdatumaxisA
Holeisoncentretomultipledatumaxesintwodirectionswithdifferent
tolerances
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Holeisoncentretomedianplanecreatedfromtwosurfacesandslotison
centretodatumaxisA
Measurementofslotoncentreusing
Dialindicator,stand,veeblocks,surface
plateandgaugeblockinsertedintothe
slot
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Orientation
Tolerances
INTHISCHAPTER
6
6
Parallelism
Perpendicularity
Angularity
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Parallelism
Parallelismcanbedefinedinmanywaysasshownbelow,whetherapplied
toanaxisorasurface
Tolerancezonedefinedbytwoparallelplanesorlinesrelativetodefined
datumfaceA
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Tolerancezonedefinedbyacylindricaltolerancezoneelativetothedatum
axisasdefinedbydatumdiameterA
CombiningFlatnessandParallelism
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Effectsofflatnesswhendealingwithparallelism
ParallelismofasurfaceoncentrelinetoamultipledatumdefinedbyAand
B(singledirection)
ParallelismofadiametertoanaxisdefinedbyA(twotolerancesineach
direction)
Datum
Datum
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ParallelismofadiametertoanaxisdefinedbyA(cylindricaltolerancezone)
ParallelismofanedgetoasurfacedefinedbyA(singledirection)
ParallelismofasurfacetoadiameterdefinedbyA(singletoleranceacross
surface)
Datum
Datum
Datum
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ParallelismofasurfacetoasurfacedefinedbyA(singletoleranceacross
surface)
ParallelismofanedgetoasurfacedefinedbyA(singletoleranceacross
surfaceandparallelismofandaxistoanaxisoftwopins(cylindricalzone)
Datum
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Measurementoftheparallelismofadiameterusingadialindicator,standand
surfaceplate
Measurementoftheparallelismofasurfaceusingadialindicator,standand
surfaceplatesupportedoftheaxisofdatumA
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Perpendicularity
Perpendicularitycanbedefinedinmanywaysasshownbelow,whether
appliedtoanaxisorasurface
Perpendicularitytoleranceappliedtoasurfaceoredgewherethefeatureis
tobeat90degreestodatumfaceA
Perpendicularitytoleranceappliedtotheaxisdefinedbybothsidesora
diameter
0.200 A
A
A
0.200 A
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Perpendicularityofanaxistoasurfacewiththetoleranceintwodirections
Perpendicularityofanaxistoasurfacewiththetoleranceinonedirectionsand
surfacetoasurface
Datumaxis
Datumsurface
Datumaxis
Datumsurface
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Perpendicularitytoleranceappliedtoanaxistoasurfacewithdifferent
tolerancesintwodirections.
Perpendicularityofanaxistoasurface(cylindricaltolerancezone)
Datumsurface
Datumsurface
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Drawingexampleofdeviation
PerpendicularityMeasurementoftheactualsurfacewithaprecisionor
cylindricalsquare
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PerpendicularityMeasurementoftheactualaxistothedatumsurfaceusinga
dialindicator,standandsurfacetable
AnalternativemethodofmeasuringPerpendicularityisbymeansofalaseror
autocollimator.CalibrationofCMMsisoftendonebythelasermethod
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Angularity
Angularityisamethodofcheckingthedeviationofasurfaceoranaxisata
specifiedangle
Angularityspecifiedasasurfacetoasurfaceorasurfacetoanaxis
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Measurementofangularityusingadialindicator,stand,surfaceplateand
ananglegauge.AnalternativemeasurementmethodistouseaSineBar
Angularityofacentrelinetoanaxis
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Angularityofasurfacetoanaxis
Angularityofasurfacetoasurface
Measurementofangularityusingaprotractororclinometer
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Profile
INTHISCHAPTER
7
7
Profileofaline
Profileofasurface
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Profile
Profiletolerancesfallintotwomaincategories
ProfileofaLine
Profileofasurface
Thesetolerancesarenormallyappliedtoirregularornormaledges,surfacesor,
arcs.Thetolerancecanbeappliedeithersideofthenominalprofile(Bilateral)or
tooneside(unilateral)only.Theuniformboundarycanbeappliedrelativetothe
profileonlyoralternativelycanbeappliedrelativetothedatumreferencesystem
aswellastheprofile.
Toleranceofformonly
Toleranceofformandlocation
BilateralTolerance
Nominalprofile
TotalTolerance
Nominalprofile
TotalTolerance
UniLateral(InternalorExternal)
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Profileofalinetoleranceontheformonlyasindicated
Profileofasurfacetoleranceontheformofthesphericalradius
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RunoutTolerances
INTHISCHAPTER
8
8
Runout
CircularRunout
TotalRunout
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Runout
Runoutisappliedtocontrolanycircularfeaturesurfacesrotatedthrough360
degrees.Thiscouldapplytoadiameterorasurfaceatanypositionacrossthat
surfaceofrevolution
Circularrunoutisappliedthesurfacearoundthedatumaxis,includedwithinthe
toleranceareanyeffectsofconcentricityandcircularity.Axialrunoutisappliedto
thesurfaceadjacenttotheaxisaroundthedatumaxis,includedwithinthe
tolerancearetheeffectsofflatnessandPerpendicularityatthepositionwherethe
resultsareobtained
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CircularRunoutexample
AxialRunoutexample
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RunouttoleranceappliedtobothdatumAandBunabletogeneratean
axisfromdatumB
RunoutofsurfacerotatedaroundtheaxisthroughdatumdiameterA
Runoutoftaperedsurfacerotatedaroundtheaxisthroughdatumdiameter
A
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Runoutofcurvedsurfacerotatedaroundtheaxisthroughmultipledatum
diametersAandB
Runoutofoutsidediameterrotatedaroundtheaxisthroughmultipledatum
diametersAandB
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RunoutofthesurfacerotatedaroundthecommonaxisdatumdiametersA,
wheredatumAisdefinedbylocatingthecomponentpartbetweencentres
MeasuringRunoutusingcentresorveeblockanddialindicators
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MeasuringRunoutofatapereddiameterausingcentresorveeblockanddial
indicators
Runoutofadiametertoamultipledatumdefinedthroughtheaxisofdatum
diametersAandBwhereAandBareatasetdistanceasdefinedbythe
boxeddimension
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TotalRunout
TotalRunoutcontrolsthesurfacesaroundtheaxisof360degreesrevolution.The
differencefromrunoutisthatthistoleranceisappliedacrossthecompletesurface
asonetolerance.Asacompositetolerancetotalrunoutincludestheeffectsof
circularity,Cylindricity,concentricityCoaxialityPerpendicularity,Parallelism,and
Flatness
TotalrunoutappliedtoaPlanesurfacearoundanaxisofrevolution
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Totalrunoutappliedtoacylinderaroundanaxisofrevolution
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TotalcircularRunoutofoutsidediameteralongitslengthtotheaxiscreated
throughmultipledatumdiametersAandB
TotalRunoutacrossthesurfacetotheaxiscreatedthroughdatumdiameter
D
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Appendix
INTHISCHAPTER
9
9
FurtherMMCoptions
BasicSymbols
References
HexagonContacts
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MMCappliedtoStraightness
MMCappliedtoPerpendicularity
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MaximumMaterialCondition(MMC)andLeastMaterialCondition(LMC)
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MaximumMaterialCondition(MMC)appliedtotwodiametersfloating
Ifthetwodiametersareattheirmaximumsizethenthecentrepositioncan
varyasshownapplyinga0.1tolerancearoundeachdiameter
87 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
Ifthetwodiametersareattheirminimumsizethenthecentrepositioncanvary
asshownapplyinga0.1tolerancearoundeachdiameterplusthe0.2tolerance
ofsize(0.1/sideoneachdiameter)
88 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
BasicSymbols
BasicDimension
DatumReference
FeatureControlFrame
Form Symbol
Circularity
Straightness
Flatness
Cylindricity
Location
TruePosition
MaximumMaterialCondition
LeastMaterialCondition
Projectedtolerance
Orientation
Parallelism
Perpendicularity
Angularity
Concentricity/Coaxiality
Symmetry
ProfileandRunout
Profileofaline
Profileofasurface
Runout
TotalRunout
38 156
6.2
A
L
M
P
References
Moredetailedinformationis
availablefromvariousstandards
throughouttheworld.
Asanexample
ASMEY14.5
BS8888:2004Technical
ProductSpecifications(TPS)
ExamplesofISOstandardsused
ISO:1101
ISO2692
89 HexagonMetrologyGD&T Issue1May2006
HexagonDetails