Microwave Engineering
ChengHsing Hsu
Department of Electrical Engineering
National United University
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
TEXTBOOK ANDREFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Microwave Engineering, by David M. Pozar, 3rd Edition (Textbook)
2. Foundations for Microwave Engineering, by R. E. Collin, 2ed Edition (Ref)
3. Microwave Engineering, by Peter A. Rizzi, (Out of Print) (Ref).
SCOPES:
Passive microwave circuits design and analysis using transmission line
theory and microwave network theory.
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Outline
1. Transmission Line Theory
2. Transmission Lines and Waveguides
General Solutions for TEM, TE, and TM waves ; Parallel Plate waveguide ; Rectangular Waveguide ; Coaxial
Line ; Stripline ; Microstrip
3. Microwave Network Analysis
Impedance and Equivalent Voltages and Currents ; Impedance and Admittance Matrices ; The Scattering
Matrix ; ABCD Matrix ; Signal Flow Graphs ; Discontinuties and Model Analysis
4. Impedance Matching and Tuning
Matching with Lumped Elements ; SingleStub Tuning ; DoubleStub Tuning ; The QuarterWave Transformer ;
The Theory of Small Reflections
5. Microwave Resonators
Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits ; Transmission Line Resonators ; Rectangular Waveguide Cavities
Dielectric Resonators
6. Power Dividers and Directional Couplers
Basic Properties of Dividers and Couplers ; The TJunction Power Divider ; The Wilkinson Power Divider ;
Coupled Line Directional Couplers ; 180
o
hybrid
7. Microwave Filters
Periodic Structure ; Filter Design by the Insertion Loss Method ; Filter Transformations ; Filter Implementation ;
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Introduction
*Definition
Microwave: designating or of that part of the electromagnetic spectrum between the
far infrared and some lower frequency limit: commonly regarded as extending from
300,000 to 300 megahertz. (from Websters dictionary)
f : 300MHz  300GHz : 100cm  0.1cm
electromagnetic spectrum
*Why use microwaves
(1) Antenna gain is proportional to the electric size of the antenna.
f , gain
miniature microwave system possible
(2) f available bandwidth
e.g., TV BW=6MHz
10% BW of VHF @60MHz for 1channel
1% BW of Uband @60GHz for 100 channels
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
(3) Line of sight propagation and not effected by cloud, fog,
frequency reuse in satellite and terrestrial communications
(4) Radar cross section (RCS) is proportional to the target electrical size.
frequency , RCS
radar application
(5) Molecular, atomic and nuclear resonances occur at microwave frequencies
astronomy, medical diagnostics and treatment, remote sensing and
industrial heating applications
*Biological effects and safety
nonionized radiation thermal effect
IEEE standard C95.11991
Excessive radiation may be dangerous to brain, eye, genital, ..
cataract, sterility, cancer,..
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
1. Transmission Line Theory
The LumpedElement Circuit Model for a Transmission Line
The Terminated Lossless Transmission Line
Smith Chart
QuarterWave Transformer
Generator and Load Mismatched
Lossy Transmission Lines
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The LumpedElement Circuit Model for A Transmission Line
A transmission line is a distributedparameter network, where voltages and
currents can vary in magnitude and phase over its length.
A transmission line is often schematically represented as a twowire line,
since transmission line => TEM wave propagation
: coaxial line, parallel line and stripline
LumpedElement Circuit Model:
R = series resistance per unit length (both conductors)
L = series inductor per unit length (both conductors)
G = shunt conductance per unit length
C = shunt capacitance per unit length
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
From Kirchhoffs voltage and Kirchhoffs current law
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
where ( )  
e
e
L j R
Z
e V e V
L j R
Z I
o
z
o
z
o
+
=
+
=
+
( )
( )
( ) z I
z V
z Z
f v
v
in
p
p
=
= =
= =

e
e
t

2
where phase constant
phase velocity
input impedance
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
c v air is medium dielectric if
LC
v obtained to v from
C
L
Z LC LC j j
zero are G and R let if
loss are G and R
C j G
L j R
Z C j G L j R drived previous From
pn pn pn
= = =
= = = = + =
+
+
= + + =
:
1
); 0 (
:
; ; ) )( (
0
0

e
e  o e  o
e
e
e e
For Lossless Line
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
The Terminated Lossless Transmission Line
A transmission line terminated in a load impedance Z
L
.
Assume that an incident wave of the form V
o
+
e
jz
is generated from a source at z < 0. we have
seen that the ratio of voltage to current for such a traveling wave is Z
o
, characteristic impedance.
When the line is terminated in an arbitrary load Z
L
= Z
o
, the ratio of voltage to current at the
load must be Z
L
; a reflected wave must be excited with the appropriate amplitude to satisfy this
condition.
Sum of incident and reflected waves
( )
( )
( )  
( )  
z j z j
o
o
z j z j
o
o L
o L
o
o
o
o L
o L
o
o
o o
o o
L
e e
Z
V
z I
line the on waves current and voltage total e e V z V
Z Z
Z Z
V
V
V
Z Z
Z Z
V
z at Z
V V
V V
I
V
Z
impedance load the by related are load the at current and voltage total The
 
 
I =
I + = ==>
+
= = I ==>
+
= ==>
=
+
= =
+
+
+
+
+
+
0
0
0
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
) tanh(
) tanh(
) ( ,
) tanh(
) tanh(
) cosh(
) sinh(
) tanh(
) sinh( ) cosh(
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
;
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ; ) ( ) ( :
0
1
1
) 0 (
) 0 (
: '
l Z Z
l Z Z
Z l Z then l z From
z Z Z
z Z Z
Z Z
x
x
x
x x
x
e
z
e Z Z
z
e Z Z
z
e Z Z
z
e Z Z
Z z Z
Z Z
Z Z
because
z
e
z
e
z
e
z
e
Z
z I
z V
z Z
z
e
z
e
Z
V
z I
z
e
z
e V z V z of arbitrary For
Z Z when
Z Z
Z Z
o
Z
I
V
Z law s ohmic From
L O
O L
O in
L O
O L
O in
O L O L
O L O L
O in
O L
O L
O
O
O
O in
O
O
O
O O
O O L
O L
O L
O
O
O L
+
+
= = ==>
=
=
+
+
+
=
+
= I
+
I
+
I +
= =
+
I
=
+
I +
=
= I ==> =
+
= I ==>
I
I +
= =
+
+


.

\

= =
= =>
+
+
= ==>
) ( tan ) ( tanh ) ( tanh ) ( tan
) ( tan
) (
l j l j l
j line on transmissi Lossless
l jZ Z
l jZ Z
Z l Z
L O
O L
O in
 



Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
{ } ( ) A j A A imaginary purely are terms two middle e e
Z
V
P where
z j z j
o
o
av
Im 2 , 1 Re
2
1
*
2
2 2 *
2
= ==> I I + I =
+
 
which shows that the average power flow is constant at any point on the line
total power delivered to load is constant = incident power reflected power
I = 0 maximum power is delivered to the load
I = 1 no power is delivered
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
When the load is mismatched, not all of the available power from the generator is delivered to the
load Loss is called return loss (RL) and is defined in dB
RL = 20log I dB
If the load is matched to the line I = 0 and the magnitude of the voltage on the line is V(z) =
V
o
+
 is a constant
If the load is mismatched the presence of a reflected wave leads to standing waves where the
magnitude of the voltage on the line is not constant
( )
( )
( )
1
1
1
1
) (
,
1 1
1 1
, 0
1 1 1
1
min
max
min max
2
0 0
min
2
max
2 2 2
2
+
= ==>
+
= = ==>
I
= =
= + =
= = => I = I
I + = + = + = ==>
+ = + =
+
+
+ + + +
+ + + +
VSWR
VSWR
V(z)
V(z)
:VSWR SWR or VSWR
increases V to V of ratio the increases As
e term phase the when ) ( V V(z)
; e term phase the when ) ( V V(z)
cofficient reflection the of phase the is and
z at load the from measured d positive the is z e where
e V e V e V V(z)
) e ( e V ) e (e V V(z)
j
j
o
j
j
o
z j
o
z j
o
z j z j
o
z j z j
o
 u
 u
u
 u 
u
**Standing Wave Ratio (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
A measure of mismatch of a line
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
This is an important result giving the input impedance of a length of
transmission line with an arbitrary load impedance transmission line
impedance equation
( )
( )
 
  ) ( tan
) ( tan
1
1
) (
2
2
l jZ Z
l jZ Z
Z Z
e
e
Z
e e V
e e V
I
V
Z
L O
O L
O O
j
j
O
j j
O
j j
O
in




 
 
+
+
=
I
I +
=
I
I +
=
+
+
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Special Case of Lossless Terminated Lines
For a line is terminated in a short circuit > Z
L
= 0 > I = 1
(a) Voltage, (b) current, and (c) impedance (Rin = 0 or ) variation along a
shortcircuited transmission line.
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
For a line is terminated in a open circuit > Z
L
= > I = 1
(a) Voltage, (b) current, and (c) impedance (Rin = 0 or ) variation along an opencircuited transmission line.
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Fromconsider terminatedtransmissionlineswithsomespecial lengths
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Consider a transmission line of characteristic impedance Z
o
feeding a line of
different characteristic impedance Z
1
If the load line is infinitely long, or if it is terminated in its own characteristic
impedance, so that there are no reflections from its end, then the input impedance
seen by the feed line is Z
1
, then the reflection coefficient I is
( ) ( )
( )
dB T IL
loss insertion IL
Z Z
Z
Z Z
Z Z
T
T t coefficien n transmisio the gives z at voltage these Equating
z for Te V z V
line feed the on wave voltage incident the of amplitude the is V where
e e V z V
is z for voltage the
T t coefficien on transmissi A
Z Z
Z Z
z j
o
o
z j z j
o
log 10
) (
2
1 1
0
0
0
0 1
1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
=
+
=
+
+ = I + =
=
> =
I + =
< ==>
+
= I
+
+
+

 
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Often the ration of two power levels, P
1
and P
2
, in a microwave system is expressed in
decibels (dB) as
10 log(P
1
/P
2
) dB
Using power ratios in dB makes it easy to calculate power loss or gain through a series of
components. For ex. : A signal passing through a 6 dB attenuator followed by a 23 dB
amplifier will have an overall gain of 23 6 = 17 dB.
If P
1
= V
1
2
/ R
1
and P
2
= V
2
2
/ R
2
, then the resulting power ratio in terms of voltage ratios is
And if the load resistance are equal => 20 log(V
1
/V
2
) dB
On the other hand, the ratio of voltages across equal load resistances can also be
expressed in terms of nepers (Np)
ln(V
1
/V
2
) Np 1/2[ ln(P
1
/P
2
)] Np since voltage is proportional to the square root of power
10 Np = 10 log e
2
= 8.686 dB
If a reference power level is assumed, then absolute powers can also be expressed notation
If we let P
2
= 1mW, then the power P
1
can be expressed in dBm as
10 log (P
1
/1mW) dBm a power of 1mW is 0dBm, while a power of 1W is 30dBm
dB
R
R
V
V
R V
R V
log 20 log 10
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
=
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Smith Chart
Developed in 1939 by P. Smith at the Bell Tel. Lab. > impedance matching problem and
transmission line issue
It is essentially a polar plot of the voltage reflection coefficient, I
let the reflection coefficient be expressed in magnitude and phase (polar) form as I=Ie
ju
then the
magnitude I is plotted as a radius (Is1) from the center of the chart, and the angle u (180
o
s u s180
o
) is
measured from the righthand side of the horizontal diameter
The real utility of the smith chart, it can be used to convert
from reflection coefficients to normalized impedances (or
admittance)
When dealing with impedances on a Smith chart,
normalized quantities are generally used z = Z / Z
o
The normalization constant is usually the characteristic
impedance of the line
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
If a lossless line of characteristic impedance Z
o
is terminated with a load impedance Z
L
I =
(z
L
1)/(z
L
+1) = I e
ju
; where z
L
=Z
L
/Z
o
this relation can be solved for z
L
in terms of I to give z
L
=
(1+Ie
ju
) / (1Ie
ju
) where Z
in
= [(1+Ie
2j l
)/(1Ie
2j l
)]Z
o
, l = 0
This complex equation can be reduced to two real equations by writing I and z
L
in terms of their real and
imaginary parts.
Let I = I
r
+ jI
i
and z
L
= r
L
+ jx
L
r
L
+ jx
L
= [(1+I
r
)+jI
i
]/[(1I
r
)jI
i
]
The real and imaginary parts of this equation can be found by multiplying the numerator and
denominator by the complex conjugate of the denominator to give
r
L
= [1I
r
2
I
i
2
]/[(1I
r
)
2
+I
i
2
]
x
L
= [2I
i
]/[(1I
r
)
2
+I
i
2
]
{I
r
[r
L
/(1+r
L
)]}
2
+I
i
2
= [1/(1+r
L
)]
2
 resistance circles
(I
r
1)
2
+[I
i
(1/x
L
)]
2
= (1/x
L
)
2
 reactance circles
whichareseentorepresent twofamiliesof thecirclesinthe
r
and
i
For ex., the r
L
=1 circles has its center at
r
=0.5 ,
i
=0  has a radius of 0.5, and so passes
throughthecenter of theSmithchart
All of theresistancecircles havecenters on thehorizontal
i
=0 axis, and pass through the =1
point ontherighthandsideof thechart.
Thecenters of all thereactancecircles lieon thevertical
r
=1line(off thechart), andthesecircles
alsopassthroughthe =1point
Theresistanceandreactancecirclesareorthogonal.
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
) ( tan
) ( tan
1
1
2
2
l jZ Z
l jZ Z
Z Z
e
e
Z
L O
O L
O O
j
j
in




+
+
=
I
I +
=
Since terms of the generalized reflection coefficient as
where I is the reflection at the load, and l is the (positive) length of transmission line. If we have
plotted the reflection coefficient Ie
ju
at the load, the normalized input impedance seen looking into a
length l of transmission line terminated with z
L
can be found by rotating the point clockwise an amount 2 l
(u  2 l) the radius stays the same , since the magnitude of does not change with the position along the
line
The smith chart has scales around its periphery calibrated in the electrical wavelengths, toward
and away from the generator (the direction away from the load) these scales are relative, so
only the differenceinthewavelengthbetweentwopointson the Smith chart ismeaningful.
=> The scales cover a rangeof 0to 0.5wavelengths => a lineof length /2 requires a rotation
of 2l = 2t around the center of the chart, bring the point back to its original position=>
showing that the input impedanceof aloadseen through a /2 line is unchanged.
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Ex. A loadimpedanceof 40+j70 terminateda100 transmissionlinethat is0.3 long. Find
thereflectioncoefficient at theload, thereflectioncoefficient at theinput totheline, theinput
impedance, theSWR ontheline, andthereturnloss.
<Sol>
The normalized load impedance is z
L
= Z
L
/ Z
o
= 0.4 + j 0.7
using a compass and the voltage and the voltage coefficient scale below the chart, the
reflection coefficient magnitude at the load can be read as I = 0.59 > SWR = 3.87, and to the
return loss (RL) = 4.6dB Now draw a radial line through the load impedance point, the read
the angle of the reflection coefficient at the load from the outer scale of the chart as 104
o
On the other hand, drawing an SWR circle through the load impedance point.
Reading the reference position of the load on the
wavelengthstowardgenerator (WTG) scale gives a value of
0.106 moving down the line 0.3 toward the generator
bring to 0.406
Z
in
= Z
o
z
in
= 100 (0.365 j 0.611) = 36.5 j 61.1O
the reflection coefficient at the input still has a magnitude
of I = 0.59 ; phase = 248
o
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Combined impedanceAdmittance Smith Chart
The Smith chart can be used for normalized admittance in the same way that it is used for
normalized impedances it can be used to covert between impedance and admittance
) ( tan
) ( tan
l jZ Z
l jZ Z
Z Z
L O
O L
O in


+
+
= From
the input impedance of load z
L
connected to a /4 line is z
in
= 1/z
L
which has the effect of
converting a normalized impedance to a normalized admittance.
Since a complete revolution around the Smith chart
corresponds to a length of /2, a /4
transformation is equivalent to rotating the chart
by 180
o
; this is also equivalent to imaging a given
impedance (or admittance) point across the center
of the chart to obtain the corresponding
admittance (or impedance) point.
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Ex. Smith Chart Operations Using Admittances
A load of Z
L
= 100 + j 50O terminated a 50O line. What are the load admittance
and the input admittance if the line is 0.15 long ?
<Sol>
Normalized load impedance is z
L
= 2 + j 1 plotted the z
L
and SWR circle
Conversion to admittance can be accomplished with a /4 rotation of z
L
(or drawing a
straight line through z
L
and the center of the chart to intersect the SWR circle) ; The chart
can now be considered as an admittance chart, and the input impedance can be rotating
0.15 from y
L
.
Plotting zL on the impedances scales and reading the admittance scales at this same give
y
L
= 0.4 j 0.2 => the actual load admittance is then
Y
L
= y
L
Y
o
=y
L
/ Z
o
= 0.008 j 0.004 S
Then , on the WTG scale, the load admittance is seen to have a reference position of 0.214
. Moving 0.15 0.364
A radial line at this point on the WTG scale intersects the SWR circle at an admittance
of y=0.61+j 0.66
actual input admittanceisthenY =0.0122+j 0.0132S
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Slotted Line
A slotted line is a transmission line configuration (usually waveguide or coax) that allows the
sampling of the electrical field amplitude of a standing wave on a terminated line. with this
device the SWR and the distance of the first voltage minimum from the load can be measured,
and from this data the load impedance can be determined due to the load impedance is in
general a complex number (with two degrees of freedom), two distinct quantities must be
measured with the slotted line to uniquely determine this impedance
Measured impedance
Slotted Line (previous) Vector Network Analyzer (now)
Assume that, for a certain terminated line, we have measured the SWR on the line
and l
min
, the distance from the load to the first voltage minimum on the line. The
load impedance Z
L
can be determined as follows.
I = (SWR1)/(SWR+1) ; a voltage minimum occurs when e
j(u  2 l)
= 1, when u is
the phase angle of the reflection coefficient, I = I e
ju
=> u = t + 2 l
min
where l
min
is the distance from the load to the first voltage
minimum
Since the voltage minimums repeat every /2, where is the wavelength on the line,
and multiple of /2 can be added to l
min
without changing the result in u = t + 2
l
min
, because this just amounts to adding 2n/2 = 2t n to u, which not change I
the complex reflection coefficient I at the load can be find by SWR and l
min
To find the load impedance form I with l = 0 : Z
L
= Z
o
[(1+I)/(1I)]
An Xband waveguide slotted line.
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
The QuarterWave Transformer
The quarterwave transformer is a useful and practical circuit for impedance matching and also
provides a simple transmission line circuit that further illustrates the properties of standing waves
on a mismatched line.
For Impedance Viewpoint


tan
tan
1
1
1
L
L
in
jR Z
jZ R
Z Z
+
+
=
These two components are connected with a lossless piece of transmission line of characteristic
impedance Z
1
and length /4 It is desired to match the load to the Z
o
line, by using the /4 piece
of line, and so make I = 0 looking into the /4 matching section.
=> to evaluate this for l = (2t) (/4) = t/2
we can divide the numerator and denominator by tan l and take the limit as l t/2 to get
Z
in
= Z
1
2
/ R
L
In order for I = 0, we must have Z
in
= Z
o
, which yields the characteristic impedance Z
1
as
the geometric mean of the load and source impedances
When the length of the matching section is / 4 ,
or an odd multiple (2n+1) of / 4 long,
so that a perfect match may be achieved at one frequency,
but mismatch will occur at other frequencies.
L o
R Z Z =
1
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Ex. Consider a load resistance R
L
= 100O, to be matched to a 50O line with a quarter
wave transformer. Find the characteristic impedance of the matching section and plot the
magnitude of the reflection coefficient versus normalized frequency, f/f
o
, where f
o
is the
frequency at which the line is /4 long.
<Sol>
For higher frequencies the line looks electrically longer,
and for lower frequencies it looks shorter.
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is plotted versus f / f
o
( )( )
o o
p
p
o
o
in
o in
o in
f
f
f
v
v
f
as f f of terms in written be can which term the from comes in dependence frequency The
frequency of function a is Z impedance input the where
Z Z
Z Z
as given is magnitude t coefficien reflection The
z
2 4
2
4
2
/ ,
71 . 70 100 50
1
t t
t


=


.

\



.

\

= 
.

\


.

\

=
+
= I
O = =
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
The Multiple Reflection Viewpoint
I = overall, or total, reflection coefficient of a wave incident on the /4 transformer
I
1
= partial reflection coefficient of a wave incident on a load Z
1
, from the Z
o
line
I
2
= partial reflection coefficient of a wave incident on a load Z
o
, from the Z
1
line
I
3
= partial reflection coefficient of a wave incident on a load R
L
, from the Z
1
line
T
1
= partial transmission coefficient of a wave from the Z
0
line into the Z
1
line
T
2
= partial transmission coefficient of a wave from the Z
1
line into the Z
0
line
I
1
= (Z
1
Z
o
) / (Z
1
+Z
o
)
I
2
= (ZoZ
1
) / (Z
o
+Z
1
) =  I
1
I
3
= (R
L
Z
1
) / (R
L
+Z
1
)
T
1
= 2Z
1
/ (Z
1
+Z
o
)
T
2
= 2Z
o
/ (Z
1
+Z
o
)
Clearly, this process continues with an infinite number of bouncing waves,
And the total reflection coefficient is the sum of all of these partial
reflections. Since each round trip path up and down the /4 transformer
Section results in a 180
o
phase shift, the total reflection coefficient
can be expressed as
( )
=
I I I I =
+ I I I I + I I = I
0
3 2 3 2 1 1
3
3
2
2 2 1
2
3 2 2 1 3 2 1 1
......
n
n
T T
T T T T T T
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
matched is line the and zero, is Then
Z choose we if vanish seen to is which
2
4
give to simplified be can expression this of number The
1 1
give to
1
1
1
t result tha series geometric the using be can series infinte the , 1 1
1
1 1
2
1
1 1
1 1 1 1
3 1 2
1
1
2
1
2
1
3 1 2 1
2
1 3 1
3 2
3 2 1 3 2 1 1
3 2
3 2 1
1
0
2 3
I
=
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
I I =
(
+
+
+
I I = + I I I
I I +
I I I I + I
=
I I +
I
I = I
<
=
< I < I
=
L o
L o
L o
L o
o L L o
o
o
o
o
n
n
R Z
Z R Z Z
R Z Z
Z R Z Z
Z Z Z R Z R Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
T T
T T T T
x for
x
x
and when
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Generator and Load Mismatches
In general, both generator and load may present mismatchedimpedancestothetransmissionline. We
will study this case, and also see that the condition for themaximumpower transfer fromthegenerator
totheload, in some situations, require a standing wave on line.
Figure shows a transmission line circuit with arbitrary generator and load impedance, Z
g
and Z
l
, which may be
complex. transmission line is assumed lossless with a length l and characteristic impedance Z
o
=> Due to
mismatched multiple reflections can occur on the line problem of the quarterwave transformer
The input impedance looking into the terminated transmission line fromthe generator end is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
I
I +
= =>
I
I I +
= =>
I + +
= =>
I + =
+
= =>
=
I + =
+
= I I
+
+
=
I
I +
=
+
+
+
+
 1
1
SWR
generator the into looking seen t coefficien reflection the is re whe
1
1
 where , line the of end generator at the voltage the from find can we and
as written be can line on the voltage The
load the of t coefficien reflection the is where
tan
tan
1
1
g
2 o
2
2


 
 
 




j
g
j
g o
o
g
j j
g in
in
g o
j j
o
g in
in
g
o
z j z j
o
o
o
o
o
o j
j
o in
e
e
Z Z
Z
V V
e e Z Z
Z
V V
e e V
Z Z
Z
V V
z V
e e V z V
Z Z
Z Z
jZ Z
jZ Z
Z
e
e
Z Z
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
{ }
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
2
2
*
2
1
and let Now
1
Re
2
1 1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
is load the to delivered power The
g in g in
in
g
g g g in in in
in g in
in
g
in
in in in
X X R R
R
V P
jX R Z jX R Z
Z Z Z
Z
V
Z
V I V P
+ + +
= =>
+ = + =
)
`
+
=
)
`
= =
( )
2 2
2
4 2
1
g g
g
g
X R
R
V P
+
=
Load Matched to Line
=> Z
l
= Z
o
I
= 0 and SWR = 1 => the input impedance is Z
in
= Z
o
=> the power delivered to the load is
Generator Matched to Loaded Line
The load impedance Z
and/or the transmission line parameters , Z
o
are chosen to make the
input impedance Z
in
= Z
g
, so that the generator is matched to the load presented by the terminated
transmission line => the overall reflection coefficient, I, is zero => I =(Z
in
Z
g
) / (Z
in
+Z
g
) = 0
However, a standing wave on the line since I
may not be zero
The power delivered to the load is
( )
2 2
2
2
1
g g o
o
g
X R Z
Z
V P
+ +
=
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Conjugate Matching
Assuming that the generator series impedance, Z
g
, is fixed, we may vary the input impedance Z
in
until we achieve
the maximum power delivered to the load.
=> Knowing Z
in
easy to find Z
via an impedance transformation along the line
To maximum P, we differentiate with respect to the real and imaginary parts of Z
in
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )  
( )
( )
( ) ( )  
( )
g
g
g in
g in g in
in in
g in in
g in g in
g in in
in
g in in g
g in g in
g in in
g in g in in
R
V P
Z Z or
X X R R
gives X and R for usly simulateno solving
X X X or
X X R R
X X R
X
P
X X R R or
X X R R
R R R
X X R R R
P
4
1
2
1
is delivered power The
impedance generator fixed a for load, the sfer to power tran maximum in results and matching, conjugate as known is condition This
,
,
0 ,
0
2
0
0 ,
0
2
1
0
2
*
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
=
=
= =
= +
=
+ + +
+
=
c
c
= + +
=
+ + +
+
+
+ + +
=
c
c
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
Lossy Transmission Lines
In practice, all transmission lines have loss due to finite conductivity and/or lossy dielectric. we
will study the effect of loss on transmission line behavior and show how the attenuation constant can
be calculated.
( )( ) ( )( )
C
L
C j G
L j R
Z
LC
GZ
Z
R
C
L
G
L
C
R
C
G
L
R j
LC j
G// R//
C
G
L
R
j LC j
LC RG
LC
RG
C
G
L
R
j LC j
C j
G
L j
R
C j L j C j G L j R
C G L R line loss low For
o
o
o
~
+
+
=
~


.

\

+ =


.

\

+ ~
(

.

\

+ ~
+

.

\

+ =
<<

.

\

+ =


.

\

+


.

\

+ = + + =
<< <<
e
e
e 
o
e e
e
e e
e
e
e e e
e
e e
e e e e
e e
2
1
2
1
that so ,
2
1
expression series Taylor using and ) ( the ignore to were we If
1
with
1
1 1
constant n propagatio complex he for experssion general The
2
2
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
where P
o
is the power at the z=0 plane
Electronic Materials and Devices Applications Lab
The Terminated Lossy Line
( )  
( )  
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { }   ( )  
( ) ( ) { } ( )
( ) ( )  
increases as increase both terms that : note
wave reflected the of loss power for the accounts term second the while
ave, incident w the of loss power for the accounts first term The
1 1
2
line in the lost power the to s correspond powers in thee difference The
1
2
0 0 Re
2
1
is load the to delivered actually power The
1
2 2
Re
2
1
as  z at line d terminate the of input the to delivered power the
tanh
tanh
load the from distance a at Z impedance input The
load the from distance a at t coefficien reflection the
0 z at reference amplitude oltage incident v the is
and load the of t coefficien reflection the is ere wh
2
2
2
2
2
2
*
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
in
2 2 2
o
o
o o
o o o
o 
I + = =
I = =
I = I = =
=
+
+
=
=
I = I = I
=
I I =
I + =
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
e e
Z
V
P P P
Z
V
I V P
e
Z
V
e e
Z
V
I V P
Z Z
Z Z
Z
I
V
Z
e e e
V
e e
Z
V
z I
e e V z V
o
o
L in loss
o
o
L
o
o
o
o
in
L o
o L
o in
j
z z
o
o
z z
o