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Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

Computers and Information in Engineering Conference


IDETC/CIE 2011
August 29-31, 2011, Washington, DC, USA
DETC 47305
GEOMETRIC CALCULATIONS OF THE CHAMFERED TIP AND THE
PROTUBERANCE UNDERCUT OF A TOOTH PROFILE


Milos Nemcek
VSB-Technical University of Ostrava
Ostrava Poruba 708 33
Czech Republic
milos.nemcek@vsb.cz
Zdenek Dejl
VSB-Technical University of Ostrava
Ostrava Poruba 708 33
Czech Republic
zdenek.dejl@vsb.cz




ABSTRACT
P0
h
a
P
0
a
P
0
s =p/2
P0




Fig.1 BASIC TOOL












Fig.2 TOOL WITH THE
RAMP











Fig.3 TOOL WITH THE
PROTUBERANCE

Nowadays special modified tools are mostly used for
rough or semi-finishing milling in the mass production of
ground or shaved gears today. These modifications ensure the
desired chamfer at the head or the undercut at the bottom of the
gear tooth. Diameters of the beginning and the end of the
operational involute (exact knowledge of them is necessary for
the calculation of important meshing parameters) are found by
using several techniques. The first one is the simulation of the
generating action of a hob tooth using suitable graphic software
with the subsequent measuring of these diameters from the
envelope of hob tooth positions which was created. The second
one is measuring directly on the gear manufactured using a
measuring device. These simulations or measuring are often not
performed and the tool with recommended parameters of the
protuberance or the ramp is simply chosen by an educated
guess [1]. But it is not an acceptable technique in a mass
production (car industry). Standard DIN 3960 [2] gives a
certain manual for the determination of these diameters. It
suggests the iterative method for the calculation of the chamfer
beginning circle diameter but without a reliable guideline. And
as regards the protuberance, it refers to the correct calculation
only in theory. This paper deals with the computing method to
determine diameters of the beginning and the end of the
function part of a tooth flank involute. It is designed for a
specified tool with modifications for creating the chamfer or
the protuberance undercut. The paper also takes into account
the necessary shaving (grinding) stock or the backlash.
Furthermore it refers to possible problems when the basic
profile of the generating tool with the protuberance is designed
from the basic rack tooth profile.
P0
h
a
P
0
a
P
0
s =p/2
P0
h
F
f

P
0
K
P
0
P0
h
F
a
P
0
s =p/2
P0
a
P
0
p
rP
0
h
a
P
0
p
r
P
0



1 Copyright 2011 by ASME
1) THE TOOL
Three designs of the tool can be seen in Fig. 13. The first
classical one is according to [3], the second one has the ramp
for chamfering and the third one has the protuberance. It is of
course possible to use the tool with the ramp and the
protuberance together.

2) CHAMFERING ON THE TIP OF TEETH
This arrangement is used for a reduction of shocks (noise)
during gears meshing. Next it is possible in this way to reduce
crest edges damage hazard and to lower internal stress after a
heat treatment. Last but not least it is used for removing of the
burr which is produced during manufacturing. The calculation
of the circle diameter d
Fa
(the start of the chamfer - Fig. 8) is
necessary for the next precise calculation of the transverse
contact ratio

. The knowledge of this diameter is also


necessary for checking the interference with the opposite root.
The very chamfer can prevent from this interference. It is
possible to imagine the tool with the arrangement for
chamfering (Fig. 2) like two tools (Fig. 4). Each of them has a
different pressure angle and they are shifted in relation to each
other by so called differential positive shifting coefficient x
K
.

Fig.4 FORMATION OF THE TOOL WITH THE RAMP

Fig.5 CALCULATION OF x
K

The calculation (Eqn. (14)) of this differential addendum
modification coefficient x
K
results from Fig. 5 :

0 0
tan Q
P FfP k
h = (1)

0
tan
Q
Q
KP
k

= (2)

Q
0
=
FfP n k
h m x (3)

=
0
0 *
0
tan
tan
1
KP
P
FfP k
h x

(4)

Both cutting edges (
P0
and
KP0
Fig. 4) are cutting a
different involute and each has a different basic circle. The
point of intersection of these involutes lies on the searched
circle diameter of the start of the chamfer. It is impossible to
figure it out analytically but the numeric calculation presented
here is not complicated. The numeric calculation exploiting a
comparison of teeth thicknesses of normal and chamfered teeth
is quite complicated. The method presented here of finding the
point of intersection of two involutes is much simpler and
quicker. Its advantage is that it rapidly converges (both
methods must solve numerically an inverse of the involute
function in each iteration step). On addition this method never
overshoots the studied solution which makes this method
easier. The principle derives from Fig. 7 and the calculation
algorithm is in Fig. 9. Three inputs are enough for this
calculation two diameters of basic circles and the angle of
relative shifting
K
(in a transverse section of a produced tooth)
of both involutes starts (Fig. 6). The determination of this angle
is a standard task of an involute geometry [4].
h
F
f

P
0
P
0
K
P
0
+ =
x m
n K h
a
P
0




0
d
Fa
d
b
d
bK
K
inv
(K)
inv


s =p/2
P0
K
P
0
K
P
0
P0
P0
x



m
h
F
f

P
0
n
K
Q
Q
K

















Fig.6 SHIFTING ANGLE OF OPERATING (inv) AND CHAMFERING
(inv
(K)
) INVOLUTES




2 Copyright 2011 by ASME

1 i
y
i
y
d d

Fig.7 CALCULATION PRINCIPLE OF FINDING INVOLUTES
INTERSECTION















Fig.8 TOOTH THICKNESSES OF THE CHAMFERED TOOTH

The basic algorithm using the principle from Fig. 7 could
look like one in Fig. 9.
The output is the diameter d
Fa
= d
y
i
determined.
Calculation of the tooth thickness s
taK
at the start of chamfering
(the diameter d
Fa
) and of the thickness s
tK
(the tip diameter d
a
)
is a routine task. When the tip thickness s
tK
is calculated, only
the pressure angle, addendum modification coefficient and the
diameter of the basic circle are changed.


0
d
Fa
d
y
tK
1
t
2
t
1
tK
1
i
n
v
t
2
in
v
t
1
=inv
K
1
2
3
d
b
d
bK
2
d
y
1

Input

1 ; ;
; ;
1 0
= = = i inv d d
d d
K t bK y
bK b















( )
i
t
b i
y
i
t
i
t
d
d
inv arc


cos
=
=













Yes




No




1
inv inv inv
arccos
1
+ =
+ =
=
+
i i
d
d
i
tK
i
t
i
tK
i
y
bK i
tK




s
tK
s
taK
d
Fa
d
a

















d
Fa
= d
y
i


End






Fig.9 ALGORITHM FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE INTERSECTION
OF INVOLUTES




3 Copyright 2011 by ASME
3) PROTUBERANCE UNDERCUT OF TEETH
P
0
h
F
a
P
0
s =p/2
P0
p
rP
0
Q
,
Q
,,
p
rP
0
prP0
P0
x




m
n
p
r
h
a
p
r
P
0
Material is only removed from operating flanks during
surface finishing (grinding, shaving, honing). Sometimes it is
undesirable to grind the root fillet with a favourable
compressive surface tension (after carburizing or
nitrocarburizing). The tool must have a clearance to run out
into the root space. It is automatically ensured when the teeth
are undercut. For a larger number of teeth this technological
undercut is artificially generated by a tool with protuberance
(Fig. 3). This deliberate undercut then logically changes the
meshing conditions. The circle diameter of the start of the
involute d
Ff
affects the size of the transverse contact ratio

. At
the same time the protuberance undercut significantly restrains
(and eventually fully eliminates) danger of the interference.
The tool with the protuberance can also be compiled from two
parts too. Analogous to the tool with the ramp at the tool with
the protuberance has each part a different pressure angle. And
these parts are shifted in relation to each other by the
differential positive shifting coefficient x
pr
as well. For this
tool with the protuberance it is necessary to calculate the new
tool addendum h
aprP0
(for the protuberance part) - see Eqn. (5).
The formation of this tool is in Fig. 10.

n pr aP aprP
m x h h + =
0 0
(5)



Fig.10 FORMATION OF THE TOOL WITH THE PROTUBERANCE



The calculation (Eqn. (68)) of this differential addendum
modification coefficient x
pr
results from Fig. 11 :


Q Q tan
0 0
+ =
P FaP
h (6)


0 0 0 pr 0 0
tan tan x tan
prP FaP prP n P FaP
h m h + = (7)

= 1
tan
tan
0
0 *
0
prP
P
FaP pr
h x

(8)





Fig.11. HOW TO CALCULATE x
pr

The root fillet created by the tool with the protuberance
could have three forms. The situation of an application of this
tool on a naturally undercut gear is not under consideration :

- operating involute will be cut off by the non-
undercut involute created by the straight cutting
edge of the protuberance part of the tool (Fig. 13)

- operating involute will be cut off by the undercut
involute created by the straight cutting edge of the
protuberance part of the tool (Fig. 14a)

h
F
a
P
0
P
0
+ =
p
rP
0
h
a
p
r
P
0
x m
n pr h
a
P
0
- operating involute will be protuberantly undercut
by the rounded head of the tool (Fig. 14b).
a b

0
d
Ff
d
bpr
d
b
p
r
0
inv
(pr)
inv
(pr)
inv
inv
d
bpr
d
b
Fig.12 POSITIONS OF INVOLUTES OF THE TOOL WITH THE
PROTUBERANCE
4 Copyright 2011 by ASME
3.1) THE UNDERCUT BY THE FULL PROTUBERANCE
INVOLUTE
This sporadic situation is similar to the head chamfering.
The operating involute inv achieved by the cutting edge
P0

will be cut off by the involute inv
(pr)
created by the straight
cutting edge of protuberance part of the tool
prP0
(Fig. 13). The
only difference is the position (size) of the basic circles. The
gear basic circle d
b
is always smaller than the basic circle d
bpr

of the protuberance involute. The intersection of these
involutes can be seen in Fig. 12a. The calculation of the circle
diameter d
Ff
passing through this intersection is similar to the
one for chamfering. The fact whether or not these involutes
intersect determines if the protuberance involute comes into
existence. If they do not intersect this involute is not created
itself and only the protuberance undercut occurs. In order to
create the intersection, it is necessary for the thicknesses of the
teeth s
t(pr)
(of operating involute inv) and of the imaginary
teeth s
tbpr
(of protuberance involute inv
(pr)
) on the basic circle
d
bpr
to be s
t(pr)
> s
tbpr
(Fig. 12a).
For calculation of these thicknesses the following
equations apply. Angles must be carefully considered. The
angle
tpr
is the basic transverse pressure angle relevant to the
protuberance involute cut by the protuberance straight cutting
edge (
prP0
). While the angle
t(pr)
is the transverse pressure
angle of the operating involute on the diameter d
bpr
.
( )

+
+ =
tpr
prP pr
bpr tbpr
inv
z
x x
d s

2
tan 4
0
(9)


+ =
) (
0
) (
2
tan 4
pr t t
P
bpr pr t
inv inv
z
x
d s

(10)

bpr
b
pr t
d
d
arccos
) (
= (11)
The angle
pr
(Fig. 12a) serves as an input parameter for
the numerical calculation of the searched circle diameter d
Ff
. It
is possible to utilize the algorithm from Fig. 9 for chamfering.
But exchanging the basic circles is necessary.


Fig.13 TOOTH WITH THE FULL PROTUBERANCE INVOLUTE

3.2) THE PROTUBERANCE INVOLUTE IS UNDERCUT
This situation can rarely occur. It needs solving when on
the basic circle d
bpr
applies s
t(pr)
> s
tbpr
(see part 3.1), however
the protuberance involute is not a full one but it is undercut.
The circle diameter passing the point of undercut (point U in
Fig. 14a) to compare with the circle diameter d
Ff
(start of the
operating involute). If it is smaller one (Fig. 14a), the
procedure of finding the start of the operating involute (circle
d
Ff
) from the part 3.1 is used. If it is bigger (Fig. 14b) the whole
protuberance involute is removed and the next section 3.3 is
applied. The letter U in Fig. 14 marks the end undercut point
from the root diameter d
f
. This point U is the start of the
protuberance involute (undercut one) in Fig 14a. And in Fig.
14b this point U is the start of the operating involute and the
protuberance involute is entirely removed.
d
Ff
d
bpr
d
b
inv
inv
inv
(pr)
inv
(pr)
U
d
Ff
d
bpr
d
b
inv
inv
inv
(pr)
inv
(pr)
U
d
Ff
,
d
f
d
f
a b

Fig.14 TWO TYPES OF THE UNDERCUT


3.3) FULL PROTUBERANCE UNDERCUT
It always occurs when s
t(pr)
< s
tbpr
applies on the basic
circle d
bpr
(Fig 12b). Sometimes it occurs even if both involutes
intersect (part 3.2). There are several methods to find the
intersection between the curve of undercut root fillet and the
operating involute. A suitable one is for example the
comparison method of teeth thicknesses on the same diameter
near the intersection looked for (point U). In the point where
the thicknesses are equal (with selected accuracy) the right
intersection diameter
Ff
d passes through (Fig. 14b).
d
a
d
Ff
d
bpr
d
b
inv
inv
inv
(pr)
inv
(pr)
The calculation of these thicknesses is executed using
routine procedures [5]. The suitable numerical algorithm is
simple one as well.



5 Copyright 2011 by ASME
3.4) PROFILE ROUNDING RADIUS
The maximum value of the tooth crest rounding radius on
the tool with the protuberance
aP0max
is computed by Fig. 15.
This radius must be founded only for the separate protuberance
part of the tool (in the middle of Fig. 10). This part is defined
by the angle
prP0
and by the addendum h
aprP0
(Fig. 15). It is
possible to use a bigger radius for this part of the tool than for
the tool without a protuberance. This is because the angle of the
protuberance part
prP0
is always smaller than the pressure
angle of the basic rack
P
. The calculation of the maximal size
of the tooth crest rounding radius on the tool with the
protuberance is then according to Fig. 15 :

( ) ( )
0
*
0
0 0
*
0
*
0
cos
tan sin 1
4
prP max aP
prP prP max aP aprP
h

=
=
(12)


After some simplifications :

0
0 0
*
0
*
0
sin 1
cos tan
4
prP
prP prP aprP
max aP
h


= (13)


The theoretical maximum addendum of this imaginary
tool must not exceed the value :


0
*
0
tan 4
prP
max aprP
h

= (14)


Any other geometrical links among parameters of the tool
with the protuberance (
prP0
,
aP0
, pr
P0
, h
faP0
, h
aP0
) can be dealt
with analytically without any problems. But one possible
problem is important. It can appear when the size of the input
basic rack tooth profile root radius
fP
(used during the
geometric design - Fig. 16) is different from the tooth crest
rounding radius of the tool with the protuberance
aP0
used. The
size of the root radius
fP
is mostly restricted by the bigger
pressure angle
P
(than the protuberance tool angle
prP0
) and
the next restriction is the specified size of the bottom clearance
c
P
. In order to the maximum size of the root radius
fP
it is
necessary to work out two calculations. The smaller value from
these calculations is the maximum possible size of the root
radius
fP
(Eqn. (15) and (16)).

Equation 15 see Fig. 16a

( )
P
P P P aP
fPmax
c h

sin 1
cos tan
4
* *
*

+
= (15)

Fig.15 THEORETICAL PROTUBERANCE PART OF THE TOOL


Equation 16 see Fig. 16b

P
P
fPmax
c

sin 1
*
*

= (16)
aP0max
0,25 m
n
prP
0
h
a
p
r
P
0
h
a
p
r
P
0
m
a
x

P
c
h
f

P
m
a
x
h
v
a
P
f

P
m
a
x
P
c
h
a
P
P P
a b

Fig.16 BASIC RACK TOOTH PROFILE ROOT FILLET RADIUS


6 Copyright 2011 by ASME
When the same sizes of both radii are used (the basic rack
tooth profile root radius and the tooth crest rounding radius of
the tool with a protuberance), the form of undercut root fillet
does not change basically. The material is removed uniformly.
When different sizes of these radii are used there is a change
between the theoretical basic and the final forms of the root
fillet. All these forms can be seen in Fig. (17 20). In all of
these figures there is the same real tooth in the basic form
(without the protuberance undercut) and four different
imaginary teeth manufactured by the imaginary protuberance
tool (from the middle of Fig. 10). These imaginary teeth
illustrate shapes of the undercut on the same basic tooth but
with a different size of the tooth crest rounding radius
aP0
of
the tool with the protuberance. The output form of each
manufactured tooth is the internal contour (intersection of teeth
contours). The protuberance undercut of the standard tooth of a
gear (z = 20, x = 0,
*
f
= 0,38) can be seen in the next four
figures (17 20). This standard tooth always has a smaller tip
diameter and the basic circle d
b
. It is drawn together with the
protuberance tooth on the common axis. Both teeth have the
same reference circle d. This protuberance tooth would be
manufactured by an imaginary protuberance tool (from the
middle of Fig. 10). In each of these four figures this tool has
three basic identical parameters (by Fig. 3) :
05 . 0 75 . 0 25 . 1
*
0
*
0
*
0
= = =
P FaP aP
pr h h

A different size of the tooth crest rounding radius of the
tool with the protuberance was always chosen for the next
assessment. The rest of the related parameters for each chosen
radius was calculated (Table 1). The protuberance teeth have
of course different basic circles d
bpr
depending on angles
prP0
.
The resultant effect can also be seen in figures (17 20). Each
start and end of the root fillets (both standard and
protuberance tooth) are marked by the short stroke in these
figures. When the protuberance tool with the radius
aP0

smaller than the designed basic rack tooth profile root radius
fP

is used, dangerous thinning of the tooth root occurs, but the
operating involute lengthens a little (Fig. 19, 20). When a
bigger radius of tool crest (Fig. 18) is used (the tool with
protuberance makes it possible) the shape of the undercut root
fillet is more favourable but the operating involute slightly
shortens (Tab. 1).

Tab. 1 PARAMETERS OF PROTUBERANCE TOOLS






Fig.17 TOOL
*
aPO
= 0,38; BASIC PROFILE
*
fP
= 0,38





Fig.18 TOOL
*
aPO
= 0,42; BASIC PROFILE
*
fP
= 0,38










Tool
crest
radius
Angle of
protuberance
part
Differential
shifting
coefficient

Protuberance
tool addendum
(new one)

Length change of
operating involute
toward to Fig. 17

*
aP0

prP0
x
pr
h
*
aprP0



Fig..
[-] [] [-] [-] [-]
17 0.38 6.0530 1.8243 3.0743 0
18 0.42 1.8869 7.5360 8.7860 1 %
19 0.10 13.4903 0.3879 1.6379 + 2.2 %
20 0.00 14.4428 0.3099 1.5599 + 3.3 %
7 Copyright 2011 by ASME


Fig.19 TOOL
*
aPO
= 0,10; BASIC PROFILE
*
fP
= 0,38






Fig.20 TOOL
*
aPO
= 0,00; BASIC PROFILE
*
fP
= 0,38












4) BACKLASH AND FINISHING STOCK
It is necessary to take into account an effect of the
backlash and the finishing stock when doing calculations
concerning chamfering or the protuberance undercut. For
example the hob for rough milling is always thinner by the
finishing stock q
n
on both sides (Fig. 22). Both the backlash
and the finishing stock are often created by the additional
addendum modification coefficient x
E
(x
E(q)
). With regard to
various methods of creating a backlash (pinion teeth thinning
only, wheel teeth thinning only, both of them thinning, wheels
shifting, an extra addendum modification coefficient) it is
useful to show the equation solving the alternation s
t
of the
tooth thickness on the reference circle in a transverse section
when the additional addendum modification coefficient is
applied. The backlash j
n
and the finishing stock q
n
are entered
in a normal section (Fig. 21 and 22).

In a normal section :
n E n
n
n
n
x m
j
s

tan 2
cos
= = (17)

And in a transverse section :
b
n
t
s
s
cos

= (18)

s / 2
n
x




m
E
n
n
j


/

2
n

Fig.21 EFFECT OF THE BACKLASH j
n

When the backlash is created by teeth thinning it is
possible to proceed in the same way as when calculating the
finishing stock (Fig. 22). Attention must be paid to the signs.
For the alternation of the reference thickness for the
finishing stock then applies :

n
n
n
q
s
cos
2 = (19)
8 Copyright 2011 by ASME
b
n
t
s
s
cos

= (20)

Or by using the additional addendum modification coefficient :

n
n
q E n
q
x m
sin
) (
= (21)

n q E n n
x m s tan 2
) (
= (22)


Fig.22 EFFECT OF THE FINISHING STOCK q
n


CONCLUSION
Modern technologies of mass production plentifully
exploit such modifications of gears which simplify some
manufacturing operations and at the same time they improve, in
a specific way, the functional quality of the gears
manufactured. Adding chamfer to gear teeth and creating the
protuberance undercut belong to them. This paper deals with
some problems occurring when calculating meshing parameters
of gears modified in this way. At the same time it brings certain
recommendations when using both the technologies mentioned.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This paper was elaborated with the support of Project
1M0568 Josef Bozek Research Center of Engine and
Automotive Technology II (Czech Republic). Authors
gratefully acknowledge it.








REFERENCES

[1] Daryani, P., H.: The Art of Gear Fabrication. Industrial
Press, Inc. New York 2001. ISBN 0-8311-3142-X.
[2] DIN 3960 Begriffe und Bestimmungsgren fr Stirnrder
(Zylinderrder) und Stirnradpaare (Zylinderradpaare) mit
Evolventenverzahnung..
[3] DIN 3972 Bezugsprofile von Verzahnwerkzeugen.
[4] Litvin, F., L., Fuentes, A.: Gear Geometry and Applied
Theory. Second Edition. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY
PRESS. ISBN 0-521-81517-7.
[5] Nmek, M.: Vybran problmy geometrie elnch
ozubench kol. MONTANEX a.s. Ostrava, 2003 ISBN
80-7225-111-2.
s / 2
n
x







m
E
(
q

)
n
n
q
n
q
n































9 Copyright 2011 by ASME