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IMRocketMotorDesign

&AssessmentToolset phase1
IanCullis
Apresentationto:WeaponSystemsandTechnologyConference
Trials,Modelling&ValidationofWeaponSystems&Technologies
QinetiQ,BoscombeDown Q Q,
15thNovember2012
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1
Agenda
1. TheProblem
2. Programme Aim 2. ProgrammeAim
3. Strategy&Approach
4. Material
5. MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
6. SmallScaleTesting
7.EnergeticResponseModel
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1
TheProblem
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1 TheProblem
ThereisarequirementfortheUKtobothbeabletodesignandmanufactureIMrocketmotorsand
assessforeignrocketmotorsforinserviceuseunderawiderangeofconditions.Missilesystems
used in current operations theatre are vulnerable to bullet and fragment impact In many cases this usedincurrentoperationstheatrearevulnerabletobulletandfragmentimpact.Inmanycasesthis
isduetoshockinitiationofdetonationofdamagedpropellantspalledacrossthecentralboreofthe
rocketmotor(XDT).
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1 TheProblem
Theobjectiveofthisrequirementistodevelop,demonstrateandvalidateapredictivemodelling
capabilityforthehazardresponseofrocketmotors,withaparticularemphasisonXDT,aspartofan
improved time and cost effective IM certification process for rocket motors improvedtimeandcosteffectiveIMcertificationprocessforrocketmotors.
Possibleresponses:
SDT:ShocktoDetonationTransition.
Theshockgeneratedbythefragmentimpactisstrongenoughtogenerateapromptdetonation.
DDT:DeflagrationtoDetonationTransition.
Theshockgeneratedbythefragmentimpactinitiatesburningwhichtransitionsintoadetonation
aftertheshockhastravelledafinitedistanceintotheexplosive.
XDT:UnknownDetonationTransition.
Thefragmentimpactfracturestheenergeticmaterialandprojecteddebrisignitesandburns
violently/detonateswhenitstrikesasolidsurface.
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2
ProgrammeAim
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2 ProgrammeAim
AIMS
Theaimoftheprogrammeistoaddressthedevelopmentofanabilitytodesign,qualifyand
certifyarocketmotorthatisresistanttoXDTwithanoptimised,timelyandcosteffectivelimited
seriesofsmallscaletests,supportedwherenecessarybynumericalsimulationandmaterial
testing.
Theprogrammeelementsinclude:
UnderstandMaterials Applicationofexistingmaterialsciencebasedmethodstopredictthe
fracture,ignitionandburningbehaviourofhighlydamagedenergeticmaterials.
Test Modelcharacterisationagainstsmallscaleinstrumentedexperiments:
Developapredictivemodellingcapabilityvalidatedagainstlargescale,systemleveltests.
Integratewiththerelatedresearchprogrammestounderstandanddefineageingeffects,
andthewiderSmartCertificationprogramme;
UpdateandapplytheIMassessmentprotocol
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3
Strategy&Approach
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3 Strategy&Approach
Importance of damage
Conditions for ignition
Violence of the burn?
on burning behaviour
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4
Material
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4 Material
Propellant(ElastomerModifiedCastDoublebasepropellant EMCDB)containsnitrocellulose,
nitroglycerine and a nitramine (RDX) nitroglycerineandanitramine(RDX)
Inservicerocketmotorpropellant.
Extensivedataandexperienceofitsbehaviour.
Weneedtodevelopamaterialmodeltodescribeitsthermomechanicalpropertiesand
behaviour.
Also tested precursor propellants to provide a generalised understanding of the role of Alsotestedprecursorpropellantstoprovideageneralisedunderstandingoftheroleof
additivesandparticulatesonthermomechanicalpropertiesandbehaviour.
Providesthepotentialtopredictminsmokeandroleandlevelofnitraminesincontrollingthe
violence of any response. violenceofanyresponse.
Providesdoublebasepropellantdesignandassessmentcapability.
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4 Material
MaterialTestsperformedbyCambridgeandQinetiQ
Tests
DynamicMechanicalThermalAnalysis(DMTA)
Compression Tests CompressionTests
DamageTests
SmallScaleImpactTesting
FragmentationTesting
BurnRateMeasurements
h l i ThermalProperties
PlateImpact
Tensile Samples JANNAF TensileSamplesJANNAF
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4Material
IntegratedModellingExperimentmethodology.
Numericalsimulationcapabilitybasedonseveralintegratedsemiempiricalmodels:
Experimentmeasurespropertiestogivetheconstitutivemodelforthespecificpropellant;
Allowssimulationofintegratedexperimentsandpredictionofresponseoftherocketmotor;
Analyticmodelformechanicalresponsepredictsbehaviour;
Feedsintosemiempiricalcapabilityatvariousstagesincludingburning.
Validated by experiments on propellant Validatedbyexperimentsonpropellant.
Exploitation.
Givescapabilitytodetermineconstitutiveresponseofothersimilarcompositionswith
minimalfurtherexperimentalmeasurement.
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5
MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
Fully nitrated
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
Nitrocellulose(NC)
Structureandexistingdatareviewed.
BasicmodeldevelopedusingGroupInteractionModel(GIM).
Researchaddressedtheadditionaldatarequiredtodemonstratetheabilityofthemodelto
describethedeformationmechanismsandpropertiesandhowtheyarebasedonthe
Fully nitrated
constituentsandmicrostructure.
Developingamethodtodescribetheobservedstatisticalvariationinnitrationlevelandits
importanceformechanicalpropertiesandsubsequentprocessingrequirements.
Willprovideanabilitytoassessdifferentsources/batchesofnitrocelluloseandultimatelyreduce
thedemandsforrequalification.
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
NC
GIMparametersassociatedwithmicrostructuralcomponentsthat
canvaryduetoprocessingormoleculararchitecture.
Identified11checksagainstmeasuredbehaviour/propertiesto
confirmstructure(e.g.nitrationlevel)andvalidatethemodel.
Checksincludesolubility,losstangent,crosslinking,vibration
spectra,specificheat,thermomechanicalproperties.
Roxel will identify/agree most appropriate from a
Fully nitrated
Roxelwillidentify/agreemostappropriatefroma
manufacturingperspective.
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
Nitroglycerine(NG)
Structureandexistingdatareviewed. g
BasicmodelforsoliddevelopedusingGIM.
Potentialinteractionswhennitroglycerineisusedtogelatinize
nitrocelluloserequiresparametersforsolidnitroglycerine.
Requireslatentheatoffusionforprediction/validationofliquidproperties.
Allo s st d /prediction of properties of NG NC mi t res ith different le els of NG infiltration Allowsstudy/predictionofpropertiesofNG:NCmixtureswithdifferentlevelsofNGinfiltration.
AllowsinterpretationofpropellantresponsefollowingdifferentmanufacturingroutesasNGsees
differentenvironmentsinseparatepartsofthecomposite
DetectableinDMA
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
PredictionofRoxelPropellantADMTA
i b t d l d d t comparison between model and data
0.5
0.6
Thispredictionrequiredspecific
assumptionstobemadeasto
how the NC and NG were
0.2
0.3
0.4
t
a
n

model
data
howtheNCandNGwere
distributedwithinthepropellant
Subsequentlyconfirmedby
Roxel
0
0.1
0.2
150 200 250 300 350 400
Roxel
WouldvarywithNCtypeand
content
150 200 250 300 350 400
Temperature (K)
Wouldvarywithage
Givestheabilitytoassesspropellantcomponentsandgivequantitativeinformationatanearly
stage in the production process stageintheproductionprocess
Leadsdirectlytopredictionofpropellantproperties
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
Equationofstatepredictedfromcomposition
Understanding the microstructural Understandingthemicrostructural
compositionofthepropellantallows
predictionofthemechanicalproperties
althoughthepropellantbehaviouris
likelytobecomplex.
Itwillactasacompositematerialat
severallevels:byactionoftheparticles
intheRDXandbyactionoftheareas
withlessNG.Thiscomplexitycanbe
seenintheHugoniotdata,particularly
when compared to the predictions. whencomparedtothepredictions.
TheStressHugoniotpredictionisvery
good.
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
Equationofstatepredictedfromcomposition
Theshock particlevelocity
relationshipisnotpredictedverywell
ontwocounts:
itisadifferentshape
itdeviatessignificantlyathigh
particle speed particlespeed.
Thedataonshockspeedcurves
upwards abehaviournotnormally
seen in materials and this suggests seeninmaterials andthissuggests
thatthematerialchangessomehow
whenexposedtothemoresevere
conditions.Currentlythisisthoughtto
beduetothefreeNGinteractingwith
theunderlyingcompositionstructure.
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
Constitutivemodel
PorterGouldformat
Fractionoffillerparticlesnotequivalentto
previouscompositionsforwhichthishasbeen 4.E+07
5.E+07
successful.AssumedPropellantAwouldactas
ifitwereaparticulatecompositematerial.
Nitramineparticlesinthepropellantwould
2.E+07
3.E+07
T
r
u
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
P
a
)
model
stiffentheNC/NGbinder.
Inputmechanicalwork,woulddebond
throughanormaldamageprocess,reducing
0.E+00
1.E+07
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Tmodel
data 243K 1/s
themodulusofthepropellant.
Notthecaseundermostconditions.
Only one condition suggestive of this
True Strain
Onlyoneconditionsuggestiveofthis
behaviour.
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5 MaterialAlgorithmDevelopment
Constitutivemodel
Dataanalysisshowedgenerallytheshapeof
stressstraincurvesdifferenttothePorter
Gouldconstitutivemodel.
Behaviour typical of a rubbery polymer
3.E+06
Behaviourtypicalofarubberypolymer.
Volumefractionofparticlesinthecomposite
istoolowtodominatebehaviour.
B h i b t d ib d li
2.E+06
2.E+06
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
P
a
)
Behaviourbestdescribedaslinear
viscoelasticwithstrainstiffeningasis
normallyseeninrubbers.
Peak stress is reached when the pellets start
5.E+05
1.E+06
T
r
u
e

S
model
data 295K 0.01/s
Peakstressisreachedwhenthepelletsstart
todebondfromoneanother.
Differenttensileandcompressiontest
behaviour
0.E+00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
True Strain
Needsbetterimplementedpolymermodelin
numericalsimulations.
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6
SmallScaleTesting
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6 Small Scale Testing
Explosively
g
Fragmentation
High
speed
video
Explosively
launched
sphere
camera
Propellant
sample
Flash
array
Diffusing
screen
Box PMMA or
Polycarbonate Polycarbonate
Foam
Cotton cloth
Simona plastic sheet
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6 SmallScaleTesting
Fragmentation
Round 3 Velocity=~750m/s
Impact Crater
Particle Size Distribution by Volume
Fragment Size Distribution
y
10%
12%
14%
o
p
o
r
t
i
o
n
2%
4%
6%
8%
T
r
u
e

V
o
l
u
m
e

S
i
z
e

P
r
o
Debris Cloud
0%
2%
0 48
8
97
5
14
63
19
51
24
38
29
26
34
14
39
01
43
89
48
77
53
64
58
52
63
40
68
27
73
15
78
03
82
90
87
78
92
66
97
53
10
24
1
10
72
9
11
21
6
117
04
12
19
2
12
67
9
13
16
7
13
65
5
14
14
2
14
63
0
151
18
15
60
5
16
09
3
16
58
1
17
06
8
17
55
6
18
04
4
18
53
2
19
01
9
19
50
7
19
99
5
20
48
2
20
97
0
21
45
8
Circle Equivalent Diameter [m]
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6 SmallScaleTesting
Fragmentationpredictionsbasedonmicrostructureofcompositepropellantand
manufacturingroute
M d l b d t l th l t hi h Modelbasedontwolengthscalesatwhich
fragmentationcanoccur
Sizedistributioncapturedreasonablywell.
Round 1
Someobviousmismatchesbutaconsistentargument
canaccountforthem.
Largestnumberoffragmentsinthepredicted g g p
distributionisfromsingleblackpellets.
Ifblackpelletswerefoundtohavefragmentedfurther
thentheywouldtendtoonlyfractureintoafew
Round 2
y y
fragments,increasingthenumberoffragmentsinthe
range500 1000microns,andreducingthenumbers
at1000 2000microns.
Round 3
Fragmentationoftheblackpelletscouldoccurdueto
theimpactshockastheirlossmechanismsshouldbe
suppressedinthisshorttime.
Round 3
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6 SmallScaleTesting
Ignition
Round7:Velocity=~950m/s
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6 SmallScaleTesting
XDT
Round1714F16:Velocity=~1370m/s
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7
EnergeticResponseModel
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7 EnergeticResponseModel
Solid
XDT P bl
Solid
Material Model
EoS
Constitutive
CHARM XDT Problem
Rocket Motors
Shaped Charges
Constitutive
Damage
Fracture
CHARM
EoS
Temperature
Hotspots
GRIM
Shaped Charges
Warheads
Hotspots
CHEMISTRY
Products
EoS
CHEETAH
DYNA
CHEETAH
Ignition
Burning
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7 EnergeticResponseModel
Ignition&Burning
WerequirecompleteEquationsofState(EoS)fortheunreactedpropellantandits
d reactionproducts.
PorterGouldDamagemodeldescriptionofhotspottermintegratedintoCHARM.
Validation not completed. Validationnotcompleted.
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7 EnergeticResponseModel
Progress
Idealisedcloudimpacttodemonstratefunctionality. p y
Reactiondelayof~3s.
Retonation reachesmainchargeby10s
Mainchargedetonates overby15s.
Minordevelopmentsremain.
Model m st be able to predict the Modelmustbeabletopredictthe
experimentalobservations.
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8
ModelValidation
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8ModelValidation
Modelmustbeabletoreproduceanumberofimportantfeaturesinthebulkresponseof
thepropellant.
Impact Plume
Debris cloud shape
And concave specimen edges
Axial plume ejection p j
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8ModelValidation
Progress
ModelimplementedinGRIM&DYNA. p
Damagelimiting
Noplume
Curvededges
Gooddebriscloudshape
No damage limiting Nodamagelimiting
Verygoodplume
Noedgecurvature g
Wrongcloudshape
Damage Limiting ON OFF V=1009m/s
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8ModelValidation
Progress
Resolutionstudy withdamagelimiting y g g
V=1009m/s
Baseline Refinement 1 Refinement 2
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8ModelValidation
Progress
Resolutionstudy withdamagelimiting y g g
V=1009m/s
Baseline Refinement 1 Refinement 2
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8ModelValidation
Progress
Resolutionstudy comparisonwithexperiment(V=1009m/s) y p p ( / )
Refinement 1 Refinement 2
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9
Conclusions
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9 Conclusions
FundamentalUnderstanding
Material characterisation has achieved a significant improvement in understanding the Materialcharacterisationhasachievedasignificantimprovementinunderstandingthe
constitutiveresponseofdoublebasepropellants.
Establishedamethodologyfortestingotherpropellantsofthistype.
D t t d th diff t d f ti f th t i l d t PBX DemonstratedtheverydifferentdeformationresponseofthesematerialscomparedtoaPBX
androleofNGinmodifyingthisresponse.
Materialsciencebasedmethodscanpredictmanyofthepropertiesofdoublebasepropellants,
including understanding the role of the interaction of NG with NC includingunderstandingtheroleoftheinteractionofNGwithNC.
AbilitytopredictotherNGNCbasedpropellantsrepresentsasignificantachievement.
Thesemiempiricalpolymermodel,however,cannotpredicttheobserveddeformation
behaviour across the full strain rate regime Needs the implementation of the complete polymer behaviouracrossthefullstrainrateregime.Needstheimplementationofthecompletepolymer
modelinanewnumericalscheme.
TheabilitytopredictthepropertiesofNC,basedonitsstructure,allowsthedevelopmentofa
simplesmallscalescreeningtesttodeterminethesuitabilityofanewsourceofNC.Thishas p g y
significantpotentialinreducingrequalificationofnewsourcesofNC.
Costeffectiveandgamechangingapproach.
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9 Conclusions
SmallScaleTesting
S ll l f t ti ft i t h hi d UK fi t d id d SmallscalefragmentationsoftrecoveryexperimenthasachievedaUKfirstandprovided
detaileddataonthefragmentationprocessofthedebriscloudinbothdoublebasepropellants.
Themeasurementsoffragmentsizedistributionasafunctionofimpactvelocityhavevalidated
thedamagemodelbasedonpercolationtheory. g p y
Smallscaleignitiontestsuccessfullyobservedignitionandgrowthofreactionsinthedebris
cloudonimpactwithatransparentsurface.Theexperimentshavedemonstratedthetransition
toXDTastheimpactvelocityincreasesandthegapdistancedecreases. p y g p
Theunderstandinggainedoftheexperimentalmethodologywillallowthedevelopmentofa
robustsmallscaletesttodeterminethepropensityofapropellantformulationtoexhibitXDT
behaviourtogetherwiththeimportanceofrocketmotordesignparametersandmaterialsto g p g p
remove/mitigatethisresponse.
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9 Conclusions
NumericalSimulations
N i l i l ti f th f t ti i d t l ti d Numericalsimulationsofthefragmentationprocess,givenadequateresolutioncanreproduce
theobservedfragmentationbehaviour.
Limitingtherateofdamagedevelopmentinthepropellantisanimportantcontrollingfactor
Thevalidationofthemodelsin3Dhasyettobecompleted.
TheintegrationofthePorterGoulddamagemodelwithCHARMhasbeensuccessfully
completedbutremainstoberigorouslyvalidated.Theneedtofullyimplementthecomplete p g y y p p
polymercompositemodelusinganewnumericalschemehasbeenidentifiedasanimportant
requirementforafullypredictivecapability.
TheabilityofCHARMtogenerateignitioninahighporosityrepresentationofthedebriscloud y g g g p y p
hasbeendemonstrated.Validationagainsttheignitionexperimentsremainstobecompleted.
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9 Conclusions
Overall
Th h i t t i l i b d t i l th d h d t t d th b d Theresearchintomaterialssciencebasedmaterialmethodshasdemonstratedtheycanbeused
topredictthepropertiesandbehaviourofdoublebasepropellants.
Smallscaleexperimentsarecapableofunderstandingandcharacterisingthefragmentation,
i iti d b i b h i f th d b i l d i XDT t ignitionandburningbehaviourofthedebriscloudinXDTevents.
Numericalsimulations,givensufficientresolution,cansuccessfullyreproducethefragmentation
process.
TheessentialbuildingblocksrequiredtodevelopapredictivecapabilityforXDTinrocketmotors
areinplacetojustifyPhaseIIoftheprogramme.
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