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ISSN 1151-1516

techniques et mthodes
des laboratoires des ponts et chausses
Guide technique
Practical manual
for the use of soils
and rocky materials
in embankment construction

EXCERPTS
from Guide technique Ralisation des remblais
et des couches de formes [acronym GTR]
(Technical Guideline on Embankment
and Capping Layer Construction)
Practical manual
for the
Use of soils and rocky materials
in embankment construction
September 2003
Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses
58, boulevard Lefebvre - 75732 PARIS Cedex 15 - France
This document has been produced under the joint responsability
of the LCPC and SETRA research organizations
The GTR was drawn up by the following work group:
MM J.-F. CORT LCPC (Division Gotechnique mcanique des chausses)
S.H. EDME Entreprise Mller Frres
A. FVRE CETE Normandie-Centre (LRPC de Rouen)
D. GILOPPE CETE Normandie-Centre (DESGI)
J. GIROUY Direction des Infrastructures du Dpartement de la Charente-Maritime
H. HAVARD CETE de lOuest (LRPC dAngers)
J.-P. JOUBERT SETRA
G. MOREL CER de Rouen
A. PERROT CETE de lEst (LRPC de Nancy)
B. de PILLOT CETE de Lyon (DES)
J.-P. PUECH Sctauroute
D. PUIATTI Socit des Chaux et Dolomies du Boulonnais S.A.
M. SCHAEFFNER LCPC (Division Gotechnique mcanique des chausses)
B. URCEL DDE des Hauts-de-Seine
and written by:
MM J.-F. CORT LCPC (Division Gotechnique mcanique des chausses)
A. FVRE CETE Normandie-Centre (LRPC de Rouen)
H. HAVARD CETE de lOuest (LRPC dAngers)
J.-P. JOUBERT SETRA
M. KERGOET LRPC de lEst parisien
G. MOREL CER de Rouen
A. PERROT CETE de lEst (LRPC de Nancy)
A. QUIBEL CER de Rouen
M. SCHAEFFNER LCPC (Division Gotechnique mcanique des chausses)
J. VEYSSET CETE de Lyon (LRPC de Lyon)
Under responsibility of Scientific and Technical Network of the french Ministery of Equipement
This Practical Manual was prepared by:
MM J.-F. CORT LCPC (Direction technique Chausses)
H. HAVARD LCPC (Direction technique Gotechnique)
And translated by:
NORTRAD
and the translation kindly reviewed by:
Mme J. DEZART Entreprise Guintoli (France)
The distribution of this document is supported by:
To order this publication:
Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses - IST - Diffusion des Editions - 58, boulevard Levebvre
F - 75732 - Paris Cedex 15 - Phone: 01 40 43 50 20 - Fax: 01 40 43 54 95 - Internet: http://www.lcpc.fr
Price: 23 Euros HT
This document is property of the LCPC organization and may not be copied or reproduced in any form, even partially,
without the express authorization of the LCPC Managing Director (or one of the Directors authorized representatives).
2003 - LCPC
ISSN 1151-1516
ISBN 2-7208-3116-4
3
Table of contents
Notice 5
1. Field of application 7
2. References 7
2.1 Bibliography and Technical References 7
2.2 Relevant Standards 8
3. Abbreviations and symbols 9
4. Classification of rocks and soils 10
4.1 Rock and Materials Displaying Special Behaviour 10
4.2 Soils 14
4.2.1 Grain size characteristics 14
4.2.2 Clay characteristics 14
4.2.3 State characteristics 15
4.3 Summary of classification 17
4.3.1 Summary table of the classification of rock and soil types 17
4.3.2 Classification according to type and state 18
5. Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction 26
5.1 Rock and Materials Displaying Special Behaviour 27
5.2 Soils 29
6. Compaction of fill 36
6.1 Definition of specifications 36
6.2 Classification of compaction plant 37
6.2.1 Pneumatic tyred rollers (Pi) 37
6.2.2 Smooth vibrating drum rollers (Vi) 37
6.2.3 Vibrating rollers (VPi) 40
6.2.4 Static tamping rollers (SPi) 40
6.2.5 Vibrating plate compactors (PQi) 40
6.3 Compaction specifications 41
6.3.1 Use of Tables - Examples of Application 41
6.3.2 Compaction tables 43
6.4 Continuous monitoring of compaction 54
6.4.1 Specifications 54
6.4.2 Monitoring Operations 55
7. Particular case of use of arid soils 57
7.1 Advantages of, and basis for dry compaction 57
7.2 Definition of arid soils - Application scope of the method 57
7.2.1 Nature of concerned soils 57
7.2.2 Definition of moisture state arid 57
7.2.3 Arid state classes of soils 58
7.2.4 Acceptable embankment height 58
7.3 Compaction tables 58
7.4 Particularities of dry compaction 58
7.5 Dry compaction trial embankments 59
7.6 Special site organisation for Dry compaction 59
5
Notice
T
his Manual is an excerpt from the Technical Guidelines on Embankment
and Capping Layers Construction (abbreviated to its French acronym GTR) issued
September 1992 in France by LCPC
1
and SETRA
2
. The Guidelines are the basic standard
engineering reference work in France on the construction of embankments and capping layers.
This excerpt from the Guidelines concerns only the part dealing with the classification of natural
soils and their use in embankments (excluding all reference to organic topsoils and industrial products)
and requirements for their use in capping layers construction).
This Manual is a broader development of a more specific project undertaken in 1998 at
the request of the Executive Council for Major Works in Lebanon with a view to compiling a Lebanese
standard on the construction of fill structures under the aegis of LIBNOR.
The GTR rock classification system (see section 4-1 below) addresses only those rocks
commonly found in France. Experience has shown that the use of the Manual in another country
may justify reducing or extending the classification system to adapt its content to the rocks
encountered with respect to earthmoving work not included in GTR, if such changes were
considered relevant.These changes do not appear to be required in the soil classification system
(see section 4-2).
Earthworks in specific meteorological area (for instance very hot or very cold ones) need
adaptations to take into account difficulties produced by natural moisture content.
Caveat Language - This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific
operations. This document cannot replace education and experience and should be used in
conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may applicable in all
circumstances. This manual is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which
the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be
applied without consideration of a projects many unique aspects.
1. Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses, 58 boulevard Lefebvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France,
tel. (33) 1 40 43 50 00, fax (33) 1 40 43 54 98
2. Service d'Etudes des Routes et Autoroutes, Centre de Scurit et des Techniques Routires, 46 avenue Aristide Briand, BP 100,
92223 Bagneux Cedex, France, tel. (33) 1 46 11 31 31, fax (33) 1 46 11 31 69

7
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Field of application
1. Field of application
This Manual
- classifies naturally-occurring soils on the basis of laboratory classification tests (chiefly with respect
to their potential use as a fill material),
- specifies the soil categories suitable for incorporation in embankments and the relevant conditions
of use,
- describes the main methods construction and any restrictions specific to categories.
The section dealing with compaction of fill puts forward a suggested classification of compaction
machinery offering a standard of construction compatible with the quality goals commonly
associated with such work, and a method for continuously monitoring actual compaction performance.
A special method of compaction of arid soils often found in arid countries is also proposed in
chapter 7. The particular precautions mentioned in this chapter are then required.
This method is not a substitute for proper design, which must address project-specific factors such
as available soil types and condition, balanced cut and fill, conditions in the underlying ground,
embankment structure when the constituent soils are not uniform, embankment face slopes,
drainage, local climate and weather conditions over the construction period, erosion risk, etc.
In addition to the rules of the present document, it is necessary to carry out a specific stability
study for embankments the height of which exceed 15 to 20 metres.
2. References
2.1 Bibliography and Technical References
This Manual is an excerpt from the Technical Guidelines on Embankment and Capping Layer
Construction (abbreviated to its French acronym GTR) issued September 1992 in France by
LCPC
3
and SETRA
4
. The Guidelines are substantially the only standard engineering reference
work in France for the construction of embankments and capping layers. This Manual concerns
only the part of the Guidelines dealing with the classification of natural soils and their use in
embankments. Reference should be made to the Guidelines for detailed explanation and in some
cases engineering justification for the arrangements recommended herein, because the Manual
takes only the practical recommendations from the Guidelines, to avoid overburdening the work.
It is however important to note that the Manual differs from the Guidelines in the following
respects:
- Organic topsoils and industrial products in the GTR classification have been ignored because
their use is too dependent on environmental legislation and cannot be readily transposed from
one country to another.
- Soil class D3 has been deleted from the classification (being not necessary).
- Criteria for use which involves specific plant (full-depth excavation or bench excavation) or
modification of the soil moisture state (particularly wetting over-dry material) have not been kept
because they are likely to be difficult to meet in the field. Nevertheless, if site conditions are
such as to allow the soil moisture to be improved or even completely changed, this fact is
addressed in the Manual in the site condition classification.
3. Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses, 58 Boulevard Lefebvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France,
tel. (33) 1 40 43 50 00, fax (33) 1 40 43 54 98
4. Service d'Etudes des Routes et Autoroutes, Centre de Scurit et des Techniques Routires, 46 Avenue Aristide Briand, BP 100,
92223 Bagneux Cedex, France, tel. (33) 1 46 11 31 31, fax (33) 1 46 11 31 69
8
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction References
The engineering justification of the content of this document has been established
experimentally by the systematic use, from 1976 to 1992, of very similar rules to those in the GTR,
laid down at the time by Recommendations on Road Earthworks (abbreviated RTR, a document
given official status in France at the time by the standard public contract specifications for
highways), which very broadly speaking, led to stable fill structures being built. Experience
acquired and records of construction conditions and performance of the structures built in this
way led to improvements to the RTR on several points when preparing the Technical Guidelines
on Embankment and Capping Layer Construction (GTR). Apart from the experimental justification
offered by successful projects, extensive trials had been conducted under controlled conditions,
especially for drafting the compaction specifications.
The justifications of the particular method proposed for re-use of arid soils can be found in the
chapter 7.
2.2 Relevant Standards
The Manual makes reference to the following French standards issued by AFNOR (Association
Franaise de Normalisation, Tour Europe, 92049 Paris La Dfense Cedex, France):
XP P 18-540 - Aggregate - Definitions, Compliance, Specifications (Oct. 1997)
5
XP P 18-572 - Micro-Deval Abrasion Test (Dec. 1990)
5
XP P 18-573 - Los Angeles Test (Dec. 1990)
XP P 18-574 - Dynamic Fragmentation Test (Dec. 1990)
XP P 18-576 - Determination of Sand Friability Coefficient (Dec. 1990)
XP P 18-593 - Sensitivity to Frost (Dec. 1990)
5
XP P 18-598 - Sand Equivalent (Oct. 1991)
NF P 11-300 - Earthwork Construction - Classification of materials for use in the construction
of highway embankments and capping layers (Sept. 1992)
NF P 11-301 - Earthwork Construction - Terminology (Dec. 1994)
NF P 94-040 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Simplified method of classifying the
0-50mm fraction of granular material - Determination of grain sizes and methyl blue value
(Oct. 1993)
NF P 94-049-1 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of moisture content
(by weight) of materials - Part 1: Microwave oven drying method (Feb. 1996)
NF P 94-049-2 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of moisture content
(by weight) of materials - Part 2: Hotplate and radiator methods (Feb. 1996)
NF P 94-050 - Determination of moisture content (by weight) of materials - Autoclave
method (Sept. 1995)
NF P 94-051 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of Atterberg Limits - Liquid
limit (cup method) - Plastic limit (roll method) - March 1993
NF P 94-052-1 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of Atterberg Limits - Part
1 - Liquid limit (cone penetration method) (Nov. 1995)
NF P 94-054 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of unit weight of solid particles
- Water pycnometer method (Oct. 1991)
NF P 94-056 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Grain size analysis - Wash, dry and screen
method (March 1996)
NF P 94-061-1 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of unit weight of in-place
material - Part 1 - Direct transmission probe gammadensimeter method (Oct. 1996)
NF P 94-061-2 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of unit weight of in-place
material - Part 2 - Membrane densimeter method (March 1996)
NF P 94-061-3 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of unit weight of in-place
material - Part 3 - Sand method (April 1996)
5. This standard remains valid but will be superseded on 1
st
December 2003 by a European standard already issued, designated NF EN.
9
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Abbreviations and symbols
NF P 94-061-4 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of unit weight of in-place
material - Part 4 - Method for coarse materials (Dmax > 50mm) (Dec. 1996)
NF P 94-062 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of in-place unit weight - Twin
probe gamma diagraphy (11 pages) (Aug. 1997)
XF P 94-063 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Compaction testing - Constant energy
penetrometer method - Principle and method of calibrating penetrodensitographs - Reduction
of results - Interpretation (Aug. 1997)
NF P 94-064 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Dry unit weight of rock element - Hydrostatic
weighing method (Nov. 1993)
NF P 94-066 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Fragmentation coefficient of rock material
(Dec. 1992)
NF P 94-067 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Degradability coefficient of rock material
(Dec. 1992)
NF P 94-068 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of methyl blue absorption
capacity of soil and rock material by the stain test (Oct. 1998)
NF P 94-078 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Post-immersion CBR - Immediate CBR -
Immediate bearing index IPI - Determination on sample compacted in CBR mould
(May 1997)
NF P 94-093 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Determination of compaction references of
material - Proctor normal test - Modified Proctor test (Oct. 1999)
NF P 94-100 - Soils: Investigations and Tests - Materials treated with lime and/or hydraulic
binders - Soil treatment suitability test (Aug. 1999)
NF P 98-705 - Highway construction and maintenance plant and equipment - Compaction
plant and equipment - Terminology and trade specifications (1992)
NF P 98-713 - Qualification of roadmaking plant and equipment - Methods for testing
compaction plant performance
NF P 98-736 - Highway construction and maintenance plant and equipment - Classification
of compaction plant
NF P 98-760 - Highway construction and maintenance plant and equipment - Pneumatic
tyred rollers - Evaluation of soil contact pressure (1992)
NF P 98-761 - Highway construction and maintenance plant and equipment - Compaction
plant - Evaluation of eccentric moment (1992)
NF P 98-234.2 - Carriageway tests - Frost performance - Part 2 - Frost swelling test for
treated and untreated soils and granular materials with Dmax = 20mm (Feb. 1996)
3. Abbreviations and symbols
The following abbreviations and symbols are used in this Manual.
LH Hydraulic binders
Soil state th very wet
h wet
m moderately wet
s dry
ts very dry
Test results DG Degradability coefficient (%)
Dmax Maximum soil grain size (mm)
ES Sand equivalent (%)
FR Fragmentation coefficient (%)
FS Sand friability coefficient (%)
Ic Consistency index
10
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
Ip Plasticity index (%)
IPI Immediate bearing index (%)
LA Los Angeles coefficient (%) measured on 10-14mm fraction
(if unavailable, on 6.3-10mm fraction)
MDE Micro-Deval coefficient in water (%) measured on 10-14mm fraction
(if unavailable, on 6.3-10mm fraction)
VBS Methyl blue absorption of soil measured on 0-50mm fraction
(grams methyl blue per 100g soil)
w
n
Natural moisture content (%)
w
OPN
Standard Proctor optimum moisture content (%)
d Bulk unit weight of dry rock sample
4. Classification of rocks and soils
4.1 Rock and materials displaying special behaviour
Prior to excavation, a material may often look like rock and one cannot decide just what type of
soil it will form after removal. Some more or less loose materials may also display special
behaviour on excavation, during placement and/or in the completed works, so that the classification
system presented below in section 4-2 cannot adequately describe them (chalk is an example
of this).
Such materials must nevertheless be characterised at the design stage in order to plan how they
can be used in the works and what difficulties their behaviour might present. Usually, engineers
simply classify the resulting soil except if the class assigned in this section to the original rock,
juxtaposed with the soil classification, adds extra information which can be usefully preserved in
view of the special behaviour of the resulting soil (as with chalk).
The characterisation of such materials (rock and materials displaying special behaviour)
begins by naming the material in geological terms.
The materials listing below is based on experience gained in France up to the present time,
considered relevant to earthwork construction. It might be expanded as needs arise and more
knowledge is amassed.
R
1
CHALKS
a - Description
Material formed by the accumulation of
falling calcite particles of the order of 1 to
10 m in size.
This structure is all the more fragile in that
the material is very porous (or conversely,
its dry density is low).
During earthmoving operations, it produces
a quantity of fines, directly related to the
fragile accumulative structure.
When chalk is saturated or near-saturated,
the pore water wets these fines so that they
behave like a paste, hampering the
movement of the construction plant and Earthworks in chalk.
11
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
causing pore pressures to build up in the fill.
Conversely, dry chalk is a rigid material with good load-bearing performance, but compaction
is difficult.
Some very wet low density chalks may continue to fragment after they are placed mainly due
to applied stresses and frost.
b - Classification
Chalks are classified according to their dry density d and moisture content w
n
as shown below
d > 1.7 R
11
1.5 < d 1.7 and w
n
27 R
12
h
1.5 < d 1.7 and 22 w
n
< 27 R
12
m
1.5 < d 1.7 and 18 w
n
< 22 R
12
s
1.5 < d 1.7 and w
n
< 18 R
12
ts
d 1.5 and w
n
31 R
13
th
d 1.5 and 26 w
n
< 31 R
13
h
d 1.5 and 21 w
n
< 26 R
13
m
d 1.5 and 16 w
n
< 21 R
13
s
d 1.5 and w
n
< 16 R
13
ts
R
2
SUNDRY CALCAREOUS ROCKS
(Coarse-grained limestone, travertine, massive limestone, etc.)
a - Description
This class contains the whole range of calcareous rock materials. Their predominant feature
in respect of their use in fill is their friability and, for the more fragmentable materials, frost
susceptibility. Broadly speaking, the materials are not evolutive rock materials (see argillaceous
rock below) and raise no particular problems when used in fill.
Because of their friability, attrition and crumbling may produce fines liable to make the
material sensitive to water under heavy traffic.
b - Classification
The more compact calcareous rocks are
classified according to their resistance
in the micro-Deval test, while softer rocks
are classified according to their bulk unit
weight:
MDE 45 R
21
MDE > 45 and d > 1.8 R
22
d 1.8 R
23
Earthworks in limestone.
12
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
R
3
ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS
(Marls, shales, claystone, pelite, etc.)
a - Description
They are characterised by a more or less resistant
(usually carbonate) structure with a highly variable
proportion (5 % to 95 % from what is generally
reported) of potentially swelling clay minerals
imprisoned. They fragment to varying degrees
when worked, freeing plastic, water-sensitive
fines. Breakdown of the structure may continue
subsequent to being placed, under the mechanical
stresses applied by the overlying fill, and through
weathering of large pieces of intact rock due to
swelling of the clay minerals in contact with water
causing destruction of the rock skeleton. This
process and associated distress to the fill is more
likely when the materials are less fragmented
and display uniform grain size in the completed
fill.
For the more fragmentable rocks (class R
34
),
their 0-50mm fraction must be characterised.
b - Classification
The evolutive nature of these rocks is determined
by two tests:
Fragmentation test (to French standard NF P
94-066) to assess, from the FR results, the
sensitivity of the rock to the fragmentation energy
applied on site.
Degradability test (to French standard NF P 94-
067) to evaluate, from the DG result, the
weathering resistance in contact with water by
measuring the effects of wetting and drying
cycles.
For the more fragmentable rocks (class R
34
materials), the natural moisture content w
n
is
compared to their normal Proctor optimum w
OPN
or their immediate bearing index IPI is measured
to determine their hydrous state.
These rocks therefore classify as follows:
* Values in italics are recommended
Fragmentability Degradability Class
FR 7 DG > 20 R
31
5 < DG 20 R
32
DG 5 R
33
FR > 7 [w
n
1.3 w
OPN
or IPI < 2*] R
34
th
[1.1 w
OPN
w
n
< 1.3 w
OPN
or 2 IPI > 5*] R
34
h
0.9 w
OPN
w
n
< 1.1 w
OPN
R
34
m
0.7 w
OPN
w
n
< 0.9 w
OPN
R
34
s
Rocky marls evolving from a sound, just extracted
state (1) to a clay (3) by the halfway of (2).
1
2
3
13
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
R
4
SILICEOUS ROCKS
(sandstone, puddingstone, breccia, etc.)
a - Description
This class of materials can be likened to
assemblies of sand grains (as in sandstone)
or stones (breccia and puddingstone)
cemented together with silica or calcite.
The strength of the binding material affects
the behaviour of the rock (in particular there
is a risk of rearrangement after placement
if not sufficiently compacted). If the rock is
fragmentable, the ultimate evolution ceases
with the release of the constituent grains or
stones. Some also contain enough clay to
make them behave in a manner similar to
class R
34
material.
b - Classification
The more compact rocks are classified according to their strength in the Los Angeles fragmentation
test and micro-Deval wear test, the softer rocks according to their fragmentability.
R
5
SALINE ROCKS
(Gypsum, rock salt, anhydrite, etc.)
a - Description
In mechanical terms, this class of materials are like class R
2
and R
3
but they are more soluble in
water and are therefore liable to cause distress in the structure, especially when
- the salt is highly soluble
- it accounts for a high proportion of the rock
- its fragmentability on placement is low (making the fill highly pervious).
b - Classification
R
6
IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS
(Granite, basalt, trachyte, andesite, etc., gneiss, schist, slate, etc.)
a - Description
This class of materials may have widely differing mechanical properties. Their fragmentability and
friability may be very variable (low to very high).Class R
61
and R
62
materials do not weather in
the fill due to stresses and water but class R
63
displays similar behaviour to classes R
34
or R
43
.
Cut in vosgian sandstone.
Soluble salt content (depending on degree of fragmentability):
5-10 % in rock salt R
51
30-50 % in gypsum
Soluble salt content (depending on degree of fragmentability):
5-10 % in rock salt R
52
30-50 % in gypsum
LA 45 and MDE 45 R
41
LA > 45 or MDE > 45
and FR 7 R
42
FR > 7 R
43
14
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
b - Classification
The more compact rocks are classified
according to their strength in the Los
Angeles fragmentation test and micro-
Deval wear test, the softer rocks according
to their fragmentability.
4.2 Soils
In attempting to classify a soil on the basis of criteria capable of determining its suitability as fill
and associated conditions for its placement, three parameters must be determined.
4.2.1 Grain size characteristic
These characteristics are derived simply from the grain size analysis.
Dmax: size of largest grains
Note. A D
3
class is proposed in GTR for C
soils which have a methyl blue value
(VBS) of less than 0.1 and less than
12 % passing the 80 m sieve.
4.2.2 Clay characteristics
These characteristics are evaluated from
three tests:
Atterberg limits (plastic index Ip)
Methyl blue absorption value of soil (VBS)
Sand equivalent (ES)
Earthworks in basalt.
Methyl Blue Test.
100%
35%
12%
0 50mm Dmax*
0/50mm fraction
passing 80 m
LA 45 and MDE 45 R
61
LA > 45 or MDE > 45
and FR 7 R
62
FR > 7 R
63
FINE SOILS A
FINES-RICH SAND OR
GRAVEL SOILS
B
5
or B
6
Passing 2mm
> 70% < 70%
SAND SOILS GRAVEL SOILS
D
1
, B
1
, B
2
D
2
, B
3
, B
4
FINES-POOR
COARSE AND POORLY
STRUCTURED SOILS C
1
(rounded grains or more than 60 to 80%
fraction 0/50mm in the soil)
COARSE AND
STRUCTURED SOILS C
2
(angular grains and less than 60 to 80%
fraction 0/50mm in the soil)
15
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
The grain size classification (section 4-2-1 above) can be completed as follows:
Fine soils
2.5 6 8 VBS
12 25 40 Ip
A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
Fines-rich sand and gravel soils
1.5 VBS
12 Ip
B
5
B
6
Fines-poor sand soils
0,1 0,2 VBS
35 ES
D
1
B
1
B
2
Fines-poor gravel soils
0,1 0,2 VBS
25 ES
D
2
B
3
B
4
Note. Values in italics (e.g. 0,2) are recommended, especially for contract specifications, in
preference to other limit values.
4.2.3 State characteristics
Assessing the wetness of a soil (when it
is sensitive to water) is based on its IPI
value or on its natural moisture content w
n
at a given time in relation to the optimum
moisture content w
OPN
determined from
the standard Proctor test on the fraction
smaller than 20mm, or on the value of
the soil consistency index.
Five hydrous states are considered:
ts: (very dry) / s: (dry) / m: (normal) /
h: (wet) / th: (very wet)
The normal state (m) is the best condition for placement, in particular, it allows appropriate
compaction to be achieved. Wet (h) and very wet (th) states are soils for which trafficability and
compaction are difficult (a very wet soil is not normally trafficable for a standard earthmoving plant).
The dry (s) and very dry (ts) states are soils which are difficult to compact to form stable fill structures
(a very dry soil is considered as being impossible to compact properly by standard methods).
Soils in a very wet state.
16
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
Soils are classified according to their hydrous state as follows.
Note. Values in italics (e.g. 0.9) are recommended, especially for contract specifications, in
preference to other limit values, when there is a choice.
EXAMPLES OF CLASSIFICATION
Rocks not extracted with explosives and materials displaying special behaviour
R
32
: argillaceous rock (e.g. classified marl or claystone), may contain carbonate fraction, the
0-50mm fraction registers less than 7 in the fragmentation test and 5-20 in the degradability test.
R
41
: siliceous rock (e.g. classified sandstone) with Los Angeles coefficient less than 45 and micro-
Deval coefficient also less than 45.
Rock classified limestone
with MDE greater than 45
and bulk unit weight d 1.84 -> class R
22
.
Soils
A
2
m: fine soil with plastic index between 12 and 25 with normal moisture content (IPI between
5 and 15).
C
1
-B
5
h: soil with a fraction larger than 50mm representing less than 20-40% of whole soil sample
and/or with large rounded particles. The fraction smaller than 50mm is sand or gravel with a
plasticity index below 12 in the normally wet state.
C
2
-D
2
: soil with a fraction larger than 50mm representing not less than 20-40% of whole soil
sample with angular particles. The fraction smaller than 50mm is clean gravel and therefore
insensitive to water, so its moisture content does not need to be characterised.
Soil with:
17% passing 80m and
Dmax: 40mm -> class B
5
or B
6
VBS: 1,7 -> class B
6
IPI: 7 -> class B
6
h
Soil type Reference test
State threshold
ts s m h th
A
1
IPI 25 8 3
w
n
/w
OPN
0.7 0.9 1.1 1.25
A
2
IPI 15 5 2
w
n
/w
OPN
0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3
Ic 1.4 1.2 1.05 0.9
A
3
IPI 10 3 1
w
n
/w
OPN
0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4
Ic 1.3 1.15 1 0.8
A
4
Special study required
B
1
No sensi vi t y t o wat er cont ent
B
2
IPI 8 4
w
n
/w
OPN
0.5 0.9 1.1 1.25
B
3
No sensi vi t y t o wat er cont ent
B
4
IPI 15 7
w
n
/w
OPN
0.6 0.9 1.1 1.25
B
5
IPI 30 12 5
w
n
/w
OPN
0.6 0.9 1.1 1.25
B
6
IPI 25 10 4
w
n
/w
OPN
0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3
Ic 1.3 1.2 1 0.8
17
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
Soil with:
55% of 0-50mm fraction passing 80 m and Dmax: 70mm and
Coarse particles (> 50mm) are rounded -> class C
1
-A
Ip: 32 -> class C
1
-A
3
w
n
/w
OPN
: 1 -> class C
1
-A
3
m
Soil with:
10% of 0-50mm fraction passing 80m and
55% of 0-50mm fraction passing 2mm and
Dmax: 100mm and
Coarse particles (> 50mm) are angular and
48% of the complete soil sample passing 50 mm -> class C
2
(D
2
, B
3
or B
4
)
VBS: 0.13 -> class C
2
-B
3
Material known to be almost completely insensitive to water, so its moisture content does not
need to be characterised.
4.3 Summary of classification
4.3.1 Summary table of the classification of rock and soil types
Soils
Dmax 50mm
Soils
Dmax > 50mm
Rocks
A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
B
5
B
6
D
1
B
1
B
2
D
2
B
3
B
4
Percent passing
80 m
100%
35%
12%
0%
0 0,1 0,2 1,5 2,5 6 8
12 25 40 Ip
Percent passing 2 mm
100%
70%
0%
C
1
or C
2
C
1
: poorly structured rounded or angular
materials with fraction
0/50mm > 60-80%
C
2
: strongly structured angular materials
with fraction
D
3
0/50mm < 60-80%
Percent passing 80 m
fraction 0/50mm
12 %
0 0,1
VBS
VBS
Carbonate rocks Chalk R
1
Limestone R
2
Sedimentary rocks Argillaceous rocks Marls, claystone, pelite, etc. R
3
Siliceous rocks Sandstone, puddingstone, breccia, etc. R
4
Saline rocks Rock salt, gypsum, etc. R
5
Igneous and
Granite, basalt, andesite, gneiss, schist, slate, etc. R
6
metamorphic rocks
18
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
4
.
3
.
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e
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m
m
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n
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d
.
19
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
C
l
a
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B
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A
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p
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20
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
C
l
a
s
s

B

(
c
o
n
t
'
d
)
S
A
N
D

A
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Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
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25
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Classification of rocks and soils
C
l
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R

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26
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
5. Use of rocks and soils in embankment
construction
The following conventional definitions are used in this section.
Weather
++ means heavy rainfall
+ means light rainfall
= means weather conditions free from any significant rainfall or evaporation
- means weather conditions causing significant evaporation.
Conditions of use
h is an engineering requirement setting
a limit on the height of the embankment
at the maximum height specified (if no
value is specified, embankments more
than around 15m high must have their
stability checked by a soil mechanics
type of approach. Deformability of the
embankment foundation soil has to be
checked in addition.
sprinkling is an engineering requirement
for the material to be wetted to maintain
its natural moisture content within the
envelope applicable to the initial state
classification.
moisture correction means action to
maintain, reduce or increase the natural
moisture content of a soil having a good moisture content despite weather conditions; if the
soil is too wet, this means benefiting from evaporative weather conditions and for a dry soil,
exposing the soil to rainfall in wet weather, using appropriate field techniques such as
windrowing, excavation in thin layers, blending, slow placement rates, etc.
protection is the opposite action, to
keep soil moisture near its initial value
by placement in the structure quickly
after excavation, protecting excavation
bench faces against evaporation or
rainfall as appropriate (vertical or steep
working faces), early compaction to seal
the surface, drainage and sealing, etc.
treatment, usually with lime but
sometimes with other binders, renders
some over-wet soils suitable for use as
a constructional material. Aspecial study
must always be made to determine the
benefits and feasibility of treatment,
application rates, and associated
difficulties if any
6
.
Binder spreading plant.
6. Details can be found in the Technical Guidelines on Treatment of Soils with Lime and/or Other Hydraulic Binders as Applied to the Construction
of Embankments and Capping layers, issued by LCPC - SETRA, Jan. 2000.
Plough mixing a wet clay with hot lime.
27
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
The above five conditions can be met with various strategies appropriate to site-specific
conditions. Compliance is ensured by respecting with the maximum embankment height
specified for the relevant material (first condition), changing moisture content of the material
as measured at the time of compaction (next two conditions), and respecting application rate
and mixing of the binder (last condition).
Compaction conditions
Compaction intensity yields a qualitative indication of the compaction energy needed to produce
a stable embankment for a given soil.
Layer thickness is a qualitative indication of the thickness of individual layers of the fill to be
compacted before placing the next layer. Warning: The specified layer thickness sets a limit on the
size of the individual soil particles. With the largest compaction plant available today, the largest
acceptable particle size in fill must not be larger than 800mm.
Section 3 hereafter gives precise quantitative values to be complied with in order to achieve a
satisfactory degree of soil compaction in the fill. Failure to comply with any of the requirements in the
following table may have serious consequences which must be assessed as necessary. Embankments
higher than 15m and materials with a Dmax in excess of 800mm fall outside the scope of this Manual.
5.1 Rock and materials displaying special behaviour
CHALK R
1
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
R
11
++ no
+ yes moderate moderate
= or - yes intense moderate
R
12
h + no
= yes treatment moderate moderate
= yes h 5m moderate Full-depth
excavation
recommended to
prevent excessive
crushing of the
chalk
- yes treatment intense moderate
- yes moisture moderate thin
correction; h 10m
R
12
m,s ++ no
and ts +, = and - yes h 10m intense moderate
R
13
th no
R
13
h + or = no
= yes treatment moderate moderate
- yes treatment intense moderate
- yes moisture moderate moderate
correction; h 5m
R
13
m + no
= or - yes intense thin
R
13
s + no
= or - yes h 10m intense thin Excavation in
thin layers
recommended
to improve
subsequent
compaction
of the chalk
R
13
ts no
28
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
CALCAREOUS ROCKS R
2
, SILICEOUS ROCKS R
4
, IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS R
6
ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS R
3
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thick
R
21
, ++, +, = yes moderate
R
41
, R
61
and -
R
22
, See soil classes
R
23
, obtained on site
R
42
, (cf. conditions of
R
43
, use below)
R
62
, R
63
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thick
R
31
no
R
32
++ no
+ yes extra fragmentation intense thin further thought
after extraction ; needed on field
h 10m fragmentation
method and
embankment
design
= or - yes extra fragmentation intense thin as above
after extraction ;
h 5m
= or - yes extra fragmentation intense thin as above
after extraction,
sprinkling ;
h 10m
R
33
++ no
+ yes moderate moderate as above
= or - yes intense moderate as above
R
34
th no
R
34
h + no
= yes treatment with moderate
lime alone
= yes extra fragmentation moderate moderate as above
after extraction ;
h 5m
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin as above
extra fragmentation
after extraction ;
h 10m
- yes treatment with moderate
lime alone
R
34
m ++ no
+ yes extra fragmentation moderate moderate as above
after extraction ;
h 10m
= or - yes extra fragmentation intense moderate as above
after extraction ;
h 10m
R
34
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction ; intense thin as above
extra fragmentation
after extraction ;
h 5m
= yes sprinkling ; extra intense thin as above
fragmentation after
extraction ; h 5m
- no
R
34
ts no
29
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
SOLUBLE ROCKS R
5
5.2 Soils
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
R
51
Conditions of use
of these rock mate-
rials in fill are simi-
lar to those for
class R
2
if the rock
contains little clay,
or for class R
3
otherwise
R
52
no Rocks too soluble
for use in fill
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
A
1
th no
A
1
h + no
= yes treatment moderate
- yes h 5m low
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
- yes treatment moderate
A
1
m ++ no
+ yes protection ; h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes sprinkling moderate
- yes h 10m intense
A
1
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 5m intense
A
1
ts no
A
2
th no
A
2
h + no
= yes treatment with lime low
= yes h 5m low
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
- yes treatment with lime moderate
A
2
m ++ no
+ yes protection ; h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes sprinkling moderate
- yes h 10m intense
A
2
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction ; intense thin
h 10m
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 5m intense
A
2
ts no
30
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
A
3
th no
A
3
h ++ no
+ yes h 5m low
= yes treatment with lime moderate
= yes h 5m low
- yes treatment with lime moderate
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
A
3
m ++ no
+ or = yes h 10m moderate
- yes sprinkling ; h 10m moderate thin
- yes h 5m intense
A
3
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction ; intense thin
h 5m
= yes sprinkling ; h 5m intense thin
- yes protection ; sprinkling ; intense thin
h 5m
A
3
ts no
A
4
no
B
1
++ no
+, = or - yes moderate
B
2
th no
B
2
h + no
= yes treatment moderate
= yes h 5m low
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
- yes moisture correction moderate
and treatment
B
2
m + no
= yes moderate
- yes intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
B
2
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction ; intense thin
h 10m
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 10m intense
B
2
ts no
B
3
yes moderate
B
4
th no
B
4
h + no
= yes treatment moderate
= yes h 10m low
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
- yes treatment moderate
B
4
m ++ no
+ yes protection ; h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
31
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
B
4
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction intense thin
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 10m intense
B
4
ts no
B5th no
B
5
th + no
B
5
h + no
= yes treatment moderate
= yes h 5m low
- yes moisture correction moderate thin layer
excavation
recommended
- yes moisture correction moderate
and treatment
B
5
m ++ no
+ yes protection ; h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes sprinkling moderate
- yes intense
B
5
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction ; intense thin
h 10m
= yes h 10m intense
- yes protection, sprinkling ; intense
h 10m
B
5
ts no
B
6
th no
B
6
h + no
= yes treatment with moderate
lime alone
= yes h 5m low
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
- yes treatment with moderate
lime alone
B
6
m ++ no
+ yes protection ; h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
- yes protection intense
B
6
s ++ no
+ yes moisture correction ; intense thin
h 10m
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 5m intense
- yes sprinkling ; protection ; intense
h 10m
B
6
ts no
32
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
C
1
A
1
th no
C
1
B
5
th
C
1
A
1
h + no
C
1
B
5
h
= yes treatment after moderate
removing
particles larger
than 250mm
= or - yes h 5m low
- yes moisture correction moderate thin
C
1
A
1
m ++ no
C
1
B
5
m + yes protection ; h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
C
1
A
1
s ++ no
C
1
B
5
s + yes h 5 m intense
+ yes moisture correction ; intense thin
h 10m
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 10m intense
C
1
A
1
ts no
C
1
B
5
ts
C
1
A
2
th no
C
1
A
3
th
C
1
B
6
th
C
1
A
2
h ++ no
C
1
A
3
h
C
1
B
6
h
+ yes protection ; h 5m low
= yes h 5m low
= yes treatment with moderate
lime alone after
removing
particles larger
than 250mm
- yes moisture correction ; moderate thin
h 10m
C
1
A
2
m ++ no
C
1
A
3
m
C
1
B
6
m
+ yes protection ; h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
33
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
C
1
A
2
s ++ no
C
1
A
3
s
C
1
B
6
s
+ yes h 5m intense
+ yes moisture correction ; intense
h 10m
= yes h 5m intense
- yes sprinkling: h 5m intense
C
1
A
2
ts no
C
1
A
3
ts
C
1
B
6
ts
C
1
A
4
no
C
1
B
1
yes moderate
C
1
B
3
C
1
B
2
th no
C
1
B
4
th
C
1
B
2
h + no
C
1
B
4
h
= yes treatment moderate
after removing
particles larger
than 250mm
= yes h 10m low
- yes moisture correction moderate thin
C
1
B
2
m ++ no
C
1
B
4
m
+ yes protection moderate
+ yes h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
C
1
B
2
s ++ no
C
1
B
4
s
+ yes moisture correction intense thin
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 10m intense
C
1
B
2
ts
C
1
B
4
ts no
34
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer
Remarks
intensity thickness
C
1
D
1
yes moderate
C
1
D
2
C
2
A
1
th no
C
2
B
2
th
C
2
B
4
th
C
2
B
5
th
C
2
A
1
h ++ no
C
2
B
2
h
C
2
B
4
h
C
2
B
5
h
+ yes h 5m moderate
= yes h 10m moderate
- yes moisture correction moderate moderate
C
2
A
1
m ++ no
C
2
B
2
m
C
2
B
4
m
C
2
B
5
m
+ yes moderate
= yes moderate
- yes intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
C
2
A
1
s ++ no
C
2
B
2
s
C
2
B
4
s
C
2
B
5
s
+ yes intense moderate
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 10m intense moderate
C
2
A
1
ts no
C
2
B
2
ts
C
2
B
4
ts
C
2
B
5
ts
35
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Use of rocks and soils in embankment construction
Soil Requirements
Compaction
class
Weather Use
for use
Compaction Layer Remarks
intensity thickness
C
2
A
2
th no
C
2
A
3
th
C
2
B
6
th
C
2
A
2
h + no
C
2
A
3
h
C
2
B
6
h
= yes h 10m low
- yes moisture correction moderate thin
C
2
A
2
m ++ no
C
2
A
3
m
C
2
B
6
m
+ yes h 10m moderate
= yes moderate
- yes intense
- yes sprinkling moderate
C
2
A
2
s ++ no
C
2
A
3
s
C
2
B
6
s
+ yes moisture correction intense
= yes h 10m intense
- yes sprinkling ; h 10m intense moderate
C
2
A
2
ts no
C
2
A
3
ts
C
2
B
6
ts
C
2
A
4
no
C
2
B
1
yes moderate
C
2
B
3
C
2
D
1
yes moderate
C
2
D
2
D
1
and D
2
yes moderate
36
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
6. Compaction of fill
6.1 Definition of specifications
The GTR method recommended in this Manual has the particular advantage of stating the means
of compaction required of compaction of fill. They are effectively described by specifying the plant
and resources to be used, rather than by the standard approach of stipulating results whose
determination is too uncertain.
Where a soil is suitable for the Proctor test (i.e. soils containing less than 30 % particles larger
than 20mm), it has been possible to determine the objectives of densification by compaction of
the constituent layers of fill, i.e.
dry unit weight averaged over the whole thickness of the compacted layer equal to or greater
than 95 % of the maximum dry unit weight from the standard Proctor test
dry unit weight over the bottom 8 centimetres of the compacted layer equal to or greater than
92 % of the maximum dry unit weight from the standard Proctor test,
but this is not true for coarser materials not covered by the Proctor test. With such materials,
it is impossible to specify densification objectives or to measure the in-place density achieved by any
simple test.
Even with soils suitable for such testing, monitoring the results obtained on the completed
embankment or on each layer by measuring the in-place bulk unit weight usually involves many
difficulties such as:
- the need for a reference value for the bulk unit weight (generally a percentage of the standard
Proctor density),
- the difficulty of measuring the in-place density achieved (mainly because density varies over
the thickness of the compacted layer),
- the discrete nature of measurements and their statistical interpretation.
Continuous compaction monitoring (section 6-4) has the merit of being based directly
on compaction specifications which, provided they have a scientific foundation backed
up by experience (see tables in section 6-3-2), guarantee the quality of the works at a compaction
cost which the contractor can estimate quite closely before commencing the works.
The GTR classification system according to type and state describes soil classes
such that, within each class, the densification energy needed to obtain a stable fill is roughly
the same. In this way, the compaction energy can be set beforehand for each specific
job, along with appropriate construction method (see tabulated data in section 5 above).
The next step is to classify the compaction plant according to its performance, with reference to
the principles set forth in section 6-2 below.
These two items are used in the tables in section 6-3 below in which the required compaction
energy is expressed by two parameters:
maximum thickness (compacted thickness, not bulked thickness) of constituent layers of fill
Q/S ratio in m
3
per m
2
, a measure of the ratio between the compacted soil
volume placed in a given time (say, one day) Q, and the area of fill covered by
the compaction machine in the same time S. Volume Q is calculated from the number
of round trips by haulage plant of known capacity or beforehand from the estimated geometrical
volume of the embankment to calibrate the haulage plant. Area S is obtained from the effective
width of the compaction machine multiplied by the distance covered by the machine, usually
read from the mileage counter or, better, from a tachograph fitted to the machine. If there are
restrictions on machine use, such as a maximum forward speed, this information appears in
the table in section 6-3.
Controlled trials were the basis for drawing up the tables in section 6-3 below and for checking
that compliance with:
the stipulated maximum compacted layer thickness,
the requirement that the Q/S ratio effectively obtained on the job is equal to or less than the
stipulated Q/S ratio, and
37
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
the compaction machine class (ballast, weights and speed of the eccentrics in vibrating rollers)
and any type-specific restrictions,
is an a priori assurance of the quality of the work. Since it is the method which is stipulated, there
must be no stipulations on final in-place density obtained (if possible) written into the contract,
because of the problem of the accuracy of the reference tests, in order to avoid ambiguities.
6.2 Classification of compaction plant
Refers to French standard NF P 98-736. Basic principles are set forth below.
Classification and use
The rollers considered have a compaction
width of 1.30m or more. Classification and
conditions of use of small compacting
equipment (vibratory rollers, vibrating plates,
tampers) is detailed in the Technical
Guidelines Trench Backfill and Carriageway
Repair [SETRA-LCPC Ed. (May 1994)].
However, the most efficient vibrating plate
compactors are included.
The basic types of compacting plant
addressed are:
- pneumatic tyred rollers Pi
- smooth vibrating drum rollers Vi
- tamping rollers VPi
- static tamping rollers SPi
- vibrating plate compactors PQi.
i is the class number; it increases with compaction efficiency within each type category. Combination
types are dealt with in section 6-2-3 below.
6.2.1 Pneumatic tyred rollers (Pi)
Classification is based on load per wheel CR
P1: CR between 25 and 40 kN
P2: CR between 40 and 60 kN
P3: CR greater than 60 kN
Pneumatic tyred rollers can be ballasted to obtain the maximum wheel load recommended by the
manufacturer. They can usually be ballasted to twice their empty weight. Research into maximum efficiency
indicates that the highest wheel load compatible with trafficability should be used.
Where a roller falls into more than one class, the classification used should be selected with reference
to the effective wheel load used on the job.
For best efficiency, it is also recommended that tyres be inflated to the highest pressure compatible
with trafficability.
Maximum forward speed is limited only by consideration of driving safety.
6.2.2 Smooth vibrating drum rollers (Vi)
Classification and use
Smooth vibrating drum rollers are classified according to parameter (M1/L) A0 and a minimum A0 value.
M1/L
7
expressed in kg/cm and A0
8
in mm lead to the five classes in the following table and the nearby
figure.
A pneumatic tyred and a vibrating tamping rollers.
7. M1 is the total mass (in kg) acting on the full width of the vibrating or static drum. L is the width (in cm) of the vibrating or static drum
8. A0 is the theoretical empty amplitude calculated as A0 = 1000 (me/M0) in which me is the eccentric moment (in mkg) and M0 is the
mass (in kg)of the vibrating part excited by the eccentric.
38
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

O
F

V
I
B
R
A
T
I
N
G

R
O
L
L
E
R
S
S
i
n
g
l
e

d
r
u
m
39
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
A0 can be tested by the cushion method described in French standard NF P 98-761 Verification
Test of Moment of Vibrating Roller Eccentrics.
Many vibrating rollers have more than one empty nominal amplitude value (by changing
eccentric moment) and/or, less frequently, can be ballasted. This may cause machines to
appear in more than one class according to their A0 and/or M1/L value.
Vibrating rollers are assumed to operate
at the maximum frequency set by the
manufacturer for a given eccentric system.
Except for classes V1 and V2, a range of
forward speeds is assumed, with a bearing
on compaction practice (Appendix 4.1.2).
However, while high speeds are attractive
in that they speed up work rates, this is
only permitted with machines fitted with
a speedometer on the instrument panel
and a recording system for monitoring
purposes.
Single and tandem drum rollers
The two most common types are single
drum designated VMi and tandems, VTi
(Vi is the efficiency class defined above).
- Category VMi contains all single
vibrating drum types, twin drum types
(two drums on the same axle) and
tandems in which only one drum
vibrates. Tables (e, Q/S) are directly
applicable to these types.
- Category VTi is for tandems with two
vibrating drums.
In most cases, the efficiency class is the
same for both the front and rear drums.
Compared to single drum types, the Q/S
and number of load applications are the
same, but the number of passes is
halved.
Empty amplitude A0 can be measured with a vibrograph
while vibrating the roller on air-filled cushions (French
standard NF P 98-761).
Class VM4 single smooth vibrating drum roller.
V1 (M1/L) x A0
{ between 15 and 25 and A0 0.6
{ greater than 25 and A0 between 0.6 and 0.8
V2 (M1/L) x A0
{ between 25 and 40 and A0 0.8
{ greater than 40 and A0 between 0.8 and 1.0
V3 (M1/L) x A0
{ between 40 and 55 and A0 1.0
{ greater than 55 and A0 between 1.0 and 1.3
V4 (M1/L) x A0
{ between 55 and 70 and A0 1.3
{ greater than 70 and A0 between 1.3 and 1.6
V5 (M1/L) x A0
{ greater than 70 and A0 1.6
40
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
6.2.3 Vibrating Tamping rollers (VPi)
Tamping rollers are mostly derived from smooth vibrating drum rollers discussed in section
6-2-2 above, and are classified on the same criteria.
Compaction methods only differ from smooth drum rollers in class VP3 and beyond. They seek
to extract the most benefit from both vibration and the tamping feet. The tamping rollers in the
compaction tables are single drum types designated VPi in French standard NF P 98-736.
6.2.4 Static Tamping rollers (SPi)
Static tamping rollers are classified according to the average static load per unit width of drum(s)
with tamping feet.
SP1: M1/L between 30 and 60 kg/cm
SP2: M1/L greater than 60 kg/cm
but less than 90 kg/cm
Machines with provision of ballasting are classified according to their configuration on site.
They should be driven at maximum allowed
speed and final compaction should be done
at 10-12 kph. The first passes should
generally be made at distinctly slower
speeds but never less than 2-3 kph.
The time that rollers fitted with a blade
spend as bulldozers and graders is not
considered compaction time.
If average speed recorded on site (which
should not be less than 6 kph) is less than
the average shown in the compaction tables,
this fact must be considered to recalculate
the rate.
Tandem rollers frequently have the same Q/S and number of load applications as single drum
types (values in table). The number of passes must be halved.
6.2.5 Vibrating plate compactors (PQi)
All plate compactors are classified as PQ1 to PQ4 in the Technical Guidelines on Trench Backfill
and Carriageway Repair. [SETRA - LCPC Ed. /May 1994]
They are classified on the basis of the static pressure under the plate Mg/S in kPa (Mg is the
weight of the plate).
The smallest plates PQ1 and PQ2 are ignored. Those included are
PQ3: Mg/S between 10 and 15 kPa
PQ4: Mg/S greater than 15 kPa.
S is the contact area between plate and soil, not the overall area. S varies on models which can
be fitted with extensions and this may alter the classification.
SP1 static tamping roller. When used as a grader as in
the photograph, it is not considered.
41
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
6.3 Compaction specifications
6.3.1 Use of tables - Examples of application
* Classes Pi, V1, V2, VPi, SPi and PQi (single column)
Example: B1 soil in embankment (quality q4)
Same value (in m) for all thicknesses
Actual compacted thickness e < e (in m)
V is max speed for vibratory plant, average speed for
other plant (in kph)
Number of load applications: rounded up from actual
thickness/(Q/S) given for e of the table
If e = 0.30, then N = 5
Rate per metre width
Q/L = 1000 x V x (Q/S)
Practical rate of compacting operations with an efficiency
ratio k (between 0.5 et 0.75)
Qpract = k x (Q/L x L x (N/n)
If k = 0.6 L = 2m N/n = 1, then
Qpract = 360 m
3
/hr
* Classes V3 to V5 (double columns: possible envelope)
Example: B1 soil in embankment
Same value for all combinations of thickness and speed
Right column: choice of low V 2.0 kph to maximise
e (0.80m)
Left column: max rate with high V limited to 5 kph max
and e set at 0.30m
Same design rules as before in each column
It can be seen that a higher forward speed is necessarily associated with a lesser layer thickness
because of the steeper density gradient in the layer. Providing these conditions are complied with,
the compaction rate is still higher.
It is of course unacceptable to mix values from both columns (greatest thickness and highest speed).
Method Class
P1
Code 2 Q/S 0.060
Applicable code e 0.35
comes from soil V 5.0
use tables (based
on moisture
N 6
content and
weather)
Q/L 300
Method Class
V3
Code 2 Q/S 0.135
e 0.30 0.80
V 5 2
N 3 6
Q/L 675 270
42
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
If the nominal thickness e for the job (ejob) falls between the above two values, optimum
compaction conditions can be calculated as follows:
- average vibrating roller speed calculated from V x e = constant (values considered are taken
from the right hand column: V min and e max)
V =
V x e
e
job
- Q/L calculated with
Q/L = 1000 x V x Q/S
- N is always taken as equal to e
job
/ (Q/S)
The values calculated in this way are then used as requirements as if they came directly from
the tables.
In the above example, if the planned layer thickness for the job is 0.50m, V is defined as
V = (0.80 x 2)/0.5 = 3.2 rounded off to 3
N = 0.5 / 0.135 = 3.7 rounded off to 4
Q/L = 1000 x 3 x 0.135 = 405
* Case of different classes of plant working on same fill
Compaction energy applied by a machine is taken as
C
i
= [Q/S]
table
/ [Q/S]
i
in which [Q/S]
table
is the Q/S value prescribed for machine i for the soil to attain a satisfactory
degree of compaction
[Q/S]
i
is the Q/S value obtained by machine i in the time considered.
The requirement for obtaining the compaction with n compacting plants is:
i = n
C
(i 1)
i = 1
Method V3
Code 2 Q/S 0.135
e 0.50
V 3
N 4
Q/L 405
43
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
A
1
,
C
1
A
1
(
*
)
6
.
3
.
2

C
o
m
p
a
c
t
i
o
n

t
a
b
l
e
s
C
o
m
p
a
c
t
i
o
n

t
a
b
l
e
s

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s

i
n

f
i
l
l
M
a
c
h
i
n
e
M
e
t
h
o
d
P
1
P
2
P
3
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
P
1
V
P
2
V
P
3
V
P
4
V
P
5
S
P
1
S
P
2
P
Q
3
P
Q
4
Q
/
S
0
.
0
8
0
0
.
1
2
0
0
.
1
8
0
0
.
0
5
5
0
.
0
8
5
0
.
1
2
5
0
.
1
6
5
0
.
2
0
5
0
.
0
5
5
0
.
0
8
5
0
.
1
6
5
0
.
2
0
5
0
.
2
6
5
0
.
0
7
0
0
.
1
0
0
0
.
0
6
5
L
o
w
e
0
.
3
0
0
.
4
5
0
.
6
0
0
.
2
5
0
.
3
5
0
.
3
0
0
.
5
0
0
.
3
5
0
.
6
5
0
.
4
0
0
.
8
0
0
.
2
5
0
.
3
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
3
5
0
.
4
0
0
.
2
5
0
.
4
0
0
.
2
0
c
o
m
p
a
c
t
i
o
n

(
1
)
(
1
)
(
1
)
(
1
)
(
1
)
(
1
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
0
(
1
)
e
n
e
r
g
y
V
5
.
0
5
.
0
5
.
0
2
.
0
2
.
5
4
.
0
2
.
5
5
.
0
2
.
5
5
.
0
2
.
5
2
.
0
3
.
0
4
.
0
5
.
0
5
.
0
8
.
0
8
.
0
1
.
0
C
o
d
e

3
N
4
4
4
5
5
3
4
3
4
2
4
5
4
2
2
2
4
4
3
Q
/
L
4
0
0
6
0
0
9
0
0
1
1
0
2
1
5
5
0
0
3
1
5
8
2
5
4
1
5
1
0
2
5
5
1
5
1
1
0
2
5
5
6
6
0
1
0
2
5
1
3
2
5
5
6
0
8
0
0
6
5
Q
/
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0
.
0
4
5
0
.
0
6
5
0
.
0
9
5
0
.
0
4
0
0
.
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5
0
.
0
8
5
0
.
1
0
0
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.
0
4
0
0
.
0
8
5
0
.
1
0
0
0
.
1
3
0
0
.
0
4
0
0
.
0
7
0
M
o
d
e
r
a
t
e

e
0
.
2
5
0
.
3
5
0
.
4
5
0
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2
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0
.
3
0
0
.
4
0
0
.
3
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0
.
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0
0
.
3
0
0
.
6
0
0
.
2
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0
.
3
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
2
0
0
.
3
0
c
o
m
p
a
c
t
i
o
n

0
0
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
(
2
)
0
0
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n
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y
V
5
.
0
5
.
0
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2
.
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.
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2
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6
6
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7
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4
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3
6
7
4
3
3
5
5
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/
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2
2
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3
2
5
4
7
5
8
0
1
6
5
1
3
0
3
0
0
1
7
0
4
0
0
2
0
0
8
0
2
1
5
3
5
0
5
2
0
3
2
0
5
6
0
Q
/
S
0
.
0
3
5
0
.
0
5
0
0
.
0
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0
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0
4
0
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.
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0
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0
6
5
0
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0
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H
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3
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4
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3
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0
.
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5
0
.
2
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
2
5
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o
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n

0
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0
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5
.
0
5
.
0
2
.
0
2
.
0
2
.
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2
.
0
3
.
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C
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1
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6
6
8
8
6
8
5
7
8
6
5
4
8
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/
L
1
7
5
2
5
0
5
0
8
0
1
2
5
1
0
0
1
9
5
1
3
0
5
0
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0
0
1
6
5
2
5
5
2
8
0
Q
/
S
(
m
)
(
*
)

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

D
m
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44
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
A
2
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C
1
A
2
(
*
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C
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45
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
A
3
,
C
1
A
3
(
*
)
C
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m
p
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c
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7
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(
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2
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k
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(
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(
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u
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t
a
b
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e
46
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
B
1
,
D
1
,
C
1
B
1
(
*
)
,
C
1
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1
(
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)
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3
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47
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
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48
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
C
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49
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
B
6
,
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1
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(
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51
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
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Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
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53
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
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54
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
6.4 Continuous monitoring of compaction
Monitoring results on the completed structure or each constituent layer by measuring the in-
place bulk unit weight usually involves many problems as seen in section 6-1.
Continuous compaction monitoring has the merit of referring directly to the compaction rules
which, if they have a sound scientific foundation backed up by experience (see tables in section
6-3-2), ensure the quality of construction.
6.4.1 Specifications
Specifications on continuous compaction monitoring consist of prescribing rules for each
combination of soil class and compaction machine in given weather conditions liable to occur
during performance of the work. This covers:
- maximum layer thickness e of soil layers after compaction, which must be compatible with
efficient operation of the roller used,
- intensity of compaction to be applied, expressed by the Q/S ratio in which Q is the volume
of soil placed (measured after compaction) and S is the area covered by the machine to compact
volume Q,
- roller operating conditions: maximum forward speed of vibratory machines, minimum speed
for spreading machines, ballast, vibrational frequency and eccentric moment for vibratory
machines, tyre pressure for pneumatic tyred rollers,
- fitting machines with direct reading and
recording instruments for distance
travelled by the machine, forward speed
and (for vibrating rollers) vibrational
frequency and eccentric moment,
- site organisation: contractor to submit
a schedule for operating haulage,
spreading and compaction each day or
less systematically, whenever he makes
changes,
- in some cases, contractor to submit
details of volume of material placed
during the sequence chosen for
conducting the compaction intensity
control Q/S (usually a day or half-day).
In most cases, prescribed values for e and Q/S are taken from the tables in 6-3-2 above
showing the relevant values for different soil classes and compaction machines.
Failing that, the contract might state the values which can be set on the basis of trial embankments
built at the start of the job, but this approach is less satisfactory, because compaction requirements
are not specified until after the contract has been signed.
Tachograph equiped roller recording passed distance,
speed and vibration of the plant during compacting
operation.
55
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
As a general rule, the tolerances tabulated below should be used for the e and Q/S values.
6.4.2 Monitoring operations
The continuous compaction monitoring procedure covers:
- materials (identification of soil types and states as described in section 5) and weather conditions
during placement,
- compaction plant used (verification of machine class according to the classification described
in section 6-2);
- compacted layer thickness (verification of compliance with stipulated maximum thicknesses as
described in section 6-3);
- compacted soil volumes (per sequence during which soil conditions, weather and compaction
details are considered uniform) to calculate actual Q/S for comparison with prescribed Q/S,
- areas covered by the compaction machines to find the covered area S and calculate the actual
Q/S obtained,
- roller operating parameters (forward speed, frequency, eccentric moment as described in section
5-2),
- coverage pattern (verification of uniformity of compaction over the cross section, etc.).
Measurement of layer thickness is simple but must be done with care using appropriate apparatus:
a level for precision measurements (on trial embankments), or more routinely a graduated staff,
thickness gauge or tape measure. Estimation by eye is to be avoided as far as possible because
it is inaccurate, sometimes by as much as the prescribed tolerances. It is frequently best to make
the measurements when the soil is being spread (while estimating the effect of compaction)
because obviously, it is easier at this time to make any necessary corrections.
The volume of compacted material Q can be measured in various ways:
- directly by a topographic survey of the embankment, which is clearly the most accurate method
but which is difficult to carry out. It can beneficially be used occasionally to cross-check and
calibrate the following indirect methods,
- indirectly by topographic survey of the extraction area or by counting the haulage plant and
estimating individual loads. In both cases, the figures must be multiplied by a factor to allow for
bulking.
Compaction required
Tolerances
e Q/S
+ 15% + 20%
Low e measured = e prescribed Q/S measured = Q/S prescribed
- 15% - 20%
Intense & moderate e measured < e prescribed Q/S measured < Q/S prescribed
56
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Compaction of fill
As a general guide, this factor may have one of the undermentioned values:
Estimating material volumes from haulage plant loads might appear to be the most convenient
method but it must be realised that it is fairly inaccurate and involves a continuous watch on
plant rotations, a difficulty requiring careful consideration when drafting the contract if it is
planned for the contractor to bear responsibility for this item.
The area covered by the compaction plant is measured by multiplying the compaction width
by the distance travelled. Travel distance can be conveniently and accurately determined with
recording tachographs of the type routinely used in the road haulage industry (although they
must be suitably modified and calibrated to allow them to be fitted to rollers, but practically all
modern rollers can be so equipped).
The client must check the instrument is fitted to every roller and carefully check that it is working
properly and correctly calibrated.
The frequency of Q and S measurements should, strictly speaking, be dependent on the
variability in site conditions. In the most usual situations, in which conditions do not vary over
the whole working day, daily measurements can be considered satisfactory. More frequent
measurements, every half-day or even every hour, may have to be considered for special
operations (placing fill against culvert, bridge, etc.) or when conditions undergo a sudden
significant change.
Regarding monitoring of roller operating details: ballast, forward speed, vibrational frequency,
spot checks can be made (for ballast mainly) but the only true guarantee of compliance with
the specifications are recordings from the tachographs already mentioned. Such records will
show up any flaws in the performance of the works: excess vibratory roller speed, vibration
interruptions, mismatch between material deliveries and compaction times, etc., flaws which
could not easily be detected by any other method. Electronic recorders with computer processing
of data are being developed.
Estimation Method
Rocky Materials Soils
extracted with extracted by ripper clay non clay
explosives
Survey of extraction area 1.3 1.15 1 1
Estimated haulage plant loads 0.85 0.75 0.7 0.9
57
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Particular case of use of arid soils
7. Particular case of use of arid soils
7.1 Advantages of, and basis for dry compaction
In some dry and arid climates, adding water to achieve the moisture content qualifying the material
as dry for compaction purposes (q4 compaction) may be relatively expensive (involving drilling,
pumping, haulage, spreading, perhaps blending, site organisation) and in some cases consume
large amounts of a rare resource. Experimental research conducted in the early eighties through
controlled trials at CER Rouen and construction sites in Algeria and Niger led to recommendations
for compacting soils with near-zero moisture content
9
.
7.2 Definition of arid soils - application scope of the method
7.2.1 Nature of concerned soils
The soils which have been successfully experimented in this way are the following (according to
classification of 4-2 before):
The proposed method applies only to the above soil classes.
7.2.2 Definition of moisture state arid
When a Proctor test is carried out on samples which have an initial moisture content close to
zero, a minimum density appears at a
moisture content Wc known as critical
moisture content, as shown on following
figure.
Proctor curves obtained with a range of
moisture contents close to zero.
The arid state corresponds to a moisture content between zero and Wc.
From this graph, we can conclude that the lower the moisture content in this range, the more
Soils GTR classification
Fine soils A
1
, A
2
Fines - rich sand and gravel soils B
5
, B
6
Fines - poor sand soils D
1
, B
1
, B
2
Fines - poor gravel soils D
2
, B
3
, B
4
Coarse soils C
1
A
1
, C
1
A
2
, C
1
B
5
, C
1
B
6
, C
1
D
1
, C
1
B
1
, C
1
B
2
, C
1
D
2
,
C
1
B
3
, C
1
B
4
C
2
A
1
, C
2
A
2
, C
2
B
5
, C
2
B
6
, C
2
D
1
, C
2
B
1
, C
2
B
2
, C
2
D
2
, C
2
B
3
, C
2
B
4
Soils in an arid state.
9. ISTED - Institut des Sciences et des Techniques de lEquipement et de lenvironnement pour le Dveloppement : Compactage faible
teneur en eau des sols et matriaux de terrassements et de chausses (Juin 1987).
58
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Particular case of use of arid soils
compaction is efficient. This is often true, but sometimes the soil becomes too dusty and its poor
trafficability decreases compaction efficiency. The ranges of arid state defined below, take these
facts into account.
7.2.3 Arid state classes of soils
7.2.4 Acceptable embankment height
Arid state soils which are dry-compacted according the following tables can be used in embankments
the height of which must not exceed 3 metres. Necessary precautions must be taken to protect
them from erosion, particularly by ravining.
7.3 Compaction tables
The compaction conditions given in the following tables for smooth vibrating drum rollers (Vi) normally
produce a main body fill of q4 standard.
The tables are similar to those given in section 5 for wet soils (low compaction), normal soils
(moderate compaction) or dry soils (intense compaction); they are used in the same way.
It is however useful to understand and allow for certain particularities of dry compaction when
using this method. These are briefly described in the following paragraphs.
7.4 Particularities of dry compaction
Risks of insufficient or zero compaction are very difficult to detect by eye during the work (plant
trafficability is not closely dependent on compaction, the surface condition of the layer being
compacted undergoes little change with the number of passes). Correct compliance with the
compaction pattern calls for vigilance on the part of the roller operator.
Standard equipment for measuring unit weight from the surface (gammadensimeter, membrane
densimeter or sand method) yields no information on compaction because the top of the layer
is not (or very lightly) compacted, it is compacted when the subsequent layer is placed.
Plate bearing test (EV2/EV1) or other means of determining the deformation modulus by applying
load to the top of the layer are entirely inappropriate.
A strict compliance with the compaction method given in the compaction tables is therefore the
most important guarantee of the quality of construction: continuous monitoring is essential (see
section 6-4). The following points demand special attention:
- The thickness shown for the layer is the maximum permitted value (depending on plant used,
the specifications may refer to the value in the table +0 to x cm).
- The forward speed shown is also the maximum value.
- Vibratory rollers must be operated at maximum amplitude of vibration.
Soils class Range of moisture contents corresponding to arid state
A
1
a 3
10
7
A
2
a 4
10
8
B
1
a < 3
B
2
a < 4
B
3
a < 3 4
B
4
a < 4
B
5
a < 3 4
B
6
a < 3 5
(C
1
-X
i
)a Defined by the state of X
i
10. For moisture contents less than these values, it is first necessary to verify that trafficability for compacting machines are compatible
with an efficient compaction.
59
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Particular case of use of arid soils
Post facto verification of compaction quality can be carried out with a double gamma probe or
dynamic penetrometer.
CLASS OF
SOILS VIBRATORY Q/S e V N Q/L REMARKS
ROLLER
V1 0.050 0.30 2.0 6 100 When using combinations of widely
B
1
V2 0.080 0.40 2.0 5 160 differing compaction plant classes
D
1
V3 0.130 0.55 2.5 4 340 use the heavier items first - they are
C
1
B
1
(*) V4 0.170 0.65 3.0 4 490 good for dry compaction in terms
C
1
D
1
(*) V5 0.215 0.75 3.5 4 650 of final quality but involve
trafficability problems.
CLASS OF
SOILS VIBRATORY Q/S e V N Q/L REMARKS
ROLLER
V1 0.045 0.25 2.0 6 80
B
3
V2 0.075 0.35 2.0 5 140
D
2
V3 0.110 0.45 2.5 4 280
C
1
B
3
(*) V4 0.140 0.55 3.0 4 410
C
1
D
2
(*) V5 0.180 0.65 3.5 4 560
CLASS OF
SOILS VIBRATORY Q/S e V N Q/L REMARKS
ROLLER
C
2
D
1
(*) V1 Class V1 rollers can be used to
C
2
D
2
(*) V2 0.055 0.30 2.0 6 120 improve the top of the layer
C
2
B
1
(*) V3 0.085 0.40 2.5 5 200
C
2
B
3
(*) V4 0.115 0.50 3.0 5 300
V5 0.140 0.55 3.0 4 410
60
Use of soils and rocky materials in embankment construction Particular case of use of arid soils
7.5 Dry compaction trial embankments
To set conditions for use of soils not included in the tables (rock and materials displaying special
behaviour), the above measuring systems must always be used in experimental on construction
jobs or trials. Attention is drawn to the fact that conventional trials (compaction in a single layer)
are not usually adequate for drawing conclusions. It is strongly recommended to compact at least
two layers, one above the other, to assess the quality of the 15-18cm thickness on either side of
the interface; if a penetrometer is used, the total thickness should be about one metre.
CLASS OF
SOILS VIBRATORY Q/S e V N Q/L REMARKS
ROLLER
V1 Class V1 rollers can be used to
B
2
V2 0.030 0.25 2.0 8 60 improve the top of the layer
B
4
V3 0.045 0.30 2.5 7 110
C
1
B
2
(*) V4 0.060 0.35 3.0 6 175
C
1
B
4
(*) V5 0.075 0.40 3.0 6 200
CLASS OF
SOILS VIBRATORY Q/S e V N Q/L REMARKS
ROLLER
V1 Surface cohesion (for the top part of
V2 0.020 0.20 2 10 40 the fill in particular) can beneficially
B
5
V3 0.030 0.25 2 9 55 be improved by sprinkling
C
1
B
5
(*) V4 0.040 0.30 2.5 8 90 (7-10litres/m
2
) and compacting by
V5 0.055 0.35 2.5 7 125 pneumatic tyred roller P2
CLASS OF
SOILS VIBRATORY Q/S e V N Q/L REMARKS
ROLLER
A
1
V1
C
1
A
1
(*)
B
6
V2 0.015 0.15 2 10 30
C
1
B
6
(*)
C
2
A
1
(*) V3 0.025 0.20 2 8 50 - as above -
C
2
B
2
(*) V4 0.038 0.30 2 8 75
C
2
B
4
(*) V5 0.048 0.35 2.5 8 110
C
2
B
5
(*)
CLASS OF
SOILS VIBRATORY Q/S e V N Q/L REMARKS
ROLLER
A
2
V1
C
1
A
2
(*) V2
- as above -
C
2
A
2
(*) V3 0.018 0.20 2.0 12 30
C
2
B
6
(*) V4 0.030 0.25 2.0 9 55
V5 0.040 0.30 2.0 8 75
Document published by the LCPC under the number 51123111
Layout and production: Poly Print Agence / Baton Rouge
Printing: Bialec
Copyright: 3
rd
quarter 2003 - N 59148
Rf : GTRA
Prix : 23 HT
This Manual is an excerpt from the Technical Guidelines on Embankment and Capping Layers
Construction (abbreviated to its French acronym GTR) issued September 1992 in France by LCPC
and SETRA. However, this excerpt from the Guidelines concerns only the part dealing with the
classification of natural soils (known as "GIR classification" according to the french norma NF 11-
300) and their use as fill for embankments (excluding all reference to organic topsoils and industrial
by-products and requirements for their use in capping layers construction).

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