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Consumer Motivation
After studying this chapter students should be able to:
1. Understand the types of human needs and motives and the meaning of goals.
2. Understand the dynamics of motivation, arousal of needs, setting of goals, and
interrelationship between needs and goals.
3. earn about several systems of needs developed by researchers.
!. Understand how human motives are studied and measured.
Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force
is produced by a state of uncomfortable tension, which exists as the result of an unsatisfied need.
All individuals have needs, wants, and desires. The individuals subconscious drive to reduce
need-induced tensions results in behavior that he or she anticipates will satisfy needs and thus
bring about a more comfortable internal state. Motivation can be either positive or negative.
Innate needsthose an individual is born withare physiological !biogenic" in nature# they
include all the factors re$uired to sustain physical life !e.g., food, water, clothing, shelter, sex,
and physical safety". Ac$uired needsthose an individual develops after birthare primarily
psychological !psychogenic"# they include love, acceptance, esteem, and self-fulfillment.
All behavior is goal oriented. %oals are the sought-after results of motivated behavior. The form
or direction that behavior ta&esthe goal that is selectedis a result of thin&ing processes
!cognition" and previous learning !e.g., experience". There are two types of goals' generic goals
and product specific goals. A generic goal is a general category of goal that may fulfill a certain
need# a product-specific goal is a specifically branded or labeled product that the individual sees
as a way to fulfill a need. (roduct-specific needs are sometimes referred to as wants. )or any
innate or ac$uired need, there are many different and appropriate goals. The specific goal
selected depends on the individuals experiences, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms
and values, and the goals accessibility in the physical and social environment. *eeds and goals
are interdependent and change in response to the individuals physical condition, environment,
interaction with other people, and experiences. As needs become satisfied, new, higher-order
needs emerge that must be fulfilled.
)ailure to achieve a goal often results in feelings of frustration. Individuals react to frustration in
two ways' +fight, or +flight., They may cope by finding a way around the obstacle that prohibits
goal attainment or by adopting a substitute goal !fight"# or they may adopt a defense mechanism
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that enables them to protect their self-esteem !flight". -efense mechanisms include aggression,
regression, rationali.ation, withdrawal, pro/ection, daydreaming, identification, and repression.
Motives cannot easily be inferred from consumer behavior. (eople with different needs may see&
fulfillment through selection of the same goals# people with the same needs may see& fulfillment
through different goals. Although some psychologists have suggested that individuals have
different need priorities, others believe that most human beings experience the same basic needs,
to which they assign a similar priority ran&ing. Maslows hierarchy-of-needs theory proposes
five levels of human needs' physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, egoistic needs, and
self-actuali.ation needs. 0ther needs widely integrated into consumer advertising include the
needs for power, affiliation, and achievement.
There are self-reported and $ualitative methods for identifying and +measuring, human motives,
and researchers use these techni$ues in tandem to assess the presence or strength of consumer
motives. Motivational research and its current extended form !commonly referred to as
+$ualitative research,", see&s to delve below the consumers level of conscious awareness, and to
identify underlying needs and motives. Moreover, $uantitative research has proved to be of value
to mar&eters in developing new ideas and advertising copy appeals.
1. (uman needs)consumer needs are the basis of all modern mar*eting.
a+ ,eeds are the essence of the mar*eting concept.
b+ -he *ey to a company.s survival, profitability, and growth in a highly competitive
mar*eting environment is its ability to identify and satisfy unfulfilled consumer needs
better and sooner than the competition.
2. /ar*eters do not create needs, although in many instances they may ma*e consumers more
*eenly aware of unfelt or dormant needs.
3. 0avvy companies define their business in terms of the consumer needs they satisfy rather
than the products they produce and sell.
!. 1ecause consumers. basic needs do not change but the products that satisfy them do, a
corporate focus on developing products that will satisfy consumers. needs ensures that the
company stays in the forefront of the search for new and effective solutions.
"""""Use Discussion Question #1 Here; Use Figure #4-1 Here"""""
1. Motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals that impels them to
action. -his driving force is produced by a state of tension, which e2ists as the result of an
unfilled need.
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2. 'ndividuals strive both consciously and subconsciously to reduce this tension through
selecting goals and subse3uent behavior that they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus
relieve them of the tension they feel.
3. 4hether gratification is actually achieved depends on the course of action pursued.
"""""Use Key Term motivation Here; Use Learning Objective #41 Here; Use Figure #4-!
1. &very individual has needs5 some are innate, others are ac3uired.
2. Innate nee$s are physiological or %io&eni', and include food, water, air, clothing, shelter,
and se2.
a+ -hese needs 6innate+ are considered (rimar) nee$s or motives.
3. A'*uire$ nee$s are needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment and
include the need for self7esteem, prestige, affection, power, and learning.
a+ 1ecause ac3uired needs are generally psychological 6i.e., (s)'+o&eni'+, they are
considered se'on$ar) nee$s or motives.
b+ -hey result from the individual.s sub8ective psychological state and from relationships
with others.
!. /otives or needs can have a positive or negative direction. 4e may feel a driving force
toward some ob8ect or condition or a driving force away from some ob8ect or condition.
9. 0ome psychologists refer to positive drives as needs, wants, or desires and to negative drives
as fears or aversions.
:. (owever, although (ositive and ne&ative motivational forces seem to differ dramatically in
terms of physical 6and sometimes emotional+ activity, they are basically similar in that both
serve to initiate and sustain human behavior.
;. <or this reason, researchers often refer to both *inds of drives or motives as needs, wants,
and desires.
=. 0ome theorists distinguish wants from needs by defining wants as product7specific needs.
>thers differentiate between desires, on the one hand, and needs and wants on the other.
9. -here is no uniformly accepted distinction among the terms needs, wants, and desires.
"""""Use "#ercise #4 Here; Use Discussion Questions #! an$ #% Here; Use Key Terms innate
nee$s, innate nee$s, %io&eni', (rimar) nee$s, a'*uire$ nee$s (s)'+o&eni', se'on$ar) nee$s,
(ositive an$ ne&ative Here """""
1. ?oals are the sought after results of motivated behavior. All behavior is goal oriented.
2. Generi' &oa-s are the general classes or categories of goals that consumers select to fulfill
their needs.
3. Pro$u't.s(e'i/i' &oa-s are the products they select to fulfill their needs.
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!. /ar*eters are particularly concerned with product7specific goals, that is, the specifically
branded products and services that consumer select for goal fulfillment.
9. 'ndividuals set goals on the basis of their personal values and they select means 6or
behaviors+ that they believe will help them achieve their desired goals.
"""""Use Key Terms &eneri' &oa-s an$ (ro$u't.s(e'i/i' &oa-s Here; Use Figure #4-!& an$
#4-% Here; Use Tab'e #41& (art ) an$ (art * Here
T+e Se-e'tion o/ Goa-s
1. ?oal selection by individuals depends on:
a+ -heir personal e2periences.
b+ %hysical capacity.
c+ %revailing cultural norms and values.
d+ -he goal.s accessibility in the physical and social environment.
2. i*e needs, goals can be positive or negative.
3. A positive goal is one toward which behavior is directed5 thus it is often referred to as an
a((roa'+ o%0e't.
!. A negative goal is one from which behavior is directed away and is referred to as an
avoi$an'e o%0e't.
9. 1ecause both approach and avoidance goals are the results of motivated behavior, most
researchers refer to both simply as goals.
:. /any studies applied goal selection into consumption situations.
;. >ne study found that approach7oriented and avoidance7oriented consumers are li*ely to
respond differently to promotional appeals.
=. ?oals are also related to negative forms of consumption behavior.
"""""Use Key Terms a((roa'+ o%0e't an$ avoi$an'e o%0e't Here"""""
Inter$e(en$en'e o/ Nee$s an$ Goa-s
1. ,eeds and goals are interdependent5 neither e2ists without the other.
2. %eople are often not as aware of their needs as they are of their goals.
3. 'ndividuals are usually more aware of their physiological needs than they are of their
psychological needs.
"""""Discussion Question #4 Here"""""
Rationa- Versus Emotiona- Motives
1. 0ome consumer behaviorists distinguish between so7called rationa- motives and emotiona-
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2. -hey use the term rationality in the traditional economic sense, which assumes that
consumers behave rationally when they carefully consider all alternatives and choose those
that give them the greatest utility.
3. 'n a mar*eting conte2t, the term rationality implies that consumers select goals based on
totally ob8ective criteria, such as si@e, weight, price, or miles per gallon. &motional motives
imply the selection of goals according to personal or sub8ective criteria 6e.g., pride, fear,
affection, status+.
!. Aecent studies illustrate the comple2ity of rational versus emotional motivation during
"""""Use Key Terms rationa- motives an$ emotiona- motives Here"""""
1. /otivation is a highly dynamic construct that is constantly changing in reaction to life
2. ,eeds and goals are constantly growing and changing.
3. As individuals attain their goals, they develop new ones.
!. 'f they do not attain their goals, they continue to strive for old goals or they develop
substitute goals.
9. 0ome of the reasons why need7drive human activity never ceases include the following:
a+ /any needs are fully satisfied5 they continually impel actions designed to attain or
maintain satisfaction.
b+ As needs become satisfied, new and higher7order needs emerge that cause tension and
induce activity.
c+ %eople who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves.
"""""Use Learning Objective #4! Here"""""
Nee$s Are Never #u--) Satis/ie$
1. /ost human needs are never fully or permanently satisfied.
2. -emporary goal achievement does not ade3uately satisfy the need.
Ne2 Nee$s Emer&e as O-$ Nee$s Are Satis/ie$
1. 0ome motivational theorists believe that a hierarchy of needs e2ists and that new, higher7
order needs emerge as lower7order needs are fulfilled.
Su''ess an$ #ai-ure In/-uen'e Goa-s
1. Aesearchers have concluded that individuals who successfully achieve their goals usually set
new and higher goals for themselves. 'ndividuals raise their -eve-s o/ as(iration.
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2. -he nature and persistence of an individual.s behavior often is influenced by e2pectations of
success or failure in reaching certain goals.
3. -he effects of success or failure on goal selection have implications for mar*eters.
a+ ?oals should be reasonably attainable.
b+ Advertisements should not promise more than the product can deliver.
c+ %roducts and services are often evaluated by the si@e and direction of the gap between
consumer e2pectations and ob8ective performance.
i+ &ven a good product will not be repurchased if it fails to live up to unrealistic
e2pectations created by ads that Boverpromise.C
"""""Use Discussion Question #+ Here; Use Key Term -eve-s o/ as(iration Here;"""""
Su%stitute Goa-s
1. 4hen an individual cannot attain a specific goal or type of goal that he or she anticipates will
satisfy certain needs, behavior may be directed to a su%stitute &oa-.
2. Although the substitute goal may not be as satisfactory as the primary goal, it may be
sufficient to dispel uncomfortable tension.
3. "ontinued deprivation of a primary goal may result in the substitute goal assuming primary7
goal status.
""""" Use Key Term substitute goa' Here"""""
1. <ailure to achieve a goal often results in feelings of frustration. 'ndividuals react differently
to frustrating situations.
2. 0ome people are adaptive and manage to cope by finding their way around the obstacle or, if
that fails, by selecting a substitute goal.
3. 0ome people are less adaptive and may regard their inability to achieve a goal as a personal
failure and e2perience feelings of an2iety.
!. %roducts may represent creative responses to the concept of frustration.
!e/ense Me'+anisms
1. %eople who cannot cope with frustration often mentally redefine the frustrating situation in
order to protect their self7image and defend their self7esteem.
2. %eople sometimes adopt $e/ense me'+anisms to protect their egos from feelings of failure
when they do not attain their goals.
3. Aeaction to the frustration of not being able to reach goal attainment can ta*e many forms,
such as aggression, rationali@ation, regression, withdrawal, pro8ection, daydreaming,
identification, and repression.
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!. /ar*eters often consider the protection of self7esteem by consumers when selecting
advertising appeals. -he ads 6appeals+ often portray a person resolving a particular frustration
through the use of the advertised product.
"""""Use "#ercise #1 Here; Use Key Term $e/ense me'+anisms Here; Use Tab'e #4-!
Mu-ti(-i'it) o/ Nee$s an$ Variation o/ Goa-s
1. "onsumer behavior often fulfills more than one need.
2. 0pecific goals are often selected because they fill several needs.
3. >ne cannot accurately infer motives from behavior.
!. %eople with different needs may see* fulfillment through selection of the same goal5 people
with the same needs may see* fulfillment through different goals.
Arousa- o/ Motives
1. 0pecific needs of an individual are dormant much of the time.
a+ -he arousal of any particular set of needs at a specific point in time may be caused by
internal stimuli found in the individual.s physiological condition, emotional or
cognitive processes, or by stimuli in the outside environment.
P+)sio-o&i'a- Arousa-
1. 1odily needs, at any one specific moment in time, are rooted in an individual.s physiological
condition at that moment.
2. /ost physiological cues are involuntary5 however, they arouse related needs that cause
uncomfortable tensions until they are satisfied.
Emotiona- Arousa-
1. 0ometimes daydreaming results in the arousal or stimulation of latent needs. %eople who are
bored or who are frustrated in trying to achieve their goals often engage in daydreaming
6autistic thin*ing+, in which they imagine themselves in all sorts of desirable situations.
a+ -hese thoughts tend to arouse dormant needs, which may produce uncomfortable
tensions that drive them into goal7oriented behavior.
Co&nitive Arousa-
1. 0ometimes random thoughts can lead to a cognitive awareness of needs.
2. Advertisements are cues designed to arouse needs.
a. 4ithout these cues, the needs might remain dormant.
b. "reative advertisements arouse needs and create a psychological imbalance in the
consumer.s mind.
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c. 4hen people live in a comple2 and highly varied environment, they e2perience many
opportunities for need arousal. "onversely, when people live in a poor or deprived
environment, fewer needs are activated.
1. -here are two opposing philosophies concerned with the arousal of human motives.
a+ -he %e+aviorist s'+oo- considers motivation to be a mechanical process5 behavior is
seen as the response to a stimulus, and elements of conscious thought are ignored.
b+ -he 'o&nitive s'+oo- believes that all behavior is directed at goal achievement.
i+ ,eeds and past e2periences are reasoned, categori@ed, and transformed into
attitudes and beliefs that act as predispositions focused on helping the individual
satisfy needs, and they determine the actions that he or she ta*es to achieve this
""""" Use Key Terms be,aviorist sc,oo' an$ cognitive sc,oo' Here; Use Figure #44
1. /ost lists of human needs tend to be diverse in content as well as in length.
a+ Although there is little disagreement about specific physiological needs, there is
considerable disagreement about specific psychological 6i.e., psychogenic+ needs.
2. 'n 193=, the psychologist (enry /urray prepared a detailed list of 2= psychogenic needs that
have served as the basic constructs for a number of widely used personality tests.
a+ /urray.s basic needs include many motives that are assumed to play an important role
in consumer behavior, such as ac3uisition, achievement, recognition, and e2hibition.
"""""Use "#ercise #! Here; Use Learning Objective #4% Here; Use Tab'e #4-% Here"""""
Mas-o23s Hierar'+) o/ Nee$s
1. Dr. Abraham /aslow formulated a widely accepted theory of human motivation. /aslowEs
theory identifies five basic levels of human needs, which ran* in order of importance from
low7level 6biogenic+ needs to higher7level 6psychogenic+ needs.
2. Mas-o23s +ierar'+) o/ nee$s theory suggests that individuals see* to satisfy lower7level
needs before higher7level needs emerge.
"""""Use Key Term Mas-o23s +ierar'+) o/ nee$s Here; Use Figure #4-+ Here;"""""
P+)sio-o&i'a- Nee$s
1. 'n the hierarchy7of7needs theory, physiological needs are the first and most basic level of
human needs.
2. %hysiological needs are those things that are re3uired to sustain biological life: food, water,
air, shelter, clothing, and se2.
3. %hysiological needs are dominant when chronically unsatisfied.
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Sa/et) Nee$s
1. 0afety needs are concerned with much more than physical safety. -hey include order,
stability, routine, familiarity, control over one.s life and environment. (ealth and the
availability of health care are important safety concerns.
So'ia- Nee$s
1. 0ocial needs relate to such things as love, affection, belonging, and acceptance.
2. 1ecause of the importance of social motives in our society, advertisers of many product
categories emphasi@e this appeal in their advertisements.
"""""Use Figure #4- Here"""""
E&oisti' Nee$s
1. &goistic needs can ta*e an inward or outward orientation, or both.
2. 'nwardly7directed ego needs reflect an individual.s need for self7acceptance, for self7esteem,
for success, for independence, and for personal satisfaction with a 8ob well done.
3. >utwardly7directed ego needs include the needs for prestige, for reputation, for status, and
for recognition from others.
""""" Use Figure #4-. Here"""""
Nee$ /or Se-/.A'tua-i4ation
1. ,eed for self7actuali@ation refers to an individual.s desire to fulfill his or her potential to
become everything he or she is capable of becoming.
2. According to /aslow, most people do not satisfy their ego needs sufficiently to ever reach
this level.
"""""Use Discussion Question #- Here; Use Figure #4-/ Here"""""
An Eva-uation o/ t+e Nee$ Hierar'+) an$ Mar5etin& A((-i'ations
1. -he ma8or problem with /aslow.s theory is that it cannot be tested empirically5 there is no
easy way to measure precisely how satisfied one need is before the ne2t higher need becomes
2. /aslow.s hierarchy offers a useful, comprehensive framewor* for mar*eters trying to
develop appropriate advertising appeals for their products.
3. -he hierarchy enables mar*eters to focus their advertising appeals on a need level that is
li*ely to be shared by a large segment of the prospective audience.
!. -he hierarchy facilitates product positioning or repositioning.
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Se&mentation an$ Promotiona- A((-i'ations
1. /aslow.s need hierarchy is readily adaptable to mar*et segmentation and the development of
advertising appeals because there are consumer goods designed to satisfy each of the need
levels and because most needs are shared by large segments of consumers.
2. Advertisers may use the need hierarchy for (ositionin& products)that is, deciding how the
product should be perceived by prospective consumers.
3. -he *ey to positioning is to find a niche that is not occupied by a competing product or
!. -he need hierarchy is a very versatile tool for developing positioning strategies because
different appeals for the same product can be based on different needs included in this
""""" Use Tab'es #44 an$ #4+ Here; Use Key Term (ositionin& Here"""""
A Trio o/ Nee$s
1. 0ome psychologists believe in the e2istence of a trio of basic needs: the needs for power, for
affiliation, and for achievement.
1. -he power need relates to an individual.s desire to control his or her environment.
2. 't includes the need to control other persons and various ob8ects.
3. -his need appears to be closely related to the ego need.
1. -he affiliation need suggests that behavior is highly influenced by the desire for friendship,
for acceptance, and for belonging.
2. %eople with high affiliation needs tend to be socially dependent on others.
3. -hey often select goods they feel with meet with the approval of friends.
""""" Use Figure #40) an$ * Here"""""
61 'ndividuals with a strong need for achievement often regard personal accomplishment as an
end in itself.
71 -he achievement need is closely related to both the egoistic need and the self7actuali@ation
a+ %eople with a high need for achievement tend to be more self7confident, en8oy ta*ing
calculated ris*s, actively research their environments, and value feedbac*.
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b+ /onetary rewards provide an important type of feedbac* as to how they are doing.
81 %eople with high achievement needs prefer situations in which they can ta*e personal
responsibility for finding solutions.
41 (igh achievement is a useful promotional strategy for many products and services targeted to
educated and affluent consumers.
91 'ndividuals with specific psychological needs tend to be receptive to advertising appeals
directed at those needs. -hey also tend to be receptive to certain *inds of products.
:1 Fnowledge of motivational theory provides mar*eters with additional bases on which to
segment their mar*ets.
"""""Use "#ercise #% Here; Use Figure #4-11 Here"""""
1. (ow are motives identifiedG (ow are they measuredG (ow do researchers *now which
motives are responsible for certain *inds of behaviorG
a+ -hese are difficult 3uestions to answer because motives are hypothetical constructs)
that is, they cannot be seen or touched, handled, smelled, or otherwise tangibly
observed. <or this reason, no single measurement method can be considered a reliable
b+ 'nstead, researchers usually rely on a combination of various research techni3ues to
achieve more valid insights into consumer motivations than they would by using any
one techni3ue alone.
2. >ftentimes respondents may be unaware of their motives or are unwilling to reveal them
when as*ed directly.
a+ 'n such situations, researches use *ua-itative resear'+ to delve into consumer.s
unconscious or hidden motivations.
b+ /any 3ualitative methods also are termed (ro0e'tive te'+ni*ues because they re3uire
respondents to interpret stimuli that do not have clear meanings, with the assumption
that the sub8ects will reveal or Bpro8ectC their subconscious, hidden motives into the
ambiguous stimuli.
3. -he findings of 3ualitative research methods are highly dependent on the training and
e2perience of the analyst.
"""""Use Discussion Question #. Here; Use Key Terms *ua-itative resear'+ an$ (ro0e'tive
te'+ni*ues Here; Use Tab'es #4+& #4- an$ #4. Here"""""
Motivationa- Resear'+
1. Motivationa- resear'+, which should logically include all types of research into human
motives, has become a Bterm of art.C
2. 't was first used by Dr. &rnest Dichter.to uncover consumers. subconscious or hidden
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3. 1ased on the premise that consumers are not always aware of the reasons for their actions,
motivational research attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions
concerning product, service, or brand use.
!. 1uilding on the contributions of Dr. Dichter and other earlier motivational researchers,
3ualitative consumer research e2panded from its focus on <reudian and neo7<reudian
concepts to a broader perspective that embraced not only other schools of psychology, but
included methodologies and concepts borrowed from sociology and anthropology.
"""""Use Key Term motivationa- resear'+ Here; Use Tab'e #4/ Here"""""
Eva-uation o/ Motivationa- Resear'+
1. -oday, the evolution of early motivational research, with its broadened 3ualitative
orientation, embraces its <reudian origin and incorporates an e2panded range of 3ualitative
methods and procedures that ma*e it a well7established part of BeverydayC consumer
2. /otivational research is used to gain deeper insights into the whys of consumer behavior.
3. /otivational research.s principal use today is in the development of new ideas for
promotional campaigns, ideas that can penetrate the consumer.s conscious awareness by
appealing to unrecogni@ed needs.
a+ Hualitative research also enables mar*eters to e2plore consumer reactions to ideas and
advertising copy at an early stage and avoid costly errors resulting from placing
ineffective and untested ads.
b+ /otivational research findings provide consumer researchers with basic insights that
enable them to design structured, 3uantitative mar*eting research studies to be
conducted on larger, more representative samples of consumers.
61 !is'uss t+e statement <mar5eters $on3t 'reate nee$s= nee$s (re.e>ist mar5eters1? Can
mar5etin& e//orts c,ange 'onsumers3 nee$s@ A+) or 2+) not@ Can mar5etin& e//orts
arouse 'onsumer nee$s@ I/ )es, +o2@
a. /ar*eters do not create needs, though in some instances they may ma*e consumers more
*eenly aware of unfelt needs. -he tact that many new products ta*e illustrates that
mar*eters often do not recogni@e or understand consumer needs and that they cannot
create a need for products. >n the other hand, there are countless e2amples of products
that have succeeded in the mar*etplace because they fulfill consumer needs.
b. /ar*eting efforts are generally not designed to change consumer needs but to create or
trigger arousal of BwantsC for productsIservices that consumers would then purchase to
satisfy needs that already e2ist. /ar*et7oriented companies use consumer research to
uncover relevant needs, translate them into BwantsC by designing appropriate products
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and services, and position their offerings as satisfying needs and wants better than
competitors. productsIservices.
c. /ar*eting efforts can arouse consumer needs and in many instances they strive to ma*e
consumers more *eenly aware of unfelt or dormant needs. "orporations focus on
developing and mar*eting products that promote satisfaction of consumer.s needs
through new and effective solutions. -he te2t illustrates this point with e2amples ta*en
from %rocter and ?amble, ogitech and -he Ait@ "arlton
71 Consumers +ave %ot+ innate an$ a'*uire$ nee$s1 Give e>am(-es o/ ea'+ 5in$ o/ nee$
an$ s+o2 +o2 t+e same (ur'+ase 'an serve to /u-/i-- eit+er or %ot+ 5in$s o/ nee$s1
Innate nee$s are physiological in nature 6e.g., food, water, air, clothing, shelter, se2+.
A'*uire$ nee$s are generally psychological in nature 6e.g., esteem, prestige, affection,
power, and the li*e+. -he purchase of a house satisfies the individual.s innate need for
shelter, but the type of house he or she buys, its interior and e2terior design, and location are
li*ely to reflect ac3uired needs. <or e2ample, an individual may see* a place where large
groups of people can be entertained 6fulfilling social needs+ and want to live in an e2clusive
community to impress friends 6fulfilling ego needs+.
81 S(e'i/) %ot+ innate an$ a'*uire$ nee$s t+at 2ou-$ %e use/u- %ases /or $eve-o(in&
(romotiona- strate&ies /orB
a1 &-o%a- (ositionin& s)stems
%1 sun&-asses t+at 'an %e 'ustomi4e$ on-ine
'1 a ne2 version o/ t+e iP+one
a. ?lobal positioning systems in cars: physical safety and survival, self7esteem, affection
toward one.s family and friends, social needs, and even ego needs, by using the latest
technology available
b. 0unglasses, customi@ed online: self7esteem, prestige, power, ego needs 6impress one.s
c. A new version of the i%hone: ac3uisition, ego needs 6impress one.s friends+, power,
prestige, self7esteem, learning, social, ego
4. A+) are 'onsumers3 nee$s an$ &oa-s 'onstant-) '+an&in&@ A+at /a'tors in/-uen'e t+e
/ormation o/ ne2 &oa-s@
,eeds and goals are constantly growing and changing in response to an individual.s physical
condition, environment, interactions with others, and e2periences. As individuals attain their
goals, they develop new ones. 'f they do not attain their goals, they continue to strive for old
goals, or they develop substitute goals. 0ome of the reasons why need7driven human activity
never ceases include the following: 1+ e2isting needs are never completely satisfied5 they
continually impel activity designed to attain or maintain satisfaction5 2+ as needs become
satisfied, new and higher7order needs emerge to be fulfilled5 and 3+ people who achieve their
goals set new and higher goals for themselves.
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91 Ho2 'an mar5eters use 'onsumers3 /ai-ures to a'+ieve &oa-s in $eve-o(in& (romotiona-
a((ea-s /or s(e'i/i' (ro$u'ts an$ servi'es@ Give e>am(-es1
<ailure to achieve a goal often results in feelings of frustration and individuals react
differently to frustrating situations. 0ome people are adaptive and cope with frustrating
situations by finding their way around the obstacle or, if this fails, by selecting a substitute
goal. %eople who cannot cope with frustration adopt defense mechanisms to protect their
egos from feelings of failure when they do not attain their goals. -he eight defense
mechanisms are: aggression, rationali@ation, regression, withdrawal, pro8ection, autism,
identification, and repression 6for more information see -able !72+.
:1 #or ea'+ o/ t+e situations -iste$ in *uestion 8, se-e't one -eve- /rom Mas-o23s +ierar'+)
o/ +uman nee$s t+at 'an %e use$ to se&ment t+e mar5et an$ (osition t+e (ro$u't Cor
t+e or&ani4ationD1 E>(-ain )our '+oi'es1 A+at are t+e a$vanta&es an$ $isa$vanta&es o/
usin& Mas-o23s +ierar'+) in se&mentation an$ (ositionin& a((-i'ations@
/aslow.s needs hierarchy received wide acceptance in many social disciplines because it
appears to reflect the assumed or inferred motivations of many people in our society. -he
five levels of need postulated by the hierarchy are sufficiently generic to encompass most
lists of individual needs. 0ome critics, however, maintain that /aslow.s concepts are too
general. -o say that hunger and self7esteem are similar, in that both are needs, is to obscure
the urgent, involuntary nature of the former and the largely conscious, voluntary nature of the
latter. -he ma8or problem with the theory is that it cannot be tested empirically5 there is no
way to measure precisely how satisfied one need must be before the ne2t higher need
becomes operative. -he need hierarchy also appears to be very closely bound to our
contemporary American culture. Despite these criticisms, /aslow.s hierarchy is a useful tool
for understanding consumer motivations and is readily adaptable to mar*eting strategy. >ffer
the students several current e2amples, one for each level of the hierarchy.
E1 a1 Ho2 $o resear'+ers i$enti/) an$ <measure? +uman motives@ Give e>am(-es1
-his is a difficult 3uestion to answer because motives are hypothetical constructs)that is,
they cannot be seen or touched, handled, smelled, or otherwise tangibly observed. <or this
reason, no single measurement method can be considered a reliable inde2. 'nstead,
researchers usually rely on a combination of various 3ualitative research techni3ues to try to
establish the presence andIor the strength of various motives.
%1 !oes motivationa- resear'+ $i//er /rom *uantitative resear'+@ !is'uss1
Jes. Huantitative research refers to data in the form of numbers and statistics. /otivational
research is a term generally used to refer to 3ualitative research designed to uncover the
consumer.s subconscious or hidden motivation. %sychoanalytic theory of personality,
developed by <reud, provided the basis for the development of motivational research. -he
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theory is built on the premise that unconscious needs or drives, especially biological and
se2ual drives, are at the heart of human motivation and personality.
'1 A+at are t+e stren&t+s an$ 2ea5nesses o/ motivationa- resear'+@
1ecause of the intensive nature of 3ualitative research, samples necessarily were small5 thus,
there was concern about generali@ing findings to the total mar*et. Also, mar*eters soon
reali@ed that the analysis of pro8ective tests and depth interviews was highly sub8ective. -he
same data given to three different analysts could produce three different reports. >ther
consumer theorists noted additional inconsistencies in applying <reudian theory to the study
of consumer behavior. Despite these criticisms, motivational research is still regarded as an
important tool by mar*eters who want to gain deeper insights into the whys of consumer
behavior than conventional mar*eting research techni3ues can yield. /otivational research.s
principal use today is in the development of new ideas for promotional campaigns, ideas that
can penetrate the consumer.s conscious awareness by appealing to unrecogni@ed needs.
/otivational research also provides mar*eters with a basic orientation for new product
categories, and enables them to e2plore consumer reactions to ideas and advertising copy at
an early stage to avoid costly errors.
6. #in$ t2o a$vertisements t+at $e(i't t2o $i//erent $e/ense me'+anisms an$ $is'uss t+eir
'nstructor.s Discussion
(ave students clearly identify the defense mechanism first. -hen have them e2plain how the
ad taps that defense mechanism and how effective it is. <or e2ample, a Bslice7of7lifeC
commercial may show a young man faced with the problem of convincing a girl he li*es to
accept a date with him. A friend advises him to change his toothpaste, his shampoo, or
whatever, to the advertised product5 when he does, he gets the girl and his problem is solved.
71 E>amine Murra)3s List o/ Ps)'+o&eni' Nee$s CTa%-e 418D1 Can )ou i$enti/) an) +uman
nee$s not -iste$ t+ere@ I/ not, 2+) so@ I/ )es, e>(-ain )our /in$in&s1
'nstructor.s Discussion
0tudent answers will vary. 'f a student suggests a need not found in the chart, probe deeply to
determine if the need actually does e2ist but it is imbedded in the definition of a need listed
by /urray. Also recogni@e, as the te2t suggests, there is considerable disagreement among
consumer behavioralists regarding the categori@ing specific psychogenic needs.
81 #in$ t+ree a$vertisements t+at a((ea- to t+e nee$s /or (o2er, a//i-iation, an$
a'+ievement an$ $is'uss t+eir e//e'tiveness1
"opyright # 2$1$ %earson &ducation, 'nc. publishing as %rentice (all
'nstructor.s Discussion
Po2er nee$s relate to an individual.s desire to control his or her environment, both animate
and inanimate. An automobile ad that stresses speed capability utili@es this notion.
A//i-iation nee$s refer to the human need for friendship, for acceptance, and for belonging.
Advertisements for personal care products often suggest that use of the advertised product
will improve the user.s social life)thus fulfilling the need for affiliation. A'+ievement
nee$s refer to those individuals who regard personal accomplishments as an end in itself.
0uch individuals are often good prospects for do7it7yourself products and for such advertising
appeals as Bwe try harder.C
41 #in$ t2o e>am(-es o/ a$s t+at are $esi&ne$ to arouse -atent 'onsumer nee$s an$ $is'uss
t+eir e//e'tiveness1
'nstructor.s Discussion
atent needs are needs a consumer is not aware of. Advertisements re cues designed to
arouse needs. 4ithout these cues, the needs might remain dormant. <or e2ample, an ad
designed to trigger a latent need might show a surprised reaction as a consumer hadn.t
considered a solution to a problem.
Et+i'a- Issues in Consumer Be+avior
2T)3 (roject #1
-he Advertising "ouncil is a nonprofit organi@ation made up of volunteers from the advertising
industry whose goal and mission is to provide 3uality promotion for those needy causes that
could not afford such high7powered services on their own. 'ssues impacting health, the welfare
of our country, women.s issues, social causes li*e drug use prevention, and environmental
concerns have been the forte of the Ad "ouncil in recent years. <or all the good wor* that the
council does, some 3uestion whether the Ad "ouncil has become more left7wing than right7wing
in their politics 6and campaign messages+ in recent years. Does a political spin to the promotions
created by the Ad "ouncil harm its credibilityG
a. Aeview the Ad "ouncil.s 4eb page at www.adcouncil.org.
b. Aeview the issues, campaigns, organi@ations, and non7profit resources created and used by
the Ad "ouncil. Do you thin* the Ad "ouncil seems to have a political agendaG 'f so,
is this correct or incorrect ethical behavior for such an organi@ationG
c. (ow does the Ad "ouncil attempt to impact consumer motivationG <ind one illustration
from the Ad "ouncil 4eb page to illustrate your thoughts.
'nstructor.s Discussion
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-he Ad "ouncil is a great place to see great advertising. 'n fact, the organi@ation often wins the
coveted "'> award in advertising. -he point of this e2ercise is to not only introduce the student
to the Ad "ouncil and its wor* but to get the student to thin* about how an organi@ation such as
this can impact consumer motivation, behavior, and even purchasing. -he Ad "ouncil sponsors
many worthy causes, however, because the "ouncil is made up of many talented members, all of
the members do not necessarily thin* ali*e or approach problems from the same direction. -he
students should be able to find at least one controversial ad 6please preview these before
discussion in class as some are 8ust that)controversial 6such as planned parenthood++. -his is
where the ethical discussion can begin with respect to public responsibility, noble intent, and the
politics of issues. A very big part of consumer motivation is moving a consumer toward a
particular point of view. &thical behavior is part of that process.
2T)3 (roject #!
After you have read the opening vignette to the chapter on Aevlon, see if you can guess who
might be Aevlon.s arch7rival. 'f you said .>rKal, you were correct. .>rKal matches Aevlon in
almost all competitive categories. &2amine the .>rKal 4eb site at www.loreal.com for more
information on this cosmetic industry giant. (aving done this, consider the following imaginary
scenario: as a mar*eting manager for Aevlon, you have 8ust discovered that .>rKal is using the
frustration dynamic of motivation to persuade young teenage girls to switch from Aevlon
products to those of .>rKal. .>rKal ads show two teen girls discussing their difficulties in
finding dates to a prom. >ne girl having seen that her friend has 8ust applied Aevlon nail polish
and lipstic*, says B/aybe the reason you can.t get a date is that you are using your mother.s nail
polish and lipstic*)it.s 8ust too old7fashionedLC
a. "onsidering the information above, how might .>rKal be using the frustration dynamic of
motivation to woo Aevlon usersG
b. 4hat defense mechanisms might be at wor* in the above scenario if the first girl defends
her choice of nail polish and lipstic*G
c. Do you see any ethical problems with the approach used by .>rKalG &2plain.
'nstructor.s Discussion
<irst, the students will find a wealth of consumer information on the .>rKal 4eb site. -his
information can be useful for constructing other pro8ects or e2ercises on needs and motivation.
Advise students to carefully read the section on /rustration, $e/ense me'+anisms, and -able !7
2 before attempting to answers the 3uestions posed by the imaginary scenario. ,otice that
frustration often occurs when one fails to achieve a goal. 'n the scenario, if the goal was to get a
prom date, the girls might be frustrated. ?irl >ne might be ready to blame almost anything other
than herself. ?irl -wo might easily label Aevlon as an old7fashioned product that might be a
reason for inattention from males. ?irl >ne, depending on her li*e or disli*e for her nail polish
and lipstic*, might revert to one of the defense mechanisms displayed in -able !72. -hough there
might be several applications, one defense mechanism could be aggression where ?irl >ne
answers ?irl -wo.s tac*y comment with an even tac*ier rebuttal comment of her own. astly, in
the imaginary scenario, .>rKal has commented no sin, however, labeling a competitive product
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as old7fashioned may not be fair 6additionally, it might offend older users+. As one might say, all
is fair game in the fashion and cosmetic industry)or is itG
Sma-- Grou( Pro0e'ts
2T)3 (roject #%
According to all published reports, the United 0tates is an overweight nation. 0lim7<ast 6see
www.slim7fast.com+ believes that it has an answer to America.s weight problem. Jour group.s
assignment is to visit the 0lim7<ast 4eb site, review the information, then turn to -able !72 in
the chapter and consider the defense mechanisms cited in the table that an overweight person
might use. Devise a plan for 0lim7<ast to penetrate the overweight consumer.s defense barriers.
-here will be several pertinent facts on the 4eb site that your group can use in constructing its
plan. 1e sure to clearly identify which defense mechanisms must be overcome and how your
plan will address these mechanisms. astly, evaluate your own effort and share your plan with
the class.
'nstructor.s Discussion
-his is a sensitive issue for some, so handle it delicately. 0tudents, as they brainstorm, will find
several features on the 0lim7<ast 4eb site that will help them to accomplish the assignment.
<irst, students will see products 6and associated benefits+, healthy dining guides, recipes, success
stories for support and encouragement, chat rooms, etc. 0tudents can choose their own menu for
assistance, however, choices should be 8ustified. ,e2t, students should choose from among the
defense mechanisms outlined by -able !72 6these answers may be different for each group+. -he
plan devised should be a combination of problem identification and solution. -he table and the
4eb site provide most of the ingredients for completing the tas*. 't will be interesting to see how
each group approaches the problem.
2T)3 (roject #4
't is often difficult to decide whether to choose rational or emotional motives when promoting a
product or service. Aational motives and the information directed toward these motives can often
be supported with facts. <acts can be boring, however, and stifle action. &motional motives and
information can be e2citing and energi@ing but sensationalism is often a shallow long7term
strategy. 4hich approach is bestG -here is no clear answer. Jour group.s tas* is to see which
approach might be best in the following scenario: your group has 8ust been hired by /other.s
Against Drun* Driving 6/ADD)www.madd.org+ to develop a new promotional campaign to
increase awareness of the national problem of drin*ing while driving and the conse3uences of
those actions. >ne group from /ADD encourages you to use facts, while another encourages
you to use graphic scenes from highway accidents to ma*e your point. Jour group must come up
with a new and fresh approach. %ic* a motivational direction for /ADD, describe your
approach, and 8ustify why your group selected the direction. 1riefly outline your promotional
'nstructor.s Discussion
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0tudents will find both rational and emotional information 6motivations+ on the /ADD 4eb
site. >bviously, the problem of drun* driving is of national concern. (ave student.s debate the
correct way to address the problem. 1y e2amining the pros and cons of the two approaches
6rational versus emotional+, students should be better prepared to recogni@e the two approaches
when they see them. &2amining these two approaches is a good first step in designing
motivational7oriented promotions.
Usin& t+e Internet to Stu$) Consumer Be+avior
2T)3 (roject #+
4ith the resurgence of the Mol*swagen 1eetle, M4 is once again a competitive automotive
force in the teen and youth mar*et. -he M4 4eb site 6www.vw.com+ provides e2citing graphics
and lin*s to other youth7oriented interests 6the 0undance <ilm <estival and club soccer, for
e2ample+. Mol*swagen was one of the first automotive companies to see the power of the
'nternet and one of the first to promote colorful interactivity as a way of stimulating interest in its
products and sales on the showroom floor.
a. Using the 1uild Jour M4 feature, build your own dream M4.
b. >nce your have built your M4, analy@e what needs you filled. -o aid you with this
analysis, use the categories found in -able !73 6/urray.s ist of %sychogenic ,eeds+
and <igure !712 6/aslow.s (ierarchy of ,eeds+. 1e sure to cite specific needs from
both of these sources.
c. astly, what need does the interactivity present on the M4 4eb site address in youG
'nstructor.s Discussion
-his 4eb site is 8ust plain fun for students. -o see some really wild cars, have students e7mail
their pic*s to you and show them in class. -his is a great way to engage the entire class in a
discussion of needs from -able !73 and <igure !712. 't is also great fun to try and guess who
belongs to what car. -here is no right or wrong answer here, however, this e2ercise should give
students the opportunity to create 6a need for many+ and show off what they have accomplished
6a need for others+.
2T)3 (roject #-
Jou have 8ust been hired as the mar*eting manager for 4ine.com 6see www.wine.com+. Jou are
concerned that with all the recent publicity about the harmful effects of alcohol, global terrorism,
and overeating, your 4eb site, after many years of success, may begin to falter. 4ine
consumption in America has been growing for a number of years. Jour 4eb site has been at the
forefront of this growth. 0ales of wine products, information about wine consumption, wine
growing regions, and an e2cellent browsing feature 6review of wines+ are all noted features of
your 4eb site. Jour problem is how to maintain the arousal of motives in the consuming public
that has made wine drin*ing so popular in recent years. "onsider the problem.
a. "onsidering that the arousal of any particular set of needs at a specific moment in time
may be caused by internal stimuli, which of the following arousals would be most
"opyright # 2$1$ %earson &ducation, 'nc. publishing as %rentice (all
important for 4ine.com to address in solving the problems mentioned above)
physiological, emotional, cognitive, or environmentalG &2plain and comment.
b. <ind two e2amples on the 4eb site that indicates how 4ine.com is addressing the
arousal problem 6or opportunity+ that you have identified in BaC above.
'nstructor.s Discussion
4ine drin*er or not, 4ine.com is a highly informative 4eb site and one that is rich in mar*eting
efforts and illustrations. 0tudents should refer to the Arousal of /otives section in the chapter,
where they will find pertinent information about physiological, emotional, cognitive, and
environmental arousal. Any of these areas can be pic*ed as an answer to part BaC of the 3uestion,
however, the answer should then be 8ustified or e2plained. <or e2ample, wine consumption
might aid digestion 6physiological arousalIneeds+, be part of a romantic setting 6emotional+,
cause the person to thin* about happy times and camaraderie 6cognitive+, or consider the other
foods or dinning treats associated with wine consumption 6environmental+.
"onsider how any of these might enhance the motivation to purchase and consume wine.
&2amples for part BbC can be found for almost anything on the 4eb site because it is rather
Case OneB T+e Pro$u't Co--e'tion at Ne2 Pro$u't Aor5s
1. -he collection e2hibited at the ,ew %roducts 4or*s illustrates that product failures are
e2amples of Bsolutions loo*ing for problems.C 1y completing this 3uestion, student will
understand that the *ey to launching a successful product is uncovering an unmet
consumer need and also clearly demonstrating, through positioning and promotion, how
the new product fulfills that need.
2. -he products in the BfailuresC section are either Bsolutions loo*ing for needsC or
unclearly or wrongly positioned BinnovationsC to valid needs. 0tudents should have no
problem discovering these points after reading the chapter, where the concept of
developing only products that clearly fulfill consumers. needs is stated repeatedly.
Case T2oB Nee$.#o'use$ !e/inition o/ Business
1. -he *ey to a company.s long7term profitability and growth is a need7oriented, rather than
a product7oriented, definition of its business domain. 'f a company positions itself as
ma*ing horse7drawn carriages, it will cease to e2ist when a product replacing this mode
of transport N such as a car N is invented. (owever, a company that defines itself as being
in the Btransportation businessC will always be on the loo*out for new modes of
transportation and will not fold when the product it ma*es becomes obsolete. -he
ob8ective of this case is to follow up on the chapter.s introductory discussion 6i.e., the
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"harles Aevson story+ illustrating the importance on need7oriented definitions of one.s
business domain.
2. -he business definitions of the three companies are need7oriented and not product7
oriented. <or e2ample, /erc*.s vision and missions refer to solutions and innovations
that enhance people.s life 3uality and does not refer to medications for pharmaceuticals.
3. -he ob8ective of this 3uestion is to illustrate the connection between a company.s
definition of its business, the products that it produces, and the way these offerings are
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