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INTRODUCTION

The principle goal of dentistry is to maintain or improve the oral


health of the patient.
A wide variety of dental materials are involved in the clinical
application. Material shold !e careflly selected.
Throgh nderstanding and e"perimentation it is possi!le to
ma"imi#e any one property$ !t in no application is it possi!le to
select a material for one property a!ove.
It is precisely in the !alance of one factor against another that the
materials are sed sccessflly.
%ence it is essential to &now$ the properties of the dental materials$ to
!e a!le to nderstand the properties and reactions of the material and
predict the otcome.
'TRUCTUR( O) MATT(R AND *RINCI*+(' O) AD%('ION
All matter is made p of atoms and these atoms are frther held
together !y atomic interactions to form larger particles called molecles.
Atom, It Is The 'mallest particle of a chemical element.
Molecle, Is a grop of atoms.
(g, -hen %
.
O vapor condenses to form a li/id$ energy in the form of heat
is released$ &nown as the heat of vapori#ation. One can conclde that the
gaseos state possesses more energy than does the li/id state. Althogh the
molecle in the gaseos state e"erts a certain amont of mtal attraction$
they can diffse readily and need to !e confined in order to &eep the gas
intact.
Althogh the atoms may also diffse in the li/id state$ their mtal
attractions are greater$ and energy is re/ired for separation as
descri!ed.
If the energy of the li/id decreases sfficiently !y virte of a
decrease in temperatre$ a second transformation is state may occr
and the li/id changes to a solid or free#es.
Again energy is released in the form of heat. In this case the energy
evolved is &nown as the latent heat of fsion.
In as mch energy is re/ired from a change of solid to li/id one can
conclde that the attraction !etween the atoms 0or molecles1 in the
solid state is greater than li/id or gas.
If this were not tre the metal wold deform readily and gasify at low
temperatre.
Change can also ta&e place from a solid to a gas !y a process &nown as
s!limation$ !t this phenomenon is not li&ely to !e of practical importance
so far as the dental materials are concerned.
INT(RATOMIC 2OND'
)orces that hold atoms together are of the cohesive type.
These inter atomic !onds may !e classified as
*rimary 'econdary
a1 Ionic a1 %ydrogen !onding
!1 Covalent !1 3an der waals forces
C1 Metallic
Ionic !onds,
Are simple chemical type !onds reslting from mtal attraction of
positive and negative charges. Classic eg. Na and Cl.
These types of !onds e"ist in certain crystalline phases of some dental
materials sch as gypsm and #inc phosphate cement.
Covalent !onds,
In many chemical componds$ two valence electrons are shared.
It occrs mainly in dental resins.
%
.
is an e"ample of this type of !ond.
Metallic !onds,
One of the chief characteristics of a metal is its a!ility to condct heat
and electricity.
'ch energy condction is de to the mo!ility of free electrons
present in metals.
The oter valence shell can !e removed easily from the metallic atom$
leaving the !alance of the electrons tied to the ncleons$ ths forming
a positive ion.
The free valence electrons are a!le to move a!ot in the metal space
lattice to form what is sometimes descri!ed as an electron 4clod5 or
4gas5.
The electrostatic attraction !etween this electron clod and the
positive ions in the lattice provides the force that !onds the metal atoms
together as a solid. The free electrons act as condctors of !oth thermal
energy and electricity. They transfer energy !y moving readily from areas of
higher energy to those of lower energy$ nder the inflence of either a
thermal gradient or an electrical field.
Deforma!ility is associated with slip along crystal planes$ and ths the
a!ility to easily regrop and still retain the cohesive natre of the metal
as deformation occrs.
INT(R ATOMIC '(CONDAR6 2OND'
In contrast to primary !onds secondary !onds do not share electrons.
Instead$ charge variations among molecles or atomic grops inclde
polar forces that attract the molecles.
%ydrogen !onding,
This !ond can !e nderstood !y stdying a water molecle. The
single o"ygen atom is attached to two hydrogen atoms.
These !onds are covalent !ecase the o"ygen and hydrogen atoms
share electrons.
As a reslt the electrons do not shield the protons of the hydrogen atoms
pointing away from the o"ygen atoms effectively. Ths the proton side
of the water molecle !ecomes positively charged. On the opposite side
of the water molecle$ the electrons that fill the oter or!it of the o"ygen
provide a negative charge. Ths a permanent dipole e"ists that
represents an asymmetric molecle. %
.
!ond$ associated with the
positive charge of hydrogen cased !y polari#ation is an important
e"ample of this type of secondary !onding.
-hen a %
.
O molecle intermingles with other water molecles$ the
hydrogen 07ve1 portion of one molecle is attracted to the o"ygen
portion of its neigh!oring molecle$ and the hydrogen !ridge is formed.
3AN D(R -AA+' )ORC('
It is more physical than chemical !ond.
These forces form the !ases of a dipole attraction. (g , in an inert gas$
the electron field is constantly flctating. Normally the electrons of
the atoms are distri!ted e/ally rond the ncles and prodce an
electrostatic field arond the atom. %owever this field may flctate
so that its charge !ecomes momentarily positive and negative. A
flctating dipole is ths created that will attract other similar dipoles.
'ch inter8atomic forces are /iet wea&.
Inter atomic !ond distance and !onding energy
Regardless of the type of matter$ there is a limiting factor that
prevents the atoms or molecles from approaching each other too closely$
that is the distances !etween the center of an atom and that of its neigh!or is
limited to the diameter of the atoms involved.
If the atoms approach too closely$ they are repelled from each other
!y their electron charges. On the other hand$ forces of attraction tend to
draw the atoms together. The position at which these forces of replsion and
attraction !ecome e/al in magnitde is the normal or e/ili!rim position
of the atoms.
Thermal energy
Thermal energy is acconted for !y the &inetic energy of the atoms or
molecles at a given temperatre. The atoms in a crystal at temperatres
a!ove a!solte #ero temperatre are in a constant state of vi!ration and the
average amplitde will !e dependent on the temperatre.%igher the
temperatre the greater the amplitde$ and conse/ently$ the greater the
&inetic or internal energy. The overall effect represents the phenomenon
&nown as thermal e"pansion.
If the temperatre contines to increase$the inter8atomic spacing will
increase$ and eventally a change of state will occr.
The thermal condctivity depends mainly on the nm!er of free
electrons in the material.
As metallic strctres contain many free electrons and most metals
are good condctors of heat as well as electricity$ whereas non8metallic
materials do not inclde many free electrons and conse/ently they are
generally poor thermal and electrical condctors.
CR6'TA++IN( 'TRUCTUR(
All dental materials consist of many millions of atoms or molecles.
They are arranged in a particlar configration.
In 9::; Ro!ert %oo&e simlated the characteristic shapes of crystals
!y stac&ing ms&et !alls in piles.
The atoms are !onded !y either primary or secondary forces.
In solid state they com!ine in the manner that will ensre a minimal
internal energy.
)or eg. 'odim and chlorine share one electron as descri!ed previosly. In
the solid state$ however they do note simply pair together !t rather all of
the positively charged sodim ions attract all of the negative chlorine ions$
with the reslt that they form a reglarly spaced configration &nown as
space lattice or crystal$ here every atom is spaced e/ally from every other
atom.
There are 9< possi!le lattice types$ !t many of the metals sed in
dentistry !elong to the c!ic system.
Non8crystalline strctre eg. =lass and wa"es strctres other than
the crystalline form that occrs in the solid state eg. =lass and wa"es.
-a"es > solidify as amorphos materials meaning that the molecles
are distri!ted at random. Thogh there may !e a tendency for the
arrangement to !e reglar.
=lass is considered to !e a non8crystalline solid$ yet its atoms tend to
form a short > range order lattice instead of the long8range order lattice
characteristic of crystalline solids. In other words$ the ordered arrangement
of the glass is more or less locali#ed with a considera!le nm!er of
disordered nits !etween them.
'ch an arrangement is also typical of li/ids sch solids are
sometimes called sper cooled li/ids.
Non8crystalline solids do not have a definite melting temperatre !t
rather they gradally softer as the temperatre is raised and gradally
hardens as they cool. The temperatre$ at which there is an a!rpt decrease
in the thermal e"pansion cff$ is called the glass transition temperatre or
glass temperatre.
2elow this temperatre glass loses its flid characteristics and has
significant resistance to deformation.
(g , synthetic dental resins.
DI))U'ION
Diffsion of molecles in gases and li/ids is not &nown.
%owever molecles and atoms diffse in the solid state as well.
At any temperatre a!ove a!solte #ero$ the atoms of a solid possess some
amont of &inetic energy as previosly discssed. %owever the fact is that
all the atoms do not possess the same amont of energy$ these energies vary
from very small to /iet large. -ith the average energy related to the
a!solte temperatre. (ven at very low temperatres some atoms will have
large energies. If the energy of a particlar atom e"ceeds the !onding
energy$ it can$ move to another position is the lattice.
Atoms change position in pre solids$ even nder e/ili!rim
conditions? this is &nown as self8diffsion.
Increase in temperatre$ greater the rate of diffsion .The diffsion
rate will however vary with the atom si#e$ inter8atomic or intermoleclar
!onding$ lattice.
AD%('ION AND 2ONDIN=
It is a phenomenon involved in many sitations in dentistry.
The adhesion process affects lea&age ad@acent to dental restorative
material.
The retention of artificial dentres is pro!a!ly dependent$ to some
e"tent on the adhesion !etween dentre and saliva and !etween saliva
and soft tisse. (g. *la/e and calcls to tooth8 adhesion.
-hen . s!@ects are !roght together into ltimate contact with each other
the molecles of one s!@ect adhere or are attracted of molecle of another.
Unli&e molecle > adhesion
+i&e molecle > cohesion
Material or film that prodces adhesion > adhesive
Material to which it is applied > adherend
M(C%ANICA+ 2ONDIN=
'crews$ !olts$ nderct.
Acid etching > composite.
'UR)AC( (N(R=6
)or adhesion$ the srfaces mst !e attracted to one another at their
interface.
(nergy at the srface is more than at the centre.
At the oter srface the atoms are not e/ally attracted in all
directions.
Increase in energy per nit area or srface is referred to as the srface
energy or srface tension.
(g. Molecles in the air may !e attracted to the srface and !ecome
adsor!ed on the material srface. 'ilver$ platinm and gold adsor! O
.
.-ith
gold !onding forces are .
A
!t in case of silver the attraction may !e
controlled !y chemical or 9
A
!onding and silver o"ide may form.
-hen 9
A
!onding are involved$ the adhesion is termed
chemisorptionBs.
=reater the srface energy$ greater the capacity for adhesion.
M(C%ANICA+ 2ONDIN=
'imply mechanical !onding or retention rather than moleclar
attraction can also accomplish strong attachments of two s!stances.
(ven strctral retention may !e somewhat gross$ as !y screws$ !olts and
ndercts. It may also involve more s!tle mechanisms as !y penetration of
the adhesive into microscopic or s!microscopic irreglarities 0eg. Revices
and pores1 in the srface of the s!strate.
A flid or semi8viscos li/id adhesive is !est sited for sch a
procedre$ since it readily penetrates into these srface discrepancies. Upon
hardening the mltitde of adhesive pro@ections em!edded in the adherend
srface provides the footholds for mechanical attachment.
ACID (TC%IN=, Resin pro@ections provide retention as it flows into the
minte pores created !y CDE phosphoric acid.
-(TTIN=
It is difficlt to force two solid srfaces to adhere.
-hen placed in apposition only high spots are in contract. 2ecase
these areas sally constitte only a small percentage of the total srface$ no
percepti!le adhesion ta&es place. The attraction is generally negli!le when
the srface molecles of the attracting s!stances are separated !y distances
greater than A.D nm.
One method of overcoming this difficlty is to se a flid that flows
into these irreglarities and ths provides contact over a greater part of the
srfaces of the solid.
To prodce adhesion in this manner$ the li/id mst flow easily over the
entire srfaces and adheres to the solid. This characteristic is referred to as
welting.
A!ility of an adhesive to wet the srface is inflenced !y nm!er of
factors.
Cleanliness
(g. O"ide film on metallic srfaces.
'ome s!stances have srface energy hence only a few li/ids wet
their srface.
Close pac&ing of the strctral organic grops and the presence of
halogens may prevent wetting.
Metals interact vigorosly with li/id adhesive !ecase of increase
srface energy.
CONTACT AN=+( O) -(TTIN=
The e"tend to which an adhesive wets the srface of an adherand may
!e determined !y measring the contact angle !etween the adhesive and
adherand.
The contact angle is the angle formed !y the adhesive with the
adherend at their interface. If the molecles of the adhesive are attracted to
the molecles of the adherend as mch as or more than they are to
themselves$ the li/id adhesive will spread completely over the srface of
the solid$ and no angle 0 F A degrees1 will !e formed. Ths the forces of
adhesion are stronger than the cohesive forces holding the molecles of the
adhesive together.
Tendency of li/id to spread increases with decrease in contact angle.
Therefore contact angle is the indication of spreada!ility or wetta!ility.
Ths the smaller the contact angle !etween an adhesive and an adherend$
the !etter the a!ility of the adhesive to fill in irreglarities on the srface of
the adherend. Also the flidity of the adhesive inflences the e"tent to
which these voids or irreglarities are fitted.
AD%('ION TO TOOT% 'TRUCTUR(
Associated principles of adhesion can !e readily related to dental
sitations. )or eg. -hen contact angle measrements are sed to stdy the
wetta!ility of enamel and dentin. It is fond that the wetta!ility of these
srfaces is mar&edly redced after the topical appreciation of an a/eos
floride soltion.
Ths floride treated enamel srface retains less pla/e over a given
period$ presma!ly !ecase of a decrease in srface energy. Therefore
decreases in dental caries.
%igher srface energy of many restorative materials compond with
that of the tooth$ there is great tendency for the srface and margins of the
restoration to accmlate de!ris. Therefore increases marginal caries.
Under certain instances$
91 Recrrent caries
.1 *lpal sentivity
C1 Deterioration of the margins of restoration can !e associated with a
lac& of adhesion !etween restorations.
(namel and dentin of tooth have varying amonts of organic and
inorganic components. A material that can adhere to the organic
components may not adhere to the inorganic components$ and an adhesive
that !onds to enamel may not adhere to dentin to the same e"tent.
After cavity preparation$ tenacios microscopic de!ris covers the
enamel and dentin srfaces. This srface contamination called the smear
layer$ redces wetting.
=reatest pro!lem asso with !onding to tooth srfaces is water
or saliva contamination. Inorganic components of tooth strctre have a
strong affinity for water. To remove the water$ the enamel and dentin wold
have to !e heated to increase temperatre.
M(C%ANICA+ *RO*(RTI('
Most restorative materials mst withstand forces$ dring either
fa!rication or mastication mechanical properties are therefore important in
nderstanding and predicting a materials !ehavior nder load. 2ecase no
single mechanical property can give a tre measre of /ality$
nderstanding the principles involved in a variety of mechanical properties
is essential to o!tain the GMa"imm service5.
An important factor in the design of a dental prosthesis is strength$ a
mechanical property of a material that ensres that the prosthesis serves its
intend of firm a effectively safely and for a reasona!le period.
)ORC(
It is gained thr one !ody pshing or plling on another. )orces
applied thr actal contact or at a distance.
The reslt of force is
0a1 Change in position of !ody at rest
0!1 Motion of the !ody.
If force applied to !ody reslts in no movement of !ody thr
deformation reslts
)orce is defined !y C characters,
a1 *oint of application
!1 Magnitde
c1 Direction
The nit of force is N(-TON 0N1
Occlsal forces > Most important application of physics in dentistry is the
stdy of forces applied to teeth and dental restorations.
2iting forces in case of molars > incisors
Adlts > <AA8HAAN 0molar1
Child > .C;8<I< with ..N yearly
-e can srmise that the forces of occlsal and response of the
nderlying tisse change with anatomical location. Therefore a material or
design sfficient to withstand the forces of occlsion on the incisor of a
child may not !e sfficient for the first molar of an adlt who has a
malocclsion or !ridge.
'TR(''
-hen an e"ternal force acts pon a solid !ody$ a reaction force
reslts within the !ody that is e/al is magnitde !t opposite in direction to
the e"ternal force. The e"ternal force will !e called the 4load5 on the !ody.
The internal reaction is e/al in intensity and opposite in direction to
the applied e"ternal force$ and is called stress.
2oth the applied force and internal resistance 0stress1 are distri!ted
over a given area of the !ody and so the stress in a strctre is designated as
the force per nit area in this respect stress resem!les for
'tress F )orce
Area
Unit 4Megapascals5 > M*a
)ORC(' ON R('TORATION'
(/ally important to the stdy of forces on natral dentition is the
measrement of force and stresses on restorations sch as inlays$ fi"ed
!ridges remova!le partial dentres and complete dentres.One of the first
investigations of occlsal forces showed that the average !iting force on
patients who had a fi"ed !ridge replacing a first molar was .;AN on the
restored side and CAA N on the opposite side$ where they had natral
dentition.
)orce measrements on patients with remova!le partial dentres are
in the range of :; to .C; N for patients with complete dentres.
The average force on the molars and !icspids was a!ot 9AA N
whereas the forces on the incisors averaged <A N. The wide range in reslts
is possi!ly cased !y age and gender variations in the patient poplations.
In general the !iting force applied !y women in IA N less than that applied
!y men.
These stdies indicate that
Chewing forces on the 9
st
molars of patients with fi"ed !ridges is
a!ot <AE of the force e"erted !y patients with natral dentitions.
Decrease in force is o!tained with CD or R*D. In sch patients only
9;E of force is applied.
-e can therefore srprise that the forces of occlsion and the
response of nderlying tisse changes with anatomic location$ age$
malocclsion and placement of a restorative appliance.
Therefore a material or design sfficient to withstand the forces of
occlsion on the incisor of a child may not !e sfficient for the first molar
of an adlt with a malocclsion or !ridge.
Internal resistance to force application is impractical to measre$ the
more convenient procedre is to measre e"ternal forces 0)1 applied to the
cross sectional area 0A1$ which can !e descri!ed as the stress typically
denoted as ' or . The nit of stress therefore is the nit of force 0N1
divided !y a nit of area or length s/ared and is commonly e"pressed as
*ascal.
9 *a F 9N Jm
.
F 9 MN Jmm
.
'tress in a strctre varies directly with force and inversely with area$
it is therefore necessary to determine the area over which the force acts.
*articlarly tre with dental restorations$ as forces applied over small areas
eg. clasps on R*D$ orthodontic wires.
'tress is always stated as thogh the force were e/ivalent to that
applied to 9m
.
section$ !t a dental restoration o!viosly does not have a
s/are meter of e"posed occlsal srface area. A small occlsal pit
restoration may have no more than <mm
.
of srface area$ if it were assmed
that the restoration were .mm on a side. If a !iting force of <<A N shold !e
concentrated on this area$ the stress developed wold !e 9AAM*a$ therefore
stresses e/ivalent to several hndreds of M*a occr in many types of
restorations.
T6*(' O) 'TR(''
A force can !e directed to a !ody from any angle or direction and
often several forces are com!ined to develop comple" stresses in a strctre.
In general individally applied forces may !e a"ial 0tensile or comp1$ shear$
!ending or torsional. All stresses however can !e com!ined into . !asic
types a"ial and shear.
Tension reslts in a !ody when it is s!@ected to two sets of forces
directed away from each other in the same straight line.
Compression reslts when the !ody is s!@ected to two sets of forces
directed towards from each other in the same straight line.
'hear reslts when two sets of forces are directed parallel to each
other.
Torsion reslts from the twisting of a !ody. 2ending reslts from an
applied !ending moment.
T(N'I+( 'TR(''
It is cased !y a load that tends to stretch or elongate a !ody. It is
always accompanied !y tensile strain.
The deformation of a !ridge and the diametral compressive loads of a
cylinder represent samples of these comple" stress sitations.
COM*R(''I3( 'TR(''
If a !ody is placed nder a load that tends to compress or shorten it$
the internal resistance to sch a load is called a compressive stress. A
compressive stress is associated with compressive strain. To calclate either
tensile stress or compressive stress$ the applied force is divided !y the cross8
sectional area perpendiclar to the force direction.
Althogh the shear !ond strength of dental adhesive systems is often
advertised$ most dental prosthesis and restorations are not li&ely to fail
!ecase of pre shear stresses.
'%(AR 'TR(''
'hear stress tends to resist the sliding of one portion of a !ody over
another. 'hear stress can also !e prodced !y twisting or torsional action on
a material. )or e"ample$ if a force is applied along the srface of a tooth
enamel !y a sharp > edged instrment parallel to the interface !etween the
enamel and orthodontic !rac&et$ the !rac&et may de!ond !y shear stress
failre of the resin lting agent. 'hear stress is calclated !y dividing the
force !y the area parallel to the force direction.
In the oral environment shear failre is nli&ely to occr for many of
the !rittle material !ecase restored tooth srfaces are generally rogh in
srface morphology and they are not planar.
The presence of chamfers$ !evels$ or changes in crvatre of a
!onded tooth srface wold ma&e shear failre of a !onded material highly
nli&ely. )rther more to prodce shear failre the applied force mst !e
located immediately ad@acent to the interface.
)+(KURA+ 'TR('' 02ending1
)le"ral stress is e"hi!ited in a C nit !ridge and a . 8 nit cantilever
!ridge. It is prodced !y !ending force in dental appliances in one ways
91 2y s!@ecting a strctre sch as a )*D to three point loading$ where
!y the endpoints are fi"ed and a force is applied !etween these
endpoints$
.1 2y s!@ecting a cantilevered strctre that is spported at only one
end to a load along any part of the nspported section.
-hen patient !ites into an apple the anterior teeth receive forces that
are at an angle to their long a"es$ there!y creating fle"ral stresses within
the teeth.
Tensile stress develops on the tisse side of the !ridge and
compressive stress develops on the occlsal side. 2etween these two areas is
the netral a"is that represents a state of no tensile stress and no
compressive stress.
)or a canteliver !ridge the ma"imm tensile stress develops on the
occlsal srface or the srface that is !ecoming more conve".
'TRAIN
In the discssion of force$ it was pointed ot that a !ody ndergoes
deformation when a force is applied to it. It is important to recogni#e that
each types of stress is capa!le of prodcing a corresponding deformation in
a !ody.
The deformation reslting from a tensile or plling force is an
elongation of a !ody in the direction of applied force$ where as a
compressive or pshing force cases compression or shortening of the !ody
in the direction of loading.
'train ( is descri!ed as the change in length per nit length of the
!ody when it is s!@ected to a stress. 'train has no nit of measrement !t
is represented a pre nm!er o!tained from the fll e/ation.
'train ( Deformation F + > +
A
F +
Original length +
A
+
A

Regardless of the composition or natre of the material and type of
stress applied to the material$ deformation and strain reslt with each stress
application.
'ignificance, A Restoration material sch as a clasp or an orthodontic wire
which can with stand a large amont of strain !efore failre can !e !ent and
ad@sted with less chance of fractring.
'TR('' 'TRAIN CUR3('
Consider a !ar of material s!@ected to an applied force ). -e can
measre the magnitde of the force and the reslting deformation.
If we ne"t ta&e another !ar of the same material$ !t diff dimensions
the force > deformation characteristic change.
%owever if we normali#e the applied force !y the cross sectional area
A 0stress1 of the !ar and nerali#e the deformation !y the original length
0strain1 of the !ar$ the resltant stress > strain crve now !ecomes
independent of the geometry of the !ar.
It is therefore preferential to report the stress > strain deformation
characteristics. The stress > strain relationship of a dental material is stdied
!y measring the load and deformation and then calclating the
corresponding stress and strain.
An s8s crve for a hypothetical material that was s!@ected to increase
tensile stress ntil is show.
The stress is plotted vertically and the strain is plotted hori#ontally.
As the stress is increase the strain is increases. In fact in the ventral portion
of the crve from A to A$ the strain is linearly proportional to the stress and
as the stress is do!led$ the amont of strain is also do!led when a stress
that is higher than the vale registered at A is achieved$ the strain changes
are no longer linearly proportional to the stress changes. %ence the vale of
the stress at A &nown as proportional limit.
PROPORTIONAL AND ELASTIC LIMITS
The proportional limit is defined as the greatest stress that a material
will sstain withot a deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain.
2elow the proportional limit$ no permanent deformation occrs in a
strctre when stress removed it retrn to its original dimensions. -ithin
this range of stress application$ the material is elastic in natre$ and if the
material is stressed to a vale !elow the proportional limit$ an elastic or
reversi!le strain will occr. The region of the stress strain crve !elow the
proportional limit is called the elastic region. The application of a stress
greater than the proportional limit reslts in a permanent or irreversi!le
strain in the sample$ and the region of the stress > strain crve !eyond the
proportional limit is called the plastic region.
The elastic limit is defined as the ma"imm stress that a material will
withstand withot permanent deformation. )or all practical prposes$
therefore$ the proportional limit and elastic limit represent the same stress
with in the strctre$ and the terms are often sed interchangea!ly in
referring to the stress involved.
The concepts of elastic and plastic !ehavior can !e reali#ed with a
schematic model of the deformation of atoms in a solid nder stress. The
atoms are shown in 0)ig A1 with no stress applied$ and in 0)ig 21 with an
applied stress that is !elow the vale of the proportional limit.
-hen the stress shown in 2 is removed$ the atoms retrn to their
positions shown in A. -hen a stress is applied that is greater than the
proportional limit$ the atoms move to a position as shown in 0)ig C1 and
after removal of the stress$ the atoms remain in this new position. The
application of a stress greater than the proportional or elastic limit reslts in
an irreversi!le or permanent strain in the sample.
YIELD STRENGTH / YIELD STRESS
It is the property that is sed to descri!e the stress at which the
material !egins to fnction in a plastic manner. At this stress$ a limited
permanent strain has occrred in the material.
The yield it is defined as the stress at which a material e"hi!its a
specified limiting deviation from proportionality of stress to strains.
-hen a strctre is permanently deformed$ even to a small degree$ it
does not retrn completely to its original dimensions when the stress is
removed. Therefore prop limit$ elastic limit$ yield it of a maternal are among
its most important properties.
Any dental strctre that is permanently deformed throgh the forces
of mastication is sally a fnctional failre to some degree.
)or eg. !ridge that is permanently deformed thorogh the application of
e"cessive !iting forces wold !e shifted ot of the proper occlsal relation
for which it was originally designed.
The prosthesis !ecomes permanently deformed !ecase a stress e/al
to or greater than the yield strength was developed.
Recall also that malocclsion changes the stresses placed on a
restoration$ a deformed prosthesis many therefore !y s!@ected to greater
stresses than originally intended. Usally a L does met occr nder sch
conditions !t rather only a permanent deformation reslts$ which
represents a destrctive eg of deformation.
A constrctive eg of permanent deformation and stresses in e"cess of
the elastic limit is o!served when an appliance or dental strctre is adapted
or ad@sted for prposes of design for eg in the process of shaping an ortho
appliance or R*D clamp it may !e necessary to endre stress into the
strctre in e"cess of the yield at if the material is to !e permanently !ent or
adapted.
ULTIMATE STRENGTH
The test specimen is s!@ected to its greatest stress at point C. the
ltimate tensile strength or stress is defined as the ma"imm strength or
stress a material can withstand !efore failre in tension.
The ltimate strength of an alloy is sed in dentistry to give an
indication of the si#e or cross section re/ired for a given restoration. Note
Fracture Strength
Point D
'tress at which a material fractre
Note that a mat does not necessarily fractre at the point at which the
ma"imm stress occrs. After a ma" stress is applied some materials !egin
to elongate e"cessively and the stress calclated from the force and the
original cross sectional area may drop !efore final fractre occrs.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ASED ON ELASTIC
DEFORMATION
There are several important mechanical properties and parameters
that are measres of the elastic or reversi!le deformation !ehavior of dental
materials.
3i#
(lastic modls J yongBs modls
Dynamic yongBs modls
)le"i!ility
Resilience
*oissonBs ratio
ELASTIC MODULUS
The term descri!es the relative stiffness or rigidity of a material.
%ere is a fig of a stress > strain graph for a stainless steel were that
has !een s!@ected to a tensile test ltimate tensile strength$ yield$ prop limit
elastic modls are shown.
This fig represents a plot of tre stress verss strain !ecase the force
ahs !een divides !y the changing cross sectional area as the wire !eing
stretched. The straight line region represents reversi!le elastic deformation$
!ecase the stress remains !elow the prop limit of 9A.Ampa and the crved
region represents irreversi!le plastic deformation that is not recovered when
the wire fractres at a stress of 9:.; mpa. %owever the elastic deformation
is flly recovered when the force is removed or when the wire fractres.
-e can see this easily while !ending a wire in or hands a slight
amont and then redcing the force. It straightens !ac& to its original shape
as the force is decreases to #ero and assming that the indced stress has not
e"ceeded the proportional limit.
This principle can !e illstrated !y demonstrating a !rnishing
procedre for an open metal margin$ where a dental a!rasive stone is shown
rotating against the metal margin to close the marginal gap as a reslt of
elastic pls plastic strain. %owever after the force is removed the margins
springs !ac& an amont e/al to the total elastic strain. Only !y removing
the screws from a tooth or die can total closre !e accomplished. 2ecase
we mst provide at least .;m of clearance for the cement$ total !rnishing
on the tooth or die is sally ade/ate since the amont of elastic strain
recovery is relatively small.
The term sed to designate it 4(5 elastic modls of a material is a
constant and is naffected !y the amont of elastic or plastic stress that can
!e indced in a material.
)orce per nit area J giganewtons per s/are meter. =NJm
.
or giga
pascals 0=*A1
D!na"ic Young#$ Mo%u&u$ ' (lastic modls can !e measred !y a
dynamic method as well as the static techni/es that were descri!ed in the
previos section since the velocity at which sond travels throgh a solid
can !e readily measred !y ltrasonic longitdinal and transverse wave
transdcers and appropriate receivers. 2ased on this velocity and the density
of the material$ the elastic modls and poissonBs ratio can !e determined.
This method of determining dynamic elastic modli is less complicated than
conventional tensile or compressive tests$ !t the vales are often fond to
!e higher than the vales o!tained !y static measrements. )or most
prposes$ these vales are accepta!le.
If$ instead of nia"ial tensile or compressive stress$ a shear stress was
indced$ the reslting shear strain cold !e sed to define a shear modls
for the material. The shear modls 0=1 can !e calclated from the elastic
modls 0(1 and *oissonBs ratio 0v1. It is determined !y the e/ation$

DUCTILITY AND MALLEAILITY
Two very significant properties of metals and alloys. These properties
cannot always !e determined with certainly from a stress > strain crve.
Dctility is the a!ility of a material to !e plastically deformed$ and it
is indicated !y the plastic strain. A high degree of compression or
elongation indicated a good mallea!ility and dctility.
Dctility,8 if a material represents its a!ility to !e drawn into wire
nder a force of tension. The material is s!@ected to a permanent
deformation. -hile !eing s!@ected to these tensile force. The mallea!ility
of a s!stance represents its a!ility to !e hammered or rolled into thin sheets
withot fractring.
Dctility is a property that has !een related to the wor& a!ility of a
material in the moth. Dctility has also !een related to !rnisha!ility of the
margins of a casting.
Metals tend !e dctile$ whereas ceramics tend to !e !rittle
Ducti&it! Ma&&ea(i&it!
= F
( (
.097v1 .097A.C1
F F A.CH (
=old =old
'ilver 'ilver
*latinm Alminim
Iron Copper
Nic&el Tin
Copper *latinm
Al +ead
Minc Minc
Tin Iron
+ead Nic&el

RESILIENCE
Resilience of a material to permanent deformation. It indicates the
amont of energy necessary to deform the material to the proportional limit.
This term is associated with springiness. The material with the larger elastic
area has the higher resilience.
-hen a dental restoration is deformed dring mastication$ the
chewing force acts on the tooth strctre$ the restoration$ or !oth and the
magnitde of the strctreBs deformation is determined !y the indced
stress. In most dental restorations$ large strains are preclded !ecase of the
proprioceptive response of neral receptors in the periodontim. The pain
stimls cases the force to !e decreases and indced stress to !e redced$
there!y preventing damage to the teeth or restorations.
(g in an inlay 0pro"imal1 e"cessive movement of the ad@acent tooth is
seen if large pro"imal strains develop dring compressive loading on the
occlsal srface. %ence the restorative material shold e"hi!it a moderately
high elastic modls and low resilience$ there!y limiting the elastic strain
that is prodced.
MnJm
C
Mega newtons J c!ic meter
Resilience has particlar importance in the evalation of orthodontic
wires !ecase the amont of wor& e"pected from a particlar spring is
having a tooth is of interest. There is also interest in the amont of stress
and strain at the proportional limit !ecase these factors determine the
magnitde of the force that can !e applied to the tooth and how for the tooth
will have to move !efore the spring is no longer effective.
POISSON#S RATIO
Dring a"ial loading in tension or compression there is a
simltaneos a"ial and lateral strain.
Under tensile loading$ as a material elongates in the direction of load$
there is a redction in cross section. Under compressive loading$ there is an
increase in the cross section.
-ithin the elastic range$ the ratio of the lateral to the a"ial strain is
called *oissonBs ration.
In tensile loading$ the *oissonBs ratio indicates that the redction in
the cross section is proportional to the elongation dring the elastic
deformation. The redction in cross section contines which the material is
fractred.
3ales of *oissonBs Ratio of some restorative dental materials
Mat Ratio
Amalgam A.C;
Mn phosphate A.C;
(namel A.CA
Resin composite A..<
2rittle s!s sch as hard gold alloys and dental amalgam show little
permanent redction is cross section dring a tensile test$ whereas dctile
materials sch as soft gold alloys$ which are high in gold contents show a
high degree of redction in cross section area.
TOUGHNESS
It is defined as the amont of elastic and plastic deformation energy
re/ired to fractre a material and it is a measre of the resistance to
fractre.
It can !e measred as the total area nder the stress8strain crve from
#ero stress to the fractre stress. Toghness depends on strength and
dctility. The higher the strength and the higher the dctility$ the greater the
toghness. Ths it can !e conclded that a togh material is generally
strong$ althogh a strong material is not necessary togh.
Units MNJm
C
or Mpa Jm
Therefore toghness is the energy re/ired to stress that material to the
point of fractre.
FRACTURE TOUGHNESS
Mechanical property that descri!es the resistance of !rittle materials
to the catastrophic propagation of flows nder an applied stress.
)ractre mechanics characteri#es the !ehavior of materials with
crac&s or flows$ which may arise natrally in a material or ncleate after a
time in service. In either case$ any defect generally wea&ens a material and
sdden fractres can arise at stresses !elow the yield stress. 'dden
catastrophic fractres typically occr in !rittle materials that point.
)ractre toghess of selected dental mats.
Material Mpa m N
Amalgam 9.C
Ceramic 9.; > ..9
Resin composite A.H > ...
*orcelain ..:
(namel A.: > 9.H
Dentin C.9
-e have the a!ility to plastically deform and redistri!te stresses.
. simple e"amples illstrate the significance of defects on the fractre
of materials. If one ta&es a piece of paper and tries to tear it$ grater effort is
needed than if a tiny ct is made in the paper.
'imilarly$ it ta&es a considera!le force to !rea& a glass !ar$ however$
if a small notch is placed on the srface of the glass !ar less force is needed
to case fractre.
If the same e"periment is performed on a dctile material$ we find
that a small srface notch has no effect on the force re/ired to !rea& the
!ar$ and the dctile !ar can !e !ent withot fractring for a !rittle material$
sch as glass$ no local plastic deformation is associated with fractre
whereas for a dctile material$ plastic deformation sch as the a!ility to
!end$ occrs withot fractre.
The a!ility to !e plastically deformed withot fractre or the amont
of energy re/ired for fractre is the fractre toghness.
Therefore larger flow lower stress needed to case fractre. This is
!ecase the stresses which wold normally !e spported !y material are not
concentrated at the edge of flaw.
*resence of fillers in polymers s!stantially increases fractre
toghness. ;A wtE #inconia to porcelain increases fractre toghness.
HARDNESS
May !e !roadly defined as the resistance to permanent srface
indentation or penetration.
Measre as a force per nit area of indentation and in mineralogy$ the
relative hardness of a s!stance is !ased on its a!ility to resist scratching. In
metallrgy and in most other disciplines$ the concept of hardness that is
most generally accepted is the 4resistance to indentation5. It is on this
precept that most modern hardness tests are designed.
It is apparent that hardness is important. It is indicative of the case of
finishing of a strctre and its resistance to in8service scratching. )inishing
or polishing a strctre is important for esthetic prposes and as discsses
previosly scratches can compromise fatige strength and lead to permanent
failre. 'ome of the most common methods of testing the hardness of
restorative are the
2rinell
Onoop Micro hardness test
3ic&ers
Roc&well
'hare A
RINELL HARDNESS TEST
It is among the oldest methods sed to test metals and alloys sed in
dentistry. The method depends on the resistance toe the penetration of a
small still or tngsten car!ide !all typically 9.: nm in diameter$ when
s!@ected to a weight of 9.CM. in testing the 2rinell hardness of a material
the penetration remains in contact with the sample sed for a fi"ed time of
CA seconds. After which it is removed and the indentation diameter is
careflly measred. Used to determined hardness of metals and metallic
materials in dentistry. It is related to proportional limit and ltimte strength
of dental gold and alloys.
2%N F

+ is the load in &g.
D is the diameter of the !all in millimeters
d is the diameter of the !all in indentation millimeter
'maller the area of the indentation$ the harder the material and the
larger the 2%N vale.
Advantage > Test is good for determining average hardness vales.
Disadvantage > poor for determining very locali#ed vales.
0*N1 not sita!le for !rittle materials or dental elastic that e"hi!it elastic
recovery.
+
DJ. 0D8 D
.
> d
.

)NOOP HARDNESS TEST
This test was developed to flfill the needs o a microindentation test
method. A load is applied to a careflly prepared diamond indenting tool
with a pyramid shape$ and the lengths of the diagonals of the reslting
indentation in the material are measred. The shape of the indenter and the
reslting indentation are measred.
)HN * L/I
+
C
,
+ > load applied
l F length of the long diagonal of the indentation.
Cp F constant relating l to the pro@ected area of the indentations.
Units &gJmm
.
Advantage , materials can !e tested with a great range of hardness simply !y
varying the test load.
Disadvantage , high !y polished and flat test samples time consming.
-IC)ER#S HARDNESS TEST
The 9C: degree diamond pyramid$ or 3ic&erBs hardness test$ is also
sita!le for testing the srface hardness of materials. It has !een sed to a
limited degree as a means of testing the hardness of restorative dental
materials. The method is similar in principle to the Onoop and 2rinell tests
e"cept that a 9C: degree diamond pyramid > shaped indenter is forced into
the material with a definite load applications. The indenter prodces a
s/are indentation$ the diagonals of which are measred as shown in pic
previosly.
Usefl for !rittle stff therefore measre hardness of tooth.
ROC).ELL HARDNESS TEST
-as developed as a rapid method for hardness determinations. A !all
or metal cone indenter is normally sed and the depth of the indentation is
measred with a sensitive deal micrometer. The indenter !alls or cones are
of several diff diameters$ as well diff load applications 0:A89;A1 with each
com!ination descri!ed as a special Roc&well scale.
4no sita!le for !rittle materials5
how hardness read directly.
=ood for testing viscoelasticity of materials.
Disadvantage > preload needed increases time
Indentations may disappear immediate when the load is removed.
RITTLENESS
Is generally considered to !e the opposite of toghness. )or eg. glass
is !rittle at room temp$ it will not !end apprecia!ly withot !rea&ing. In
other words$ a !rittle material is apt to fractre at or near its proportional
limit.
%owever a !rittle material is not necessarily lac&ing in strength. )or
eg. shear strenght of glass is low$ !t its tensile strength is very high.
4it is the relative ina!ility of a material to sstain plastic deformation
!efore fractre of a material occrs.
(g. amalgams$ ceramics and composite are !rittle at oral temps 0;8
;;
A
C1 they sstain little or no plastic strain !efore they fractre. Therefore a
!rittle material fractres at or near its proportional limit.
Therefore amalgam nonresin lting agents will have little or no
!rnisha!ility !ecase they have no plastic deformation potential.
ARASION/ FRICTION AND .EAR
)riction is the resistance to motion of one material !ody over another.
If an attempt is made to move one !ody over the srface of another a
restraining force to resist motion is prodced. This restraining force is the
0static1 frictional force and reslt from the molecles of the two o!@ects
!onding where their srfaces are in close contact. )rictional force$ )s is
proportional to the normal force 0)1 !etween the srfaces and the 0static
coefficient of friction 0s1.
'imilar materials have a greater coefficient of friction and if a
l!ricating medim e"ists at the interface$ the coefficient of friction is
redced.
)rictional !ehavior therefore arises from srfaces that$ !ecase of
microroghness$ have a small real contact area.
An e"ample of the importance of friction Pdental implant > srface
roghed to redce motion !etween implant and ad@acent tisse. It is
percieved that a rogh srface and resltant less motion will provide !etter
osseointegration.
.ear
Is a loss of material reslting from removal and relocation of
materials throgh the contact of two or more materials. -hen . solid
materials are in contact$ they only toch at the tips of their highest
asperities.
-ear is sally ndesira!le !t dring finishing and polishing wear is
!eneficial.
< types of wear
Adhesive
Corosive
'rface fatige
A!rasive
A!rasive wear involves soft srface in contact with a harden srface.
In this type of wear$ particles are plled off of one srface and adhere to the
other dring sliding.
Corrosive 8 .
A
to physical removal of a layer therefore related to chemical
activity.
Metals > adhesive wear
*olymers > a!rasive and fatige over.
FLE0IILITY
In case of dental appliances ad restorations a high vale for the elastic
limit is a necessary re/irement of the materials from which they are
fa!ricated$ !ecase the strctre is e"pected to retrn to its original shape
often it has !een stressed. Usally a moderately high modls of elasticity is
also desira!ly !ecase only a small deformation will develop nder a
considera!le stress$ sch as in the case of an inlay.
There are instances in which a larger strain or deformation may !e
needed with a moderate or slight stress. )or e"ample$ in an orthodontic
appliance$ a spring is after !ent a considera!le distance nder the inflence
of a small stress. In sch a case$ the strctre is said to !e fle"i!le and it
possesses the property of fle"i!ility. Ma"imm fle"i!ility is defined as the
strain that occrs when the material is stressed to its proportional limit.
-ISCOELASTICITY
In the previos discssions of the relationship !etween stress and
strain$ the effect of load application rate was not considered. In many metals
and !rittle materials$ the effect is rather small. %owever the rate of loading
is important in many materials$ particlarly polymers and soft tisses.
The mechanical properties of many dental materials$ sch as agar$
alginate$ elastomeric$ impression materials and wa"es$ amalgam and
plastics$ dentin$ oral mcosa and pdl are dependent on how fast they are
stressed$ for these materials increasing the loading 0strain1 rate prodces a
different stress 8>strain crve with higher rates giving higher vales for the
elastic modls$ proportional limit and ltimate strength. Materials that
have mechanical properties dependent on loading rate termed elastic.
Materials that have mechanical properties dependent on loading rate are
termed viscoealstic. In other words these materials have characteristics of an
elastic solid or a viscos flid.
FLUID EHA-IOR AND -ISCOCITY
In addition to the many solid dental materials that e"hi!it some flid
characteristics$ many dental materials$ sch as cements and impression
materials$ are in the flid state when formed. Therefore 0viscos1 flid
phenomena are important. 3iscosity 0n1 is the resistance of a flid to flow
and is e/al to the shear stress divided !y the shear strain rate.
-hen a cement or impression material sets$ the viscosity increases$
ma&ing it less viscos and more solid li&e
The nit of viscosity are *OI'(
Or centipoise 4cp5
The !ehavior of elastic solids and viscos flids can !e nderstood
from simple mechanical models. An elastic solid can !e viewed as a spring
when the spring is stretched !y a force 4)5 it displaced a distance c. the
applied force and resltant displacement are proportional and the constant of
proportionality is the spring constant R . Therefore
F * R 1 0
Note that the model of an elastic element does not involve time. The
spring acts instantaneosly when stretched therefore an elastic solid is
nondependent of loading rate.
Althogh the viscosity of flid is proportional to the shear rate$ the
proportionality differs for different flids. )lids may !e classified as
Newtonian
*sedoplastic
Dilatant depending on how their viscosity varies with shear shear rate
certain dental cements and impression materials are Newtonian. The
viscosity of a N li/id is constant an independent of shear rate. The
viscosity of a psedoplastic li/id decreases with increasing shear rate.
'everal endodontic cements are psedoplastic$ as are monophase r!!er
impression materials.
-hen s!@ected to low shear rate dring spatlation or while an
impression is made in a tray$ these impression materials have a high
viscosity and possess !ody in the tray. These materials$ however can also !e
sed in a syringe$ !ecase at the higher shear rates encontered as they pass
throgh the syringe tip$ the viscosity decreases as mch as tenfold the
viscosity of a dilatant li/id increases with increasing shear rate.
(g of dilatant li/ flid > dentre !ase resins.
Two additional factors that inflence the viscosity of a material are time and
temp.
The viscosity of a non setting li/id is typically independent of time
and decreases with increasing temperatre. Most dental materials$ however$
!egin to set after the components have !een mi"ed and their viscosity
increases with time$ as evidenced !y most dental cements and impression
materials.
A nota!le e"ception is MnO that re/ires .E of moistre to sit on the
mi"ing pad then materials maintain a constant viscosity that is descri!ed
clinically as a ling wor&ing time once placed in the moth however the MnO
materials show rapid increases in viscosity !ecase e"posre to heat and
hmidity accelerate the setting reaction.
In general for a material that sets$ viscosity increases with increasing
temperatre. %owever the effect of heat on the viscosity of a material that
sets depend on the natre of the setting reaction.
)or eg. Mn phosphicm$ Mn polycar!
The setting reaction of A is highly e"othermic$ and miningat redced
temp reslts in a lower viscosity than when mi"ed at high time. The setting
reaction of 2 is less affected !y temp. addi wor&ing time is achieved !y a"is
a cool or fro#en mi"ing sla!.
RELA0ATION
After a s!stance has !een permanently deformed$ there are trapped
internal stresses. )or eg in a crystalline s!stance the atoms in the space
lattice are displaced and the system is not in e/ili!rim.
It is nderstanda!le that sch a sitation is not very sta!le. The
displaced atoms may !e said to !e ncomforta!le and wish to retrn to
normal reglar positions given time !y diffsion they will move !ac&. The
reslt is a change in the shape or contain of the solid as a gross
manifestation of the rearrangement is atomer or moleclar positions. The
material is said to warp or distort. 'ch a relief of stress is &nown as
rela"ation.
Rate of rela"ation will increase with an increase in temperatre. )or
e"ample if a wire is !ent$ it may tend to straighter ot if it is heated to a high
temp. At room temp any sch rela"ation or diffsion may !e negligi!le. On
the other hand$ there are many noncrystalline dental materials eg wa"es$
resins$ gels that can rela" dring storage at room temp after !eing !ent or
molded.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Intro%uction '
*hysical properties are !ased on the laws of mechanics$ acontics$
optics$ thermodynamics$ electricity$ magnetism radiation$ atomic strctre$
or nclear phenomenon. %e$ Chroma and 3ale and translcency are
physical properties that are !ased on the laws of optics$ which is the science
that deals with phenomena of light$ vision$ and light. Thermal condctivity
and coefficient of thermal e"pansion are physical properties !ased on the
laws of thermodynamics.
ARASION AND ARASION RESISTANCE
%ardness has often !een sed as in inde" of the a!ility of a material to
resist a!rasion and wear. The a!ility of enamel !y ceramic and other
restorative material is well &nown. Along with hardness of material other
factors affecting enamel wear are !iting force$ fre/ency of chewing$
a!rasiveness of the diet$ composition of li/ids$ temperatre changes$
physical properties of the material and srface irreglarities of the material.
Althogh dentists cannot control the !iting force$ they can polish the
a!rading ceramic srface to redce the rate of destrctive enamel wear.
-ISIOSITY ' The resistance of li/id to motion is called viscosity and it is
controlled !y internal frictional forces within the li/id. 3iscosity is the
measre of the consistency of a flid and its ina!ility to flow.
An Gideal flidB has shear stress that is proportional to strain rate and
the plot is a straight line in the graph . 'ch !ehaviors is called Newtonian.
A Newtonian flid has a constant viscosity and straight li&e resem!les
elastic portion of a stress8strain crve.
3iscosity is measred in nits of M*aJsec. Or *OI'(. %igher the
vale$ the more viscos is the material.
(g. *re water at .A
A
C > viscosity F 9.A centipoise. 0c*1
Agar hydrocolloid impression > viscosity F .H9$ 9AA c*
Material at <;
A
C
+ight !ody polyslfide > viscosity F 9AI$AAA c*
At CA
A
C
%eavy !ody polyslfide > viscosity F 9$C:A$AAA c*
At C:
A
C
P$eu%o,&a$tic ' )or many dental material viscosity decreases with
increasing shear rate ntil it reaches a constant vale. (.g. *olysilicon
psedoplastic material$ cements li&e #inc phosphate$ #inc o"ide (genol.
Di&atant ' These li/ids !ecome more rigid as the rate of deformation
increases. (.g. cold cre resin dogh.
P&a$tic ' 'ome classes of material !ehave li&e a rigid !ody ntil some
minimm vale of shear stress is reached. (.g. catsp. 0a sharp !low to the
!ottle is re/ired to prodce initial flow1
8 3iscosity of most li/ids decrease rapidly with increasing
temperatre.
8 A li/id that !ecomes less viscos and more flid nder pressre is
referred to as thi"otropic. (.g. Dental prophyla"is paste$ plaster$ resin
cements$ agar.
CREEP AND FLO.
8 Creep is defined as the time dependent plastic strain 0deformation1of
a material nder static load or constant stress.
8 Metal creep sally occrs as the temperatre approaches within a
few hndred degrees of the melting range. Metals sed in dentistry
for cast restorations or s!strates for porcelain veneers have melting
points mch higher than moth temperatre and ths are not
sscepti!le to creep deformation e"cept when they are heated to very
high temperatre.
8 The most important e"ception is dental amalgam$ which has
components with melting points slightly a!ove room temperatre.
2ecase of low melting range$ dental amalgam can slowly creep from
a restored tooth nder stress as prodced !y patients who clench their
teeth.
8 According to American Dental Association specification creep mst
!e QHE.
)ollowing are the appro"imate vale for varios types of alloys ,
91 +ow copper lathe ct > .E
.1 +ow copper spherical > 9E
C1 %igh copper admi" > A.;E
<1 %igh copper single composition > A.A; > A.9E
FLO. ' Is the time dependent deforming property of amorphos material
sch as wa"es to deform nder a small static load or even load associated
with its own mass.
'tatic creep , Is the time dependent deformation prodced in a completely
set solid s!@ected to a constant load.
Dynamic creep , Refers to this phenomenon when the applied stress is
flctating sch as fatige type test.
COLOUR
Another important goal of dentistry is to restore the color and
appearance of natral dentition. Aesthetic considerations in restorative and
prosthetic dentistry have assmed a high priority within past several
decades. )or e.g. the search for an ideal general prpose$ direct filling Gtooth
coloredB restorative material is one of the challenges of present dental
material research.
+ight is electromagnetic radiation that can !e detected !y the hman
eye. The eye is sensitive to wavelengths from appro"imate <AAmnm 0violet1
to DAAnm 0dar&8red1 0fig1
The reflected light intensity and the com!ined intensities of the
wavelength present in a !eam of light determines the appearance properties
0he$ vale and chroma1. )or an o!@ect to the visi!le$ it mst reflect or
transmit light incident on it from an e"ternal sorce. The latter is the case
for o!@ects that are of dental interest. The incident light is polychromatic$
i.e. mi"tre of varios wavelength.
The eye is most sensitive to light in the green8yellow region
0wavelength ;;A nm1 and least sensitive at either e"treme i.e. red or !le.
Three dimensions of color , 3er!al description of color are not precise
enogh to descri!e the appearance of teeth or restoration srface. To
accrately descri!e or perception of a !eam of light reflected from a tooth
or restoration srface$ three varia!les mst !e measred. Rantitatively$ the
color and appearance mst !e descri!ed in three dimensional color space
!y measrement of he$ vale and chroma.
Hue ' Descri!es the dominant color of an o!@ect. (.g. red$ green or !le.
This refers to the dominant wavelength present in the spectral distri!tion.
-a&ue ' Is the lightness or dar&ness of a color$ which can !e measred
independently of the he. Teeth or other o!@ect can !e separated into lighter
shades 0higher vale1 and dar&er shades 0lower vale1.
Chro"a ' Represents the degree of satration of a particlar !one. The
higher the chroma$ more intense is the color. Chroma is always associated
with he and vale.
In dental operatory$ color matching is sally done !y the se of
shade gide to select the color of ceramic veneers$ inlays or crowns. 0fig1
One of the common method to define and measre color
/antitatively is Mllr system. This system is viewed as cylinder. %es are
arranged se/entially arond the perimeter of the cylinder Chroma.
Increases along a radis ot from the a"is. 3ale varies along the length of
the cylinder from !lac& at !ottom$ to netral gray at the centre$ to white at
the top.
2ecase$ spectral distri!tion of light reflected from or transmitted
throgh an o!@ect is dependent on the spectral content of the incident light$
the appearance of an o!@ect is /ite dependent on the natre of the light !y
which o!@ect is viewed. Daylight$ incandescent and florescent lamps and
common sorces of light in dental operatory and they have different spectral
distri!tions. O!@ects that appear to !e color matched nder one type of
light may appear different nder another light sorce. This phenomenon is
called M(TAM(RI'M. If possi!le$ color matching shold !e done nder
two or more different lights and one !eing daylight.
'ometimes$ natral tooth a!sor!s light at wavelengths too short to !e
visi!le to hman eyes ie. !etween CAA ><AA nm called as near > ltraviolet
radiation. The energy a!sor!ed is converted into light with longer
wavelengths and tooth actally !ecomes a light sorce. This phenomenon is
called )+UOR('C(NC(. The emitted light$ !le > white color$ is
primarily in the <AA ><;A nm range. )lorescence ma&es a definite
contri!tion to the !rightness and vital appearance of hman tooth. A
person with ceramic crowns are composite restorations that lac&s
florescing agent appears to !e missing teeth when$ viewed nder a !lac&
light in a night cl!.
THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Ther"a& Con%ucti2it! ' %eat transfer throgh solids most commonly
occrs !y means of condction. It is the thermophysical measre of how
well heat is transferred throgh a material !y the condctive flow.
Thermal condctivity or co efficient of thermal condctivity is the
/antity of heat in calories per second that passes throgh a specimen 9 cm
thic& having a cross > sectional area of 9 cm
.
when temperatre differential
!etween the srface perpendiclar to the heat flow of specimen is 9
A
C.
According to II
nd
law of thermodynamics$ heat flows from points of
higher temperatre to points of lower.
Material having high thermal condctivity are called condctors.
-hereas of low thermal condctivity are called inslators 0higher the vale$
greater is the a!ility to transmit thermal energy1.
Unit > -JmJ
A
&
e.g
8 'ilver 8 CH; -JmJ
A
&
8 Copper > CDA -JmJ
A
&
Ther"a& %i33u$i2it! ' It is the measre of the rate at which a !ody with a
non > niform temperatre reaches state of thermal e/ili!rim.
Althogh thermal condctivity of MnO( is slightly less than dentin$
its diffsivity is more than twice of dentin.
Mathematically$ thermal diffsivity 0h1 is related to thermal
condctivity 0&1 as ,
H * 4
c
,
,
-here c
p
F temperatre dependent specific heat capacity.
* F temperatre dependent density.
e.g.
8 'ilver 9.:< cm
.
Jsec.
8 Copper 9.9< cm
.
Jsec.
+inear coefficient of thermal e"pansion , Defined as change in length per
nit original length of a material. -hen its temperatre is raised 9
A
C.
e.g
8 *olymethyl metha > acrylate H9 " 9A
8:
J
A
c
8 Dentin H.C " 9A
8:
J
A
c
8 (namel 99.< " 9A
8:
J
A
c
CONCLUSION
G+ittle &nowledge is dangerosB as rightly said$ ths a thorogh
nderstanding of properties of dental materials ena!les a professional to
ensre the evental sccess of the treatment. It is a mst for every dentist
that they shold posses sfficient &nowledge of properties so that they can
e"ercise the !est @dgement possi!le in selection of an appropriate material
right from the impression procedres to the fa!rication of the prosthesis.The
efficacy of the end prodct depends on the type of material sed and in trn
its proper handling.
REFERENCES
9. 'cience of Dental Materials , !y Ansavice 0'&inners1$ 99
th
(dn.
.. Restorative Dental Materials , !y Ro!ert =. Craig$ I
th
(dn.
C. (lements of Dental Materials , !y Ralph -. *hillips$ <
th
(dn.
<. Notes on Dental Materials , !y (.C. Com!e$ ;
th
(dn.
;. Applied Dental materials , !y Sohn ). McCa!e$ D
th
(dn.
CONTENTS
Introdction
'trctre of matter
Inter8atomic !onds
Diffsion
Mechanical property
*hysical property
Thermo8physical *roperties
Conclsion
References
'(MINAR
ON
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D(*ARTM(NT O) *RO'T%ODONTIC'