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Dublin Institute of Technology

Dr. Gerald Farrell


Optical Communications Systems
School of Electronic and
Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited
Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Optical Networks and Future Trends
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Optical Networks
Source: Master 7_4
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Problems and Solutions
Problem:
Demand for massive increases in capacity
Immediate Solution:
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Longer term Solution:
Optical Fibre Networks
Source: Master 7_4
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Optical Networking
In most existing networks optical technology is used on links to transport signals
Most processing is carried out electrically, so called node-by-node electrical processing
Moving toward all-optical networks, where transport and processing is optical.
Links
Nodes
Source: Master 7_7
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Optical Add/Drop
Multiplexers
Source: Master 7_7
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Principle of an Optical Add-Drop
Multiplexer
An Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer allow access to individual DWDM signals without
conversion back to an electronic domain
In the example below visible colours are used to mimic DWDM wavelengths
Wavelengths 1,3 and 4 enter the OADM
Wavelengths 1 and 4 pass through
Wavelength 3 (blue) is dropped to a customer
Wavelengths 2 (green) and a new signal on 3 (blue) are added
Downstream signal has wavelengths 1,2,3 and 4
Source: Master 7_7
Wavelengths 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Wavelengths 1 2 3 4
OADM
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
First Generation
Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer
Simple OADM structure
ODU demultiplexes all wavelengths and drops off wavelengths as required
OMU multiplexes added wavelengths as well as those that pass through
Disadvantages:
Unnecessary demultiplexing and multiplexing of pass-through wavelengths
Typical number of drop channels is limited to 25-50% of total payload
Source: Master 7_7
O
D
U
O
M
U
ODU: Optical Demultiplex Unit
OMU: Optical Multiplex Unit
Dropped Wavelengths
Added Wavelengths
Pass-through
wavelengths
DWDM out
DWDM in
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
OADM Requirements
In general an OADM should be able to:
Add/Drop wavelengths in any order
Be locally and remotely configurable
Pass-through wavelengths should not be demultiplexed
Provide a low loss and low noise path for pass-through wavelengths
Reducing disturbance to pass-through wavelengths reduces need for OEO
regeneration
Source: Master 7_7
Wavelengths 1 2 3
4
1 2 3
4
1 2 3
4
Wavelengths 1 2 3
4
OADM
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Components for a 2nd
Generation OADM
1
3
2
Source: Master 7_7
Light in port Light out port
1
2
3
2
3
1
Optical Circulator Tunable Fibre Gratings

1
....
n

1
....
n
less

i
&

i
&

j
Gratings etched in fibre
Can pass or reflect selected
wavelengths
Wavelength selection is tunable
(thermal or piezoelectric strain)
Diagram shows a series of gratings
reflecting two wavelengths
i
&

j
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
1
3
2
Lucent 2nd Generation
Programmable OADM
1
3
2
Demux
Mux
Drop Wavelengths
Add Wavelengths
Input Circulator (IC) Output Circulator (OC)
Input Fibre
Gratings (IFG)
Output Fibre
Gratings (OFG)
All incoming wavelengths pass through the IC from port 1 to 2. At the IFG pass-through wavelengths
continue toward the OC. The tuning of the IFG selects drop wavelengths that are reflected back to the
IC to port 2 and are passed to port 3 to be demultiplexed.
Add wavelengths are sent to port 3 of the OC and are passed to port 1 of the OC backward to the OFG.
The OFG selects which, if any, of the add wavelengths are reflected forward to port 1 of the OC along
with the pass-through wavelengths. At port 1 of the OC the selected add wavelengths and pass-through
wavelengths are passed to the output at port 2.
Source: Master 7_7
DWDM out
DWDM in
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Simple Optical Network Example
Source: Master 7_7
OADM
OADM
OADM
OADM
Wavelengths 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
N
o
d
e
A
N
o
d
e
D
N
o
d
e
B
N
o
d
e
C
Note wavelength reuse of "blue" wavelength (no. 3). It is used to Link Node A and B as well as
Node C and A
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Signal Quality Issues in OADM
Rings
Maintaining signal quality is a key issue, even without protection switching
Protection switching makes signal quality even more difficult
In SDH rings full regeneration takes place at ADMs but in an OADM this not
so
An optical wavelength transporting an SDH STM-N may pass through a
number of amplifiers, fibre segments etc..
Signal may progressively deteriorate due to amplifier noise, crosstalk,
dispersion etc..
Source: Master 7_7
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Signal Quality on Conventional
SDH ADM Rings
In SDH rings full regeneration takes place
Noise is completely removed at each ADM
Quality of signal is independent of number of ADMs traversed
Source: Master 7_7
ADM based
SDH Ring
Animation
Electrical input
Electrical output
#1
#2
#3
#4
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Signal Quality on All-Optical
OADM Rings
Noise is added by amplifiers etc., both in-line and
at OADMs
Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) degrades as
does the signal shape
Must be taken account of in ring design
Different wavelengths may pass through different
numbers of OADMs
Source: Master 7_7
Simple
OADM
Ring

2
Animation
Optical input
#1
#2
#3
#4
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
The Future
Source: Master 9_1
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
The Future.....
Prediction is difficult and frequently wrong!
"This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of
communication. The device is inherently of no value to us."
Western Union internal memo, 1876.
"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers."
Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
"There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home."
Ken Olson, president and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
"Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?"
H.M. Warner, Warner Brothers, 1927.
"In the future computers may weigh less than one and half tons"
Practical Mechanics Magazine.
Source: Master 9_1
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Internet Traffic is growing exponentially
For example US internet traffic will reach 280 Tbits/s by 2005
New access technologies such as ADSL increase the growth rate
Future: Traffic Growth
Source: Master 9_1
1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
0
5
10
15
20
25
(Source: Analysys)
Predicted World Telephone and IP Traffic Growth
IP Traffic
Telephone Traffic
M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

T
e
r
r
a
b
y
t
e
s
Year
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Computing power and it's applications
are one of the principle drivers of
communications
Moores law dictates that processing
power in computer processors doubles
every 18 months. So far it has not been
proven wrong.....
Beyond 2010 computers will approach
the processing power of the brain
Future: Computing Power
Source: Master 9_1
Computer Processing Power
1.E+03
1.E+06
1.E+09
1.E+12
1.E+15
1.E+18
1.E+21
1.E+24
1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040
Year
F
l
o
a
t
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
/
s
e
c
Human Brain Estimate
British Telecom 1995
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
IBM supercomputer under development, 5 year (2005?) timeframe
Code name is "Blue Gene"
Petaflop performance: 1000 time faster than the IBM Deep Blue supercomputer
Uses "SMASH" approach (Simple Many and Self-Healing), using simple processors,
massively paralleled
Petaflop Computing
Source: Master 9_1
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
What is the Maximum Capacity
of Silica Optical Fibre?
Source: Master 9_1
Single Fibre capacity:
Assume:
1. Assume available spectrum is 1240 nm to 1610 nm
2. Assume a DWDM channel spacing of 0.4 nm, so there are 925 channels
3. Assume 40 Gbits/s per DWDM channel
Single fibre capacity is 925 x 40 Gbits/s =37 Tbits/s per fibre
Single Cable Capacity:
Assume a minimum of 96 fibres/cable
Result is a capacity per cable of 3.5 Pbits/s (Petabits/sec)
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
How can We Achieve the
"Maximum Fibre Capacity"
We need:
Very high density DWDM, approaching 1000 channels
Higher speeds per channel; to 40 Gbits/s and beyond
All this and we must maintain long spans and high reliability
The technologies we need to achieve it include:
Ultra-broadband amplifiers
Low fibre loss across a wide band; 1240 nm to 1620 nm
Very high speed electronics
When we reach the maximum capacity
How do we control/switch?
What expansion options are there?
Source: Master 7_4
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Date Manufacturer Channel Count Total Capacity
April 2000 Lucent 82 3.28 Terabits/sec
September 2000 Alcatel 128 5.12 Terabits/sec
October 2000 NEC 160 6.4 Terabits/sec
October 2000 Siemens 176 7.04 Terabits/sec
March 2001 Alcatel 256 10.2 Terabits/sec
March 2001 NEC 273 10.9 Terabits/sec
Current DWDM Demonstration
Capacity Records
Source: Master 7_4
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Ultra-High Density DWDM
At present commercial system utilise typically 32 channels
Commercial 80+ channel systems have been demonstrated
Lucent have demonstrated a 1,022 channel system
Only operates at 37 Mbits/s per channel
37 Gbits/s total using 10 GHz channel spacing, so called Ultra-DWDM or UDWDM
Scaleable to Tbits/sec?
Source: Master 7_4
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
10.9 Terabit/sec DWDM
NEC demonstration in March 2001
10.9 Tbits/sec over 117 km of fibre
273 channels at 40 Gbits/s per
channel
Utilises transmission in the C, L and
S bands
Thulium Doped Fibre Amplifiers
(TDFAs) used for the S-band
Source: Master 7_4
Thulium Doped Amplifier
Spectrum (IPG Photonics)
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Developments: Lucent Allwave
Fibre
Source: Master 2_2
Traditional manufacturing methods leaves residual OH ions in the glass
Result is absorption peaks, "locking-off" sections of the available spectrum
New process virtually removes all residual OH ions
Process involves a new way of making the optical fibre preform
Opens up the spectrum circa 1400 nm
Important implications for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Optical Communications Systems, Dr. Gerald Farrell, School of Electronic and Communications Engineering
Unauthorised usage or reproduction strictly prohibited, Copyright 2002, Dr. Gerald Farrell, Dublin Institute of Technology
Currently we are not even close to the maximum capacity of an individual
fibre
There is a lot a "dark" fibre installed, so there is spare capacity eg:
Frankfurt to Dusseldorf route presently contains 1500 fibres
Assume 40 Gb/s/Channel and 500 Channels of DWDM
This means 150 million STM-1 (155 Mbit/s links) which exceeds population of both cities
At some stage (beyond 2010) DWDM will reach maximum capacity. Options
will include:
Move to combination of very high speed TDM and DWDM
Multi-level "m-ary" transmission
Move to a different type of fibre at a longer wavelength and with wider bandwidth
In any event it will be interesting.......
Future for Optical Systems
Source: Master 9_1
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz
Thank You
27/02/02 5.2 Optical Networks & Future Trends.prz