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1. Leading position in attractie Nort!ern India gre" ce#ent #ar$et:

Based on CMA data, Northern Indian cement manufactures have consistently operated at the
highest levels of capacity utilization among Indias five regions. We elieve this reflects the
strong demand in Northern India for cement products relative to supply. !urther, ased on
capacity e"pansions announced y cement manufacturers, #e e"pect cement plants in
Northern India to continue to operate at high utilization levels and anticipate continued strong
demand for our grey cement products in the near and medium$term. We elieve that #e are
#ell positioned to ta%e advantage of this demand, as the fourth largest grey cement
manufacturer in Northern India, and the largest grey cement manufacturer in the state of
%. Second &argest '!ite ce#ent prod(cer in India:

White cement accounted for ().)* of our total cement revenue and +,.-* of ad'usted
.BI/0A from our cement operations in fiscal -112, and (,.,* of revenues and +2.((* of
our ad'usted .BI/0A from our cement operations in the si" months ended 3eptemer +(,
-114. 5nli%e grey cement, the #hite cement industry in India is highly concentrated #ith the
t#o largest players accounting for the sustantial ma'ority of Indias production capacity.
Conse6uently, prices of #hite cement have een relatively less volatile and sales of #hite
cement have generated more stale cash flo#s for us even during industry do#nturns in grey
cement. We also elieve our position as the second largest producer of #hite cement in India,
together #ith our nation#ide delivery net#or%, significantly enhances the overall rand
image of 78 Cement.
+. )ro*i#it" and access to &arge reseres o+ !ig! ,(a&it" &i#estone 9
:perations, #hich #e elieve are sufficient to sustain our operations #ell into the future.
Based on independent geological surveys of different mines during (44) to -11(, #e elieve
that our limestone reserves are sufficient to support our current and planned capacity for
appro"imately ;1 years for oth grey and #hite cement. <=ut in ris% $ assuming #e are ale to
rene# our e"isting leases upon their e"piry> As one of the first cement producers in Northern
India, #e #ere ale to choose our limestone reserves in an area #ith high 6uality limestone
resources. In addition to allo#ing us to produce #hite cement, #hich re6uires high 6uality
limestone, it also provides us #ith a cost advantage, as #e are not re6uired to purchase
s#eeteners to improve the 6uality of limestone. !urther, our manufacturing plants are in close
pro"imity to our limestone reserves, resulting in lo#er transportation costs. !inally, our
mines that supply our #hite cement plant at ?otan also have a supply of #hite clay, an
important additive necessary for #hite cement production.
-. .(a&it" o+ prod(cts and strong /rand na#e:

We elieve that rand name and reputation are important to retail purchasers of cement in
India. We have uilt a strong reputation among cement purchasers y consistently providing
high 6uality products. We elieve that there is strong customer a#areness of our rands, 78
Cement <@3arvasha%timaanA>, for grey cement in our principal mar%et in Northern India, and
78 White <@CamelA>, for #hite cement across India. !urther, #e elieve that our rand name
and our reputation for consistently supplying high 6uality products provide us #ith a
competitive advantage in ensuring that cement dealers carry our products.
,. E*tensie #ar$eting and distri/(tion net'or$ 9
We have a #ide distriution net#or% for grey cement in Northern India. We also have a
strong all$India distriution net#or% for #hite cement. :ur distriution net#or% for grey
cement products consists of ;; feeder depots serviced y seven regional sales offices in
0elhi, Baryana, 5ttar =radesh, =un'a, &a'asthan, Madhya =radesh and ?u'arat. :ur #hite
cement net#or% comprises -1 feeder depots serviced y (+ regional sales offices in 0elhi,
Chandigarh, 5ttar =radesh, West Bengal, Andhra =radesh, /amil Nadu, 8arnata%a, 8erala,
Maharashtra, ?u'arat, Madhya =radesh and &a'asthan
/he initial C7.8.C stands for a father$ son team, namely9 7uggilal 8amlapath 3inghania
7 .8. organization started in the year (22; at Calcutta. 7 .8. started their usiness as a
!inancier, Investor, /rading 3upplier of cotton elts and manufacturer of small machinery
parts li%e DEF elts, etc. /hey estalished fe# small cotton te"tile industries also.
In the year (4(; they shifted their usiness from Calcutta to 8anpur #here they
estalished many ig industries li%e 7.8. cotton Mills, 3tra# product Co, Gohia Mach,
7.8. =ulp and &aymonds Woolen, etc.
In the year (4+; 7.8. organization started one more division, as 7.8. 3ynthetics Gtd. /hey
estalished various ig plants of Nylon, Acrylic fier, etc. at 8ota and /yre Cord,
Chemical and =esticides at 7hala#ar.
In the year (4H; under the same division one more unit #as started for manufacturing of
?rey Cement at Nimahera.
/he =resent cement factory #as commissioned in the year (4H;. /he plant started its
production from -Hth 0ec (4H;.
Ist plant I %iln #as commissioned in (4H; and the capacity of this plant #as 411 tonne per
day and + la%h tonne per year. After modification in =reheater, its present capacity is
(-11 /=0.
."pansion of this plant too% place in the year (4H4, #hen -nd %iln #as commissioned
#ith a capacity of (-11 tonne per day and H la%h tonne per year. After modification in
=reheater its present capacity is (211 /=0.
Again in the third phase, a %iln #as erected in the year (42- and production of this %iln
#as (+,1 tonne per day.
In the year (422 a ne# technology #as introduced in this +rd 8iln that consisted of
precalcination process, #hich raised the capacity of this plant to +;11 tonne per day,
#hich #as earlier (+,1 tonne per day. In Aug.$-11+ after again some modification in
=reheater and !ole" cooler its capacity is increased to ,111 /=0.
Besides, 7.8. cement plant is having its o#n diesel generator sets, producing po#er to
meet the po#er energy re6uirements.
Main ra# material for cement is GIM.3/:N., for limestone #e have our o#n open cast
mines ad'oining to the plant. Besides #e have developed fe# more mines at Malia%hera,
8aroonda and /ila%hera for producing (1,111 tonnes limestone per day as needed.
7 .8. Cement erected one more plant from 7an. -11( #ith the capacity of (;11 tonne per
day at village Mangro&. In Nov.$-11+ after modification in =reheater and installation of
Mechanical elevator its capacity increased to --11 /=0. liailities ut also in maintaining
a satisfactory level of #or%ing capital. And the cash management is the part of #or%ing
capital management.
/he pro'ect #as carried out for understanding the =eoples choice in !i"ed 0eposit
of its mar%et potential.
/he 53 J) illion among the top (1 industrial houses in India. Bz the only Indian
company among the top tractor rands in the #orld. Bz .6uipment 3ector has recently
#on the 7apan Kuality Medal, the only tractor company #orld#ide to e esto#ed this
honors. It also holds the distinction of eing the only tractor company #orld#ide to #in
the 0eming =rize. BL is the mar%et leader in multi$utility vehicles in India. It made a
milestone entry into the passenger car segment #ith the Gogan.
/he ?roup has a leading presence in %ey sectors of the Indian economy, including the
financial services, trade and logistics, automotive components, information technology,
and infrastructure development.
With over )- years of manufacturing e"perience, the BL has uilt a strong ase in
technology, engineering, mar%eting and distriution #hich are %ey to its evolution as a
customer$centric organization. /he ?roup employs over ,1,111 people and has several
state$of$the$art facilities in India and overseas.
/he BL has amitious gloal aspirations and has a presence on five continents. Mahindra
products are today availale on every continent e"cept Antarctica. MMM has one tractor
manufacturing plant in China, three assemly plants in the 5nited 3tates and one at
Brisane, Australia. It has made strategic ac6uisitions across the gloe including 3to%es
!orgings <58>, 7eco Bolding A? <?ermany> and 3chone#eiss M Co ?mB <?ermany>.
Its gloal susidiaries. .
MIBG received its 0irect Bro%ing license from the Insurance &egulatory and
0evelopment Authority in May -11;. /he direct ro%ing activities cover oth Gife and
Non$Gife insurance for corporate and retail customers. MIBG is committed to providing
customized solutions geared to est meet the specific needs of customers.
:ne such customized, cost$effective life insurance solution, conceptualized y MIBG
foretail customers is a ?roup Credit /erm cover $ 3uresh. /his cover is offered to
customers availing of auto and tractor loans from. In the unfortunate event of death of the
customer, the outstanding loan amount is #aived off and the customers family is ale to
retain the vehicle.
MIBG is one of the fe# insurance ro%ing companies in India to receive the prestigious
I3: 411(9-111 Certification for Kuality Management 3ystems.
/he main o'ectives of the study #ere to analyze y the for the day to day transaction to
meet the company re6uirement that ho# much cash the company need to %eep #ith it .
Because if the company %eep more fund then re6uired then the company loose the other
investment opportunities or loose the interest #ith the company can gain to invest the
money in some other place.
In contractual agreement the client undergo an oligation to lift the specified amount
#ithin the stipulated time as per the terms and conditions of the contract. Normally the
stipulated time is one month and 6uarter of the year. /he specified 6uantity is fi"ed for
oth the periods.
In case the clients uplift the specified 6uantity in stipulated time, Credit Note is given to
them. It encourages them to fulfill their oligations. /he amount of credit note depends
upon the gravity of the party, the contractual amount of material and the time #ithin
#hich the oligation is eing fulfilled.
In general agreement the client can place order #henever they feel needed.Contractual
rates are less than the general rates for sulphuric acid. Contractual rate$ ;211 ?eneral
rate$2,11?enerally the company settles for dispatch of small 6uantity and al#ays %eeps
provision to change the specified 6uantity in the contract. It is due to the follo#ing t#o
( /hey are the general uyers #ho fetch more net realization than the contractual uyers.
- It helps in diris%ing the usiness and helps to adopt the policy of e6ual disursement.
/hus the dependency on one client #ill decrease.
% Ter#s o+ pa"#ent:4
/he payment can e made either in advance or on credit terms.
In case of advance payment, demand draft, pay order or any other secured payment is
accepted ut not the che6ues ecause they are mounted to get dishonored
In case of supplies against letter of credit, it is eing endorsed from an%ers 3BB7 =utholi
and chec%ed thoroughly. /he credit policy provides for 41 days interest earing credit
against confirmed irrevocale letter of credit, #ithout recourse of dra#er, #ith interest N
(1* per annum and for any delay eyond 41 days interest N (-* #ill e payale.
!or credit purchase the terms and conditions are different for different material. In case of
metals, some security money has to e %ept #ith the company. In case of sulphuric acid
the terms are not so stringent ecause of the criticality of the material. Instead of %eeping
some security money a an% guarantee can e availed. /he reason eing that the sulphuric
acid is in li6uid state of nature. After using the storage capacity fully, no e"cess
production can e done ecause of the non availaility of the storage tan%ers. In other
#ords production #ill e halted. 3o the efforts should e made to dispatch the acid as
acid as soon as possile. /herefore the terms and conditions are create the ne# ones.
5 Re#ittance o(c!er:4
When purchase order is received #ith demand draft the remittance voucher numer is created
in sap on$line system. Against this remittance voucher numer sales order is prepared. When
the sales order is prepared it is duly verified and signed y the competent authority.
)(rpose o+ re#ittance o(c!er
.very client has an account #ith the account department. Creating a remittance voucher
numer means crediting the received money in his account on the value date. /he value is the
date on #hich the payment is received. In case the clients uplift the specified 6uantity in
stipulated time, Credit Note is given to them. It encourages them to fulfill their oligations.
/he amount of credit note depends upon the gravity of the party, the contractual amount of
material and the time #ithin #hich the oligation is eing fulfilled.
- Disco(nt po&ic":4
/he company provides for t#o types of discounts. /hey are as follo#s9$
( Cash discount.
- Kuantity discount.
A cash discount of rs.-1I$per mt is applicale for all purchases made against the advance
payments.:n monthly comined off ta%e follo#ing 6uantity discount is applicale .
Min.,11mt 9rs.,1I$per mt
Min.(111mt 9rs.H,I$per mt
Min.(,11mt 9rs.(11I$per mt
Min.-111mt 9rs.(-,I$per mt
/he aforesaid prices are e"clusive of e"cise duty and sales ta".
6 Sa&es order:4
3ales order is also called as delivery order. In case of sulphuric acid the sales order is
prepared y the company after the remittance voucher numer is created.
In case of metals li%e zinc and lead the sales order is prepared and fa"ed y the regional
office for final dispatch. /he most #idely used zinc compound, zinc o"ide is used in
valcanisation of ruer, as #ell as a ceramics, paints, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and other
application. A special grade of zinc o"ide has long een used in photocopiers.
In case of ." !actory policy, the company has the responsiility and liaility to hand over the
material to the transporter upto factory gate only. In case of free on rail policy the company
has the responsiility and liaility to send the material upto the destination or factory gate.
/he ." factory policy and free on rail policy is applicale only in case of metals and not in
case of sulphuric.
7 Loading:4
/he transporter collect the allo# slip and report to factory main gate along #ith it. After
verification the truc%s moved to the computerized #eigh ridge for tare #eight. It then moves
to the stoc% yard for mechanical loading undle #ise from crane. /he truc% after loading is
re$#eighed and gross #eight is recorded in 3A= on$line system.

8 9ina& dispatc!:4
An invoice cum challan is prepared using #eigh ridge interface. Ar$+A form is also
prepared in case of clearance of acid under ct$- duty free.
/he driver goes ac% to the main gate and ta%es out his truc% after handing over the security
copy. After verification of the papers and Material loaded, truc% is allo#ed to move out of the
factory premises.
Any consignment valued more than - crore must e declared to the insurance company y
#ay of fa"Ie$mail immediately. Consignments dispatched #ithin the policy period must e
declared to the insurance company #ithin H days from the close of a month. :ther#ise the
same #ill not e entertained and treated as$ insured.
/he transporter copy is the most significant copy other#ise the transporter cant cross the
roder of the state. It is to ensure that it is a transfer only and not for any other purpose. In
order to ma%e transfer (2$C form is to e filled. .very state has its o#n form and it is
necessary to fill other states forms also.
Doc(#ents to /e prepared.
1 Inoice c(# de&ier" c!a&&an:4 It is a legal document #hich is to e prepared under
rule (( of e"cise rules -111. An invoice is created in five copies. /hey are as follo#s$
:riginal copy.
0uplicate for transporter copy.
3ecurity copy.
/riplicate for assesses.
."tra copy.
0uplicate copy and security copy of invoice is handed over to the driver.
A&$+A form is prepared in case the party #ants duty free clearance under <C/$-> e"cise no$-
rules -11(
Ta* Str(ct(re
!ollo#ing are the ta"es #hich are imposed every time the sales ta%es place.
3tate sales ta" is imposed #hen the material is dispatched #ithin the state.
.g. +* $ Concessional rate
;* $ !ull rate
Central sales ta" is imposed N ()* on the total price of the goods dispatched.
)ricing Strategies.
/he company has its o#n pricing committee. It maintains and decides the prices on the asis
of G:N0:N M./AG .OCBAN?..
/he prices are revised after every one month
Concessional ta" forms9$
(. C/$- !orm
-. C/$+!orm
C/$- !orm is filled up y the client in order to gain e"emption on e"cise duty. /he
e"emption depends on the final product to e produced. !or instance if the party is producing
fertilizers, is it can avail the e"emption. 0ifferent forms of fertilizers avail different
In other #ords it can e said that the e"emption is given on the items of importance.
C/$+ !orm is filled up y the client in order to gain e"emption on e"cise duty. It is given in
the follo#ing t#o cases9
0eemed e"ports <import sustitution>
It is given for the purpose of encouraging e"ports and innovation
Ins(rance )o&icies.
/he company have t#o types of policies.
." factory.
!ree on rail :9OR;
In case of ." !actory policy, the company has the responsiility and liaility to hand
over the material to the transporter upto factory gate only. In case of free on rail policy the
company has the responsiility and liaility to send the material upto the destination or
factory gate. /he ." factory policy and free on rail policy is applicale only in case of metals
and not in case of sulphuric acid.
/he company has made insurance to the :riental Insurance Corporation Gtd. Which is
a susidiary of the ?eneral Insurance Corporation of IndiaP It has ta%en t#o insurance
policies. /hey are as follo#s$
(. Marine Insurance <cargo>
-. Burglary Insurance.

Marine policy is an open policy. It covers the voyage to BLG units to any place in India to
various stoc% pointsIplants, offices of BLG. =arties <customers> of BLG any#here in India to
any port railI air. Any consignment valued more than - crore must e declared to the
insurance company y #ay of fa"Ie$mail immediately. Consignments dispatched #ithin the
policy period must e declared to the insurance company #ithin H days from the close of a
month. :ther#ise the same #ill not e entertained and treated as$ insured.
/he total sum insured is (211 crores.
Burglary policy is a policy ta%en against any theft or pilferage. It has a total sum insured of
;1 crores. /he location of the property is
LincI lead metal #orth rs. -, crores stored at BLG$CGL3.
LincI lead metal #orth rs. (, crores at Linc smelter.
A monthly declaration is necessarily to e the insurance company.
0ue to po#er shortage as imposed y A'mer electricity supply oard 7.8. estalished its
o#n T!er#a& )o'er )&ant at village Bamania, near 3hamhupura, #hich is generating
(, M.W. po#er every day, #hich is consumed y 7.8. Cement =lant.
7 8 Cement also has a plant of ;11/=0 installed capacity of White Cement at ?otan,
Nagpur <&a'>.
7.8. Cement has started the follo#ing pro'ects9
(. Cement =ro'ect at 8arnata%a of over ,,11 /=0 and /hermal =o#er =lant of capacity
+1 MW.
-. /hermal =o#er =lant at Nimahera of -- MW.
+. Waste Beat &ecovery =lant at Nimahera of (, MW capacity.
;. Bhumi =oo'an of 0r ?aur Bari 3inghania /echnical 5niversity at Bhate#ar, 5daipur.
,. 7.8. cement is one of the most productive, cost efficient cement producing plant in the
country, a company, elieving in corporate responsiility to society, integrity and
fairness. /he companys cement is sold under the 7.8. Sarve Shaktiman rand name,
en'oys good rand image and a price premium.
/he follo#ing types of cements are produced y 7 8 Cement Wor%s.
<a> :rdinary =ortland Cement <:=C>
<> =ortland =ozzolana Cement <==C>
<c> 3uper 3ilicate Cement <33C>
<d> Masonry Cement <MC>
7. 8. Cement manufactures and mar%ets cement and clin%er for oth domestic as #ell as
e"ports mar%ets.
Ist =lant I 8iln (-11 /onne =er 0ay </=0>
IInd =lant I 8iln (211 /=0
IIIrd =lant I 8iln ,111 /=0
IEth =lant at Mangrol --11 /=0
Tota& Capacit" 1<%<< T)D

Year C&in$er Ce#ent
-114$(1 +(H1-)2 +,((1--
-1(1$(( -41H(4) +)+2H2)
-1(($(- -4(H1;, +)41H-)
-1(-$(+ +1-;14( +);)--1
(.Net sales increased --.1;* from &s.(,;4,)2+.,) lacs in -1(1$(( to
-11)$1H ((12H ,--
-11H$12 (,-4H -H-1
-112$14 (2(-2 +;))
-1(1$(( (2H), -+;1
%<1141% 222 22481 22
&s. (,2-,)H2.;H lacs in -1(($-1(-.
-.=B/ increased ++.1;* from &s.-+,+4).1) lacs in -1(1$(( to &s.+(,(-,.2)
Gacs in -1(($-1(-
%.1 Corporate Lee&4 3anp(r
Chairman $ 0r ?aur Bari 3inghania
Managing 0irector $ 3hri Q = 3inghania
?roup ."ecutive =resident $3hri & ? Bagla
%.% Unit Head Lee&4 Ni#/a!era
=resident $ 3hri 0. &avisan%ar
J K Organization
J K Cement Ltd.
J K White Cement Works
Gotan, Nagaur
J K Cement Works (Grey Cement)
1. J K Cement Works, Nimbahera
. J K Cement Works, !angro"
#. J K $herma" %o&er %"ant, 'amania
(. %ro)e*ts+
J K $herma" %o&er %ro)e*t, Nimbahera
J K Cement %ro)e*t, Karnataka
0r. ?A5& BA&I 3IN?BANIA
Mr. 7.=. BA7=AI
Mr. 8.N. 8BAN0.GWAG 0I&.C/:&
Mr. &A7 85MA& G:BIA 0I&.C/:&
Mr. A3B:8 3BA&MA


Mr. &.?. BA?GA
Mr. A.8. 3A&A?:I =&.3I0.N/
Mr. M.=. &AWAG =&.3I0.N/
Mr. 0. &AEI 3BAN8A&
Mr. B.8. A&:&A =&.3I0.N/
Mr. &.C. 3B58GA
Mr. E.=.3IN?B
-. 2 3 Mar$eting OrganiAation = RTC B Nort!
/he head office of Mar%eting 0epartment of 7 8 Cement Gtd. is at 0elhi,
#hich is headed y 3r. E = <Mar%eting$?rey Cement> and 3r. E =
<Mar%eting White Cement>. /he White Cement is sold all over India and the
?rey Cement is sold in the 3tates of &a' asthan, M.=. , 5. =. , Baryana, =un' a,
?u' arat and 0elhi. With the commissioning of 7. 8 Cement =ro' ect,
8arnata%a 3outhern region #ill also the Covered for ?rey Cement.
Mar$eting tea#
-.% Regiona& training Centr
/he &egional training Centre R North is a premier training centre of North
India promoted #ith assistance from World Ban%, 0ANI0A and ?ovt. of
India as a uni6ue B&0 pro' ect in Cement Industry is also attached #ith 7 8
Cement Wor%s as Gead =lant. It is e6uipped #ith modern training aids and
caters to the s%ill enhancement and compet ency developmental needs of

0re" Ce#ent
8C Me#/ers
@!ite Ce#ent
1<1 Me#/ers
@or$s c&ose&" 'it! c(sto#ers
to retai&ers and increase
a'areness and (sage o+ 'it!
ce#ent prod(cers
Co4ordinate 'it! dea&er
net'or$ and direct cons(#er.
E++orts to increase prod(ction
o+ /&ended ce#ent to #eet
gro't! in de#and
more than -1 cement and other plants. It has trained over 2111 technical and
managerial personnel during the last (; years.
/he centre has conducted many tailor$made in$house programs for cement
and other industries in India and aroad including for :man Cement, :man
and 3tar Cement, 0uai.
&/C has speciali zed pac%ages I modules in Mining, =rocess, Maintenance
disciplines li%e :peration M Maintenance of B.MM I ?ear Bo"es I =umps I
Compressors I .lectrical M .lectronics .6uipments I .nergy Conservation I
.nvironment Management and Machinery Alignment, etc. designed and
developed y reno#ned International I National agencies li%e !G3 0enmar%,
NCCBM, /A/A Interact ive 3ystems, E.C, NI//&, ect. More than (11
senior line mangers form ten plants have een trained at 0enmar%, NI//&,
Bhopal and Chennai, #ho act. as resource persons for these programs.
Besides, :.MF s and management e"perts of national repute are invited for
various technical and management programs to ma%e them effective and
gainful e"perience for the participants.
Ed(cationa& Serices :4
Construction of rooms in ?ovt. College at Nimahera.
&unning 78 Institute of /echnology, I/I in five trades affiliated to NCE/.
&unning (1S- CB3. affiliated 3chool.
&unning &egional /raining Centre for Cement technocratFs aided y WB M
Earious constructions in neary ?ovt. 3chools of Chittorgarh 0istrict.
We are involved in girls school <under construction> and committed reasonale
financial contriution for aove.
Medica& serices
&s. +) lac%s contriution for the construction of ?ovt. Bospital at Nimahera.
Amulance to ?ovt. Bospital.
!ree facility of pathological laoratory for the persons of surrounding area.
!inancial contriution to various N?:3 for medical camps in the district.
!inancial contriution for construction of dispensary M health centre in neary
!ree Bomeopathic consultancyImedicines for the patients of neary area.
Re&igio(s serices :
&adha%rishna tempie at colony premises.
=rayer hall in hanuman temple in Nimahera.
Bheem%esh#ar temple in staff colony.
0harmashala at Bhan#armata <tourist I religious place.>
2 room for 0haramshala at =ashupati Nath temple in Mandsaur <M.=.>.
Earious temples in Numer of neary villages.
Sports serices
3ports infrastructure li%e #ooden adminton court, tale tennis court, illiard room,
and cric%et ground, volleyall ground in colony campus.
3ponsoring all India. youth footall, volleyall and adminton tournaments.
3ponsoring inter$district tournament.
Arranging summer camps for various sports.
Ot!er socia& serices
Construction of approach roads in and around villages of mining area.
0igging of tue #ells.
3upply of tue #ell pumps.
Construction of #ater tan%s.
3upply of drin%ing #ater in tan%ers in neary needy places during summer.
&egular plantation in plant, colony and neary villages.
0irect and indirect employment to thousands of persons of surrounding area.
!inancial helps to N?:3.
!inancial aid to organize religious festivals y municipal oard.
Arc!itect o+ t!e Year A'ard :AYA;
Architecture #as more or less identified #ith housing M more so #ith elite housing.
Bo#ever, many countries have used architecture effectively for pulic structures also, such
as high#ays, metro rails, factories, harours M any other pulic facilities. /hese
pro'ectsIstructures shall consume lot of uilding materials. If these structures have to loo%
pleasing, relevant architect designs.
/he su'ect of challenges to architecture vis$a$vis to#n planning, infrastructure
development M affordale housing is eing discussed in various countries through various
forums. Mr.Qadupati 3inghania, Managing 0irector, 7.8. Cement Gtd., thought that #e
could contriute to this cause y encouraging outstanding talent in the profession of
architecture as a continuous process M therey set an e"ample for others in this profession
to do etter M etter.
/his is ho# Architect of the Qear A#ard <AQA> egan #ay ac% in the year (441 <(st
Architect of the Qear A#ard>. A#ards #ere suse6uently e"tended to architects of
neighouring countries from the year (44) <Hth Architect of the Qear A#ard>. /o encourage
state level architecture, 3tate Architecture a#ards #ere also introduced from the a#ard year
AQA$42 <4th Architect of the Qear A#ard>.
/o feed the re6uired limestone to our cements plants, #e hold four mining leases at
Ahirpura, Malia%hera, 8arunda and /ila%hera #here mining is carried out using deep hole
drilling and lasting. But a lot of care has een ta%en to negate the ill effects of this ecology
affecting activity.
/o egin #ith, #e have converted the dry drilling into #et drilling, #ater is sprin%led on the
haul roads, dense plantation has een cultivated around the #or%ing pit, 3e6uential Blasting
Machine and do#n the hole delay are eing used to reduce noise, viration and fly roc%.
Water is %ept stored in the forth ench for use during summer as it also helps recharge the
ground #ater tale.
Afforestation is carried out at all the four mines as a part of the mining process. /ill date, a
total of -,2,,+4) plants have een planted covering a total area of over ), hectares.
Necessary arrangement for #atering these plants, ensuring their survival, has also een done
in the form of construction of ) #ater tan%s comined #ith the facilitation of direct #ater
supply pipelines and #ater tan%ers.
We have also focussed on the Waste 0ump Management. /he generation of #aste material
along #ith mining of limestone at all our mines, is almost negligile. Bo#ever, some #aste
li%e Interstitial Clay, #hen generated, is e"cavated separately and dumped at the specified
places. /hese #aste dumps are eing properly levelled #hich are then covered #ith lac%
cotton soil scraped from other parts of the pit only. /his forms the ed for plantation or
afforestation. /he height of the dumps are %ept only , to ) mtrs. 3o that there #ill e no
chance of destailising of these dumps after plantation in the long run.
Besides, 78 :rganisation, is also involved in setting up a numer of =rimary 3chools,
3econdary 3chools, Industrial /raining Institutes, Institutes of Management M &esearch,
Institute of Medicine, Institute of Cardiology, Institute of &adiology M Cancer &esearch and
0r. ?aur Bari 3inghania Academy of =roductivity 3cience M .nvironmental .ngineering.

/here are three production lines involving five significant manufacturing
stages, namely crushing, ra# meal grinding, clin%erisation, cement grinding and pac%ing.
At crushing stage, run of limestone mines is crushed to desired size so as to
achieve optimum grinding efficiency in the &a# Mills. Crushed limestone is stac%ed y
stac%er in a stoc%pile and reclaimed y means of a reclaimer. /he stoc%pile serves as a
uffer stoc% storage. =artial 6uantity of laterite M au"ite is also added during crushing.
In &a# Mill, crushed limestone #ith late rite is fed through #eigh feeders.
/he feed 6uantity and ratio of feeds are controlled ased on the chemical analysis results
from KCO <O$ray> I Gaoratory. /he ra# material is ground in all mills and the fineness
<residue> is controlled y separator damper control. /he ra# material is also ground in
E&M #here finances is controlled
By separatorFs speed. /he ground ra# meal is lended for homogeneity and stored in ra#
meal storage silo or in C.!. silo.
Clin%erisation is the heart of cement manufacturing process, #here the ra# meal is fed to
the preheater at controlled rate through electronic #eigh feeder and I solid flo# meters. /he
feed enters the %iln though cyclones <for 5nit I, II> and through =recalciner <for 5nit III>
and the fuel is fired at the %iln outlet end <also in precalcienr for unit R III> /he counter
current of hot gases against the material flo# right from preheater stage to %iln outlet
converts ra# mi" to clin%er y pyroprocessing stages li%e calcinations and clin%erisation.
/he clin%er is cooled in coolers.
Clin%er is transported to clin%er yard for storage. Clin%er and gypsum are thereafter ground
to a specific fineness in 6ll mills to produce final product i.e. cement. /he laine <fineness>
of cement is controlled y separatorFs speed in close circuit grinding and y mill fan damper
opening during open circuit grinding.
Cement is transported to cement silos for storage. Cement is dra#n from cement silos for
pac%ing in ags y mechanical rotary pac%ers.
Cement can e defined as any sustance, #hich can 'oin or unite t#o or more pieces of
some other sustance together to form a unit mass. Cement, as used in construction
industries, is a fine po#der #hich #hen mi"ed #ith #ater and allo#ed to set and harden can
'oin different components or memers together to give a mechanically strong structure.
/hus, cement can e used as a onding material for ric%s or for onding solid particles of
different sizes <rule masonry> to form a monolith.
/he history of cement is the story of civilization from primitive caves of pre$historic times to
the s%yscrapers of the modern age. It is said that the use of cement is form the period of use
of fire. .gyptians utilized gypsum plaster as cementing material as early as +111 BC
uilding their monuments.
Bo#ever, It #as in (2-;, si"ty$eighty years after the discovery of hydraulic properties of
lime 7oseph Aspdin patented his product, #hich #as called C=ortland CementC /he plants
manufacturing portland cement outside .ngland #ere commissioned in Belgium and
?ermany in (2,,. /he interest that is evo%ed in the technology o f cement resulted in the
development of &otary %ilns in (22).
Modern cement is the outcome of the comined research and development efforts of
chemists, technologists and architects. /he cement technology is an offshoot of the overall
development in other industries, technology, constructional activities and %no#ledge and
the availaility of ra# material.
T"pes o+ Ce#ent App&ication
:rdinary =ortland Cement
?eneral construction
=ortland 3lag Cement ?eneral construction and marine #or%s.
=ortland =ozzolona Cement
?eneral construction, hydraulic construction M
White =ortland Cement Architectural purposes, decorative #or% and in
manufacturing of titles.
:il Well Cement Connecting the steel casing to the #alls of gas oil #ells
at high temperature and to seal porous formations in
petroleum industry.
Go# Beat =ortland Cement Where lo# heat on hydration is re6uired as in mass
concrete for dams.
3uper 3ulphated Cement In a varity of aggressive conditions li%e marine #or%s,
concrete se#ers carrying industrial effluents.
Bigh Alumina Cement Mainly as refractory cement and as structural material
giving high early strength development in cold regions.
1.-.1 Ra' Materia&s4
Gimestone <calcareous> and clays <argillaceous> are the conventional ra# materials mostly
used in cement industry. 3ometimes sandstone <siliceous>,au"ite <aluminous> and iron ore
<ferruginious> are used, as corrective material to maintain desired composition for potential
property of clin%er.
Cement manufacturing process involves$
=reparation of ra# mi" y crushing, grinding and lending of ra# materials in definite
Burning the ra# meal at clin%er temperature <(;,1
C> in a %iln.
?rinding the resultant clin%er to fine po#der #ith certain amount of gypsum to regulate
setting of cement.
1.-.% T"pes o+ Ra' Materia&
It is %no#n that ra# meal feed for cement manufacture asically consists of t#o components $
Calcium caronate
Alumino silicates
0ue to depletion of cement grade limestone, it is necessary to go in, more and more, for
yproducts and #aste materials of chemical, metallurgical, coal and other industries as ra#
material for cement manufacture.
&a# materials are characterized y
<a> Chemical composition
<> Mineral composition
<c> =hysical composition
<d> Mechanical characteristics
Co#position o+ Ordinar" Ce#ent 9
:rdinary =ortland Cement is the asic cement and it has three grades namely ++, ;+ and ,+
respectively. Gimestone is the principal ra# material for the manufacturing of cement. :ur
country has enough reserve of ra# material needed in the cement industry. Cement
consumption gro#th is highly correlated to the ?0= gro#th and serves as a leading indicator.
More industrial activity and greater purchasing po#er means more asset formation and
construction and thus more consumption of cement.
Ingredient )ercentage Range
Gime ); );$)2
3ilica -- (H$-,
Alumina , +$)
Calcium sulphate ; +$,
Iron :"ide + +$;
Magnesia - 1.($+.1
3ulphur ( ($+
( 1.-$(.1
Basically there are t#o types of process for cement manufacturing that is $
H"dro )rocessing :@et )rocess;
)"ro )rocessing :Dr" )rocess;
We are using =yro =rocess in 78 Cement Wor%s.
In order to manufacture cement from the ra# mi", it is re6uired to heat ra# meal to a
temperature of (;,1
C, thus carrying out 3IN/.&IN? :& CGIN8.&I3A/I:N. /he
urning process re6uires an o"idising atmosphere in the %iln, as in the opposite case a
clin%er of ro#n colour <contrary to the normal greenish Rgrey> #ill e formed and the
resulting cement #ill e 6uic%er setting and #ith lo#er strength.
1.6.% C!e#ica& Trans+or#ations
0uring heating of the ra# meal to the urning temperature (;,1
C <clin%erization or sintering>
certain physio$chemical processes ta%e place. /hese include9
0ehydration of the argillaceous mineralsT decomposition of the caronates <decaronisation or
e"pulsion of C:
commonly %no#n as calcination>T reactions in solid phase and reactions #ith
the participation of one li6uid phase and crystallizations.
/hese processes are influenced y chemical factors in the ra# meal <such as its chemical
composition>, y mineralogical factors <its mineralogical composition>, y physical factors
<fineness or particle size in the ra# meal>, homogeneity and other factors. /he complete course
of these endothermic reactions plays a decisive role in 6uality of the resulting cement.
In per$heater %iln, the first five transformations sho#s in figure ;.( #ill ta%e place in pre$
heater to#er. /he decomposition of limestone and other caronates #ill primarily ta%e place
in the calciner vessel #here the calcination temperature is maintained y in'ection of fuel.
/he last t#o transformations #ill ta%e place in the rotary %iln.
/he caronate Ca C:
decomposes et#een )11 R 211
C to form Ca:. Kuartz and clay #ill
have started decomposing slightly efore that to lierate free reactive Al
and 3i:
/he Ca: eing formed at this stage, no# reacts #ith 3i:
to form C
3 and later #ith more
Ca: to form C
3. 3ome Ca: #ill also react #ith Al
and !e
to form various
intermediate components such as CA, C
and others, #hich #ill decompose at higher
temperature at later stage.
3 content is seen to gro# steadily during the heating and reach ma"imum content at
appro". (+11
C #hich is a point #here li6uid phase appears. /he ma'or part of C
3 is then
transformed to C
3 in the li6uid phase and the final content of C
3 in the clin%er is less than
the content of C
1.1 9(nction:
=lanning and e"ecuting a systematic e"ploration programme.
0ra# scope of drilling campaign. Bo# to carry out survey and perform drilling activities for
e"ploration purpose.
.stalish system for computerized mine$planning in order to ensure supply of limestone #ith
consistent 6uality.
=lanning and e"ecuting drilling and lasting programme in normal course at site to ta%e
optimum output from lasting as #ell as achieving economy in e"plosive consumption.
<Appro"imate oulder size9 (.1 M U (.; M U (.(M>
Goading and transportation of lime stone oulders to crusher site.
Implementing statutory re6uirement for safety and environment.
:a; E*p&osies
:/; E,(ip#ent:
0rilling Machines
."cavators I 3hovels
0rilling and Blasting
Goading and transportation
%.1.1 )(rpose:
3ize reduction from (.1M U (.;M U (.(M oulder to -,mm size limestone pieces.
%.1.% Co##on t"pe o+ Cr(s!ers:
0oule /oggle 7a# Crusher <Capacity9 ;11 /=B>9 5sed as primary crusher.
3#ing Bammer Crusher <Capacity9 -11 /=B> used as secondary crusher.
Compound Impactor <Capacity9 211 /=B> comined unit of primary and secondary crusher.
Bomogenization of crushed limestone.
%.%.1 Stac$er:
/ype of =ile9 Gongitudinal.
0etails of =iles9 -1111 R +1111 tonnes per pile.
Beight of pile upto ((.11 meters.
/he stac%er moves on longitudinal rails.
%.%.% Rec&ai#er
/ype9 Bridge 3crapper /ype.
&ated Capacity9 )11 tonnes per hour It #ill vary from plant to plant depending on the
production re6uirement <in /=0>.
Wor%ing =rinciple9 Cuts 3tac% =ile in slice from parallel to face of pile. 3hifting material
<limestone> to elt #ith the help of scrapper.
5.1 Materia&s (sed +or grinding
Gimestone and additives <&a# Mi">
Coal and other fuels
5.% 9eed siAe o+ inco#ing #ateria&s
R -,mm 3ize for Ball Mills
$ +,mm 3ize for E&M <3egregated>
<3econdary Crusher is used to feed Ball Mills>
Coal R -,mm size
Clin%er R -, to +, mm size.
5.5 9ineness o+ o(tp(t #ateria&s
&a# Mi"9 (, R (H * &esidue :n 41 V
(.2 R -.- * &esidue :n -11 V
Coal =o#der9 (, R (H* &esidue :n 41 V
(2$-- * &esidue :n 41 V
<!or use in =re$Calciner, there is separate arrangement to grind coal>
Cement9 ++ ?rade R -)11 /o -211 Blaine
;+ ?rade R -2,1 /o +111 Blaine
,+ ?rade R +-11 /o +;11 Blaine
5.- 0rinding S"ste#s
&a# Mi"9
$ Ball Mill
$ Eertical &oller Mill
$ Comination of &oller =ress and Ball Mill
<?enerally open circuit is used in #et process and closed circuit is used in dry process. In closed
circuit systems, fi"ed and dynamic separators are used.>
Coal and fuel9
Ball Mill
Eertical &oller Mill
<Closed circuit used>
Clin%er ?rinding9
Ball Mill
Comination of &oller =ress and Ball Mill
<:pen circuit and closed circuit used. In closed circuit systems, fi"ed and dynamic separators are
5.6 Materia&s (sed +or grinding
Gimestone and additives <&a# Mi">
Coal and other fuels
5.7 0rinding o+ Ce#ent:
In a modern cement plant, the total po#er consumption is aout (11 8#h I tonnes #hereas
cement grinding process accounts aout ;1*. /he 6uality of final cement product depends on
operational mode and parameters of cement grinding plant.
Cement has to e ground fine enough to meet the re6uirements for strength properties specified
in current standards. As it ta%es 6uite long time to determine especially the late strength, the hour
Rto$hour and day Rto$day control of cement grinding has to e ased on cement fineness.
0uring heating of the ra# meal to the urning temperature (;,1
C <clin%erization or sintering>
certain physio$chemical processes ta%e place. /hese include9
0ehydration of the argillaceous mineralsT decomposition of the caronates <decaronisation or
e"pulsion of C:
commonly %no#n as calcination>T reactions in solid phase and reactions #ith the
participation of one li6uid phase and crystallizations.
/hese processes are influenced y chemical factors in the ra# meal <such as its chemical
composition>, y mineralogical factors <its mineralogical composition>, y physical factors <fineness
or particle size in the ra# meal>, homogeneity and other factors. /he complete course of these
endothermic reactions plays a decisive role in 6uality of the resulting cement.
In per$heater %iln, the first five transformations sho#s in figure ;.( #ill ta%e place in pre$heater
to#er. /he decomposition of limestone and other caronates #ill primarily ta%e place in the
calciner vessel #here the calcination temperature is maintained y in'ection of fuel. /he last t#o
transformations #ill ta%e place in the rotary %iln.
/he caronate Ca C:
decomposes et#een )11 R 211
C to form Ca:. Kuartz and clay #ill have
started decomposing slightly efore that to lierate free reactive Al
and 3i:

3trength development of concrete is the result of hydration of the particles. 3maller the particles,
larger the specific surface and faster the hydration. =articles coarser than +1R,1 microns hydrate
very slo#ly and #ill only affect late strengths. :n the other hand, superfine particle #ith -$+
micron size may hydrate efore the concrete has een cast and #ill have limited influence on
strength development.

-.1 )(rpose:
/o transform &a# Mi" into CGIN8.& through =Q&:$=&:C&.33IN?.

-.% Sections o+ a T"pica& 3i&n S"ste#:
8IGN feed system.
=re$heater <!our stage to si" stage>
=re$Calciner <IGC, 3GC>
Cooler <including Clin%er Bammer>
=lanetary Cooler
?rate Cooler
T"pe o+ Ce#ent:
?rey Cement
White Cement
-.5 )rocesses:
Wet =rocess
3emi$dry =rocess
0ry =rocess
6.1 )(rpose:
/o pac% cement in appropriate pac%ages suitale for consumption at site.
6.% Co##on pac$s aai&a/&e:
?rey Cement9
,1 8g ags
Bul% handling of cement has started at selected places e.g. ul%$handling
pro'ect near Mumai y ACC.
White Cement9
,1 8g and small size pac%s as per mar%et demand.
6.5 )ac$ers:
Mechanical =ac%ers
.lectronic =ac%ers
/he survival and #ell eing of the cement plants I companies in the mar%et depends upon the
6uality of product and its cost. Kuality and cost together define the value of the product <i.e.
cement in this case>. /he concept of 6uality has undergone a sea change from mere 6uality
control of the product to total 6uality management </.K.M.> #ith emphasis on 6uality defined as
@totality of features and characteristics of product I services that ears on its aility to satisfy the
stated and implied needsA.
/he 6uality of the product depends on variety of factors such as technology, 6uality of ra#
materials and fuels, operation and 6uality control procedures to produced consistent product.
/he road 6uality parameters of cement relate to chemical and physical properties as per I3 Code
are as mentioned elo#9
Goss on ignition WG:IX
Insolule residue WI&X
3ulphur trio"ide W3:
Magnesium o"ide WMg:X
/otal chloride WClX
Gime saturation factor WG3!X
Alumina modulus WAMX
3etting time R initial and final
Compressive strengths <+ days, H days and -2 days>
Beat of hydration
0rying shrin%age Wfor ==CX
T!e /asic steps ino&ed in t!e prod(ction process is set o(t /e&o':
All 7.8. Cement plants are dry process plants. Gimestone is crushed to a uniform and usale
size, lended #ith certain additives <such as iron ore and au"ite> and discharged on a
vertical roller mill, #here the ra# materials are ground to fine po#der. An electrostatic
precipitator dedusts the ra# mill gases and collects the ra# meal for a series of further stages
of lending. /he homogenized ra# meal thus e"tracted is pumped to the top of a preheater y
air lift pumps. In the preheaters the material is heated to H,1YC. 3use6uently, the ra# meal
undergoes a process of calcination in a precalcinator <in #hich the caronates present are
reduced to o"ides> and is then fed to the %iln. /he remaining calcination and clin%erization
reactions are completed in the %iln #here the temperature is raised to et#een (,;,1YC and
(,,11YC. /he clin%er formed is cooled and conveyed to the clin%er silo from #here it is
e"tracted and transported to the cement mills for producing cement. !or producing :=C,
clin%er and gypsum are used and for producing =ortland W=ozzolanaX Cement <@==CA>,
clin%er, gypsum and fly ash are used. In the production of =ortland Blast !urnace 3tag
Cement <@=3CA>, granulated last furnace slag from steel plants is added to clin%er.
We produce grey cement and #hite cement. ?rey cement produced y us consists of
:rdinary =ortland Cement <@:=CA> and =ortland =ozzolana Cement <@==CA>. :=C has three
principal grades that are differentiated y their compressive strengths, and consist of ,+$
grade, ;+$grade and ++$grade :=C.
All our products comply #ith the 6uality standards specified y the Bureau of Indian
3tandards <@BI3A>. :ur cement products are mar%eted under the rand names 7.8. Cement
and 3arvasha%timan for :=C products, 7.8. 3uper for ==C products and 7.8. White and
Camel for #hite cement products, #hich #e elieve are #ell %no#n rands.
23 @a&& )(tt"
White cement ased putty for lu"urious and sil%y interiorIe"terior finish of your dream home
78 Wall =utty is White Cement ased putty for cement plastered #alls and ceilings. 7.8. Wall
=utty is used to fill the uneven surfaces of cement plastered #alls and concrete #alls.
Application of 7.8. Wall putty provides smooth and strong finish to the #alls for further
application of all %inds of paints. /he smooth finish gives etter loo% to interiors and
S(r+ace )reparation
/he surface should e cleaned to ma%e it free from dirt, dust, grease, oil and paint. All
foreign impurities should e removed #ith a #ire$rush. Wall surfaces should e cured so
that the surface is saturated #ith #ater yet in Dtouch dry condition.
Treat#ent o+ Ne' S(r+ace
/he ne# surface re6uires only soft treatment such as removal of dust, dirt and foreign matter.
In case of crac%s, voids and damagesT it should e patched up prior to application of 7. 8.
Wall =utty #ith greyI#hite cement.
Treat#ent o+ O&d S(r+ace
All loose material andI or organic gro#th must e removed #ith =utty lade or rush. In case
of old painted surface scru the surface #ith coarse emery stoneIpaper.
)reparation o+ 2.3. @a&& )(tt" )aste
7. 8. Wall =utty is a fine po#der. Mi" slo#ly 7. 8. Wall =utty #ith appro". ;1* #ater y
volume to prepare paste of desired consistency. Mi" vigorously for ,$(1 minutes for ma%ing
lump free, uniform and smooth putty paste. =roduct should e mi"ed in re6uired 6uantities to
e used #ithin -$+ hrs of its preparation.
Apply uniformly the first coat of 7.8. Wall =utty #ith ladeItro#el on the #all from ottom
to top. Apply second coat after the first coat has dried completely. Gimit the total thic%ness of
- coats to (., mm. Allo# complete drying and then use fine emery paper to remove the
application mar% if any. Any %ind of paint can e applied on this surface. 5se #ater for
curing efore applying paint.
Although 7.8. Wall =utty does not contain any to"ic material, use ruer gloves #hile
mi"ing, as prolonged e"posure #ith #ater may soften the s%in resulting in fine cutsIlegions
due to cement particles. =recaution should e ta%en to avoid dust inhalation #hile handling
the po#der putty.
3tore 7.8. Wall =utty in a dry place and open the pac% 'ust efore use. 8eep out of reach of
Co#parison 1et'een 2.3. @a&& )(tt" and Traditiona& )(tt"
=roperties 7.8. Wall =utty /raditional =utty
7.8. Wall =utty is #hite cement ased putty.
Bence it possesses good inding property.
0ue to only chal% po#der,
it has very less inding
0ue to its cement ase, 7.8. Wall =utty
ecomes an integral part of plaster and
hence more durale.
Gess durale
Coverage Area
7.8. Wall =utty covers more surface area
e"ceeding -1 36. ft.I%g. In - coats on a ne#
plastered #all.
Covers less surface area.
7.8. Wall =utty resists dampness. 0oes not resist dampness.
!la%ing No !la%ing.
!la%ing occurs #hen it
comes in contact #ith
Consumption of
7.8. Wall =utty re6uires less paint due to
lo# asorption.
&e6uires more paint due
to high asorption.
=rimer Coat No primer coat is re6uired. =rimer coat is must.
Better appearance due to very high
#hiteness of =utty. NCCBM certifies 4+*
Appearance is yello#ish.
Gess pigment consumption yet right
Bigh pigmentation.
Consumption yet dull
Consistency in 6uality as it is made under
stringent 6uality control #ith tested
ingredients under one roof at company
No consistency.
Cost 5ltimate cost is less due to
<a> Gong life span
<> No =rimer cost
<c> Gess paint consumption M
5ltimate cost is more.
<d> No use :f enamel M varnish #hile
preparing putty paste.

Advantages over =laster of =aris <=:=>

(. White cement ased product therefore strength is more than gypsum ased =:=.
-. 7.8. Wall =utty can e applied on e"teriorsIe"posed surfaces #hereas the same is not
possile #ith =:=.
+. 7.8. Wall =utty is very #hite in appearance #hile =:= is yello#ish.
;. In case of 7.8. Wall =utty no primer is re6uired efore painting, #hereas it is
compulsory for =:= surfaces.
,. 7.8. Wall =utty resists seepage #hile =:= does not.
?rey cement produced y us consists of :=C and ==C. /here are also other cements in the
mar%et that #e do not produce, such as =ortland slag cement, oil #ell cement, sulphate
resistant cement, rapid gardening cement, lo# al%ali cement, lo# heat cement and super
finish cement.:=C has three grades that #e produce, that are differentiated y their
compressive strengths, e"pressed in mega pascals <@M=aA>, as specified y the BI3./hese
grades are ,+$grade :=C, ;+$grade :=C and ++$grade :=C, #ith ,+$grade :=C having the
highest compressive strength./he customer selects the grade of :=C ased on the intended
application. :ur most popular cement, y sales volume, is ;+$grade cement, #ith ,+$grade
cement eing used in applications #hich re6uire high strength characteristics.
Ordinar" )ort&and Ce#ent
:=C is produced y inter$grinding cement clin%er prepared in a rotary cement %iln #ith
gypsum. .ach metric ton of :=C re6uires appro"imately 1.4, metric tons of clin%er and
appro"imately 1.1, metric tons of gypsum. /he range of applications, the physical and
chemical re6uirements specified y BI3 and strength of the three grades of :=C are
discussed elo#9
,+$grade :=C <I39(--)4$(42H>9 ,+$grade :=C is a high strength cement. According to the
BI3 re6uirements, ,+$grade :=C must have a -2$day compressive strength of no less than ,+
M=a. !or certain specialized products, such as pre$stressed concrete and certain pre$cast
concrete items re6uiring high strength, ,+$grade :=C is considered useful as it can produce
high$grade concrete at lo#er cement content levels. We produce ,+$grade :=C y e"posing
the clin%er
We manufacture #hite cement under the rand names 7.8. White and Camel. White cement
is produced using a different 6uality of limestone and is distinguished from grey cement y
its #hite colour. .ach ton of #hite cement re6uires appro"imately (.++ tons of limestone,
1.1- tons of gypsum and 1.- tons of additives including #hite clay, feldspar and fluorspar.
@!ite ce#ent is t"pica&&" (sed in t!ree principa& areas o+ app&icationD as set +ort! /e&o':
!looring, for the manufacturing and laying of mosaic tiles and as tile fi"ing grout, #all
applications, such as decorative
#hite cement paints and plain and spray plastersT and
:ther specialized applications including glass fire reinforced concrete, garden furniture,
lamp posts, as pointing for
ric% and stone #or%s and as pre$cast cladding panels.
We sell #hite cement primarily in the Indian mar%et. We also e"port #hite cement to a
numer of countries, including 3outh Africa, Nigeria, 3ingapore, Bahrain, Bangladesh, 3ri
Gan%a, 8enya, /anzania, 5nited Ara .mirates and Nepal.
78 Water proof is another product from 78 Cements Gtd. #hich is I3I approved. Its a #ater
repellent material in po#der form #hich specially formulated and designed to prevent
passage of #ater through pore and capillaries of the concrete, therey imparting to concrete
an efficient, dependale and durale #ater proofing protection against rain, ground #ater,
moisture, dampness, humidity etc. 78 Water proof is free from chlorides and is ased on
material #hich disperses rapidly and ma%es a homogenous mi" #ith cement. It conforms
#ith I39-);,$(4H, <&eaffirmed (42H>. 78 Water =roof pac% is availale in - different sizes
i.e. ( %g M -, %g.
Year C&in$er Ce#ent
%<<74<8 1865C8< 1815%<%
%<<84<E 17%87-6 1E<8685
%<<E4<C 518<%7E 5611<%%
%<<C41< %C<81C7 575E8E7
%<1<411 %C18<-6 57C<8%7
%<1141% 5<%-<C1 57-7%%<
%<1%415 5<6<<6< -%E<6<<
Year T(rnoer )1T
%<<E4<C 11<E8 6%%
%<<C41< 16%C8 %8%<
%<1<411 1E1%E 5-77
%<1141% 1E876 %5-<
%<1%415 %%-E1 511%
FDee&oping Mar$eting Strateg" /" 3no'ing Mar$et s!are and pro#otiona&
sc!e#e o+ 23 Ce#ent @or$s G
Mar$et s!are, in strategic management and mar%eting is, according to Carlton :FNeal, the
percentage or proportion of the total availale mar%et or mar%et segment that is eing serviced y a
company. It can e e"pressed as a companyFs sales revenue <from that mar%et> divided y the total sales
revenue availale in that mar%et. It can also e e"pressed as a companyFs unit sales volume <in a mar%et>
divided y the total volume of units sold in that mar%et. It is generally necessary to commission mar%et
research <generally des%Isecondary research to determine, although sometimes primary> to estimate the
total mar%et size and a companyFs mar%et share.
Increasing mar%et share is one of the most important o'ectives of usiness. /he main advantage
of using mar%et share as a measure of usiness performance is that it is less dependent upon macro
environmental variales such as the state of the economy or changes in ta" policy. Bo#ever, increasing
mar%et share may e dangerous for ma%ers of fungile hazardous products, particularly products sold into
the 5nited 3tates mar%et, #here they may e su'ect to mar%et shares liaility.
)ro#otion Sc!e#e
=romotion is the third = of the mar%eting mi", a pre$eminent and integral channel to
communicate to the consumers. 3uch an eclectic amalgam of activities is this third segment of the
mar%eting mi" that 'ust li%e the mar%eting mi", there is a promotion mi" as #ell, #hich is inclusive
of oth direct and indirect methods to ring the rand communication for#ard to the target mar%et
and shape the positioning of the rand and the company.
=recisely, there are t#o types of promotion methods. :ne set of methods deals #ith the
direct mode of promotion #hile the other strategy aims for the oli6ue and indirect methods.
/he direct methods are inclusive of some of the most conventional and #ell$%no#n methods, the
most popular of #hich is advertising.
/hen follo#s personal selling <used mostly in pharmaceutical companies>, pulicity,
attractive displays <%ios%s>, special event sales and manufacturerFs aids. Coming to the indirect styles
of promotion, they are the more unconventional and not so popular yet effective methods. In the
recent years, these methods have managed to reach a large numer of target audiences in a cost$
effective manner. /hese indirect methods of communication include pulic relations, customer
relations, customer services,
O/Hecties o+ pro#otion
=romotion tools are varies in their specific o'ectives. A free sample stimulates consumer trial,
#hereas a free management$advisory service aims at cementing a long term relationship #ith a retailer.
3ellers use incentive type of sale promotion to attract ne# tries, to re#ard loyal customers, and
to increase the repurchase rates of occasional users. 3ales promotions often attract rand s#itchers, #ho
are primarily loo%ing for lo# price, good value or premiums. If some of them #ould not have other#ise
tried the rand, promotion can yield long$term increases in mar%et share.
3ales promotions in mar%et of high rand similarity can produce high sales responses in the
short run ut little permanent gain in rand preference over the longer term. In mar%et of high rand
similarity, they may e ale to alter mar%et share permanently. In addition to rand s#itching, consumers
may engagee in stoc%piling Rpurchasing earlier than usual or purchasing e"tra 6uantities
)ro#otiona& Too&s
Manufacture use a numer of trade promotion tools as follo#sT
(. )rice4o++$ A straight discount off the list price on each case purchased during a stated
time period.
-. A&&o'ance$ An amount offered in return for the retailers agreeing to feature the
manufacturers product in some #ay. Advertising allo#ances compensate retailers for
advertising the manufacturers product. A display allo#ance compensates them for carrying a
special product display.
+. 9ree 0oods$ :ffer of e"tra cases of merchandise to intermediaries #ho uy a certain
6uantity or #ho feature a certain flavor or size.
;. Trade S!o's and conention$ industry association organize annual trade and
conventions. Business mar%eters may spend as much as +,* of their promotion udget on trade
sho#s. :ver ,,)11 range from a ne# place every year, dra#ing appro"imately 21 million
,. Sa&es Contest$ A sales contest aims at including the sales force or dealers to increase
their sales results over a stated period, #ith prizes <money, trips, gifts, points> going to those #ho
). Specia&t" Adertising$ 3pecialty advertising consists of useful, lo#$cost items earing the
companys name and address, and sometimes an advertising message that sales people give to prospects
and customers.
T!e #ain o/Hectie o+ a researc! is to +ind o(t t!e tr(t! '!ic! is !idden and
'!ic! !as not /een discoered. According to adance &earnerIs dictionar" o+
c(rrent Eng&is! t!e de+inition o+ researc! is:4 FA care+(& inestigation or
en,(ir" especia&&" t!ro(g! searc! +or ne' +acts in an" /ranc! o+ $no'&edgeG
MA&8./ WI3. 0.MAN0 ANAGQ3I3 AN0 78 =&IC. =.&C.=/I:N
My pro'ect study duration is ;, days.
<i> /o find out the rand performance of 7.8. Cement in the mar%et.
<ii> /o find out the prolems of dealers and retailers in the usiness #ith
this randIcompany.
< iii> /o find out the scope of e"pansion of usiness y providing more ne#
<iv> /o compare the ma'or cement rands in terms of =rice, =reference, Kuality, =ac%ing and Colour.
:;/o compare the advertisement strategy of the various cement rands.
<vi> /o %no# #hich attriute of cement consumer prefer more
<vii> By #hich medium consumer %no# aout the cement and on #hom they trust more in
selection of cement in there construction
&esearch in common parlance refers to a search for %no#ledge. :ne can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact,
research is an act of scientific investigation. /he advanced learners 0ictionary of Current
.nglish lays do#n the meaning of research as @a careful investigation or in6uiry especially
through search for ne# facts in any ranch of %no#ledge.A @A careful investigation or en6uiry
especially through search for ne# facts in any ranch of %no#ledge.A
It is an academic activity #hich contriutes to the e"isting stoc% of %no#ledge, ma%ing for its
advancement. It comprises of9 data collection, oservation, comparison, interpretation and
findings. It refers to a systematic method of enunciating the prolem.
/hus #hen #e tal% aout research or research methodology #e not only tal% aout research
method ut also consider the logic ehind it.

It is a plan of action to e carried out in connection #ith the research pro'ect. It is
the guideline for the researcher to enale him to %eep trac% of his action and to %no# #eather he
#as moving in the right direction or not. It is the frame#or% or plan for a study that is used as
guide in collecting and analyzing the data. It is the lue print that is follo#ed in completing a
study. /here are various types of research #ith its pros and cons. .ach is meant for its specific
purpose. Bence here in this pro'ect, I used the descriptive type of research.
A ig oom has een #itnessed in Cement Industry in resent times. A large numer
of ne# players have entered the mar%et and trying to gain mar%et share in this rapidly improving
/he research #as carried on in Nimahera. I had een sent at one of the ranch of78
C.M.N/ #here I completed my =ro'ect #or%. I surveyed on my =ro'ect /opic
1RANDS @on the visiting customers of the Nimahera Branch of 78 C.M.N/.
3ample size 0ealers$ )
&etailers R (;
Contractors R (1
/otal R +1
3ampling units Chittorgarh
3ampling procedure 7udgement sampling
&esearch design ."ploratory
0ata collection method 3urvey
&esearch instrument Kuestionnaire
/ype of 6uestionnaire 3tructured
/ype of 6uestion Close and open ended
Area covered 0ealers, &etailers and contractor .

/he research conduct #as limited to chittorgarh region only.
0ue to time constraints, more time could not e devoted to individual respondent.
0ue to un#illingness of providing any information, the respondents filled the
6uestionnaire casually #hich might have effected the conclusion.
Mar%eting manager eing usy #ith his 'o. Be #as not ale to spare enough time for our
proper guidance.
A usy schedule of dealers I retailers also ma%es the collection of information a very
difficult one.
!ull district #as not covered as this is very tedious 'o to e done in H R days. Bo#ever
almost all main areas of the district #ere covered.
/he pro'ections are purely ased on veral meetings and may e influenced y
unprecedented factors. #as a ig prolem in this survey.
=&IC. ANAGQ3I3 AN0 0I3C:5N/ &A/.
3AG.3 =&:M:/I:N AN0 A0E.&/I3M.N/
MA&8./ 3BA&.

WB:G. 3AG.3 =&IC.
CA3B 0I3C:5N/
WB:G. 3AG.3
=&IC. CA3B 0I3C:5N/
7.8. -1) -1- ;
BI&GA -(1 -1, ,
BINANI -1+ -11 +
BAN?5& -1- -11 -
According to Bar 0aigram sho#s '.%.cement gives more cash discount to #hole saler for more
ul% purchasing in compare to another industries.

3AG.3 =&:M:/I:N AE.&3/I3M.N/
7.8. +)* (,*
BI&GA 21* ),*
BINANI ))* )1*
BAN?5& ,2* ,-*
/his diagram sho#s the comparative study of advertisement ratio of various cement
industries. We can notice that the 78 cement industry invest less money in advertisement as
compare to other cement industries.
B&AN0 3ales
7.8. +1*
BI&GA ;1*
BAN?5& H*
* 3/A/53
1$-, =::&
-,$,1 ?::0
,1$H, E.&Q ?::0
H,$(11 .OC.GG.N/
:/B.&3 +*
According to pie chart sales ratio of '% cement in comparison of other rands in mar%et is higher.
according to aove sho#n pie$chart #e can analyse that 7.8. cement have (-* share in Indian
9ro# a/oe c!art 'e !ae ana&"sed t!at t!e 23 ce#ent !ae &ess pre+erence
as co#pare to ot!er ce#ent ind(stries.
. 7.Ce#ent cons(#ption in t!e Indian #ar$et diided /" region 'ise ce#ent
According to pie c!art ce#ent cons(#ption in t!e a&& oer Indian #ar$et is
er" good and ce#ent is cons(#ed in a&& region in constr(ction.
..8@!at are t!e ce#ent ind(stries (ses to t!eir prod(ction to despatc! t!e#
to t!eir c(sto#ersJ
According to pie c!art ce#ent prod(ction despatc! /" road 7%KDrai& 57K
and /" sea is &ess t!en ot!ers %K.So t!e conc&(sion o+ t!e ana&"sis despatc! o+
ce#ent prod(ction road #odes is per+erea/&e in co#parasion to ot!ers

It can e concluded from the study through model 78 Cement has a good rand image in
the dealers mind in chittorgarh. It is not easily availale on demand #hich places the company at
the disadvantage #hich compared #ith lac% vendors. /his prolem #hich can e improved y
the strength and the distriution net#or% of 78 Cement Wor%s M 3upply.
0ealers are of the opinion that among all the media television is the most po#erful
media follo#ed y the hoarding and #all painting #hich every common man can see. 3o
company should have to utilize then as much as possile.
I found company is poor in providing services such as timely small deliveries regular
visits and gift items etc.
/he company should focus more on sales promotion, advertisement and pulic relation.
Net#or% spread of 78 Cement is very high in chittorgarh can e this as its strength.
If chec% out the satisfaction level of dealers #ith respect to 6uality of 78 Cement then #e
find that 2,* dealers are told that it has e"cellent 6uality. 3o company can also see this as
its strength compare to other rand in mar%et.
0ealers opinion regarding price is !avoring 78 M Its ?et (st ran% in all si"$rand. Its
price is reasonale according to 6uality its also satisfy the dealer. It #as found company
has very good Brand Image in dealers mind.
0ealers are satisfy #ith the price.
It #as found that company is lac%ing in 3upply.
(. 7.8. C.M.N/ possess good rand image in the e"isting mar%ets #hich is definitely a par of
pavement ric% for it.
-.Gocatin has al#ays een and important factor in &a'asthan e"tensive <aout -,11 mt> of
cement grade limestone availale.
+.3ound financial position #ith ade6uate profits and capital assets ase.
;.?ood plant having (1111 tons per day production capacity
,.In the coming fe# years the demand for the cement #ill increase #hich #ill e ooming ne#s
for cement manufactures.
).nvironment friendly and iodegradale characteristic are considered as est option.
(. Go# sales as compared to mar%et potential. /he mar%et potential of the 5daipur mar%et is
high ut as compared to it the sales of 7.8. Cement is lo#.
-.Gac% of self R enthusiasm in the #or%ing pattern of the e"ecutives as a result the
aggressiveness to#ards sales is lo#.
+.Bigh complaints of 6uality deterioration in 7.8. super rand.
;.Gess advertisement and negligile sales promotion schemes as compared to other rands.
,Bigh capital cost and investment cost for each and every pro'ect.
)./he comple" ."cise 0uty structure ased on the category of uyer and end use of the
cement has caused at lot of confusion in the industry.
H. Monopoly of dealers is affecting the sales.
(.India is the second larges producer of cement after China ut is per capita consumption is very
lo# i.e. around one third of #orld average and sustantially lo#er as compared to per cpita
cement consumption of developing countries.
-.With demand e"pected to gro# at around 2 R 4 *, additional capacity of (- million tons per
annum #ill e re6uired to match the damand. With limited green field capacity addition in
pipeline for ne"t t#o years, country is heading to#ards more favourale demand R supply
+.."plosion of 6uality yet to e displayd to capture large customers.
;.Competitive prices and may increase the discount and margin structure for retailers and dealers.
, Ade6uate support from the ?overnment is very essential to promote usiness activities.
).Increase in the production and sell of cement at different plants have increased the turnover of
the company.
(.Bo#ever, #ith the increased margins there is a possiility of over unching of capacities in the
long term as some of the players have already announced ne# capacities and the pace of capacity
addition may e higher than demand gro#th.
-./here are many dealers of lo# profile may cause a loss product performance to gro# and
+.=rice flucturatins and price #ar is general phenomena in the cement industry.
;.Increased rail#ay freight, coal prices and dispatch ottlenec%s on account of truc% Goading
restrictions imposed y various 3tate ?overnments
,.3carcities of good 6uality Coal are some other factors #hich are cause of concern for the


A company #ould e #ise to measure customer satisfactions regularly the %ey to
customer retention is customer satisfaction.
, Company can increase the role of the retailer y considering their suggestions or
complaints aout service or product, so that necessary action can e ta%en.
, &evie# meetings should e often held so that the #or%ing pattern of the
."ecutives can e chec%ed and improved if needed.
, ."ecutives need to e more self$enthusiastic and aggressive to#ards sales for
these appraisals should e given to those e"ecutives #ho #or%ed hard.
, Company representatives should visit retailers and should ma%e a long term
relationship #ith the retailer so that they can push the product.
, 3ince customer are value ma"i miser and their e"pectation to this rand is high, as
the rand image sho#s their complaints should e attended immediately to ma%e then
remain rand loyal.
, It should e chec%ed that the non$ trade consignment is not sold in the mar%et, so
that is does not distur the retail price of the mar%et.
, 3ince transportation forms the ma'or part of the cement cost, mar%et potential of
the region should e properly accessed so that emphasis can e more on high retention
zone, #hich can e done y employing more authorized retailers.
3toc%iest should e convinced to pass the incentives to the retailers so that they are
motivated to promote this rand.
Company should increase the promotional and advertisement activities for giving the
popularity to the product.
Company should set the policy on pricing. /here should e certain time period for
increment and decrement in the pricing. Company should also give the prior information
for this to dealers and retailers.
/here should e proper loading facility in the plant and out side the plant, delivery of
goods should e on time.
/op management and e"ecutives should maintain proper communication #ith dealers and
Increase the numer of dealers and retailers as this #ill help in ma%ing high sales volume.
Cash discount should e competitive and luring.
Cement is still a selling product in country li%e India. It is the company #ho has to find the
mar%et and go the prospect rather then the client directly approaching to the company. /he
opening up of the sector has also resulted in stiff competition as many private companies are
entering in. so it ecomes very important to e the est out of the mar%et . /his , the company
can achieve y offering value added services to the customers y giving them ma"imum enefits.
Company is trying to given more assured returns to the investors. Mostly products are ased on
the NAE or they unit Gin%ed so a#areness, %no#ledge and rand image of the #ill e product
the first priority for the company.
/he most of the mar%et of district chittorgarh is covered y 78 Cement, Birla and
!or increasing company good #ill and esteem many of the retailers suggests to Go#
price and Availaility of time.
Contractors and Masson are the most influencing factors during purchasing of cement.
/he Wall painting and little it hoarding is the effective media foe advertisement.
Most of the consumers are #ell %no#n aout 78 Cement sarvasa%timan and super.
Customers are #ell satisfied y 6uality and services provided y /.C.3.
Mar%eting management 8otler =hilip
=rinciples of mar%eting 8otler =hilip
Business research method Cooper and 3chindler
Mar%eting research Beri ? .C.
3tatistics ?upta 3.C
Cement 'ournal of CMA
Business Gine .
.conomic /imes.