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ric Toussaint
The life and crimes
of an exemplary man
Jacques de Groote, Executive Director at the IMF
and World Bank for ! "ears
The #ife and $ri%es of an Exe%&lar" Man
B" Eric Toussaint
$o&"ri(ht) $'DTM
Translated fro% French *" $'DTM
+ri(inal version in French &u*lished in ,ove%*er !-. *" 'l Dante, Marseille /France01
+ri(inal title) 2roc3s d4un ho%%e exe%&laire
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$'DTM /$o%it> &our l?'nnulation de la Dette du Tiers Monde0
.:<, avenue de l?+*servatoire
:!!! #i3(e
Eric Toussaint is a historian @ith a doctoral de(ree in
&olitical science fro% the universities of 2aris AIII and #i3(e1
Be is the 2resident of $'DTM Bel(iu% /@@@1cadt%1or(01 Be
has @ritten %an" essa"s on (eo&olitics includin( The World
Bank) ' $ritical 2ri%er, 2luto 2ress, #ondon, !!8, and '
Glance in the Cear Aie@ Mirror1 ,eoli*eral Ideolo(" fro% its
+ri(ins to the 2resent, Ba"%arket Books, $hica(o, !-1 Be
has also @ritten several @orks @ith Da%ien Millet, includin(
De*t, the IMF, and the World Bank) 5ixt" Duestions, 5ixt"
'ns@ers, Monthl" Cevie@ 2ress, ,e@ Eork, !-!,
htt&)==cadt%1or(=De*t9the9IMF9and9the9World9Bank 5ee also
Eric Toussaint, doctoral thesis in &olitical science, &resented
in !!: at the Fniversities of #i3(e and 2aris AIII) GEnHeux &olitiques de l?action de la
Banque %ondiale et du Fonds %on>taire international envers le tiers9%ondeI
/G2olitical as&ects of the World Bank and the International Monetar" Fund actions
to@ard the Third WorldI0, htt&)==cadt%1or(=EnHeux9&olitiques9de9l9action9de
Aminata Traor is a Malian &olitician and @riter1 Ber *ooks in French include #4>tau1
#4'frique dans un %onde sans fronti3res, #e Aiol de l4I%a(inaire, #4'frique hu%ili>e,
and #4'frique %util>e1
Jean Ziegler is a for%er &rofessor of sociolo(" at the Fniversit" of Geneva and the
5or*onne, 2aris1 Be @as a Me%*er of 2arlia%ent for the 5ocial De%ocrats in the
Federal 'sse%*l" of 5@itJerland fro% -68- to -6661 Be has also held several
&ositions @ith the Fnited ,ations, es&eciall" as 5&ecial Ca&&orteur on the Ci(ht to
Food fro% !!! to !!8, and as a %e%*er of the 'dvisor" $o%%ittee of the F,
Bu%an Ci(hts $ouncil fro% !!8 to !-1 Bis recent &u*lications include Bettin( on
Fa%ine) Wh" the World 5till Goes Bun(r", ,e@ 2ress, !-. /.!:&0 I5B, 6789-9<6<<89
Acknowledgements: I @ould like to thank 5nake 'r*usto, Aicki Briault, 2ierre
Gotiniaux, 2auline I%*ach, 'nishu Jaki%, $harles #a Aia, Evette and Mike
Kroliko@ski, Da%ien Millet, $hristine 2a(noulle, Bri(itte 2onet, and 2atrick 5aurin for
their su&&ort and assistance in @ritin( and translatin( this *ook1
2reface *" '%inata Traor> 6
Introduction *" 2auline I%*ach and Da%ien Millet --
The Trial of an Exe%&lar" Man -<
E&ilo(ue :7
-= The #ife and Ti%es of Jacques de Groote <<
= The IMF and the World Bank) It?s ti%e to re&lace the% ;-
.= The World Bank ;;
:= The International Monetar" Fund /IMF0 ;6
2ost face ) Eric Toussaint L a $oura(eous Whistle*lo@er *" Jean Mie(ler 7-
Bi*lio(ra&h" 7<
This book is dedicated to Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961),
Thomas Sankara (1949-198), and a!! the other "#rican
$omen and men $ho are #i%htin% #or socia! &ustice and
#or the abo!ition o# a!! #orms o# o''ression(
Eric Toussaint
Preace !" Aminata Traor
The descent into sa)a%er* continues throu%hout the
$or!d $ith its attendant human su##erin%, b!ood,
and tears( +m'o)erished and star)in% 'eo'!e $ho
storm the streets do sometimes mana%e to oust
mi!itar* and ci)i!ian dictatorshi's, *et, the* are not
ab!e to chan%e the root causes o# ine-ua!ities,
in&ustice, and corru'tion( The* are 'o$er!ess $ith
res'ect to the .'ermanent coup dtat/ tire!ess!*
denounced b* 0ric Toussaint in his ana!*ses o# the
inner $orkin%s o# the +nternationa! 1onetar* 2und
(+12) and the 3or!d 4ank(
The Trial of an Exemplary Man adds a ne$ dimension to his ana!*ses,
and a ne$ cha'ter to the 'recious research carried out b* the
5ommittee #or the "bo!ition o# Third 3or!d 6ebt (5"6T1) to
dem*sti#* these 4retton 3oods institutions( The 'otions concocted b*
the +12 and 3or!d 4ank are not on!* bitter, the* are a!so o#ten
3ar-torn 1a!i is not su##erin% #rom a securit* crisis in the north and
an institutiona! crisis in the south, as the dominant discourse 'retends(
+t is one o# the best 'u'i!s o# these institutions, $hich are res'onsib!e
#or its crumb!in% State structure, the 'ermeabi!it* o# its borders, and
the des'air o# unem'!o*ed *oun% 'eo'!e, $ho are read* to $a%e $ar
$here)er the* can(
To ca' it a!! o##, 1a!i is about to en%a%e in a ne$ c*c!e o# o)er-
indebtedness to 'a* #or its reconstruction accordin% to the same
'aradi%m and under the su'er)ision o# the same internationa!
#inancia! institutions (the +12 and 34)(
Stories such as this one about the !i#e o# 7ac-ues de 8roote, $ho used
to be an e9ecuti)e director at these t$o institutions, and has no$ been
condemned b* the S$iss courts #or #raud, a%%ra)ated mone*
!aunderin%, and document #or%er*, c!ear!* i!!ustrate the mora! crisis
a##!ictin% the dominant socia! c!asses toda*(
The 'eo'!es o# the $or!d cou!d act to%ether and more e##ecti)e!* i#
in#ormation $ere treated in a $a* that $ou!d a!!o$ them to
understand the res'onsibi!ities o# the ke* '!a*ers( 0ric Toussaint:s
book is a )a!uab!e too! that can educate citi;ens in the <orth and in
the South(
#ntroduction !" Pauline #m!ac$ and %amien &illet
"s #inancia! and 'o!itica! scanda!s come and %o, the names o#
im'ortant 'ersona!ities 'e''er the internationa! 'ress, but in %enera!,
$e on!* remember scattered detai!s(
7ac-ues de 8roote, the sub&ect o# this book, is an interestin% e9am'!e(
=e $as 4e!%ium:s e9ecuti)e director at the +12 and 3or!d 4ank #or
near!* t$ent* *ears, and has recent!* been condemned in 4e!!in;ona,
S$it;er!and #or .a%%ra)ated mone* !aunderin%/, .#raud/, and
.document #or%er*(/ This stor* recei)ed a %reat dea! o# media
attention in >uro'e and be*ond throu%hout 2?1@(
3hat interests 0ric Toussaint, $ho has radica!!* criticised the +12
and the 3or!d 4ank #or se)era! decades, is the emb!ematic ro!e
'!a*ed b* 7ac-ues de 8roote durin% a historica! 'eriod o# these t$o
im'ortant internationa! #inancia! institutions to $hich the ma&or media
out!ets accord so much attention( +t is im'ossib!e to criticise them or
their actions and unima%inab!e to -uestion their e9istence in an* $a*(
Someho$, the* are abo)e a!! re'roach( Their #ai!ures, and the serious
dama%e resu!tin% #rom them, ha)e a!! been caused b* conditions
be*ond their contro!( The* en&o* un!imited intrinsic !e%itimac*( 4ein%
'rotected b* immunit* in the e9ercise o# their #unctions, those in
char%e are ne)er ca!!ed to account( Since their creation in 1944,
neither o# these institutions has e)er been taken to court des'ite
re'eated )io!ations o# human ri%hts(
These t$o institutions are under the orders o# the dominant
%o)ernments and the bi% mu!tinationa!s, osci!!atin% bet$een 'ri)ate
interests ('o!itica!, economic, and #inancia!) and the interests o# the
%reat 'o$ers(
This #ascinatin% book, $hich can be read !ike a historic no)e!,
hi%h!i%hts these di##erent as'ects $ith e9am'!es taken #rom the career
o# 7ac-ues de 8roote( 0ric Toussaint 'ractices neither insinuation nor
de#amation, he sticks to the #acts, basin% his en-uir* on c!ear!*
de#ined sources(
The narration takes us throu%h the 5on%o o# 1obutu, in#amous #or the
harshness o# his dictatoria! re%ime and the 'ersona! #ortune he
amassed on the backs o# the 5on%o!ese 'eo'!e( Then it is on to
A$anda $here our hero he!'s his #riend Ban 6en 4randen, a baron
and 5>C o# a ma&or minin% com'an*( Di!!in% three birds $ith one
stone, de 8roote acted in #a)our o# the institutions he $as
re'resentin%, his #riend, and the re%ime o# 8enera! 7u)ena!
=abi*arimana( The sa%a continues in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic $ith the
#raudu!ent 'ri)atisation o# 1ES (Mostecka Uhelna Spolecnost), one
o# the 'rinci'a! 5;ech coa! mines( 4e!%ium and its kin%domFs interests
are a!so 'art o# the narrati)e, as is the %enera!isation o# neo!ibera!
'o!icies startin% in the 198?s, and 'ressure %rou's, 'o!itica!
#riendshi's, and a!!iances( The o'erations take on a $or!d$ide
characterG tria!s in the E(S( and S$it;er!and, a 'i'e!ine in +ndia,
3or!d 4ank and +12 success stories in 1e9ico, re!ations $ith the bi%
internationa! 'ri)ate banks, and on se)era! occasions c!ear con#!icts o#
The backdro' o# this $ork remains the internationa! #inancia!
institutions that are so o#ten %ui!t* o# in#rin%in% u'on and )io!atin%
human ri%hts( Li#tin% the curtain to un)ei! their actions is essentia!( +t
%oes $ithout sa*in% that the* must ans$er #or them, as must their
6irectors and re'resentati)es( +t is crucia! to ana!*se the 'o$er#u!
methods o# domination at $ork a!! o)er the '!anet #or the !ast se)ent*
*ears( The 5"6T1 has endea)oured to make this radica! criti-ue #or
o)er t$ent* *ears, and has 'ub!ished numerous ana!*ses enab!in% us
to understand the death!* !o%ic commandin% ma&or internationa!
The #ina! cha'ter o# this sa%a has not *et been $ritten, but this $ork
o##ers a c!ear ana!*sis o# the neo!ibera! a%enda and 'ro)ides )a!uab!e
materia! #or an*one $ishin% to understand and combat this un&ust
<o$ is the moment to disco)er this $e!! documented $ork, $hich
shou!d stren%then our con)iction that $e must act no$, and !ead us to
en%a%e in a !iberatin% re)o!t(
T$e Trial o an E'em(lar" &an
7ac-ues de 8roote, the #ormer >9ecuti)e 6irector at the +12 (19@-
1994) and 3or!d 4ank (195-1991) #or 4e!%ium, $as condemned in
Cctober 2?1@ b* S$iss courts in an a##air concernin% the #raudu!ent
'ri)ati;ation o# the 'rinci'a! coa! mine in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic( =is co-
de#endants, #i)e 5;ech e9ecuti)es, $ere %i)en #ines and 'rison
sentences ran%in% #rom @6 to 52 months( The #i)e 5;echs $ere #ound
%ui!t* o# a%%ra)ated mone* !aunderin%, #raud, and document #or%er*(
These )erdicts are re!ated to the misa''ro'riation o# assets o# the
5;ech minin% com'an* 1ES (1osteck Ehe!na S'o!ecnost) #rom
199 to 2??@( These #i)e corru't businessmen, some o# $hom $ere
#ormer e9ecuti)es o# the com'an* or members o# its Su'er)isor*
5ommittee, had succeeded in %ainin% contro! o# near!* 9H o# 1ES(
6e'osited in hundreds o# bank accounts in S$it;er!and, Liechtenstein,
the 4ahamas, and e!se$here, the mone* the* misa''ro'riated $as
!aundered )ia more than @? intermediar* com'anies( "ccordin% to the
S$iss dai!*, Le Tem's, .7ac-ues de 8roote 'artici'ated in this
massi)e deceit and in return recei)ed about one mi!!ion S$iss #rancs(
=e '!a*ed a shad* ro!e backin% u' the idea that there $ere 'ossib!e
#orei%n in)estors( Thanks to him, the #i)e 5;ech businessmen cou!d
%o #or$ard $earin% a mask(/
.=e took ad)anta%e o# his e9ce!!ent
re'utation/ and %a)e the 5;ech authorities and media in#ormation that
he kne$ $as .contrar* to rea!it*/, !amented 7ean-Luc 4acher,
'resident o# the court, as he read out the %ui!t* )erdict(
"ccordin% to
La Libre 4e!%i%ue, $hich is %enera!!* #a)ourab!e to him, #o!!o$in%
the &ud%ement 7ac-ues de 8roote dec!ared, I+ $i!! a''ea! this decision
Le Temps, CH/TPF: pilogue d'une e!"o#ue"ie $u p"%udi!e de l'&'$' '!()#ue *
+CH/TPF: epilogue 'o $ ,"$ud $g$in' '(e C-e!( .epu/li!0,
Le Temps, =e i> $!!u de l?$,,$i"e @4A on' d!l$" !oup$/le * +Ai> de,end$n' in
'(e @4A $,,$i" ,ound guil'B0 (''p://1112le'e3p2!(/P$ge/4uid/474500!0531e2511e35
to sho$ that + acted in %ood #aith( +t is crucia! #or me to 'ut an end to
this !on% chain o# tria!s that has !asted #or more than ten *ears, and
ruined me mora!!*, #inancia!!*, and at 86 *ears o!d - 'h*sica!!*I(
4e*ond the narro$ sco'e o# this tria!, it is interestin% to take a broader
!ook at 7ac-ues de 8roote:s 'ersona! tra&ector*, because he $as an
emb!ematic #i%ure o# the +12 and 3or!d 4ank, and there is a !ink
bet$een the ro!e he '!a*ed in these institutions and this a##air brou%ht
be#ore S$iss courts(
+ndeed, as 4e!%ium:s >9ecuti)e 6irector at both the +12 and the
3or!d 4ank, 7ac-ues de 8roote 'resided o)er the %rou' o# countries
re'resented b* 4e!%ium, $hich he!d 5H o# the )otin% ri%hts on the
boards o# these t$o institutions (at that time, more )otin% ri%hts than
2rance, the ED, 5hina, or +ndia)( "t the end o# his term, this %rou'
inc!uded 4e!%ium, the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic, S!o)akia, S!o)enia, "ustria,
Lu9embour%, Turke*, 4e!arus, =un%ar*, and Da;akhstan(
The 3or!d 4ank and the +12 im'!emented the same 'ri)ati;ation
'rocess in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic as those ro!!ed out in most o# the other
e9-So)iet b!oc countries $hen 7ac-ues de 8roote $as e9ecuti)e
director( " #e$ *ears a#ter the end o# his term, he became 'resident o#
the ."''ian 8rou',/ a S$iss com'an*, based in 2ribour%,
s'ecia!i;in% in in)estments in the 'ri)ati;ed com'anies o# 5entra! and
>astern >uro'e, and in 'articu!ar in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic(

La Libre Belgique, CD$!#ue de E"oo'e !ond$3n F une $3ende $Ge! u"iC +D$!#ue de
E"oo'e !onde3ned 'o p$B $ upended ,ine0, 11 H!'o/e" 2013
Aee Financial Times, .o/e"' 8nde"on, I8ppi$n E"oup: 8 e!"e'iGe po1e" 'o /e "e!Joned
1i'(K, 21 Aep'e3/e" 20042 Aee $lo: (''p://1112inGe'o"Gill$ge2!o3/3/'(2222 T(e 8ppi$n
E"oup 1$ ,ounded in 1996 /B A'ep(en =2 <o""i, 1(o e'$/li(ed '(e (e$d o,,i!e in '(e
4A '$> ($Gen '$'e o, Lel$1$"e2 T(e 8ppi$n E"oup 'ooJ oGe" '(e '(e @4A !o"po"$'ion in
1998, $nd A'ep(en =2 <o""i ($nded oGe" '(e p"eiden!B o, '(e E"oup in 1999 'o D$!#ue
Le E"oo'e 1(o '"$n,e""ed i' (e$d o,,i!e 'o F"i/ou"g2 8 ,e1 Be$" l$'e", in 2003M2004
8ppi$n 3oGed $g$in, (elped /B C"edi' Auie, 'o $no'(e" '$> ($Gen Eue"neB2 N ($Ge /een
doing "ee$"!( on '(i !o3p$nB in!e 20052 8' '($' 'i3e, '(e 8ppi$n E"oup 1$ e$ilB
Gii/le on in'e"ne'2 T(e "e,e"en!e 'o '(i g"oup on in'e"ne' ($Ge in!e /een !$"e,ullB
"ccordin% to the 2inancia! Times, the ."''ian 8rou' came #rom
no$here to become one o# the !ar%est and most 'o$er#u! #inancia!
%rou's on the 5;ech business scene(/
+t em'!o*ed 15,??? 'eo'!e, and
o$ned, in addition to the 1ES mine (taken o)er in 1998), the Skoda
en%ineerin% %rou' ($hich $as a!so 'ri)ati;ed), and other com'anies(
+ts #a)ourab!e re!ations $ith the 5;ech %o)ernment $ere o'en!*
critici;ed b* its com'etitors as $e!! as b* 7P 1or%an bank(
5oncernin% the 'ri)ati;ation o# the 1ES mine, the 2inancia! Times
has su%%ested that the mine directors and the "''ian 8rou' (under
the 'residenc* o# 7ac-ues de 8roote) used 1ES cash reser)es to
re'a* the !oans taken on to 'a* #or the bu*out itse!#(
+n addition,
!ar%e sums o# mone* $ere su''osed!* trans#erred out o# the countr*(
+t $as !ater noticed that 1ES had been %utted( The 66? mi!!ion #rancs
#ro;en b* the S$iss authorities are 'robab!* to a !ar%e e9tent made u'
o# this mone*( "ccordin% to Le Tem's, ."t the end o# the 199?s, si9
5;ech citi;ens and a 4e!%ian are su''osed to ha)e made mone*
i!!e%a!!* throu%h this 'ri)ati;ation )ia the com'!e9 #inancia! scheme
the* had de)e!o'ed( The Pub!ic Prosecutor o# the 5on#ederation
(1P5) took interest in this a##air as soon as the mone* used in the
o'eration entered S$it;er!and(/ +t is a!so $orth notin% that the current
1ES 5or'oration has a!so brou%ht accusations in the 'rocedure that
be%an in 1a* 2?1@( The 5;ech 'o!ice ha)e a!so accused the si9
5;ech citi;ens and 7ac-ues de 8roote in this a##air(

)$o initiated t$e legal (roceedings !roug$t !" t$e Swiss courts
against de *roote+
5onsiderin% that 7ac-ues de 8roote had $ron%ed him, "!ain
"boudaram, the 6irector o# a S$iss #inancia! consu!tanc* com'an*,
T(i i $lo ugge'ed in $ "ele$e /B '(e C-e!( p"e $gen!B CTO, 1(i!( u33ed up '(e
leg$l $,,$i" in A1i'-e"l$nd $ ,ollo1: IT(e A1i ,ede"$l p"oe!u'o"? o,,i!e, ,ollo1ing ,iGe
Be$" o, inGe'ig$'ion, $B 'op 3$n$ge" 3$B ($Ge ip(oned o,, !o3p$nB !$( $llo1ing
'(e3elGe 'o '$Je !on'"ol o, @4A 1(ile depoi'ing ,und in A1i $!!oun'K +24/11/2011,
(''p://1112!eJ$po-i!e2!-/en/'$g/3$222 02
Aee (''p://p"$gue3oni'o"2!o3/2012/06/22222 $!!eed on 9 Dune 20132
denounced de 8roote and the other de#endants( +n 2??4, he %a)e the
S$iss courts a considerab!e amount o# 'recise in#ormation concernin%
a )ast mone* !aunderin% o'eration( The e9treme!* interestin% as'ect
o# this a##air is re)ea!ed in se)era! sentences handed do$n b* ES
courts in a case that o''osed "!ain "boudaram and 7ac-ues de
+n 'articu!ar, $e !earn that 7ac-ues de 8roote recei)ed
com'ensation #rom "!ain "boudaram:s com'an* in e9chan%e #or his
assistance in decreasin% the ta9 !iabi!ities o# his com'an*
Skodae9'ort( "!ain "boudaram had direct interests in this com'an*,
$hich had $on a 3or!d 4ank contract to bui!d a 'i'e!ine in +ndia
$ith he!' #rom de 8roote(

The sentence handed do$n b* the ES 7ustice 6e'artment indicates
)er* c!ear!* that 7ac-ues de 8roote recei)ed !ar%e sums o# mone*
#rom "!ain "boudaram:s com'an* in e9chan%e #or his ser)ices,
$hich de 8roote has in #act reco%ni;ed( "ccordin% to the 4e!%a ne$s
a%enc* on 1@ 1a* 2?1@G ." si%ni#icant amount o# mone* $as 'aid to
1r de 8roote( 6urin% the tria!, 1r de 8roote c!aimed that he $as
entit!ed to near!* J@ mi!!ion #or his ser)ices, and that he had a!read*
recei)ed at !east J1 mi!!ion(/
The ES courts u!timate!* dismissed
"!ain "boudaram:s case a%ainst 7ac-ues de 8roote, $ho $as
there#ore not con)icted(
Aee in p$"'i!ul$": (''p://l$12%u'i$2!o3/!$e/,ede"$l222
IAJod$e>po"' oug(' ,in$n!i$l $dGi!e in "edu!ing i' '$> li$/ili'B 'o '(e C-e!( goGe"n3en'
$nd 'o o/'$in $ !on'"$!' '("oug( '(e :o"ld P$nJ 'o /uild $n oil pipeline in Nndi$2 T"2 Fe/2
24, 2004, $' 1395402 P"eu3$/lB "elBing on (i !on'$!', de E"oo'e o/'$ined $ !opB o, $
"eleG$n' 'udB '($' '(e :o"ld P$nJ ($d done in Nndi$, e>plo"ed '(e '$'u o, '(e p"o%e!' $'
'(e :o"ld P$nJ, de'e"3ined (o1 3u!( 3oneB ($d /een e$"3$"Jed ,o" i', iden'i,ied
AJod$&>po"'? po'en'i$l !o3pe'i'o", $nd in'"odu!ed 8/oud$"$3 'o '(e :o"ld P$nJ o,,i!i$l
in !($"ge o, '(e p"o%e!'K (''p://1112d!/2u!ou"'2goG/pd,6,il222
Aee e>!e"p' ,"o3 '(e %udge3en': I8!!o"ding 'o de E"oo'e, (e $nd 8/oud$"$3 o"$llB
$g"eed '($' C88A8 1ould p$B de E"oo'e one5'(i"d o, '(e ,ee C88A8 e$"ned ,"o3
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'o p$B de E"oo'e ,o" (i AJod$&>po"' 1o"J on $ pe"!en'$ge /$i, $nd in'e$d ini'ed '($'
i' ($d $l"e$dB !o3pen$'ed (i3 on ,l$' "$'e 'e"3 ,o" indiGidu$l e"Gi!e "ende"ed2 T(e
p$"'ie $g"ee '($' C88A8 did p$B de E"oo'e $' le$' Q1 3illion2 See 8ppell$n'? P"2 12
n224R 8ppellee? P"2 32K (''p://l$12%u'i$2!o3/!$e/,ede"$l/$ppell$'e5
6oes this make *ou think o# in#!uence 'edd!in%K Lou ma* be ri%ht(
<e)erthe!ess, the ES courts ru!ed that de 8roote:s acti)ities $ere not
re'rehensib!e( The 3or!d 4ank #ound nothin% odd at a!! about his
acti)ities either( C# course notM "!! those s'eeches about %ood
%o)ernance concern !eaders o# Southern countries, not the (#ormer)
>9ecuti)e 6irectors at the 34 and +12(
Accusations o conlicts o interest in Jac,ues de *roote-s
.Arican/ (ast
+n 6ecember 199?, the 3a!! Street 7ourna! 'ub!ished the resu!ts o# a
!on% in)esti%ation on 7ac-ues de 8roote, $ho $as then an >9ecuti)e
6irector at the +12 and 3or!d 4ank(11 The 3S7 considered that de
8roote made s*stematic use o# his in#!uence at the +12 and 34 to
ser)e the interests o# the dictator o# Naire, 1obutu( The &ourna!ists
ar%ued that there $as a con#!ict o# interestG de 8roote su''osed!*
%ained #inancia! ad)anta%es because o# his 'ri)i!e%ed 'osition at the
banks( The #inancia! dai!* a!so asserted that de 8roote bene#ited #rom
his 'osition at the 34 and +12 in the case o# A$anda( =ere a%ain,
the 3or!d 4ank and the +12 1ana%ement #e!t there $as nothin% odd
to re'ort( This a##air recei)ed a %reat dea! o# attention #rom the media
at that time( Se)era! artic!es a''eared in Le Soir, the most im'ortant
4e!%ian dai!* 'a'er in 2rench,12 and o)era!! 7ac-ues de 8roote $as
treated -uite $e!!( Le Soir $as rather indu!%ent, not to mention La
Libre 4e!%i-ue, $hich is o$ned b* de 8roote:s 'o!itica! #ami!* (the
5atho!ic Part*, $hich has become the 5hristian Socia! Part*)(
+t must be said that he has man* a!!ies in the estab!ishment, in
4e!%ium and be*ond, $hich has re'eated!* enab!ed him to esca'e
#rom &ustice(
7ac-ues de 8roote is a co!!ector o# o##icia! tit!esG 8rand C##icer o# the
Crder o# Leo'o!d + (4e!%ium), 8rand C##icer o# the Crder o# Cran%e-
<assau (the <ether!ands), 5ommander o# the Crder o# 1erit o#
"ustria, 5ommander o# the Crder o# Lu9embour%, Aed Star o#
=un%ar* $ith a 8o!den 'a!m, and !ast but not !east, C##icer o# the
Crder o# Naire, besto$ed u'on him b* the dictator 1obutu himse!#(1@
2rom 198? to 1989, he $as a member o# the &ur* o# the Din%
4audouin 2oundation, $hich .#i%hts 'o)ert* and underde)e!o'ment(/
2rom 196@ to 1992, de 8roote $as a 'ro#essor in the >conomics
6e'artment at the Eni)ersit* o# <amur (4e!%ium)( 2rom 196@ to
19@, he $as a 'art-time 'ro#essor at the Lou)ain 5atho!ic Eni)ersit*(
2rom 195 to 196? and 196@ to 1965, he $as a !ecturer at the Li!!e
5atho!ic Eni)ersit* (2rance)(
A critical )all Street Journal re(ort
The 3S7 'ointed out that de 8roote $as !i)in% the hi%h !i#e, and
runnin% u' debts (J1 mi!!ion in 199? accordin% to the 'a'er),
!ed him to borro$ mone* #rom 4e!%ian business ma%nates in the
5on%o and A$anda, $here the 3or!d 4ank and the +12 $ere )er*
acti)e( +nter)ie$ed b* the 3S7, de 8roote denied an* con#!ict o#
interest, and ar%ued that he had ne)er used his 'osition #or 'ersona!
%ains( 1ean$hi!e, the 3S7 ar%ued that 8enera! 1obutu:s corru't
re%ime and other dictators bene#ited #rom the %enerosit* o# the 34
and +12( +t re)ea!ed that under 1obutu, Naire ran u' a tota! debt o#
J1(6 bi!!ion )is-O-)is the +12 and 34, $hi!e President 1obutu
became one o# the richest men on earth(
The 3S7 %oes on to e9'!ain
that de 8roote had been an o##icia! and uno##icia! ad)isor to 1obutu:s
re%ime as o# 196( The 3S7 asserted that $hen re!ations became
tense bet$een the +12, the 3or!d 4ank, and 1obutu in 1982, de
8roote inter)ened to in#orm o##icia!s in Dinshasa about $hat the +12
mission $as e9'ectin% #rom them durin% its u'comin% )isit( "t stake
$as the disbursement b* the +12 o# a J246 mi!!ion !oan( The 3S7
mentions rumours that de 8roote had recei)ed mone*, 'ro)ided b*
Pound, &d1$"d T, ICo-B Tie: N@F, :o"ld P$nJ 8ide H$ Le$ling Hin'ing 8' Con,li!'
o, Nn'e"e' 555 D$!#ue de E"oo'e Counel ;$i"e, Eo' Help o, People He :$ in Poi'ion 'o
8id 555 He Lenie 8nB N3p"op"ie'ieK Wall Street Journal, 28 Le!e3/e", 19902
IT(e 8,"i!$n n$'ion o1e '(e N@F $nd :o"ld P$nJ 3o"e '($n Q126 /illion, Be' P"eiden'
@o/u'u ($ /e!o3e one o, '(e 1o"ld' 1e$l'(ie' 3en, "epu'edlB $ /illion$i"e2K
1obutu himse!#, #rom o##icia!s o# the re%ime( =ere a%ain, de 8roote
denied e)er*thin%( The 3S7 %oes on to assert that de 8roote had
recei)ed a !oan #rom baron 7ean-Louis )an den 4rande $ho had direct
interests in 8Pomines, a 4e!%ian minin% com'an* that $as acti)e in
A$anda, and had %ained ad)anta%es #rom the 'o!ic* recommended b*
the 3or!d 4ank and the +12 to de)a!ue the A$andan #ranc ($hich
$ou!d boost the mine:s e9'ort ad)anta%es)( "ccordin% to the 3S7,
the !oan that $as ori%ina!!* J5?,??? do!!ars (in 199?) had tri'!ed to
J15?,???, because de 8roote had not honoured his 'romise to 'a* it
back( The director o# the bank concerned dec!ared to the 3S7 that he
$as a#raid o# #i!in% a com'!aint a%ainst de 8roote because o# the
backers he had( The same baron is a!so su''osed to ha)e assisted de
8roote in a rea! estate dea! in the Enited States(
" #e$ da*s a#ter the artic!e a''eared in the 3S7, Le Soir -uestioned
8roote on this a##airG
."ccordin% to the 3S7, a 4e!%ian com'an* directed b* one o# *our
#riends, 1r( Ban den 4randen Q thanks to $hom *ou obtained a
!oan--, su''osed!* bene#ited #rom this de)a!uationK
"n* ad&ustment in the e9chan%e rate has an e##ect on com'anies( +t:s
not m* #au!t i# + ha)e a #riend $ho has a mine in A$anda( "nd i# +
asked him to he!' me obtain this !oan, it:s because + $anted to a)oid
askin% the banks m*se!# due to m* )er* c!ose direct re!ations $ith

.+t:s not m* #au!t i#R/ There is ob)ious!* no need to comment u'on
such an ans$er(
This 3a!! Street 7ourna! artic!e a!so 'oints out that as 4e!%ium:s
>9ecuti)e 6irector at the 3or!d 4ank and +12 he had no
res'onsibi!it* o)er Naire and A$anda, because these countries $ere
not 'art o# the %rou' 'resided o)er b* the Din%dom o# 4e!%ium(
<onethe!ess, accordin% to the 3S7, de 8roote used his in#!uence and
%a)e his ad)ice to the !eaders o# these t$o countries, 1arsha! 1obutu
and 8enera! =ab*arimana( "ccordin% to the 3S7, de 8roote $ent to
P$'"i!e LelG$u>, D$!#ue de E"oo'e ?e>pli#ue * +D$!#ue de E"oo'e %u'i,ie (i
$!'ion0, Le Soir, 2 D$nu$"B 1991 (''p://$"!(iGe2leoi"2/e/%$!#ue5d222
)isit 1obutu at his home in the south o# 2rance in "u%ust 1986, and
$ent to see him in 1arch 198 in order to im'ro)e re!ationshi's
bet$een the +12 and the dictator(
C# course, in the 4e!%ian 'ress, de 8roote denied an* con#!ict o#
interest, and dec!ared that he had not recei)ed an* mone* #rom

Some relections on de *roote-s action in t$e Congo and Rwanda
The 3a!! Street 7ourna!:s in)esti%aton raised some interestin%
-uestions, ho$e)er, it is $orth takin% the ana!*sis be*ond the issue o#
con#!icts o# interest( 7ac-ues de 8roote:s 'ersona! tra&ector* is #u!! o#
dubious incidents( 3h*, then, didn:t the +12 or the 3or!d 4ank e)er
distance themse!)es #rom himK 5ou!d it be that he actua!!* acted in
accordance $ith the 'ositions o# these t$o institutionsK Cn t$o
occasions, the 5"6T1 asked 4e!%ium:s current re'resentati)e at the
3or!d 4ank, 8ino "!;etta, about 7( de 8roote:s beha)iour( The #irst
time $as in 2??6, $hen the 5"6T1 !earned about the reasons "!ain
"boudaram had #i!ed a com'!aint a%ainst de 8roote in the Enited
States( The second time $as in 1a* 2?1@, in reaction to the suit
brou%ht b* the S$iss 'rosecutors a%ainst de 8roote and 6 5;ech
citi;ens( +n both cases, 8ino "!;etta said he cou!d not see an*thin%
ob&ectionab!e in 7( de 8roote:s beha)iour( <or has 4e!%ium e)er
distanced itse!# #rom de 8roote( +sn:t this because he de#ended some
#undamenta! 4e!%ian interests on the internationa! sceneK
To understand this situation better, $e must take a c!oser !ook at 7( de
8roote:s bio%ra'h*, and com'are it to the e)ents that shook the socia!
and 'o!itica! !i#e in the 5on%o and A$anda durin% the same 'eriod(
"ccordin% to his non-o##icia!, a!beit #a)ourab!e, on!ine bio%ra'h*,

durin% the #irst months o# 196? de 8roote took 'art in the 4e!%o-
5on%o!ese Aound Tab!e that 're'ared the inde'endence o# the 5on%o,
$hich $as made o##icia! on @? 7une 196?( 1obutu a!so took 'art in
the o'enin% o# this Aound Tab!e con#erence in 4russe!s( 4et$een
"'ri! 196? and 1a* 196@, de 8roote $as an ad)isor to 4e!%ium:s
>9ecuti)e 6irector at the +12 and 3or!d 4ank in 3ashin%ton(
4et$een 1a* 196@ and 7u!* 1965, he $orked in the internationa!
re!ations de'artment o# the <ationa! 4ank o# 4e!%ium( 7une 196? to
1965 $as a 'eriod o# 'o!itica! turbu!ence in the 5on%o( Cn 7une @?,
196? in 4russe!s in the 'resence o# kin% 4audouin and the 4e!%ian
%o)ernment, Patrice Lumumba, then Prime minister o# the
inde'endent 5on%o, %a)e a s'eech that in#uriated the 4e!%ian co!onia!
(''p://1112-oo3in,o2!o3/p/D$!#ue5L222 $!!eed 9 Dune 2013
" #e$ months !ater, 1obutu, $ho had become 5hie#
o# 6e#ence, 'ut Patrice Lumumba in &ai!( Lumumba $ou!d be
assassinated in 7anuar* 1961 in Datan%a 'ro)ince( 1obutu acted in
accordance $ith the interests o# 4e!%ium and the Enited States( Cn
<o)ember 24, 1965 1obutu sei;ed 'o$er #or %ood b* sta%in% a cou'
a%ainst President Dasa)ubu( 2rom 1arch 1966 to 1a* 1969, de
8roote $as an economic ad)isor to the de #acto %o)ernment o#
1obutu, $hi!e a!so $orkin% as an ad)isor at the <ationa! 4ank o# the
5on%o( =e '!a*ed an acti)e ro!e in the desi%n and im'!ementation o#
the economic 'o!ic* o# the countr* as $e!! as in the ne%otiations
bet$een 1obutu, the +12, the 3or!d 4ank, and the ES %o)ernment(

The 3or!d 4ankG " 5ritica! Primer, ori%ina!!* 'ub!ished in 2??6,

ana!*ses the dea! throu%h $hich 4e!%ium came to an a%reement $ith
the 3or!d 4ank and the 1obutu re%ime to trans#er to the 5on%o the
burden o# a debt contracted b* 4e!%ium #rom the 3or!d 4ank in the
195?s( +n )io!ation o# the 'eo'!es: ri%ht to se!#-determination, the
3or!d 4ank %ranted !oans to 4e!%ium, 2rance, and the Enited
Din%dom to #inance 'ro&ects in their co!onies(
"s ackno$!ed%ed b*
.e$d (i pee!(: (''p://11123$">i'2o"g/u/%e!'/$,"2222 Aee $lo +in F"en!(0:
Aee: (''p://1112-oo3in,o2!o3/p/D$!#ue5L222, $!!eed 10 Dune 20132 IF"o3 @$"!(
1966 'o @$B 1969 L"2 Le E"oo'e $!'ed $ &!ono3i! 8dGio" 'o '(e .epu/li! o, ;$i"e $nd
8dGio" 'o '(e EoGe"no" o, '(e <$'ion$l P$nJ o, ;$i"e2 He 1$ "eponi/le ,o" ;$i"e?
e!ono3i! "e($/ili'$'ion, $nd ,o" nego'i$'ion 1i'( '(e N@F, '(e :o"ld P$nJ, $nd '(e 42A2
goGe"n3en'2 T(e 1967 p"og"$3 "eul'ed in '(e onlB pe"iod o, g"o1'( o, '(e ;$i"i$n
e!ono3B in!e i' Nndependen!e +1968519710, $nd i !i'ed /B '(e N@F $nd :o"ld P$nJ $
one o, '(e 3o' u!!e,ul '$/ili-$'ion e,,o"' eGe" unde"'$Jen unde" '(ei" $egi2 Lu"ing
'(i pe"iod L"2 Le E"oo'e 1$ $lo in !($"ge o, ;$i"e? nego'i$'ion ,o" n$'ion$li-ing $nd
"e$!'iG$'ing E!$3ine +'(e ,o"3e" 4nion @ini)"e02K
H"igin$l edi'ion in F"en!(: &"i! Tou$in', Banque mondiale : le Coup dtat permanent.
Lgenda cac!" du Consensus de Was!ington, !o5edi'ion C8LT@ / ABllepe / C&TN@,
=i)ge/P$"i/Een)Ge, 2006, 310 p$ge2 (''p://!$d'32o"g/P$n#ue53ondi$le5le222
&di'ion in &ngli(:
5:o"ld P$nJ: $ neGe"5ending !oup d?&'$', S8O +@u3/$i5Nndi$0, 20072
5T(e :o"ld P$nJ: 8 C"i'i!$l P"i3e", Plu'o P"e, =ondon, @i!(ig$n, To"on'o, C$pe To1n2
&di'ion in Ap$ni(: 5P$n!o 3undi$l: el golpe de e'$do pe"3$nen'e &di'o"i$l Sie%o Topo
+P$"!elon$0, 2007R &di'o"i$l 8/B$5T$l$ +Uui'o0, 2007R &di'o"i$l del CN@, C$"$!$, 2007R
&di'o"i$l H/e"G$'o"io L&AC, =$ P$-, 20072
8 D$p$nee edi'ion i $lo $G$il$/le2
T(e !olonie !on!e"ned /B '(ee lo$n ,"o3 '(e :o"ld P$nJ $"e: ,o" Pelgiu3, '(e
Pelgi$n Congo, .1$nd$ $nd Pu"undiR ,o" '(e 4ni'ed Oingdo3, &$' 8,"i!$ +OenB$, 4g$nd$
$nd 1($' 1ould l$'e" /e!o3e T$n-$ni$0, .(odei$ +;i3/$/1e $nd ;$3/i$0, $ 1ell $
the 4ank:s historiansG .These !oans, $hich ser)ed to a!!e)iate the
do!!ar shorta%es o# the >uro'ean co!onia! 'o$ers, $ere !ar%e!*
directed to co!onia! interests, es'ecia!!* minin%, either throu%h direct
in)estments or indirect assistance, such as in the de)e!o'ment o#
trans'ort in#rastructure re!ated to minin%(/
These !oans a!!o$ed the
co!onia! 'o$ers to increase their domination o)er the co!oni;ed
'eo'!es, and to ha)e 'ri)i!e%ed access to su''!ies o# ores, a%ricu!ture
'roducts, and #ue!( +n the case o# the 4e!%ian 5on%o, the mi!!ions o#
do!!ars !ent #or 'ro&ects decided on b* the co!onia! 'o$er $ere a!most
entire!* s'ent b* the co!onia! administration o# the 5on%o to 'urchase
%oods 'roduced in 4e!%ium( The 4e!%ian 5on%o $as .%ranted/ !oans
tota!!in% J12? mi!!ion (in three disbursements), J1?5(4 mi!!ion o#
$hich $ere s'ent in 4e!%ium(
2or Patrice Lumumba:s %o)ernment,
it $as inconcei)ab!e to re'a* this debt to the 3or!d 4ank since it had
been contracted b* 4e!%ium #or the 'ur'ose o# e9'!oitin% the 4e!%ian
Thin%s chan%ed in 1965G #o!!o$in% 1obutu:s mi!itar* cou', the
5on%o ackno$!ed%ed it o$ed mone* to the 3or!d 4ank, $hereas this
debt $as in rea!it* o$ed b* 4e!%ium(
+nternationa! !a$ is c!ear on this issue( " simi!ar case occurred in the
'ast and $as sett!ed in the Treat* o# Bersai!!es( "#ter 3or!d 3ar +
$hen Po!and $as reconstituted as an inde'endent State, it $as
decided that the debts incurred b* 8erman* to co!oni;e the 'art o#
Po!and it had sub&u%ated $ou!d not ha)e to be re'aid b* the ne$!*
inde'endent State( The Treat* o# Bersai!!es o# 7une 28, 1919 statedG
.that 'ortion o# the debt $hich, in the o'inion o# the Ae'aration
5ommission, is attributab!e to the measures taken b* the 8erman and
<ige"i$, $nd '(e P"i'i( Eui$n$ in Aou'( 83e"i!$R ,o" F"$n!e, 8lge"i$, E$/on, F"en!( :e'
8,"i!$ +@$u"i'$ni$, Aeneg$l, F"en!( Aud$n5 no1 @$li, Euine$, NGo"B Co$', <ige", 4ppe"
Sol'$ 5 no1 Pu"Jin$ F$o, $nd L$(o3eB 5 no1 Penin02
LeGe( O$pu", Do(n P2 =e1i, .i!($"d :e//, T(e :o"ld P$nJ, N' Fi"' H$l, Cen'u"B,
1997, Solu3e 1, p2 6872
T(e ,$!' '($' Pelgiu3 1$ '(e $!'u$l "e!ipien' o, '(e lo$n g"$n'ed 'o '(e Pelgi$n Congo
!$n /e dedu!ed ,"o3 $ !($"' pu/li(ed in '(e ,i,'een'( :o"ld P$nJ $nnu$l "epo"'2 NP.L
+:o"ld P$nJ0, Fi,'een'( 8nnu$l .epo"' 195951960, :$(ing'on LC, p2 122
Prussian 8o)ernments #or the 8erman co!onisation o# Po!and sha!! be
e9c!uded #rom the a''ortionment to be made under "rtic!e 254(/

The Treat* stated that the creditors $ho had !ent mone* to 8erman*
#or 'ro&ects in the Po!ish territor* cou!d on!* ask #or reimbursement
#rom 8erman*, but not #rom Po!and( "!e9ander <ahum Sack, $ho
theori;ed the conce't o# odious debt, $rote in his !e%a! treatise in
192G .3hen a %o)ernment incurs debts to sub&u%ate the 'o'u!ation
o# a 'art o# its territor* or to co!oni;e it $ith members o# the dominant
nationa!it*, etc(, these debts are odious to the indi%enous 'o'u!ation
o# that 'art o# the territor* o# the debtor State(/
The #ormer a''!ies
#u!!* to the !oans the 4ank e9tended to 4e!%ium, 2rance, and the ED
#or the de)e!o'ment o# their co!onies( 4* trans#errin% to the
inde'endent 5on%o the burden o# the debts contracted #or the 'ur'ose
o# co!onisin% it, the 3or!d 4ank and 4e!%ium thus acted in )io!ation
o# internationa! !a$(
"s indicated abo)e, 7ac-ues de 8roote acti)e!* 'artici'ated in the
ne%otiations that took '!ace at the time o# the inde'endence o# the
5on%o, and he !ater ad)ised the %o)ernment o# the dictator 1obutu(
The detai!s o# his actions remain unkno$n, but %i)en the
res'onsibi!ities he had, he is certain!* 'art!* res'onsib!e #or this a##air(
+t is 'articu!ar!* interestin% to consider the 19@-1994 'eriod $hen de
8roote $as 4e!%ium:s >9ecuti)e 6irector at the +12(
"t the end o# the 19?s, >r$in 4!umentha!, a senior +12 o##icia!,
8erman banker, and #ormer 6irector o# 2orei%n "##airs at the
4undesbank, made a damnin% re'ort about 1obutu:s mana%ement o#
=e $arned #orei%n creditors that the* shou!d not e9'ect
re'a*ment as !on% as 1obutu remained in 'o$er(
Uuo'ed /B 8le>$nde" <$(u3 A$!J in Les #$$ets des Trans$ormations des tats sur leurs
%ettes &ubliques et utres 'bligations $inanci(res, 1927 .e!ueil Ai"eB, P$"i, p2 1592
N' i 1o"'( 3en'ioning '($' $' '(e (eig(' o, (i po1e", @o/u'u ($d people !$ll (i3
I)obutu Sese Se*o +u*u ,gbendu -a .a BangaK +1(i!( 3e$n @o/u'u '(e un'opp$/le
1$""io" 1(o goe ,"o3 one Gi!'o"B 'o $no'(e"02
4et$een 1965 and 1981, the %o)ernment o# Naire borro$ed about J5
bi!!ion #rom #orei%n creditors, and bet$een 196 and 1981 there $ere
#our restructurin% 'ro%rammes authorised b* the Paris c!ub
concernin% 'art o# its e9terna! debt amountin% to J2(25 bi!!ion (see the
#i%ure be!o$ on the amount o# debt in 5on%o-Dinshasa durin%
1obutu:s dictatorshi')( "!! o# this debt #a!!s into the cate%or* o#
odious debt, and can there#ore be considered nu!! and )oid(
The )er* 'oor economic mana%ement and s*stematic embe;;!ement
b* 1obutu o# 'art o# the !oans did not !ead the +12 and 3or!d 4ank
to sto' their assistance to 1obutu:s dictatoria! re%ime( Strikin%!*
enou%h, a#ter the 4!umentha! re'ort $as submitted, the 4ank:s
disbursements increased (so did the +12:s disbursements, but the* do
not sho$ in the chart be!o$)(
5!ear!*, the choices made b* the
3or!d 4ank and the +12 are not main!* determined on the basis o#
sound economic mana%ement( 1obutu:s re%ime remained a strate%ic
a!!* o# the ES and other in#!uentia! 'o$ers in the 4retton 3oods
institutions (e(%(, 2rance and 4e!%ium) as !on% as the 5o!d 3ar !asted(
T(e P$nJ? (i'o"i$n 1"o'e '($' in 1982 I=u"ed /B @o/u'u? guile $nd p"o3ie o, "e,o"3
$nd /B p"eu"e ,"o3 '(e 4ni'ed A'$'e, F"$n!e, $nd Pelgiu3, '(e /$nJ e3/$"Jed on $n
$3/i'iou '"u!'u"$l $d%u'3en' lending p"og"$3 'o ;$i"eK in LeGe( O$pu", Do(n P2 =e1i,
.i!($"d :e//, T(e :o"ld P$nJ, N' Fi"' H$l, Cen'u"B, 1997 Solu3e 1: Hi'o"B, p2 7022
2rom 1989-1991 $ith the #a!! o# the 4er!in 3a!!, !ater #o!!o$ed b* the
crumb!in% o# the So)iet Enion, 3estern 'o$ers be%an to !ose interest
in 1obutu:s re%ime( "!! the more so that in man* "#rican countries
(inc!udin% Naire) nationa! con#erences $ere takin% '!ace and makin%
democratic c!aims( The 3or!d 4ank reduced its !endin% be#ore
sto''in% its !oans a!to%ether in the mid-199?s(
Ender 1obutu:s ru!e (1965-199), the +12 and the 3or!d 4ank $ere
instruments ser)in% ES 'o!ic* and %eostrate%*, $hich re$arded
1obutu #or his su''ort in the 5o!d 3ar(
I/n man0 cases, t!e loans -ere used to corrupt go1ernments
during t!e Cold War. T!e issue -as not -!et!er t!e mone0
-as impro1ing a countr0s -el$are, but -!et!er it -as leading
to a stable situation, gi1en t!e geopolitical realities in t!e
Doep( &2 A'igli'-, C(ie, &!ono3i' o, '(e :o"ld P$nJ ,"o3
1997 'o 1999, <o/el =$u"e$'e in &!ono3i! in 2001, on $
F"en!( 'eleGiion (o1 Lutre mondialisation +T!e 't!er
2lobali3ation0, on 8"'e, @$"!( 7, 2000
There#ore, the +12 and the 34, $here de 8roote $as a senior
o##icia!, became com'!icit in the abuses committed b* the 1obutu
re%ime a%ainst human, economic, socia!, and cu!tura! ri%hts inasmuch
as the* maintained their su''ort #or the dictatoria! s*stem, $hich did
not at a!! honour its #inancia! ob!i%ations(
IT!e issue o$ t!e moral responsibilit0 o$ t!e creditors -as
particularl0 apparent in t!e case o$ Cold War loans. W!en t!e
/)F and t!e World Ban* lent mone0 to t!e %emocratic 4epublic
o$ t!e Congos notorious ruler )obutu, t!e0 *ne- 5or s!ould
!a1e *no-n6 t!at most o$ t!e mone0 -ould not go to !elp t!at
countr0s poor people, but rat!er -ould be used to enric!
)obutu. /t -as mone0 paid to ensure t!at t!is corrupt leader
-ould *eep !is countr0 aligned -it! t!e West. To man0, it
doesnt seem $air $or ordinar0 ta7pa0ers in countries -it!
corrupt go1ernments to !a1e to repa0 loans t!at -ere made to
leaders -!o did not represent t!em2K
Doep( A'igli'-, 2lobali3ation and /ts %iscontents, 2002
1obutu and his c!an used the State co##ers as a stead* and '!enti#u!
source o# 'ersona! enrichment $ith three di##erent kinds o#
misa''ro'riationG !e%a!, i!!e%a!, and m*sterious e9'enditures( The
!e%a! ones, such as the 'residentia! endo$ment $as a!!ocated $ithout
an* contro!( The i!!e%a! e9'enditures are described in the 4!umentha!
re'ort (this secret re'ort $as made 'ub!ic in 1982),
$hich indicates
that it $as im'ossib!e to contro! the State:s #inancia! transactions
since the 'residentia! o##ice hard!* made a distinction bet$een
'ersona! e9'enses and 'ub!ic s'endin%( >r$in 4!umentha! identi#ied
at !east se)en bank accounts he!d abroad that $ere used to channe!
mone* direct!* to 1obutu:s 'ersona! bank accounts or to corru't
'o!itica! #i%ures( >r$in 4!umentha!:s messa%e $as c!earG .The
corru'ti)e s*stem in Naire $ith a!! its $icked and u%!* mani#estations,
its mismana%ement and #raud $i!! destro* a!! endea)ours o#
internationa! institutions, o# #riend!* %o)ernments and o# the
commercia! banks to$ards reco)er* and rehabi!itation o# Naire:s
econom*( Sure, there $i!! be ne$ 'romises b* 1obutu, SRT but no
(re'eatG no) 'ros'ect #or Naire:s creditors to %et their mone* back in
an* #oreseeab!e #uture(/

Since 199, the main !enders to 1obutu:s re%ime, c!ose!* connected
to the +12, had kno$n and been a$are o# these #raudu!ent 'ractices,
and o# the risk the* $ere takin% b* continuin% to !end to 1obutu(
"s indicated in this re'ort, the third cate%or* o# embe;;!ement
consisted o# .m*sterious e9'enditures(/ Cne o# the State:s !ar%est
bud%et items (accountin% #or 18H accordin% to a 1989 3or!d 4ank
stud*) $as .other %oods and ser)ices,/ a hotch'otch $ith !itt!e
Nn 1978, '(e N@F en' &"1in Plu3en'($l 'o '(e Cen'"$l P$nJ o, ;$i"e 'o i3p"oGe i'
ope"$'ion2 Nn DulB 1979, (e "eigned $,'e" "e!eiGing de$'( '("e$' ,"o3 '(oe !loe 'o
&"1in Plu3en'($l, ;$i"e: .epo"' on (e" Fin$n!i$l C"edi/ili'B, 7 8p"il 1982, 'Bpe!"ip',
in#ormation on ho$ the e9'enditures $ere a!!ocated( "ccordin% to
3or!d 4ank e9'erts, most o# the mone* $as used #or e9tra)a%ant
e9'enditures as $e!! as to 'urchase mi!itar* e-ui'ment( This sho$s
that the 3or!d 4ank $as a!so $e!! a$are o# the i!!e%a! use made o#
the !oans it $as %rantin%(
4* the mid-19?s, it $as c!ear that the mone* in&ected into Naire in
the #orm o# !oans or %rants $as s*stematica!!* misa''ro'riated( The*
$ere either direct!* trans#erred to 'ersona! bank accounts he!d
or in)ested in 'resti%ious, inade-uate, andUor use!ess 'ro&ects
that he!'ed man* 'eo'!e to %et richer, but certain!* did not he!' the
sustainab!e industria!isation o# the econom*( 2or instance, accordin%
to the C##ice o# i!!-%otten %ains (C##ice des biens ma! ac-uis, C41"),
$hich $as created at the <ationa! 5on#erence, 1obutu su''osed!*
'ocketed a H commission on the )a!ue o# the +n%a h*droe!ectric
'!ant( The in)esti%ation cou!d not be 'ursued to its conc!usion
because o# resistance #rom o##icia! circ!es(

7( de 8roote acti)e!* su''orted 1obutu:s re%ime and inter)ened
se)era! times to im'ro)e the re!ationshi's bet$een the +12, the
3or!d 4ank, and 1obutu, a!thou%h he $as )er* $e!! '!aced to kno$
in detai! $hat 4!umentha! denounced in his re'ort( =e a!so kne$
about the serious )io!ations o# human ri%hts committed b* the 1obutu
Let in 1994, at the end o# his term, de 8roote said he $as satis#ied
$ith his action )is-O-)is 5on%o-Dinshasa, $hi!e the )ast ma&orit* o#
the 5on%o!ese 'eo'!e !i)ed in %reat miser*, the 'ersecutions and
assassinations o# o''onents $ere ri#e, and the econom* $as
@o/u'u eGen 3$n$ged 'o in'e"!ep' 3oneB /e,o"e i' $!'u$llB "e$!(ed '(e pu/li! !o,,e",
$ ($ppened ,o" in'$n!e 1i'( '(e Q5 3illion g"$n'ed /B A$udi 8"$/i$ in 1977 +&33$nuel
Lungi$, @o/u'u e' l?$"gen' du ;$V"e +@o/u'u $nd '(e 3oneB o, ;$i"e0, 1992, =?H$"3$''$n,
A'eGe 8Jin $nd C$"ole Collin, I&>'e"n$l Colluion 1i'( Olep'o!"$!B: C$n ;$i"e
.e!$p'u"e i' A'olen :e$l'(WK in 8,"i!$n Poli'i!$l &!ono3B, 1993, nX 57, p277
Progression o de!t in Congo01ins$asa during &o!utu-s
2rom 1965 to 1969, 5on%o-Dinshasa:s #orei%n debt stock
rose #rom
J@2 mi!!ion
to J159 mi!!ion (ES do!!ars)( The #irst ma&or &um'
occurred in 19?, $hen in a sin%!e *ear, the debt stock doub!ed,
increasin% b* J18? mi!!ion( +t &um'ed a%ain in 19@, $hen the 'rice
o# co''er and other ra$ materia!s sk*rocketed on internationa!
markets( 3ith si%ni#icant bud%et resources and reser)e currenc*, the
re%ime cou!d borro$ massi)e!*( This $as the he*da* o# cost!* ma&or
'ro&ects or $hite e!e'hants, $hich $ou!d on!* become 'ro#itab!e in
the distant #uture( E' unti! 199, on a)era%e its debt stock increased
b* near!* J?? mi!!ion 'er *ear and $as most!* in the 'ri)ate sector(
The recurrent 'rob!em durin% this 'eriod is the #act that these sums
$ere used #or in)estments that $ou!d on!* %enerate returns in a
distant and )er* uncertain #uture(
Sectors !ike ener%*, trans'ortation, and communications, as $e!! as
'ub!ic $orks, are indis'ensab!e #or the de)e!o'ment o# a countr*,
because the* are re-uired in order to de)e!o' 'roducti)e acti)ities(
=o$e)er, these 'ro&ects $ere not based on sound economic
'rinci'!es, either in terms o# e9'ertise or in terms o# ho$ the* $ere
#inanced and e9ecuted(
2or e9am'!e, Nairian stakeho!ders, and in 'articu!ar the Nairian State
re-uested and obtained #rom #inancia! institutions (es'ecia!!* 'ri)ate
ones) e9'ensi)e short- and medium-term commercia! !oans to #und
'ro&ects that $ou!d on!* be 'ro#itab!e at best in the )er* !on% term(
=?&<T.&P.&<&4.2 19802 =e l$n!in$n' p"o/l)3e de l$ de''e e>'"ieu"e du ;$V"e 8 5T!e
problem o$ .aires persistent e7ternal debt6, nX11, Le!e3/e" 1980, p2 44547
T(ee Q32 3illion !o""epond 'o '(e de/' '($' Pelgiu3 $nd '(e :o"ld P$nJ i3poed on
'(e Congo 1i'( '(e !o3pli!i'B o, @o/u'u? "egi3e2 8 '$'ed $/oGe, du"ing '(e 1950
Pelgiu3 /o""o1ed Q120 3illion ,"o3 '(e :o"ld P$nJ 'o deGelop i' !oloni$l p"o%e!' in '(e
Pelgi$n Congo2 Pelgiu3 ($d onlB "ep$id p$"' o, '(i lo$n /e,o"e '(e Congo g$ined i'
independen!e on 30 Dune 19602 T(e "e3$ining $3oun' +Q32 3illion0 1$ p$ed on 'o '(e
Congo 1(en @o/u'u e'$/li(ed (i di!'$'o"(ip in 19652
Such in#rastructure in)estments shou!d instead be #unded b* !o$-
interest, #i9ed rate, )er* !on%-term !oans( This t*'e o# borro$in% on!*
rea!!* e9ists bet$een States, $hich o##er each other 'ri)i!e%ed
<either the debtor, nor the creditor demonstrated ade-uate #inancia!
disci'!ine, accordin% to $hich !oan conditions shou!d coincide $ith
the characteristics o# a 'ro&ect( 2or e9am'!e, in the case o# the +n%a
dam, $hich $as su''osed to 'roduce e!ectricit* #or a!! o# Naire and its
nei%hbourin% countries, the #undin% came #rom a medium-term
commercia! !oan( =o$e)er, it took near!* ten *ears to bui!d the dam,
and it cou!d ha)e been ca!cu!ated that it $ou!d on!* become 'ro#itab!e
t$ent* or thirt* *ears !ater( "s a resu!t, the ori%ina! !oan cou!d on!* be
'aid back b* takin% on more debt(
The situation %radua!!* became unbearab!e and Naire cou!d no !on%er
make the 'a*ments due on this !oan( +n addition to the 'oor choice
made in terms o# the kind o# !oan, there $as an increase in the 'rice o#
oi! and a decrease in the 'rice o# co''er( Pressure mounted $hen
Naire decided to sto' makin% 'a*ments on its !oan( The +12
inter)ened and si%ned the #irst stabi!isation 'ro%ramme $ith Naire,
$hich inc!uded the usua! +12 conditiona!ities such as a currenc*
de)a!uation, 'ub!ic s'endin% cuts, and %uarantees that Naire $ou!d
continue re'a*in% its debt(
Naire:s creditors a!!o$ed it to de#er its
!oan 'a*ments, and a!so to reschedu!e its o)era!! debt( 4et$een 196
and 1981, Naire:s debt $as rene%otiated #our times b* the Paris 5!ub
corres'ondin% to a tota! amount o# J2(25 bi!!ion (ES),
and bet$een
196 and 198@ Naire si%ned three structura! ad&ustment a%reements
$ith the +12( +n 198@, its debt $as rene%otiated #or the #i#th time, and
J1,49? bi!!ion o# it $ere reschedu!ed(
+t is interestin% to obser)e ho$ %enerous the +12 $as at this time
$ith re%ard to this countr*, $hich $as such a bad 'a*er and $as not
res'ectin% +12 conditiona!ities(
H8T<&A, D2, P8.FNTT, T2 $nd .N=&T, A2 19862 ILe/' in Au/5A$($"$n 8,"i!$: T(e lo!$l
poli'i! o, '$/ili$'ion,K $rican $$airs, DulB 1986, p23462
P$"i Clu/ 1e/i'e: 1112!lu/dep$"i2o"g
4et$een 199 and 1984, Naire:s debt stock increased on!* s!i%ht!*, as
Naire attem'ted to meet its debt ob!i%ations( 6urin% this 'eriod o#
time, the net #inancia! trans#er $as bare!* 'ositi)e( Cn the $ho!e, the
disbursements 'aid to Naire b* its creditors $ere main!* used to
ser)ice its debt(
4et$een 1984 and 199?, Naire:s debt stock
increased b* ?H (based on constant 'rices)(
1ean$hi!e #rom 1982 to 1988, it recei)ed !oans
#rom the +12 (J6?? mi!!ion), the 3or!d 4ank
(J65? mi!!ion), and 3estern %o)ernments (J@
bi!!ion), but commercia! banks re#used to
continue !endin% it mone*( 6urin% this same
'eriod, des'ite the $arnin%s o# an +12
re'resentati)e, >r$in 4!umentha!, Naire $as
he!d u' as a mode! student o# the +12(
#orei%n com'!acenc* can on!* be &usti#ied on the basis o# 'o!itica! and
%eo-strate%ica! considerations( 2or e9am'!e, des'ite $arnin%s #rom
the Enited States: ambassador on ho$ di##icu!t it $ou!d be to contro!
the a!!ocation o# the #orei%n aid disbursed, 1obutu:s re%ime $as
%i)en #u!! su''ort b* the ES %o)ernment, and President Aona!d
Aea%an re-uested that mi!itar* aid be doub!ed to thank 1obutu #or
ha)in% su''orted ES troo's in 5had(
+n 198, under 'ressure #rom
the Enited States, the +12 a''ro)ed a structura! ad&ustment !oan
des'ite the stron% ob&ections made b* senior +12 o##icia!s( "t that
)er* time, 1obutu $as a!!o$in% "merican troo's to use its territor*
and mi!itar* bases to en%a%e in mi!itar* o'erations in "n%o!a(
4e#ore 1986, the mone* borro$ed $as main!* used to re'a* the debt
so there $as !itt!e chance o# usin% it #or in)estments( The tota!
in)estment bud%et $as estimated to be around J65 mi!!ion in 1985,
and it $as subse-uent!* cut to J4? mi!!ion( Later, $hen in)estment
N/id, p2 347
<LNO4@8<8, =eon!e $nd PHTC&, D$3e2 19972 Congos 'dious %ebt: #7ternal
borro-ing and Capital Flig!t,K Lep$"'3en' o, &!ono3i!, 4niGe"i'B o, @$$!(ue''2
N/id, p217
'ro&ects re%ained in 'o'u!arit*, Naire:s debt stock increased
"s o# 199?, 1obutu:s re%ime became iso!ated on the internationa!
scene( The #a!! o# the 4er!in 3a!! marked the end o# the co!d $ar, and
there $as not as much interest in ha)in% 1obutu as an a!!*( "s o# this
moment, the #!o$ o# disbursements to his re%ime dried u', and the net
trans#er to Naire became ne%ati)e startin% in 199?, as stated in a
3or!d 4ank re'ort (1996)(
"ccordin% to the same re'ort, in 1994,
Naire 'aid J2?1 mi!!ion more than it recei)ed #rom internationa!
#inancia! institutions( +n 1991, the +12 broke o## its re!ations $ith
Naire, and the 3or!d 4ank $ou!d #o!!o$ suit in 199@( 3ith no ne$
#orei%n disbursements, Naire no !on%er had enou%h cash to ser)ice its
debt, and had to sus'end its re'a*ments in 1994( The interest and
'ena!ties accrued, $hich increased the debt stock si%ni#icant!*(
"!! o# this debt can be considered to be odious debt, because it $as
contracted b* the dictator 1obutu, and as such it shou!d ha)e been
entire!* cance!!ed $hen 1obutu:s re%ime co!!a'sed(
Jac,ues de *roote and Rwanda
7( de 8roote $as a!so in)o!)ed in 34 and +12 acti)ities in A$anda(
+n the a!read* cited inter)ie$ 'ub!ished b* Le Soir, 4Patrice 6e!)au9
asks him, .3hat about the case o# the !etter to the A$andan President
=ab*arimana, in $hich *ou mention and su''ort the +12:s idea that a
de)a!uation $ou!d be necessar*K/ 7ac-ues de 8roote res'ondedG ."t
the be%innin% o# the 198?s, this countr* had not %i)en its su''ort to
the "#rican >9ecuti)e 6irector $hen the 5ounci! $as created( =e had
asked me to re'resent it( "#ter ha)in% been authorised b* the di##erent
N/id, p218
countries + re'resent, + checked $ith the +12 and 3or!d 4ank
ser)ices #or A$anda( + noticed an anoma!* accordin% to $hich the
A$andan #ranc $as 'e%%ed to the do!!ar, $hich had resu!ted in a @5H
a''reciation o# their #ranc, as + e9'!ained to the President( + had to
dra$ his attention to these #acts, since + $as su''osed to be $atchin%
out #or his interests( There are )er* #e$ cases in $hich the +12 has
taken such a c!ear 'osition(/
+n 7anuar* 1991, the &ourna!ist 5o!ette 4raeckman 'ub!ished an
im'ortant artic!e in Le Soir on 7( de 8roote:s acti)ities in A$anda(
=ere is a )er* en!i%htenin% e9cer'tG
." ma&or em'!o*er in A$anda, the director o# Somir$a Sa minin%
com'an* o$ned 51H b* baron )an den 4randen:s 8Pomines entit*T,
1r )an den 4randen, !obbied President =ab*arimana re!ent!ess!* so
that he $ou!d a%ree to ask #or ma&or internationa! !oans( SRT 3hi!e
the situation $as at a stand-o## bet$een A$andan authorities and
Somir$a, 1r de 8roote, $ho is considered to be an e9'ert, $as asked
to ste' in( =e $as trusted b* the A$andan authorities, a #riend o# 1r
)an den 4randen, and he re%u!ar!* tra)e!!ed to 3ashin%ton and
boasted about his "merican connections to an*one $i!!in% to !isten(
1r de 8roote:s )erdict $as c!earG he recommended a de)a!uation o#
the A$andan #ranc, and '!eaded in #a)our o# bai!in% out the com'an*(
+n this $a*, he #o!!o$ed the doctrine o# his or%anisationG 1r de
8roote $as a%ainst o)er)a!uin% the A$andan #ranc, and bettin% on
e9'orts #rom the minin% sector( The )erdict rendered b* the
.arbitrator/ $as there#ore #a)ourab!e to Somir$a, e)en i# it $as
ins'ired b* standard +12 criteria(
The 3a!! Street 7ourna! has re)ea!ed .that at that time 1r de 8roote
borro$ed mone* #rom <a%e!maekers bank, $hich is directed b* the
same 1r )an den 4randen, and that he $as !i)in% in a house in
Aee (''p://$"!(iGe2leoi"2/e/%$!#ue5de5g"oo'e55e>pli#ue5le5oppo$n'5-$i"oi5"e!l6'5
8eor%eto$n indirect!* #inanced b* )an den 4randen, $hich the
"merican 'a'er sees as a 'rime e9am'!e o# a Vcon#!ict o# interest(:(/

+t is critica! to reassess the disastrous actions undertaken b* the 3or!d
4ank and the +12 in A$anda(
A look !ack at t$e 2334 genocide
Startin% on "'ri! 1994, in !ess than three months, near!* one mi!!ion
A$andans Q the e9act #i%ure has not *et been determined - $ere
e9terminated because the* $ere (or su''osed to be) Tutsis( Tens o#
thousands o# moderate =utus $ere a!so s!au%htered( This $as indeed
a %enocide, that is, the de!iberate destruction o# an entire communit*
throu%h mass murder in the aim o# 're)entin% their bio!o%ica! and
socia! re'roduction(
+n this conte9t, it is crucia! to in)esti%ate the ro!e '!a*ed b*
internationa! #inancia! institutions( >)er*thin% $e kno$ !eads us to
be!ie)e that the 'o!icies im'osed b* these institutions, the main
#inancia! backers o# 8enera! 7u)Pna! =ab*arimana:s dictatoria!
re%ime acce!erated the 'rocess resu!tin% in the %enocide( +n %enera!,
the ne%ati)e im'act o# these 'o!icies is not taken into consideration to
e9'!ain the tra%ic un#o!din% o# the A$andan crisis( Cn!* a #e$ authors
hi%h!i%ht the res'onsibi!ities o# the 4retton 3oods institutions,

$hich ha)e re&ected an* kind o# res'onsibi!it*(
Cole''e P"$e!J3$n, 8,,$i"e de E"oo'e5F@N : l$ AH@N.:8 $u .1$nd$, un !$
!l$i"$n' * +T(e de E"oo'e5N@F $,,$i": '(e AH@N.:8 in .1$nd$, $n enlig('ening !$e0, Le
Soir, 7 D$nu$"B 1991, (''p://$"!(iGe2leoi"2/e/$,,$i"e5de5g"oo'e5,3i5l$5o3i"1$5$u5
C(oudoGJB, @i!(el e' $l2 19952 .1$nd$, Ao3$lie, e> Tougol$Gie : !on,li' $"3,
gno!ide !ono3i#ue e' "epon$/ili' de in'i'u'ion de P"e''on :ood * +.1$nd$,
Ao3$li$, e>5Tugol$Gi$: $"3ed !on,li!', e!ono3i! geno!ide, $nd '(e "epon$/ili'B o,
P"e''on :ood in'i'u'ion0R C(oudoGJB, @i!(el $nd E$l$nd, Pie""e, =e Eno!ide de
1994, =?u$ge de l$ de''e e>'"ieu"e du .1$nd$ +19905199402 =$ "epon$/ili' de
/$illeu" de ,ond * +T(e Eeno!ide o, 19942 T(e ue o, .1$nd$? e>'e"n$l de/' +19905
199402 T(e "epon$/ili'B o, ,in$n!i$l in'i'u'ion0, H''$1$ $nd P"uel, 19962 Aee $lo:
Lu'e"3e, .en$ud 4-anda : une !istoire 1ol"e 54-anda: a stolen !istor06, Co5edi'ion
T"i/o"d $nd C8LT@, 2013 (''p://!$d'32o"g/.1$nd$5une5(i'oi"e5Golee5Le''e5e'
"t the be%innin% o# the 198?s, $hen the debt crisis e9'!oded in the
Third 3or!d, A$anda (!ike its nei%hbour 4urundi) had )er* !itt!e
debt( 3hereas in other 'arts o# the $or!d, the 3or!d 4ank and +12
$ere abandonin% their %o-%o !oan 'o!ic* and 'reachin% abstinence,
the* ado'ted a )er* di##erent attitude $ith res'ect to A$anda to $hich
the* %ranted ma&or !oans( 4et$een 196 and 1994, there $as a
t$ent*-#o!d increase in A$anda:s e9terna! debt( +n 196, it amounted
to J49 mi!!ion, $hi!e it $as near!* J1 bi!!ion in 1994, increasin%
es'ecia!!* ra'id!* as o# 1982( +ts 'rinci'a! creditors $ere the +2+s or
+nternationa! 2inancia! +nstitutions W the 3or!d 4ank, the +12, and
simi!ar institutions, and the 34 and the +12 '!a*ed the most acti)e
ro!e in this debt 'rocess( +n 1995, +2+s he!d 84H o# A$anda:s e9terna!
The dictatorshi' in '!ace since 19@ %uaranteed that there $ou!d be
no 'ro%ressi)e structura! chan%es in the countr*( That e9'!ains $h* it
$as acti)e!* su''orted b* 3estern 'o$ers such as 4e!%ium, 2rance,
and S$it;er!and( +n addition, it cou!d be a ram'art a%ainst the
countries in the re%ion that $ere sti!! mu!!in% o)er thou%hts o#
inde'endence and 'ro%ressi)e chan%e (#or instance, nei%hbourin%
Tan;ania $here there $as the 'ro%ressi)e President 7u!ius <*erere,
one o# the "#rican !eaders in the <on-"!i%ned 1o)ement)(
Throu%hout the 198?s and u' unti! 1994, A$anda recei)ed man*
!oans, but the dictator =ab*arimana embe;;!ed much o# them( The
!oans %ranted $ere su''osed to be used to better inte%rate A$anda:s
econom* into the $or!d econom* b* de)e!o'in% its ca'acities to
e9'ort co##ee, tea, and tin (its three main e9'ort 'roducts), $hich $as
detrimenta! to the cro's cu!ti)ated there to satis#* !oca! needs( This
mode! $orked unti! the midd!e o# the 198?s, $hen the 'rice o# tin,
then that o# co##ee, and #ina!!* tea, co!!a'sed( A$anda, #or $hich
co##ee $as the main source o# hard currenc*, $as hit hard b* the
breakin% u' o# the co##ee carte! at the be%innin% o# the 199?s b* the
Enited States(
Using international loans to (re(are or t$e genocide
Cn!* a #e$ $eeks be#ore the Patriotic 2ront o# A$anda !aunched its
o##ensi)e in Cctober 199?, the %o)ernment o# A$anda si%ned an
a%reement $ith the +12 and the 34 in 3ashin%ton to im'!ement
structura! ad&ustment measures(
3hen the* $ere im'!emented in <o)ember 199?, the A$andan
currenc* dro''ed b* 6H( 4* $a* o# com'ensation, the +12 %ranted
stron% currenc* !oans #or -uick disbursement so that the countr* cou!d
kee' im'ortin% %oods( The #unds $ere used to arti#icia!!* im'ro)e the
ba!ance o# 'a*ments( The 'rices o# im'orted %oods sk*rocketedG #or
instance, the 'rice o# 'etro! $ent u' b* 9H( Se!!in% im'orted %oods
on the domestic market made it 'ossib!e #or the %o)ernment to 'a* the
arm*:s $a%es, and the number o# recruits increased in sta%%erin%
'ro'ortions( The structura! ad&ustment measures inc!uded a decrease
in 'ub!ic s'endin%, $a%es $ere #ro;en, and there $ere massi)e
!a*o##s in the ci)i! ser)ice, but 'art o# the sa)in%s $ere used #or the
3hereas the 'rices o# im'orted %oods increased, the 'rice at $hich
'roducers cou!d se!! co##ee $as #ro;en, as im'osed b* the +12( "s a
resu!t, hundreds o# thousands o# sma!! co##ee 'roducers $ent
and to%ether $ith the most de'ri)ed !a*ers o# cit* d$e!!ers
the* became a 'ermanent su''!* o# so!diers #or +nteraham$e and
arm* recruiters(
The #o!!o$in% measures $ere amon% the ones the 34 and +12
im'osed in A$andaG an increase in consum'tion ta9es and a decrease
in cor'orate ta9es, an increase in direct ta9es on !o$-income #ami!ies
throu%h a reduction o# #isca! ad)anta%es #or !ar%e #ami!ies, and
restrictions on credit #aci!ities to #armers(
@8TH<, De,2 19942 %"1eloppement "conomique et social au 4-anda entre 9:;< et 9::=.
Le di7i(me d"cile en $ace de lapocal0pse2 +#conomic and Social %e1elopment in 4-anda
bet-een 9:;< and 9:::20
To account #or its use o# !oans #rom the +12U34, A$anda $as
a!!o$ed to submit o!d in)oices #or im'orted %oods( This 'ractice
made it 'ossib!e #or the %o)ernment to 'a* #or the massi)e 'urchase
o# $ea'ons intended #or the %enocide( 1i!itar* e9'enses increased
three-#o!d bet$een 199? and 1992(
C)er this 'eriod o# time, the 34
and the +12 sent out se)era! missions o# e9'erts, $ho hi%h!i%hted the
'ositi)e conse-uences o# the austerit* 'o!icies en#orced b*
=ab*arimana, *et threatened to discontinue 'a*ments i# mi!itar*
e9'enses increased #urther( The A$andan %o)ernment then used
)arious '!o*s to concea! mi!itar* e9'ensesG Lorries bou%ht #or the
arm* $ere accounted #or in the bud%et o# the trans'ort ministr*, a
si%ni#icant 'ortion o# the 'etro! used in the arm* or mi!itia )ehic!es
$as 'art o# the bud%et #or the ministr* o# hea!th( The 34 and the
+12 e)entua!!* sto''ed 'ro)idin% #inancia! su''ort in ear!* 199@, but
the* did not e9'ose the e9istence o# bank accounts the A$andan
%o)ernment had in #orei%n banks on $hich there $ere substantia!
amounts o# mone* sti!! a)ai!ab!e to bu* more $ea'ons( +t can be said
that the* #ai!ed in their dut* to contro! the use o# the #unds !oaned(
The* shou!d ha)e sto''ed their !oans in ear!* 1992 $hen the* !earned
the mone* $as bein% used to bu* $ea'ons( The* shou!d ha)e $arned
the E< at once( "s the* $ent on su''!*in% su''ort unti! 199@, the*
he!'ed a %o)ernment that $as 're'arin% a %enocide( "s ear!* as 1991,
human ri%hts or%anisations had tried to dra$ internationa! attention to
the massacres that 'a)ed the $a* #or the %enocide( The 3or!d 4ank
and the +12 s*stematica!!* su''orted a dictatoria! re%ime, $ith the
he!' o# the ES, 2rance, and 4e!%ium(
E'acer!ated social contradictions
2or the %enocida! 'ro&ect to be achie)ed, more than &ust a %o)ernment
$as needed to de)ise it and ac-uire the necessar* too!s, the 'eo'!e
<du(ungi"e(e, @$"ie5C($n'$l2 19952 Les &rogrammes da>ustement structurel.
Sp"ci$icit" et application au cas du 4-anda.5Structural d>ustment &rogrammes:
Speci$icities and pplication to t!e Case o$ 4-anda.6
a!so had to be im'o)erished and dri)en to a !e)e! o# des'eration at
$hich the* $ere read* to do an*thin%( 9?H o# the 'o'u!ation in
A$anda $as !i)in% in the countr*side, and 2?H o# #arm #ami!ies
o$ned an acre or !ess( 2rom 1982 to 1994, most o# the #armin%
'o'u!ation #e!! into 'o)ert*, $hi!e a #e$ others at the other end o# the
socia! s'ectrum $ere accumu!atin% a hu%e amount o# $ea!th(
Pro#essor 7e# 1aton states that in 1982 the richest 1?H o# the
'o'u!ation made 2?H o# rura! income, in 1992 the* had %rabbed 41H,
in 199@ 45H, and in ear!* 1994 51H(
( The disastrous socia!
conse-uences o# the +12 and 34 en#orced 'o!icies combined $ith
the '!ummetin% 'rice o# co##ee (itse!# a conse-uence o# 'o!icies
a''!ied b* the 4retton 3oods institutions, and the ES doin% a$a*
$ith the carte! o# co##ee 'roducers at that time) '!a*ed a ke* ro!e in
the A$anda crisis( =ab*arimana:s re%ime e9'!oited the $ides'read
socia! discontent to carr* out the %enocide(
+t is im'ortant to ana!*se 7ac-ues de 8roote:s action in this %enera!
conte9t, #or, as he himse!# c!aimed, be#ore the %enocide he had
acti)e!* su''orted =ab*arimana:s re%ime(
<o$ that $e ha)e e9amined the socia! and historica! conte9t in $hich
de 8roote:s action in "#rica can be understood #rom the 196?s to the
end o# his mandate as e9ecuti)e director o# the +12 in 1994, it is time
to %o back to >uro'e(
T$e )orld 5ank ser6ing t$e interests o ma7or (ri6ate 5elgian
The 3or!d 4ank:s o##icia! documents ha)e nothin% to sa* about this
sub&ect, ho$e)er, in some s'ecia!ised &ourna!s $ritten #or cor'orate
directors there are 'recise indications o# the ad)anta%es o##ered to
'ri)ate com'anies b* the 4ank:s acti)ities( The e9cer't be!o$ s'eaks
#or itse!#( +t $as 'ronounced b* 7ac-ues de 8roote in a s'eech %i)en
in 1986 to a %rou' o# 4e!%ian com'an* 'residents, and then 'ub!ished
@8TH<, De,2 19942 N/id2
in the 4u!!etin de !a 2PdPration des >ntre'rises de 4e!%i-ue
(<e$s!etter o# the 2ederation o# 4e!%ian 5om'anies)( .The
ad)anta%es 4e!%ium deri)es #rom its 'artici'ation in the acti)ities o#
the 8rou':s institutionsQ as do a!! 3or!d 4ank member countries Q
can be measured in terms o# #!o$ back, that is to sa* the re!ationshi'
bet$een, on the one hand, the tota! amount o# disbursements made b*
the +6" (+nternationa! 6e)e!o'ment "ssociation, $hich is 'art o# the
3or!d 4ank 8rou') or the 3or!d 4ank in #a)our o# a countr*:s
com'anies, $hen these com'anies si%n contracts, and, on the other
hand, the contributions o# this countr* to the 4ank:s ca'ita!, as $e!! as
to the +6":s resources( 2!o$ back is thus the re!ationshi' bet$een
$hat the com'anies obtain )ia the sa!es o# e-ui'ment or consu!tin%
ser)ices and $hat 4e!%ium 'ro)ides as a contribution to the +6":s
resources and to the 4ank:s ca'ita!( The #!o$ back #rom the 3or!d
4ank to$ard industria!ised countries is si%ni#icant, and has
continua!!* increasedG #or a!! industria!ised countries, it has increased
#rom to 1? #rom the end o# 198? to the end o# 1984( +n other $ords,
#or one do!!ar 'ut into the s*stem, the industria!ised countries %ot back
J in 198? and recei)e J1?(5 toda*(/
Ater t$e end o $is term at t$e #&8 and )orld 5ank
+n his inter)ie$ $ith 4Patrice 6e!)au9 #rom Le Soir in 1arch 1994,
at the end o# his term at the +12, de 8roote con%ratu!ated himse!# on
the ro!e he had '!a*ed in the decision made b* 4e!%ium to ado't the
neo!ibera! a%enda in the 198?s(
4Patrice 6e!)au9G .Lou did, ho$e)er, #rom 3ashin%ton '!a* a ma&or
ro!e in the orientation o# 4e!%ian economic 'o!ic*( Lou 'ro)ided a
%uarantee #rom the +12 #or the economic shi#t at the be%innin% o# the
198?s, in c!ose re!ationshi' $ith the VPou'ehan: %rou'K/
7( de
F&P, 1986, p2 49654972
T(e Poupe($n g"oup 1$ $ lo//B 3$de up o, '(e 3$in !one"G$'iGe poli'i!$l le$de" in
'(e Pelgi$n C("i'i$n Ao!i$l P$"'B, 1(o pl$Bed $ JeB "ole in '(e neoli/e"$l (i,'2 Aee
8roote:s res'onseG ."bso!ute!*, and +:m e9treme!* 'roud o# this( + am
e)en e9treme!* satis#ied( "t that time, $e com'!eted studies that
enab!ed the ma&or economic 'o!ic* o'tions to be de#ined #or 4e!%ium,
$hich $ere then discussed $ith "!#ons Ber'!aetse,
and other #i%ures
inc!udin% 3i!#ried 1artens(/

These statements 'ro)ide a %ood i!!ustration o# the c!ose re!ationshi's
bet$een #i%ures !ike de 8roote and the ke* 'o!itica! !eaders in a
'articu!ar countr*( 6e 8roote ackno$!ed%ed, moreo)er, that the
inde'endence o# the 4e!%ian <ationa! 4ank $as on!* #or the #orm,
because 4e!%ian (monetar*) 'o!ic* $as de#ined in a )er* sma!!,
secreti)e circ!e brin%in% to%ether ke* stakeho!ders, ran%in% #rom the
Prime 1inister to the 8o)ernor o# the <ationa! 4ank, and inc!udin%
the head o# the 5hristian Enions and re'resentati)es o# cor'orate
mana%ement, a!! in cahoots $ith the +12(
Jac,ues de *roote and 9atin America
+n the same inter)ie$ that a''eared in Le Soir at the end o# 1arch
1994, de 8roote re&oices o)er the so-ca!!ed successes o# the +12 and
3or!d 4ank in Latin "merica, in %enera!, and 1e9ico, in 'articu!arG
.There are count!ess e9am'!es o# success( The t*'ica! case is that o#
1e9ico( +n Cctober 1982, this countr* $as in the midd!e o# a serious
debt crisis, but the &oint actions o# the +12 and 34 enab!ed it to
ada't ra'id!*, its ba!ance o# 'a*ments $as reba!anced $ith on!* a
!imited and short-term decrease in the income o# the 1e9ican 'eo'!e(
Toda*, ca'ita! is #!o$in% back to 1e9ico, and the 3or!d 4ank is
mana%in% a 'ro%ramme there intended to di)ersi#* 'roduction(/
The ink on the 'a'er had not *et dried $hen rea!it* com'!ete!*
contradicted de 8roote:s o'timistic statementsG ca'ita! started #!eein%
8l,on Se"pl$e'e 1$ '(e EoGe"no" o, '(e <$'ion$l P$nJ o, Pelgiu3, $nd $ 3e3/e" o,
'(e Fle3i( C("i'i$n Ao!i$l P$"'B2
:il,"ied @$"'en, '(e C("i'i$n Ao!i$l P"i3e @ini'e" 1(o pu' in pl$!e neoli/e"$l poli!ie
in $lli$n!e 1i'( '(e =i/e"$l P$"'B2
#rom 1e9ico massi)e!*, and in 6ecember 1994 this #!i%ht o# ca'ita!
tri%%ered the .te-ui!a/ crisis, $hich has resu!ted in the serious and
!on%-term dec!ine o# the 1e9ican econom*(
Jac,ues de *roote and Eastern Euro(e
6urin% the !ast *ears o# his term at the
3or!d 4ank and +12, de 8roote $as
'articu!ar!* acti)e in settin% u' shock
doctrine 'o!icies in the countries that had
&ust !e#t the So)iet b!oc( This $as the case
in 5;echos!o)akia unti! the creation o# the
5;ech Ae'ub!ic and S!o)akia in 199@, both
o# $hich $ere members o# the %rou'
'resided o)er b* 4e!%ium at the +12 and
3or!d 4ank( The 'eo'!es in >astern
>uro'ean countries su##ered a %reat dea!
#rom the austerit* measures and 'ri)atisations im'osed on their
countries b* these internationa! institutions( The 'ri)atisations
enab!ed an o!i%arch* o# corru't ne$ rich 'eo'!e to obtain e9orbitant
'o$er and accumu!ate out!andish $ea!th to the detriment o# the 'ub!ic
%ood( 3e mi%ht sa* that 7ac-ues de 8roote has come #u!! circ!e( =e
has no$ been condemned #or .a%%ra)ated mone* !aunderin%,/
.#raud/, and .document #or%er*/ in the #raudu!ent 'ri)atisation o# the
1ES mine in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic(
"ccordin% to the 5;ech 'ress a%enc*, 5TD, the 5;ech %o)ernment
$as an accom'!ice in the misa''ro'riation o# 'ub!ic %oods, se!!in%-
o## the com'an*:s shares #or 2?H o# their rea! )a!ue(
The current
neo!ibera! President o# the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic, 1i!oX Neman, $as the
Prime 1inister $hen the 'ri)ati;ation took '!ace, and has a!$a*s
contended that the sa!e o# the 1ES mine $as in no $a* harm#u! to
State interests(
5onse-uent!*, the 5;ech %o)ernment ne)er
See htt'GUU'ra%uemonitor(comU2?1@U?U?8U)erdict-mus-#raud-case-be-de!i)ered-october
'rosecuted those res'onsib!e #or the #raud( +# the S$iss &ustice s*stem
had not acted, the de#endants $ou!d not ha)e been $orried(
Jac,ues de *roote and (ri6ate !anks
+t has a!read* been mentioned in the #rame$ork o# the recent tria! in
S$it;er!and that the 5rPdit Suisse bank has been cited b* se)era!
'ress a%encies #or ha)in% assisted )arious com'anies that are direct!*
!inked to the or%anisers and bene#iciaries o# the #raudu!ent
'ri)atisation o# the 1ES mine( En#ortunate!*, $e $ere not ab!e to
consu!t the bi!! o# indictment, and conse-uent!* do not kno$ the !ist
o# #inancia! com'anies that are direct!* in)o!)ed in the #raud,
document #or%er*, and mone* !aunderin% acti)ities(
3ithout makin% an* assum'tions about the ro!e it ma* ha)e '!a*ed in
this a##air, it $ou!d 'erha's be use#u! to mention the e9istence o# the
5>L+22, a #inancia! com'an* #ounded in 2??1 in the 8rand 6uch* o#
Lu9embour% b* 6e9ia "sset 1ana%ement Lu9embour%( +ts 4oard o#
6irectors inc!uded 7ac-ues de 8roote, the President o# the "PP+"<
8ACEP, and t$o 5;ech citi;ens 'rosecuted in 2?1@ b* the S$iss
&usticeG 7iri 6i)is, Bice 5hairman o# the 4oard o# 6irectors o#
"PP+"< 8ACEP >EACP> S("(, and 1arek 5me&!a, Bice 5hairman
o# the 4oard o# 6irectors and 6e'ut* 5hie# >9ecuti)e C##icer o#
<>3TC< =CL6+<8 "(S(, $ho !i)e in Pra%ue in the 5;ech
Ae'ub!ic( Cther members o# the 4oard inc!ude "drien de 1erode,
6irector o# "PP+"< 8ACEP >EACP>( The 4 remainin% directors
$ere a!! #rom the 6e9ia 8rou'G 1 #rom Lu9embour%, 1 #rom
S$it;er!and, and 2 #rom 2rance(

See "nna DubiXta, Y Scanda!e de !a 'ri)atisation de !a sociPtP miniZre de 1ost G !e 'rocZs s:ou)re en Suisse [ (The 1ES
mine 'ri)atisati!n scanda! tria! be%ins in S$it;er!and), htt'GUU$$$(radio(c;U#rUrubri-ueU#aitsUscanda!e-de-!a-'ri)atisation-de-!a-
societe-miniere-de-most-!e-'roces-sou)re-en-suisse 1@ 1a* 2?1@ (in 2rench on!*)(
.egi'e"ed o,,i!e: =51150 =u>e3/ou"g, 283, "ou'e d?8"lon2 Pu/li(ed in '(e Journal '$$iciel
du 2rand?%uc!" de Lu7embourg, .&C4&N= L&A AHCN&T&A &T 8AAHCN8TNH<A, C Y <X 723
5 Aep'e3/e" 2001 (''p://1112e'$'2lu/3e3o"i$l/2001/C/Pd,/!07230592pd,
4e*ond the ;i%;a%s o# his o$n 'ersona! tra&ector*, 7ac-ues de 8roote
s*mbo!ises the 'ro#ound!* disastrous as'ects o# the inhumane 'o!icies
methodica!!* a''!ied b* the 3or!d 4ank, the +12, and the e!ites $ho
%o)ern our '!anet $ith on!* ma9imum 'ro#it in mind( +t is tru!*
re)o!tin% to see ho$ %reed and the )io!ation o# #undamenta! human
ri%hts are so c!e)er!* 'acka%ed(
T$e world o Jac,ues de *roote
4e*ond the s'eci#ic case o# 7ac-ues de 8roote, this tria! must be the
occasion to hi%h!i%ht the e9tent to $hich +12 and 34 acti)ities ha)e
been detrimenta! to the %enera! interest( +t is re%rettab!e that the S$iss
courts o'ted not to -uestion these institutions, 're#errin% instead to
'rosecute indi)idua!s( =o$e)er, that must not 're)ent us #rom seein%
that be*ond these indi)idua!s, there is a s*stem and its institutions
turnin% a b!ind e*e to these acti)ities and e)en encoura%in% them to
act in this $a*(
+t is im'ortant to rea!i;e that $hat ha''ened in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic
$hen the 1ES mine $as 'ri)atised has occurred man* times in
recent decades, in #ormer >astern b!oc countries and .de)e!o'in%/
countries, as $e!! as toda* in 8reece, Portu%a!, 5*'rus, and
e!se$here( +n a!most e)er* case, !oca! %o)ernment !eaders ha)e been
in co!!usion, enab!in% a hand#u! o# indi)idua!s and 'ri)ate com'anies
to %ain bene#its #rom these 'ri)atisations to the detriment o# the
common %ood( These 'ri)atisations ha)e a!so occurred in the most
hi%h!* industria!ised countries such as 8erman*, 2rance, the Enited
Din%dom, 7a'an, the Enited States, and 4e!%ium in $hich, u' unti!
no$ +12 and 3or!d 4ank inter)entions ha)e not been necessar*,
since the decisions ha)e been made direct!* b* %o)ernment !eaders
$orkin% hand-in-hand $ith ma&or cor'orations(
+t shou!d be em'hasised that the misa''ro'riation o# 'ub!ic #unds
re-uires the acti)e 'artici'ation o# ma&or banks( +n the case o# the
1ES mine, the 5redit Suisse (one o# the 'rinci'a! S$iss banks) $as
in)o!)ed but has ne)er been direct!* accused(
T$e (articular case o Jac,ues de *roote
"s this court case has sho$n, 7ac-ues de 8roote c!ear!* took an acti)e
'art in initiatin% 'ri)atisations that $ere detrimenta! to most 'eo'!e,
and )er* !ucrati)e #or a hand#u! o# indi)idua!s $ho ha)e enriched
themse!)es at the e9'ense o# the communit*(
+# $e are to be!ie)e the head o# 5""S", "!ain "boudaram, 7ac-ues
de 8roote recei)ed im'ortant 'a*ments #rom this S$iss com'an* #or
ser)ices rendered( This mone* did not concern the 1ES mine, but
$as re!ated to acti)ities in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic( +n a !etter recei)ed b*
the 5"6T1 on 19 7une 2?1@, "!ain "boudaram c!aims to ha)e 'aid
J1(2 mi!!ion to 7ac-ues de 8roote, $hi!e de 8roote $as sti!! in o##ice,
as >9ecuti)e 6irector to the +12, #rom 1992 to 1994(
=ere is an e9cer't #rom that !etterG .Esin% his contacts $hi!e he $as
>9ecuti)e 6irector to the +12 u' to 1994, he he!'ed me, throu%h m*
com'an*, to meet 5;ech business directors( +n 1992, + met the
'resident o# Skodae9'ort, a com'an* s'ecia!i;in% in industria!
'ro&ects and in#rastructure( 1* com'an* com'!eted se)era! 'ro&ects
$ith Skodae9'ort, t$o o# $hich $ere he!'ed b* 1r de 8roote:s
5;ech business re!ationshi's( Cne $as the construction and !a*in% o#
a 'i'e!ine in +ndia, bet$een Dand!a and 4athinda, #u!!* #inanced b*
the %o)ernment o# +ndia, and the other $as the rene%otiation o# the
#isca! arrears o# Skodae9'ort $ith the ministr* o# #inance(/
"boudaram %oes on to mention the amounts concernedG .2rom 1992
to 1994, 1r de 8roote recei)ed consu!tanc* #ees amountin% to some
J1,292,9?2 #rom m* com'an*( "t the end o# 1996, the tota! amount
T(e ,ull !$e 3$B /e !onul'ed $': Coneil 8l$in 8/oud$"$3, A282 G2 Le E"oo'e, 4<NT&L
AT8T&A LNAT.NCT CH4.T FH. TH& LNAT.NCT HF CH=4@PN8, Dune 7, 2004, CH<A&N=
8=8N< 8PH4L8.8@, A282, P=8N<TNFF, G2 D8CU4&A L& E.HHT&, L&F&<L8<T2
Nn $no'(e" p$"' o, (i le''e" 82 8/oud$"$3 $B: IN 1ould liJe $ di'in!'ion 'o /e 3$de
/e'1een '(e o!ie'B AJod$e>po"' 1i'( 1(i!( N did /uine $' '($' 'i3e $nd AJod$
+3$nu,$!'u"e" o, $u'o3o/ile $nd lo!o3o'iGe e'!20 1(i!( i 'od$B inGolGed in '(e
p"o!edu"e $' Pellin-one, '(ee $"e, in pi'e o, '(e i3il$"i'B in '(ei" n$3e, '1o !o3ple'elB
di,,e"en' en'i'ie2K
$as J1,611,5@( "t this moment our 'ro#essiona! co!!aboration ended,
and no #inancia! ties no$ e9ist bet$een us(/
"!ain "boudaram describes ho$ the 'a*ments $ere madeG .1r de
8roote:s #ees $ere usua!!* sett!ed b* remittances to di##erent 'eo'!e
or !e%a! entities $ith $hich he had, in the 'ast, contracted debts( +n
this $a*, #rom the end o# 1992 u' to @1 6ecember 1994, + sett!ed his
#ees b* 'a*in% his debts, some o# $hich $ere due since 198?, to the
4an-ue 4e!%o!aise, the bank <a%e!makers, the 4an-ue de 5rPdit
=*'othPcaire in "n)ers, amon%st others, and to other indi)idua!s(/
"!ain "boudaram adds that a#ter ha)in% 'ut an end to this
.'ro#essiona! co!!aboration/ (1r "boudaram:s o$n $ords), he
maintained 'ersona! re!ations $ith 1r de 8rooteG .+n 1998, +
'ersona!!* and in#orma!!* !ent him mone* to sett!e the mort%a%e on
his house in 3ashin%ton( + continued to he!' him unti! the end o#
2???( Cn @1 6ecember 2???, he o$ed me J421,584( Seekin%
re'a*ment $as )er* com'!icated and, #ina!!*, in 2??2 $hen + initiated
ES !e%a! 'roceedin%s, 1r de 8roote sou%ht 'rotection under the
#amous cha'ter 11 (bankru'tc* !a$s) so as to be 'rotected #rom his
+n this book, $e ha)e re#erred to &ud%ements made b* a ES court in
the case brou%ht b* "boudaram a%ainst de 8roote( +n his !etter,
"boudaram seeks to c!ari#* $h* his c!aim $as re&ectedG
.The reason
1r de 8roote $on this case $as 'ure!* technica!( The !oans + made to
1r de 8roote $ere 'ersona! !oans( The 'romissor* notes that he
si%ned reco%ni;in% his debt in m* #a)or $ere in the name o# m* #irm
5onsei! "!ain "boudaram( + trans#erred them to m* #irm at the
be%innin% o# the tria!( The &ud%e ru!ed that m* #irm and + $ere not the
same entit*, and so re&ected m* '!ea not on the #act that de 8roote
$as not m* debtor, $hich $as con#irmed b* a 'o'u!ar &ur*, but on the
technica! im'ossibi!it* to use these 'romissor* notes #or sett!ement o#
the debt(/
Aee '(e $ppe$l %udge3en': (''p://l$12%u'i$2!o3/!$e/,ede"$l/$ppell$'e5
2ina!!*, "!ain "boudaram dissociated the !e%a! $ran%!e in
S$it;er!and #rom the re!ationshi' he had $ith 7ac-ues de 8rooteG .To
this da*, in res'ect o# con#identia!it* and anon*mit*, + ha)e ne)er
re#uted the remarks made b* 1r de 8roote( +# + do so toda*, it is to
a)oid an* con#usion that ma* be made bet$een our 'ro#essiona!
re!ationshi' bet$een 1992 and 1996, the !e%a! tria! o''osin% us #rom
2??2 to 2??6 concernin% a 'ersona! !oan that has not been re'aid, and
$hat is current!* ha''enin% in 4e!!in;ona, $here he is in the dock
$ith #i)e other 'ersons accused o# mone* !aunderin%,
mismana%ement and #raud, and corru'tion and a%%ra)ated mone*
Jac,ues de *roote: an em!lematic igure o t$e elites w$o go6ern
t$e (lanet
4e*ond his o$n e)ent#u! 'ersona! histor*, 7ac-ues de 8roote
s*mbo!i;es the 'ro#ound!* harm#u! as'ects o# the 'o!icies
methodica!!* a''!ied b* the 3or!d 4ank, +12, and the e!ites $ho
%o)ern our $or!d so!e!* on the basis o# ma9imi;in% 'ro#its and
.conso!idatin%/ the s*stem(
=ere are the ke* as'ects characteri;in%
these acti)ities(
Su''ort b* the 34 and
+12, in com'!ete contradiction $ith the
5harter o# the Enited <ations, #or the
co!onia! 'o$ers: '!underin% o# their
co!onies be#ore inde'endence( 6e 8roote
acted #or 4e!%ium, $hich dominated
.4e!%ian/ 5on%o unti! 7une 196?, he!'ed
to destabi!i;e and o)erthro$ the re%ime o#
Patrice Lumumba (4e!%ium $as in)o!)ed
in the assassination o# the #ormer 5on%o!ese 'rime minister in 7anuar*
1961), su''orted the dictator 1obutu #rom the 196?s unti! the
8 de'$iled p"een'$'ion o, '(i u33$"B !$n /e ,ound in '(e $,o"e3en'ioned $"'i!le I8n
e3/le3$'i! N@F $nd :o"ld P$nJ Pe"on$li'B L"$gged Nn'o Cou"'K (''p://!$d'32o"g/8n5
be%innin% o# the 199?s, as an o##icia! ad)isor o# his %o)ernment,
#aci!itated 34 and +12 su''ort #or 8enera! =ab*arimana:s re%ime in
A$anda #rom the 198?s to the be%innin% o# the 199?s, and acted as an
ad)isor #or the A$andan %o)ernment( 3e must a!so remember that
these t$o dictators $ere %ui!t* o# s*stematic )io!ations o# human
ri%hts and crimes a%ainst humanit*( The !ist is !on%, and inc!udes the
s*stematic a''!ication o# the neo!ibera! a%enda $ith the $ides'read
im'!ementation o# structura! ad&ustment 'o!icies, $hich meant
countries $ere #orced to 'a* back odious andUor i!!e%itimate debt, and
to better o'en u' the economies o# hea)i!* indebted countries so as to
better ser)e the interests o# ma&or 'ri)ate mu!tinationa! cor'orations(
6e 8roote 'artici'ated in these acti)ities as the >9ecuti)e 6irector to
the 3or!d 4ank #or 4e!%ium #rom 195 and 1991, and to the +12
#rom 19@ to 1994, unro!!in% a )ast 'ro%ram o# 'ri)ati;ations
im'osed b* the +12 and the 3or!d 4ank, $hich bene#ited a hand#u!
o# indi)idua!s and a #e$ ma&or cor'orations( These 'ri)ati;ations
$ere o#ten !inked to )arious #orms o# #raud as the S$iss courts ha)e
decided in the case o# the 1ES mine( To a!! o# the abo)e can be
added an ob)ious con#!ict o# interest in the case o# 7ac-ues de 8roote,
because $hi!e he $as sti!! an >9ecuti)e 6irector at the +12, he
recei)ed im'ortant sums o# mone* in e9chan%e #or his aid to the
'ri)ate sector( +t is im'ortant to hi%h!i%ht that neither the +12 nor the
3or!d 4ank ha)e taken disci'!inar* measures a%ainst him #or this
c!ear con#!ict o# interest, nor has the 4e!%ian %o)ernment, $hich $as
re'resented b* de 8roote in these institutions(
+n this re)o!tin% a##air, %reed and the )io!ation o# #undamenta! human
ri%hts %o hand in hand( The institutions res'onsib!e ha)e remained
untouchab!e, and their 6irectors be!ie)e that the* are entit!ed to the
'ri)i!e%e o# abso!ute im'unit*( +t is hi%h time to 'ut an end to this
abuseM Those $ho $ork #or the +12 and 34 must be !iab!e in a court
o# !a$ #or the acts the* commit in com'!etin% their #unctions, and
these institutions themse!)es must come to account be#ore the !a$ #or
the numerous )io!ations o# human ri%hts the* ha)e committed and
continue committin% in the <orth and South(
2; T$e 9ie and Times o Jac,ues de *roote
1960 7ac-ues de 8roote 'artici'ates as a 4e!%ian ci)i! ser)ant at the
round tab!e that 're'ared the inde'endence o# the 5on%o, $hich $as
'roc!aimed on @? 7une 196?(
14 September 1960 1obutu or%anises a cou' a%ainst President
7ose'h Dasa)ubu and his Prime 1inister Patrice ( "n interim
%o)ernment $as set u', headed b* 7ustin 4omboko(
October 1960 1obutu has Patrice Lumumba arrested(
17 January 1961 "ssassination o# Patrice Lumumba in Datan%a(
4e!%ium, 1obutu, and 'o!itica! !eaders #rom Datan%a, inc!udin%
1o\se TshombP, '!a*ed an acti)e ro!e in this murder( The 5+" a!so
has a mission to assassinate Lumumba(
April 1960 to May 1963 7( de 8roote $as the assistant o# 4e!%ium:s
>9ecuti)e 6irector to the +12 and 3or!d 4ank in 3ashin%ton(
1961 1obutu returned the 'o$er to 7ose'h Dasa)abu, $ho a''ointed
him 5ommander-in-chie# o# the arm*(
24 o!ember 196" 1obutu dismisses President 7ose'h Dasa)ubu
and sei;es 'o$er $ith su''ort #rom the hi%h command o# the arm*,
4e!%ian authorities, and the Enited States( "s o# this moment, the
3or!d 4ank and the +nternationa! 1onetar* 2und acti)e!* su''ort
1obutu:s dictatoria! re%ime(
Marc# 1966 to May 1969 7( de 8roote $as 5on%o:s chie# economic
ad)isor and an ad)isor o# the 8o)ernor o# the <ationa! 4ank o#
5on%o in Dinshasa( =e $as in char%e o# the Union minire minin%
com'an* (no$ ca!!ed Gcamines)(
May 1969 to o!ember 1973 =e $as #inancia! ad)isor #or the
4e!%ian de!e%ation to the C>56 in Paris(
1970 1obutu:s P1A o##icia!!* named the on!* 'o!itica! 'art* in the
5on%o( C##icia! )isit b* the 4e!%ian Din% 4audouin and ]ueen
2abio!a to ce!ebrate the 1?th anni)ersar* o# inde'endence( 4e!%ium,
the Enited States, 2rance, and other 3estern 'o$ers o##er mi!itar*
and #inancia! su''ort to the 1obutu re%ime(
1973 to 1994 7( de 8roote $as the 4e!%iumFs >9ecuti)e 6irector o#
the +12 in 3ashin%ton, and 'resides o)er a %rou' o# countries $ith
5H o# the tota! )otes (more than 2rance, the Enited Din%dom, 5hina,
or +ndia)( 2rom 19@ to 1991, he $as a!so 4e!%ium:s >9ecuti)e
6irector to the 3or!d 4ank( "t the end o# his term, the %rou' o)er
$hich he 'resided inc!uded 4e!%ium, the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic, S!o)akia,
S!o)enia, "ustria, Lu9embour%, Turke*, 4e!arus, =un%ar*, and
May 197$ +nter)ention o# 4e!%ian and 2rench troo's in Do!$e;i to
'rotect 1obutu #rom a rebe!!ion aimed at o)erthro$in% him(
19$0 to 19$9 7( de 8roote $as a member o# the &ur* o# the Din%
4audouin 2oundation, $hich .%i&#ts po!erty an'
Early 19$0s "ccordin% to 7( de 8roote, A$andan authorities asked
him to re'resent them at the 3or!d 4ank( 7( de 8roote acted in #a)our
o# a de)a!uation o# the A$andan #ranc, $hich ser)ed the interests o#
4aron )an den 4randen:s mine .Gomines;/ the 4aron then
con)inced the 4e!%ian bank <a%e!maekers to %i)e 7( de 8roote a !oan(
These #acts $ere subse-uent!* e9'osed b* the Wall Street ournal(
+n the ear!* 198?s, $hen the Third 3or!d debt crisis eru'ted( A$anda
(&ust !ike its nei%hbour 4urundi) had a )er* !o$ !e)e! o# debt(
3hereas at that )er* moment, the 3or!d 4ank and the +12 $ere
abandonin% their 'o!ic* o# acti)e !endin%, 'reachin% austerit* instead,
in A$anda, and 1obutu:s Naire, the* ado'ted a )er* di##erent
a''roach, !endin% them massi)e amounts o# mone*( "s a resu!t,
A$anda:s #orei%n debt increased t$ent* #o!d bet$een 196 and 1994(
19$2 The 4!umentha! Ae'ort, $ritten on the re-uest o# the +12, is
made 'ub!ic( +t e9'osed the s*stematic corru'tion characteri;in%
1obutu:s re%ime( <onethe!ess, the 3or!d 4ank and the +12
increased their !endin% to his re%ime(
"ccordin% to the Wall Street ournal, 7ac-ues de 8roote in#ormed the
authorities in Dinshasa $hat the +12 mission $as e9'ectin% o# them
be#ore it )isited the countr* in 1982( "t stake $as a J246 mi!!ion !oan
#rom the +12(
19$6 "ccordin% to the Wall Street ournal, 7( de 8roote )isited
1obutu in his )i!!a in the South o# 2rance in "u%ust 1986(
19$9)1991 2a!! o# the 4er!in 3a!! and im'!osion o# the So)iet
Enion, 1obutu:s re%ime is no !on%er use#u! to the 3estern 'o$ers,
the 3or!d 4ank, or the +12(
*ecember 1990 The Wall Street ournal 'ub!ishes the resu!ts o# a
!on% in)esti%ation concernin% 7ac-ues de 8roote( The ne$s'a'er
sho$s that de 8roote s*stematica!!* took ad)anta%e o# his in#!uence at
the +12 and the 3or!d 4ank to ser)e the interests o# 1obutu( The
&ourna!ists considered that there $as a con#!ict o# interest because de
8roote used his 'osition to make #inancia! %ains( The #inancia! dai!*
a!so asserted that de 8roote bene#ited #inancia!!* #rom his 'osition at
the 3or!d 4ank and +12 in his dea!in%s $ith A$anda(
+ate 1990 7ac-ues de 8roote and "!ain "boudaram start $orkin%
to%ether( The #ormer !ends a hand to the !atter b* he!'in% his com'an*
a)oid ta9 in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic and si%n a contract to bui!d a 'i'e!ine
in +ndia(
1991 >nd o# 7( de 8roote:s term o# o##ice at the 3or!d 4ank(
1991 The +12 breaks o## its re!ations $ith Naire( The 3or!d 4ank
#o!!o$s suit in 199@( 3ith no ne$ #unds comin% #rom abroad,
1obutu:s Naire no !on%er had enou%h !i-uidities to 'a* its debt
insta!ments, so it sto''ed makin% 'a*ments in 1994(
1992)1994 "!ain "boudaram $roteG .!n exchan"e for his
consultancy #ork for my company from $%%& to $%%'( M) de Groote
earned *$(&%&(%+& in commissions),
1994 >nd o# 7( de 8roote:s term o# o##ice at the +12(
April)June 1994 8enocide in A$anda, more than 9??,??? Tutsis
and =utus are assassinated( 2rance inter)enes mi!itari!* to su''ort the
%enocida! re%ime and to e9#i!trate %enocide 'er'etrators to$ards
5on%o-Dinshasa( The 5"6T1 ar%ues that the 3or!d 4ank and +12
$ere im'!icated because the* had im'osed socia!!* disastrous 'o!icies
in A$anda and su''orted 8enera! =ab*arimana:s dictatorshi' unti!
1997 The #a!! o# 1obutu:s re%ime(
199$ The #raudu!ent 'ri)atisation o# the 1ES mine in the 5;ech
Ae'ub!ic be%ins(
199$)1999 7( de 8roote becomes the President o# the "''ian 8rou',
a S$iss com'an* based in 2ribour%, s'ecia!isin% in in)estments in the
com'anies bein% 'ri)atised in 5entra! and >astern >uro'e,
'articu!ar!* in the 5;ech Ae'ub!ic( "ccordin% to the -inancial Times,
in 2??4, the "''ian 8rou' had 15,??? em'!o*ees and o$ned the
Skoda en%ineerin% %rou' -no re!ation to the Skoda automobi!e
com'an*- ($hich had a!so been 'ri)atised) in addition to the 1ES
mine ('urchased in 1998)(
2000 " J5??,??? !oan #rom "!ain "boudaram to 7ac-ues de 8roote
turns bad, and their re!ationshi' becomes strained(
2002 "!ain "boudaram 'uts 'ressure on 7ac-ues de 8roote and his
5;ech 'artners to %et back his mone*, but is unsuccess#u!(
*ecember 2004 "!ain "boudaram $rites a !etter to the S$iss courts
to .re)ea! the a##air(/
June 200" "!ain "boudaram is summoned be#ore the S$iss courts
to e9'!ain his denunciation in detai!( +mmediate!* a#ter$ards, the
S$iss attorne* %enera!Fs o##ice (1P5) o'ens an in)esti%ation(
2004 to 2006 +n the Enited States, di##erent courts &ud%e the dis'ute
bet$een "!ain "boudaram and 7ac-ues de 8roote(
2006 +n#ormed o# the tria!s in the Enited States, the 5"6T1 asks
8ino "!;etta, the >9ecuti)e 6irector to the 3or!d 4ank #or the %rou'
'resided o)er b* 4e!%ium, to comment on 7( de 8roote:s beha)iour(
8ino "!;etta re'!ies that he sa$ nothin% re'rehensib!e in it(
January to Marc# 200$ 6urin% a .com'!e9 internationa! #inancia!
in)esti%ation,/ S$iss authorities ordered the #ree;in% o# assets $orth
66? mi!!ion S$iss #rancs on near!* 1?? bank accounts in S$it;er!and(
21 October 2011 The S$iss attorne* %enera!Fs o##ice (1P5)
transmits a bi!! o# indictment to the #edera! 'ena! court, accusin%
7ac-ues de 8roote and si9 5;ech citi;ens o# a%%ra)ated mone*
!aunderin%, #raud, and other char%es(
13 May 2013 The tria! o'ens in 4e!!in;ona in the S$iss canton
Ticino( 7( de 8roote re#uses to %o to the tria!, and c!aims that he is
com'!ete!* innocent(
May 2013 The 5"6T1 -uestions 8ino "!;etta (4e!%ian >9ecuti)e
6irector to the 3or!d 4ank) a second time about the accusations
!od%ed a%ainst 7( de 8roote( 8ino "!;etta reiterates his su''ort #or 7(
de 8roote(
July 2013 The S$iss attorne* %enera!Fs o##ice (1P5) ca!!s #or a t$o-
*ear sus'ended 'rison sentence and a 162,??? euro #ine (2??,???
S$iss #rancs) #or 7ac-ues de 8roote(
October 2013 7ac-ues de 8roote is condemned o# #raud b* the
S$iss courts( The 5 5;echs $ho or%anised the #raud are sentenced to
'rison( The #ro;en assets (66? mi!!ion S$iss #rancs) $i!! be 'aid to
the 5;echs $ho $ere )ictims o# the #raud that occurred durin% the
Sources, 4io%ra'h*G 6r( 7ac-ues 6e 8roote
htt'GUU$$$(;oomin#o(comU'U7ac-ues-6e8rooteU49@5@658, .e Temps(
Wall Street ournal, .e Soir, and other research b* 0ric Toussaint(
<; T$e #&8 and t$e )orld 5ank: #t-s time to re(lace t$em
#n addition to e'amining t$e lie o Jac,ues de *roote= an
em!lematic igure o t$e )orld 5ank and #&8= it is critical to ado(t
a clear (osition wit$ res(ect to t$ese two institutions> )e $a6e
drawn u( t$e ollowing list o t$irt" reasons or re(lacing t$em>
1( Since their creation in 1944, the 3or!d 4ank and the +12 ha)e
acti)e!* su''orted a!! dictatorshi's and corru't E(S(-a!!ied re%imes(
2( +n s'ite o# ha)in% !earned o# massi)e misa''ro'riations, the
3or!d 4ank and the +12 ha)e maintained or increased the amounts
!ent to corru't and dictatoria! re%imes a!!ied $ith the 3estern 'o$ers
(see the c!assic case o# 5on%o-Naire under 1arsha! 1obutu ana!*sed
in the 1982 4!umentha! re'ort)(
@( Throu%h their #inancia! su''ort, the* aided =ab*arimana:s
dictatorshi' in A$anda unti! 1992, $hich enab!ed a #i)e-#o!d increase
in the si;e o# his arm*( The economic re#orms the* im'osed in 199?
destabi!i;ed the countr*, and e9acerbated !atent contradictions( The
%enocide that had been 're'ared #or since the end o# the 198?s b* the
=ab*arimana re%ime be%an on 6 "'ri!, 1994, resu!tin% in the death o#
a!most a mi!!ion Tutsis (and moderate =utus)( Subse-uent!*, the
3or!d 4ank and the +12 demanded that the ne$ A$andan authorities
reimburse the debt contracted b* the %enocida! re%ime(
4( The* a!so su''orted other dictatoria! re%imes (Aomania #rom
19@ to 1982, 5hina #rom 198?) in order to $eaken the ESSA be#ore
its co!!a'se in 1991(
5( The* su''orted the $orst dictatorshi's unti! the* $ere
o)erthro$nG Suharto in +ndonesia #rom 1965 to 1998, 1arcos in the
Phi!i''ines bet$een 192 and 1986, 4en "!i in Tunisia and 1ubarak
in >%*'t unti! their co!!a'se in 2?11(
6( The* ha)e acti)e!* sabota%ed 'ro%ressi)e e9'eriments in
democrac* (#rom 7acobo "rben; in 8uatema!a in the #irst ha!# o# the
195?s and 7oao 8ou!art in 4ra;i! in the ear!* 196?s to the Sandinistas
in <icara%ua in the 198?s, and o# course inc!udin% Sa!)ador "!!ende
in 5hi!e #rom 19? to 19@ -- to mention &ust a #e$)(
( The )er* 'eo'!e $ho are the )ictims o# the t*rants #inanced b*
the 3or!d 4ank and the +12 are #orced b* these same institutions to
reimburse the odious debts contracted b* these corru't, authoritarian
8( The 3or!d 4ank and the +12 ha)e a!so #orced countries that
became inde'endent at the end o# the 195?s and in the ear!* 196?s to
re'a* the odious debt contracted b* #ormer co!onia! 'o$ers as the*
co!onised these countries( This is true, #or e9am'!e, o# the co!onia!
debt contracted b* 4e!%ium $ith the 3or!d 4ank in order to #und its
co!onisation o# the 5on%o in the 195?s( 3e must remember that
internationa! !a$ 'rohibits this t*'e o# trans#er o# co!onia! debt(
9( The 3or!d 4ank and the +12 'ro)ided #inancia! su''ort to
countries !ike a'artheid South "#rica and Portu%a!, $hich $ere under
an internationa! #inancia! bo*cott im'osed b* the E<(
1?( The 3or!d 4ank has su''orted a countr* that anne9ed another
b* #orce (+ndonesia:s anne9ation o# >ast Timor in 195)(
11( Cn the en)ironmenta! #ront, the 3or!d 4ank continues to 'ursue
a 'roducti)ist 'o!ic* that is disastrous #or 'eo'!e and detrimenta! to
nature( +t has a!so succeeded in bein% a''ointed to mana%e the
emissions tradin% market(
12( The 3or!d 4ank #inances 'ro&ects that #!a%rant!* )io!ate human
ri%hts( 2or instance, man* com'onents o# the .transmi%ration/ 'ro&ect
in +ndonesia, $hich $as direct!* su''orted b* the 3or!d 4ank, ma*
be considered to be crimes a%ainst humanit* (destruction o# the
natura! habitats o# nati)e 'eo'!es, en#orced dis'!acement o#
communities)( 1ore recent!*, the 3or!d 4ank #inanced, in its
entiret*, the ironica!!*-named .Bo!untar* 6e'arture/ o'eration in the
6A5, a se)erance 'ro%ramme that )io!ates the ri%hts o# 1?,655
em'!o*ees o# 8Pcamines, the 'ub!ic minin% com'an* !ocated in
Datan%a( These $orkers ha)e sti!! not been 'aid their back $a%es and
the com'ensation re-uired b* 5on%o!ese !a$(
1@( The 3or!d 4ank and the +12 contributed to the emer%ence o#
#actors that caused the outbreak o# the 1982 debt crisisG a) the 3or!d
4ank and the +12 encoura%ed countries to contract debts under
conditions that !ed to their o)er-indebtedness, b) the* dro)e, and e)en
#orced, countries to remo)e ca'ita!-mo)ement and e9chan%e contro!s,
thereb* increasin% the )o!ati!it* o# ca'ita! and si%ni#icant!* #aci!itatin%
its #!i%ht, c) the* dro)e countries to abandon im'ort substitution
industria!isation and re'!ace it $ith a mode! based on e9'ort
14( The* ha)e concea!ed dan%ers such as o)er-indebtedness,
'a*ment crises, and ne%ati)e net trans#ers, $hich the* themse!)es had
15( 2rom the be%innin% o# the crisis in 1982, the 3or!d 4ank and the
+12 ha)e s*stematica!!* su''orted creditors to the detriment o#
16( The 3or!d 4ank and the +12 ha)e recommended, and e)en
im'osed, 'o!icies that 'ut the burden o# debt on common 'eo'!e,
$hi!e #a)ourin% the most 'o$er#u!(
1( The 3or!d 4ank and the +12 ha)e attem'ted to s'read an
economic mode! that s*stematica!!* increases ine-ua!ities bet$een
and $ithin countries(
18( +n the 199?s, the 3or!d 4ank and the +12, $ith the com'!icit*
o# %o)ernment !eaders, e9tended structura! ad&ustment 'o!icies to
most countries in Latin "merica, "#rica, "sia, and 5entra! and
>astern >uro'e (inc!udin% Aussia)(
19( +n the !atter countries, massi)e 'ri)atisations ha)e been carried
out to the detriment o# the common %ood, and ha)e trans#erred
co!ossa! $ea!th to a hand#u! o# o!i%archs(
2?( The* ha)e stren%thened ma&or 'ri)ate cor'orations and
$eakened both 'ub!ic authorities and sma!! #armers and businesses(
The* ha)e e9acerbated the e9'!oitation o# em'!o*ees and made their
em'!o*ment more 'recarious, and ha)e done the same to sma!!
#armers and businesses(
21( Their se!#-'roc!aimed #i%ht a%ainst 'o)ert* #ai!s to concea! the
actua! 'o!ic* that re'roduces and a%%ra)ates the )er* causes o#
22( The !ibera!isation o# ca'ita! #!o$s, $hich the* ha)e
s*stematica!!* encoura%ed, has increased the incidence o# ta9 e)asion,
#!i%ht o# ca'ita!, and corru'tion(
2@( The !ibera!isation o# trade has stren%thened the stron% and
$eakened the $eak( The ma&orit* o# sma!! and medium businesses in
de)e!o'in% countries are unab!e to $ithstand com'etition #rom !ar%e
cor'orations, both in the <orth and the South(
24( The 3or!d 4ank and the +12 act in con&unction $ith the 3TC,
the >uro'ean 5ommission, and $i!!in% %o)ernments to im'ose an
a%enda that is radica!!* o''osed to ensurin% basic human ri%hts(
25( Since toda*:s crisis hit the >uro'ean Enion, the +12 has
s'earheaded the mo)e to im'ose on the 'eo'!es o# 8reece, Portu%a!,
+re!and, 5*'rus, and other countries the same 'o!icies that $ere #irst
im'osed on the 'eo'!es in de)e!o'in% countries, and then in 5entra!
and >astern >uro'e in the 199?s(
26( The 3or!d 4ank and the +12, $hich 'reach %ood %o)ernance in
one re'ort a#ter another, are in #act themse!)es en%a%ed in dubious
conduct, as can be seen in the case o# 7ac-ues de 8roote $ho acted
ma!e)o!ent!* #or man* *ears but $as co)ered b* these t$o
2( The t$o or%anisations kee' most o# their member countries
mar%ina!i;ed, #a)ourin% instead a hand#u! o# %o)ernments in $ea!th*
28( +n a nutshe!!, the 3or!d 4ank and the +12 are des'otic machines
in the hands o# an internationa! o!i%arch* (a hand#u! o# ma&or 'o$ers
and their transnationa! cor'orations), $hich en#orce the internationa!
ca'ita!ist s*stem that is destro*in% mankind and the en)ironment(
29( The destructi)e actions and 'o!icies o# the 3or!d 4ank and +12
must be denounced in order to 'ut to an end to them( The debt, or
.tribute/ these institutions are tr*in% to co!!ect must be cance!!ed, and
the* themse!)es must be brou%ht to account(
@?( " ne$ internationa!, democratic #inancia! s*stem must be created
as soon as 'ossib!e to 'romote the redistribution o# $ea!th and to
su''ort 'eo'!e:s e##orts to achie)e socia!!* &ust de)e!o'ment that is
res'ect#u! o# nature(
?; T$e )orld 5ank
The 3or!d 4ank is made u' o# t$o entitiesG the +nternationa! 4ank #or
Aeconstruction and 6e)e!o'ment (+4A6), $hich $as created in 1944
at the 4retton 3oods 5on#erence, and the +nternationa! 6e)e!o'ment
"ssociation (+6"), estab!ished in 196? to !oan mone* to the 'oorest
countries( The 3or!d 4ank has some 1?,??? em'!o*ees, 1?? o##ices
throu%hout the $or!d, and 18 1ember States in 2?1@( Three other
institutions are 'art o# the 3or!d 4ankG the +nternationa! 2inance
5or'oration (+25), $hich $as estab!ished in 1956 to 'ro)ide
#inancin% to the 'ri)ate sector, the +nternationa! 5entre #or Sett!ement
o# +n)estment 6is'utes (+5S+6), estab!ished in 1966, and the
1u!ti!atera! +n)estment 8uarantee "%enc* (1+8") estab!ished in
"n* ma&or re#orm at the 3or!d 4ank $ou!d re-uire a su'erma&orit*
o# 85H o# the )otes, ho$e)er, the Enited States ho!ds 16(85H o# the
)otin% ri%hts, $hich %i)es it de #acto 'o$er o# )eto( +n addition, b*
tacit a%reement, the 3or!d 4ank President has a!$a*s been a ES
citi;en a''ointed b* the President o# the Enited States( 4arack
Cbama:s a''ointment o# 7im Lon% Din%, a ES citi;en o# South
Dorean ori%ins, $ho became the 12th President on 1 7u!* 2?12 has
not #undamenta!!* chan%ed the situation, e)en i# he is neither a banker
nor a di'!omat !ike his 'redecessors( " re#orm in 2?1? decreased the
)otin% ri%hts o# <orthern countries to #a)our emer%in% countries,
ho$e)er, de)e!o'in% countries that re'resent near!* 8?H o# the $or!d
'o'u!ation sti!! ha)e a minorit* share $ith 4(19 H o# the )otes(
4ra;i!:s share has increased #rom 2(?6H to 2(24H, and +ndia:s #rom
2(H to 2(91 H( +n an* case, due to these chan%es the emer%in%
'o$ers hard!* ha)e an* more in#!uence on the 4ank:s orientations(
The 3or!d 4ank de#ends de #acto the interests o# the ma&or 'o$ers,
and in 'articu!ar those o# the Enited States( Since 1944 it has
accom'anied a )eritab!e trans#er o# $ea!th throu%hout the $or!d, #rom
those $ho 'roduce it to a #e$ $ho 'ro#it #rom it, and it has acti)e!*
su''orted dictatorshi's( "!thou%h the 3or!d 4ank, !ike the +12, is a
s'ecia!ised or%anisation in the Enited <ations s*stem, it has )io!ated
internationa! !a$ on a re%u!ar basis( The 3or!d 4ank:s motto .Cur
dream, a 3or!d $ithout Po)ert*/ is there#ore )er* #ar #rom rea!it*(
That e9'!ains $h* some critics o# the 3or!d 4ank:s acti)ities insist
on its hidden a%enda that ser)es the interests o# the ma&or 'o$ers,
mu!tinationa! cor'orations, and su'er $ea!th* ca'ita!ists( "s #ar as
this hidden a%enda is concerned, the 3or!d 4ank:s acti)ities do
'ro)ide hea!th* returns #or some, but not #or those $ho are su''osed
to be bene#itin% #rom them(
The 3or!d 4ank has ski!#u!!* de)e!o'ed its subsidiaries (the
+nternationa! 2inance 5or'oration - +25, 1u!ti!atera! +n)estment
8uarantee "%enc* - 1+8", and +nternationa! 5entre #or Sett!ement o#
+n)estment 6is'utes - +5S+6) to make a ti%hter and ti%hter $eb o#
" theoretica! e9am'!e can he!' us to understand the e##ects o# its
'o!icies( The 3or!d 4ank $i!! %rant a !oan to the authorities o# a
countr* i# and on!* i# its $ater distribution and $aste $ater treatment
s*stem is 'ri)atised( 5onse-uent!*, the 'ub!ic uti!it* is so!d to a
'ri)ate consortium that inc!udes the +25, a subsidiar* o# the 3or!d
3hen those a##ected b* the 'ri)atisation re)o!t a%ainst the drastic
'rice increase and !o$er -ua!it* ser)ice, and the 'ub!ic authorities
turn a%ainst the 'redator* transnationa! cor'oration, the dis'ute
mana%ement is entrusted to the +5S+6, $hich con)enient!* becomes
both &ud%e and &ur*(
3e arri)e at a situation in $hich the 3or!d 4ank 8rou' is
omni'resentG 1) im'osin% and #undin% the 'ri)atisation (the 3or!d
4ank )ia the +4A6 and +6"), 2) in)estin% in the 'ri)atised
cor'oration (+25), @) se!!in% a %uarantee to this cor'oration to co)er it
a%ainst risks !inked to 'o!itics (1+8"), 4) makin% the #ina! &ud%ement
$hen there is a dis'ute (+5S+6)(
+n most cases, the +5S+6 ru!es in #a)our o# 'ri)ate cor'orations,
$hich has !ed three Latin "merican countries (4o!i)ia, >cuador and
Bene;ue!a) to re#use to reco%nise the com'etence o# this tribuna!(
4; T$e #nternational &onetar" 8und @#&8A
>stab!ished at the 4retton 3oods 5on#erence at the same time as the
3or!d 4ank, the +12 #unctions more or !ess in the same anti-
democratic $a* as the 3or!d 4ank( The Enited States has a uni!atera!
)eto $ith 16(9 H o# the )otin% ri%hts, enab!in% it to 're)ent an*
ma&or re#orm, $hich $ou!d re-uire 85H o# the )otes( The +12
1ana%in% 6irector is a!$a*s >uro'ean, and the 2irst 6e'ut*
1ana%in% 6irector is a!$a*s a ES citi;en named b* the President o#
the Enited States( 5ontrar* to the 3or!d 4ank, $hich borro$s the
mone* it u!timate!* !ends #rom #inancia! markets, the +12 dra$s its
resources #rom its members and has its o$n unit o# account, kno$n as
the S'ecia! 6ra$in% Ai%ht (S6A), $hich consists o# a basket o#
stron% currencies( +ts resources !inked to the -uotas o# di##erent
countries re'resented 21? bi!!ion S6As (near!* J@?? bi!!ion) unti!
2??9( =o$e)er, in "'ri! 2??9 the 82? in London increased this
amount to J1??? bi!!ion in res'onse to the #inancia! crisis(
Like the 3or!d 4ank, the +12 had no -ua!ms about su''ortin%
se)era! dictatoria! re%imes( +ts 1ana%ement, &ust !ike that o# the
3or!d 4ank, has co!!aborated acti)e!* $ith mi!itar* re%imes, $hich
#rom the 196?s to the be%innin% o# the 199?s, o)erthre$ democratic
%o)ernments #rom 5on%oQDinshasa, to 4ra;i!, "r%entina, Eru%ua*,
5hi!!i, the Phi!i''ines, and +ndonesia( 3e must a!so remember the
su''ort these t$o institutions %a)e to the a'artheid re%ime in South
"#rica and to Sa!a;ar in Portu%a!, because o# $hich the* $ere
#orma!!* denounced b* the E< 8enera! "ssemb!*(
+n 2??, the +12 $ent throu%h a re!ati)e!* serious crisis due to ear!*
're'a*ments b* countries that no !on%er $ished to be under its
su'er)ision, and in 'articu!ar 're#erred to o't out o# its in#amous
structura! ad&ustment '!ans( Since 2?1?, the +12 has made a stron%
comeback, ridin% the $a)e o# the crisis in >uro'e( "!on% $ith the
>uro'ean 5ommission and the >uro'ean 5entra! 4ank, the +12 is
'art o# the troika that has im'osed memorandums o# understandin%,
the >uro'ean )ersion o# the structura! ad&ustment '!ans im'osed on
de)e!o'in% countries, $hich ha)e had the same ne%ati)e
conse-uences, in 'articu!ar in terms o# !abour !a$s and socia!
'rotection( 3hereas the +12 describes itse!# as .an or%ani;ation o#
188 countries, $orkin% to #oster %!oba! monetar* coo'eration, secure
#inancia! stabi!it*, #aci!itate internationa! trade, 'romote hi%h
em'!o*ment and sustainab!e economic %ro$th, and reduce 'o)ert*
around the $or!d,/
its 'o!icies ha)e destro*ed tens o# mi!!ions o#
&obs throu%hout the $or!d, undermined socia! 'rotection, and
increased 'o)ert* and the concentration o# the $ea!th o# mu!tinationa!
cor'orations and $ea!th* indi)idua!s( +ts attacks a%ainst socia!
'rotection, and the 'ri)atisations it has backed are makin% access to
'ub!ic ser)ices more di##icu!t and cost!* #or most 'eo'!e throu%hout
the $or!d(
(''p://1112i3,2o"g/e>'e"n$l/$/ou'2('3 +$!!eed on 16501520140
Post ace : Bric Toussaint C a Courageous )$istle!lower !" Jean
+n toda*:s >uro'e, $ith its uni#orm
conscience, $ish*-$ash* consensus, and
trium'hant State-im'osed !o%ic, an*
attem't to break $ith the current bruta!
$or!d order is considered to be either a
uto'ian 'ro&ect or -uite sim'!* de!irious(
Cn our continent, a re)o!utionar* is at
best considered to be ori%ina!, a kind o# inte!!ectua! bum, an
ino##ensi)e dreamer, or a co!our#u! outsider, and at $orst, a
threatenin% troub!emaker, a de)iant, or sim'!* mad( 1ean$hi!e,
%!oba! ca'ita!ist #inancia! o!i%archies are %o)ernin% the '!anet,
accordin% to a se!#-!e%itimisin% ideo!o%* based on economic ri%our,
no9ious nationa!ism, and a human ri%hts doctrine that subt!* 'romotes
discrimination( "m + e9a%%eratin%K Aea!, !i)in% democracies that
res'ect the #reedom and the 'ursuit o# ha''iness o# their citi;ens do
e9ist in the Enited States, 2rance, 4e!%ium, >n%!and, S$it;er!and, and
man* other 3estern countries( =o$e)er, in their neo-co!onia!
em'ires, con#ronted b* the mar%ina!ised 'o'u!ations the* dominate
there, these same 3estern democracies 'ractice $hat 1aurice
6u)er%er has ca!!ed #ascism abroad( +n man* countries in the
Southern hemis'here, a!! socia! indicators ha)e been ne%ati)e #or
more than 5? *ears (e9ce't #or demo%ra'hics)( 1a!nutrition, miser*,
i!!iterac*, chronic unem'!o*ment, endemic diseases, and broken
#ami!ies are the direct conse-uences o# the unba!anced terms o# trade
and the t*rann* o# debt( 3estern democracies 'ractice a #orm o#
%enocide based on indi##erence( AP%is 6ebra* has obser)ed thatG
.2ree ($o)men need s!a)es(/
That is the 'rice others must 'a* to
ensure our #ra%i!e 'ros'erit* in the 3estM
.gi Le/"$B, in Le Tiers monde et la gauc!e 5T!e T!ird -orld and t!e le$t6, !olle!'iGe
1o"J, &di'ion du Aeuil, 1979, p2 792
Peo'!e in 'oor countries are $orkin% themse!)es to death to #inance
the de)e!o'ment o# rich countries( +n rea!it*, it is the South that is
#inancin% the <orth Q es'ecia!!* its dominant c!asses( 6ebt is indeed
the most 'o$er#u! means o# domination used b* the <orth a%ainst the
South toda*(
1ore ca'ita! #!o$s #rom the South to the <orth than in the other
direction( >)er* *ear, the 'oor countries send considerab!* more
mone* to the u''er c!asses in rich countries than the* recei)e in the
#orm o# in)estments, coo'eration !oans, humanitarian aid, and
.de)e!o'ment/ aid(
<o need #or machine %uns, na'a!m, or tanks to sub&u%ate and reduce
'eo'!e to s!a)er*( Toda*, a!! $e need is debt(
2orei%n debt has become a $ea'on o# mass destruction( +t ens!a)es
'eo'!e and destro*s their be!ie# that the* can be inde'endent, thereb*
ensurin% 'ermanent $or!d$ide domination b* the ca'ita!ist #inancia!
+n 2?1@, one chi!d under the a%e o# ten died o# hun%er e)er* #i)e
seconds( >)er* da*, 5,??? human bein%s died o# hun%er( <ear!* 1
bi!!ion o# our bi!!ion #e!!o$ human bein%s su##er #rom 'ermanent
and serious ma!nutrition( This is ha''enin% on a '!anet, $hich
accordin% to the 2"C, cou!d easi!* #eed 12 bi!!ion 'eo'!e (22??
ki!oca!ories 'er da*)(
"s a 'ercenta%e o# its 'o'u!ation, "#rica is the continent on $hich
there is the %reatest number o# #amished 'eo'!eG @6(2H in 2?12( +n
abso!ute #i%ures, it is "sia that comes out on to' in this macabre
contest( The #orei%n debt noose 're)ents the most im'o)erished
countries #rom makin% the minimum re-uired in)estments ur%ent!*
needed #or their #armin% s*stems(
"!thou%h @ o# the 54 "#rican countries are near!* entire!*
a%ricu!tura! $ith )ast s$aths o# #erti!e !and, and a re!ati)e!* sma!!
'o'u!ation, in 2?12, J24 bi!!ion $orth o# #ood had to be im'orted
onto the continent due to the !ack o# a%ricu!tura! in)estments( Seed
'roduction and anima! and minera! #erti!isers are a!! !ackin%( There
are 25?,??? drau%ht anima!s on the continent, but !ess than 85,???
tractors( +n 2?1@, the hoe and the machete $ere sti!! the main too!s
used #or #armin%(
Cn!* @(8H o# arab!e !and south o# the Sahara is irri%ated( The rest is
$atered on!* b* rain#a!!, and #aces the dead!* risks entai!ed b* a
chaotic c!imate(
The +12 is in char%e o# mana%in% the debt o# 'oor countries, and its
mercenaries are the #ire-#i%hters o# the internationa! #inancia! s*stem,
$ho become $i!!in% arsonists $hen ca!!ed u'onR
3hen there is a ma&or crisis, the* inter)ene in e9otic #inancia! '!aces,
makin% sure abo)e a!! that no internationa! s'ecu!ators $i!! !ose their
initia! $a%er( The >conomist, $hich is not e9act!* the )oice o# a !e#t-
$in% #irebrand, has $rittenG .R So $hen sce'tics accuse rich countr*
%o)ernments o# bein% main!* concerned $ith bai!in% out $estern
banks $hen #inancia! crisis strikes in the $or!d, the* ha)e a 'oint(/^
2or decades, 7ac-ues de 8roote '!a*ed a ke* ro!e in maintainin%,
re'roducin%, and stren%thenin% this canniba!istic $or!d orderG as
4e!%ium:s >9ecuti)e 6irector to the 21+ and 3or!d 4ank, and as an
ad)isor to the 'redator 7ose'h 6PsirP 1obutu(
Toda*, 6e 8roote has been brou%ht be#ore S$iss courts in 4e!!in;ona
$ith si9 5;ech co-de#endants #or .a%%ra)ated mone* !aunderin% and
#raud,/ accordin% to the bi!! o# indictment de!i)ered b* the S$iss
1inistr* o# 7ustice(
0ric Toussaint has $ritten a #ascinatin%, incisi)e, and e9treme!* $e!!-
documented book about the storm* career o# the ne#arious 7ac-ues 6e
I8 Pl$gue o, Fin$n!e,K T!e #conomist +=ondon0, 29 Aep'e3/e" 20012
Toussaint is a $or!d-reno$ned author and a 'recious ad)isor to the
numerous %o)ernments attem'tin% unburden themse!)es o# .odious/
debt( =is research and 'ub!ications ha)e made him a !eadin% authorit*
on these matters, e)en #or the +12 and the 3or!d 4ank( "mon% his
$orks, Lour 1one* (or) Lour Li#e - The T*rann* o# 8!oba! 2inance
(2??5), 6ebt, the +12, and the 3or!d 4ank, Si9t* ]uestions, Si9t*
"ns$ers (2?1?),, The 3or!d 4ankG a ne)er-endin% cou' d:>tat (2??6)
are indis'ensab!e #or understandin% the #unctionin% o# the current
$or!d economic order, $hich $as estab!ished b* ca'ita!ist #inancia!
The Tria! o# an >9em'!ar* 1an is a 'ro#ound and !i)e!* scienti#ic
$ork that is in a !ea%ue o# its o$n( 7ean-Pau! Sartre made a distinction
bet$een scienti#ic, ana!*tica!, erudite $orks, on the one hand, and
.books that take action(/ The Tria! o# an >9em'!ar* 1an is &ust such
a $ork, because in his ro!e as a $hist!eb!o$er 0ric Toussaint takes
bo!d action(
"s + am $ritin% these !ines, the 4e!!in;ona 'ena! court has not *et
%i)en its #ina! )erdict( 3e must there#ore continue to scru'u!ous!*
'resume the innocence o# 7ac-ues de 8roote Q e)en i# that is a
di##icu!t attitude to maintain(
<e)erthe!ess, 0ric Toussaint:s book has raised man* troub!in%
-uestions( =o$ cou!d a #i%ure !ike de 8roote continue conductin% his
-uestionab!e acti)ities at the +12 and 3or!d 4ank $ith tota!
im'unit*K 3hat kind o# 'rotection did he en&o*, and $ho $ere his
This 'o$er#u! book ans$ers those and other re!e)ant -uestions(
"6"1S, Patricia( 1991( /dious 0e1ts) Probe +nternationa!, Toronto,
252 '(
"8L+>TT", 1iche!, and 1C"TT+, Sandra( 2???( .e -M!) 0e l2ordre
montaire aux dsordres financiers, >d( >conomica, Paris, 255 '(
3CAL6 4"<D(
-( 1982 World 0e3elopment 4eport( 3ashin%ton
-( 198@ World 0e3elopment 4eport) 3ashin%ton
-( 199? World 0e3elopment 4eport) 3ashin%ton
-( 1991 World 0e3elopment 4eport) 3ashin%ton
-( 1994 World 0e3elopment 4eport) 3ashin%ton
-( 1995a World 0e3elopment 4eport5 Workers in an !nte"ratin"
World( 3ashin%ton
-( 1996 World 0e3elopment 4eport) 3ashin%ton
-( 199 World 0e3elopment 4eport)( 3ashin%ton
-( 2??5 World 0e3elopment 4eport) 3ashin%ton
-( 1992( Go3ernance and 0e3elopment, 3ashin%ton, 1992
-( 199@b( The East 6sian Miracle, 3ashin%ton, @89 '(
-( 1995b( 7romou3oir le d3eloppement social) 8ontri1ution de la
9an:ue mondiale au Sommet social ;in 2rench on!*)( 3or!d 4ank,
-( 2??5( Glo1al 0e3elopment -inance, 3ashin%ton, 11 '(
-( 2??@( World 0e3elopment !ndicators, 3ashin%ton, @91 '(
-( 1998-1999( Glo1al Economic 7rospects, 3ashin%ton
5><TA> TA+5C<T+<><T"L( Y Les Cr%anismes #inanciers internationau9,
instruments de !:Pconomie 'o!iti-ue !ibPra!e [, in 6lternati3es Sud,
Bo!( B+, 1999, 2, L:=armattan, Lou)ain-!a-<eu)e, Paris, 1ontrea!,
189 '(
5><TA> TA+5C<T+<><T"L( Y Aaisons et dPraisons de !a dette( Le 'oint de
)ue du Sud [, in 6lternati3es Sud - Bo!( +_ (2??2), n`2-@,
L:=armattan, Lou)ain-!a-<eu)e, Paris, 1ontrea!, 266 '(
5>T+1( 2??5( /<U) 0roits pour tous ou loi du plus fort =, 5>T+1,
8ene)a, 2??5, 4@1'(
5=CSSE6CBSDL, 1iche! and 8"L"<6, Pierre, Y Le 8Pnocide de 1994,
L:usa%e de !a dette e9tPrieure du A$anda (199?-1994)( La
res'onsabi!itP des bai!!eurs de #onds [, Ctta$a and 4russe!s, 1996(
6ET>A1> Aenaud, 4#anda 5 une histoire 3ole, >ditions Tribord and
5"6T1, 2?1@(
0E W!TTE Ludo( .assassinat de .umum1a( Dharta!a, 2???(
>63"A6S, Sebastian( 1995( 8risis y 4eforma en 6mrica .atina, 199,
4uenos "ires, 4@@ '(
8>CA8>, Susan( 1988( us:uau cou, La 6Pcou)erte, Paris, 1989, 4?5
8>CA8>, Susan( 1992( .effet 9oomeran", co!( >ssais, La 6Pcou)erte,
Paris, 291 '(
8>CA8>, Susan and S"4>LL+, 2abri;io( 1994( 8rdits sans -rontires,
co!( >ssais, La 6Pcou)erte, Paris, 28 '(
+<T>A<"T+C<"L 1C<>T"AL 2E<6( 199 "<<E"L A>PCAT( 3ashin%ton 65(
+<T>A<"T+C<"L 1C<>T"AL 2E<6UT=> 3CAL6 4"<D( 2??2( .External
8omments and 8ontri1utions on the oint 9ank>-und Staff 4e3ie# of
the 74S7 6pproach/, 3ashin%ton 6(5( 2?4@1, 2ebruar*, 2??2, 2
)o!umes, 246 '( and @26 '(
7"6="B, <arendra( 2??2( .Synopses of External 8omments and
8ontri1utions on the oint !M->World 9ank Staff 4e3ie# of the 74S7
6pproach/( +nternationa! 1onetar* 2und>3or!d 4ank( 2ebruar*
2??2( 1@ ')
D"PEA, 6e)esh, L>3+S, 7ohn P(, 3>44, Aichard( 199( The World
9ank( !ts -irst ?alf 8entury, @olume $5 ?istory, 4rookin%s +nstitution
Press, 3ashin%ton, 6(5(, 125 '(
D"PEA, 6e)esh, L>3+S, 7ohn P(, 3>44, Aichard( 199( The World
9ank( !ts -irst ?alf 8entury, @olume &5 7erspecti3es, 4rookin%s
+nstitution Press, 3ashin%ton, 6(5(, 66 '(
DAE>8>A, "nne( 1998( .3hither the 4ank and the +12K/, ournal of
Economic .iterature, Bo!( ___B+, 6ecember, 1998, ''(198@-2?2?
1"<6>L, >rnest( 1989( .6nnulation de la dette du tiers monde,
6ossier Aou%e 29, 15 '(
1"SC< >d$ard S( and "S=>A, Aobert >( 19@( The World 9ank since
9retton Woods, The 4rookin%s +nstitution, 3ashin%ton, 6(5(, 915 '(
15<"1"A", Aobert S( 1968( The Essence of Security5 4eflections in
/ffice, =odder and Stou%hton, London
15<"1"A", Aobert S( 19@( 8ien paAses( 0os mil millones de seres,
Tecnos, 1adrid, 12 '(
1+LL>T, 6amien and TCESS"+<T, 0ric( 0e1t( the !M-( and the World
9ank5 Sixty Buestions( Sixty 6ns#ers( 1onth!* Ae)ie$ Press, <e$
Lork, 2?1?, @?4 '(
1i!!et, 6amien and Toussaint, 0ric( 2?12( CD Buestions>CD 4ponses
sur la dette( le -M! et la 9an:ue mondiale, do$n!oadab!e #or #reeG
1+LL>T, 6amien and TCESS"+<T, 0ric( 2??5( .es Tsunamis de la dette,
5"6T1-LiZ%eUS*!!e'se-Paris, 2??5, 189 '(
1+LL>T, 6amien( 2??5( .6fri:ue sans dette, 5"6T1-LiZ%eUS*!!e'se-
Paris, 2??5, 218 '(
<6+DE1"<", Leonce and 4CL5>, 7ames( 199( .8on"os /dious 0e1t5
External 1orro#in" and 8apital -li"ht), Eni)ersit* o#
1assachussets, 6e'artment o# >conomics
<duhun%irehe, 1arie-5hanta!( 1995( .es 7ro"rammes daEustement
structurel) Spcificit et application au cas du 4#anda) ;Structural
6dEustment 7ro"rammes5 Specificities and 6pplication to the 8ase of
P"L>A, 5her*!( 194( The 0e1t Trap5 The !nternational Monetary
-und and the Third World, 1onth!* Ae)ie$ Press, <e$ Lork and
London, 251 '(
P"L>A, 5her*!( 1982( The World 9ank) 6 8ritical 6nalysis, 1onth!*
Ae)ie$ Press, <e$ Lork and London, 414 '(
P"L>A, 5her*!( 1991( .ent and .ost) -orei"n 8redit and Third World
0e3elopment, Ned 4ooks, London, 154 '(
Pound, >d$ard T, .5o;* TiesG +12, 3or!d 4ank "ide =as 6ea!in%s
=intin% "t 5on#!ict o# +nterest --- 7ac-ues de 8roote 5ounse!s Naire,
8ot =e!' o# Peo'!e =e 3as in Position to "id --- =e 6enies "n*
+m'ro'rieties/ Wall Street ournal( 28 6ecember, 199?(
AE+N 6+"N 4"L4E><", =u%o( 2??@( G .a 4esponsa1ilit internationale
des institutions financires internationales H document 'rPsentP au
TroisiZme SPminaire 6roit et 6ette, 5"6T1, "msterdam, 6ecember
2??@( 22 '(
S"5D, "!e9ander <ahum( 192( .es Effets des Transformations des
Etats sur leurs 0ettes 7u1li:ues et 6utres /1li"ations financires,
Aecuei! Sire*, Paris
ST+8L+TN, 7ose'h >( 2??2, Glo1aliIation and its 0iscontents) <orton,
<e$ Lork, 282 '(
ST+8L+TN, 7ose'h >( 2??@, The 4oarin" <ineties, <orton, <e$ Lork,
4@2 '(
TCESS"+<T, 0ric and N"5="A+>, "rnaud( 2???( .e 9ateau i3re de la
mondialisation( Escales au sein du 3illa"e plantaire, 5"6T1-
4ru9e!!esUS*!!e'se-Paris, 264 '(
TCESS"+<T, 0ric and N"5="A+>, "rnaud( 2??1( 6fri:ue5 61olir la dette
pour li1rer le d3eloppement, 5"6T1-4ru9e!!esUS*!!e'se-Paris,
22 '(
TCESS"+<T, 0ric( 2??4( .a -inance contre les peuples) .a 9ourse ou la
@ie( 5"6T1-4ru9e!!esU5>T+1-8enZ)eUS*!!e'se-Paris, 64? '(
TCESS"+<T, 0ric( 2??4( EnEeux politi:ues de laction de la 9an:ue
internationale pour la 4econstruction et le 03eloppement et du
-onds montaire international en3ers le tiersJmonde, thZse de
doctorat en Sciences 'o!iti-ues, Eni)ersitP de LiZ%e et Eni)ersitP de
Paris 8, annPe acadPmi-ue 2??@-2??4, @54 '(
Toussaint, 0ric( 2??( The 3or!d 4ankG " <e)er >ndin% 5ou'
6FPtat G the =idden "%enda o# 3ashin%ton 5onsensus( B"D, @@ '(
Toussaint, 0ric( 2?12( " 8!ance in the Aear Bie$ 1irror( <eo!ibera!
+deo!o%* #rom its Cri%ins to the Present, =a*market Press, 5hica%o,
6? '(
TraorP, "minata 6( 1999( .Ktau, "ctes Sud, 185 '(
THE 9#8E A:% CR#&ES O8 A: EEE&P9ARD &A:
&"i! Tou$in' ($ 1"i''en $ ,$!in$'ing, in!iiGe, $nd e>'"e3elB 1ell5
do!u3en'ed /ooJ $/ou' '(e 'o"3B !$"ee" o, '(e ne,$"iou D$!#ue Le
E"oo'e2 T!e li$e and crimes o$ an e7emplar0 man ($ "$ied 3$nB
'"ou/ling #ue'ion2 Ho1 !ould $ ,igu"e liJe de E"oo'e !on'inue !ondu!'ing
(i #ue'ion$/le $!'iGi'ie $' '(e N@F $nd :o"ld P$nJ 1i'( 'o'$l i3puni'BW
:($' Jind o, p"o'e!'ion did (e en%oB, $nd 1(o 1e"e (i $!!o3pli!eW T(i
po1e",ul /ooJ $n1e" '(oe $nd o'(e" "eleG$n' #ue'ion2
&ean 'ie%ler
T!e li$e and crimes o$ an e7emplar0 man $dd $ ne1 di3enion 'o &"i!
Tou$in'' $n$lBe, $nd $ ne1 !($p'e" 'o '(e p"e!iou "ee$"!( !$""ied
ou' /B '(e Co33i''ee ,o" '(e 8/oli'ion o, T(i"d :o"ld Le/' +C8LT@0 'o
de3B'i,B '(ee P"e''on :ood in'i'u'ion2 T(e po'ion !on!o!'ed /B '(e
N@F $nd :o"ld P$nJ $"e no' onlB /i''e", '(eB $"e $lo o,'en de$dlB2
A'o"ie u!( $ '(i one $/ou' '(e li,e o, D$!#ue de E"oo'e, 1(o ued 'o
/e $n e>e!u'iGe di"e!'o" $' '(ee '1o in'i'u'ion, $nd ($ no1 /een
!onde3ned /B '(e A1i !ou"' ,o" ,"$ud, $gg"$G$'ed 3oneB l$unde"ing,
$nd do!u3en' ,o"ge"B, !le$"lB illu'"$'e '(e 3o"$l !"ii $,,li!'ing '(e
do3in$n' o!i$l !l$e 'od$B2
T(e people o, '(e 1o"ld !ould $!' 'oge'(e" $nd 3o"e e,,e!'iGelB i,
in,o"3$'ion 1e"e '"e$'ed in $ 1$B '($' 1ould $llo1 '(e3 'o unde"'$nd
'(e "eponi/ili'ie o, '(e JeB pl$Be"2 &"i! Tou$in'? /ooJ i $ G$lu$/le
'ool '($' !$n edu!$'e !i'i-en in '(e <o"'( $nd in '(e Aou'(2
Amina#a Traor"

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