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CHAPTER 1

INTRODRUCTION
A. Background of the Study

Literature, the product of imagination, yet draws on life for its subjects. It
touches life in the real world at all points. It is concerned with all aspects of human life
and the universe in their entirety,surely every work of literatures is about something,and
the more of a person reads,the better stocked will his mind be with knowledge.
Sometimes people read literally work in order to get pleasure and also to increase their
knowledge about human beings life. The opinion above is supported by the quotation
quoted from Approach to Literature written by Graham Little which says that Good
literature adds our understanding of life in the world around us. It embodies thought and
feeling on matter of human importance (Little,1966:2). Literature refers to compositions
that tell stories,dramatize,situation,express emotions,and analyze and advocate ideas (see
Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing.1987).

There are mainly three important branches of literature,such as : prose,poetry and
drama. The word proseis derived from the Latin word prosa used in English since
1330,the word dramafrom Ancient Greek (drama, an act,a theatrical act,a play),and
poetry is derived from the Greek word,poiein which means to make or construct.The
senses of character are to identify the people who play in this story or poem and to
explain the personality of the people (Kennedy,1983:45). In this thesis,poetry becomes
the object to be analyzed. In poems,the poet tends to use imaginative language,which
forms a part of personal experience,although it is difficult to be guessed. Analyzing a
poem needs a special knowledge and sensitive way because there are some literary
devices such as rhyme,rhythm,figures of speech and so on which are difficult to
understand. Moreover,sentences in poems are also difficult to understand because the
sentences are not complete. Learning this difficulties,the thesis writer is challenged to
analyze poetry. Besides,poetry attracts her so much since knows that poetry can add his
awareness in understanding good experiences,history,and feeling or thought of other
people. As a matter of fact, Abu Nuwas has been the greatest poet of his time. Abu
Nawas is an









B. Statement of the Problems

Based on the background of the study,the thesis writer want to present to problems
that are goin to be analyzed. Those are as follows :
1. What are the themes of.
2. How are the themes revealed in..

C. Objectives

Related to the statement of the problems above,there are objectives that the writer is
going to gain :
1. To find out the themes of..
2. To find out how the themes of

D. Significance

I believe that this thesis would give significant advantages either for theoretical or
practical use. Theoritically this thesis will be useful as the reference for readers who want
to analyze themes of poem. From the theory used in thjs thesis, the readers will come to a
new understanding what Abu Nuwas feeling in some of his poems, and the reader will
have better knowledge about poem. Moreover, this thesis is expected to give moral lesson
for the readers when they are learning about life.

E. Scope and Limitation

With the reagards to research questions, the scope of the study is themes in Abu
Nuwas poems. The thesis writer will limit the study only on the three poems mentioned
above, related with elements of poetry.

F. Definition of Key Term

The meaning of theme as it is stated by ( Holman,1972:528) in literature: Theme
is a central or dominating idea in literary work. And by Laurence perrine ( 1983:105) in
literature Structure, Sound, and Sense is as follows: The theme of a piece of fiction is its
controlling idea or its central insight. It is the uniflying generalization about life stated or
implied by the story. Little also states in approach to Literature, An Introduction to
Critical Study of Content and Menthod in Writing (1966:12) that: The theme of a work
of literature is, as we have seen, what it has to say its basic subject.

G. Organization of the Thesis

In the last sentence of introduction, he describes the contents of other chapter. He
divides his analysis into five chapters. Other chapter is divided into several parts with the
division as follows:

Chapter one is the introduction. It describes the background of the study,statement
of the problems,objectives,significance,scope and limitation,definition of key terms,and
the organization of the thesis.

Chapter two gives the information of literary theories that are used to support the
analysis . It contains some theories that support the analysis. In this chapter,he explains
the meaning of theme,diction,imagery,and figure of speech,theory of new criticism.

Chapter three is research method. It gives information about research
design,source of data,procedure of data collecting,and procedure of data analysis.

Chapter four contains the analysis. It discusses the three points in the same order.
They are the themes of ..and how the themes are revealed in .

And the last,the final chapter,chapter five is the conclusion of the analysis. Then it
will be followed by appendices which contain bibliography,background of the author,and
the poems.






















CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

In this chapter he want to presnt some theories of literature which have big roles
in supporting the analysis. They become the basic of the introduction of the whole
anlaysis and also become the important keys before the thesis writer does further
analysis. This chapter will cover four main point : The meaning of theme,diction,literary
devices,and figures of speech. Beside this chapter also presents the explanation about the
new criticism.

A. The meaning of Themes

In a literary work,there are many elements such as: theme,imagery,diction and figures
of speech. In this chapter,he gives some definitions about theme in order to give the
descrption what a theme is. Laurence Perrine says that the theme controls the idea or it is
the central insight (1983:105). And by ( Holman,1972:528) in literature: Theme is a
central or dominating idea in literary work. To derive the theme of a story,we must ask
what its central purpose. He also says that,theme is the central and unfying concept of a
story(1983:111). In his book Approach to Literature (1966:12),Graham Little,says that:
the theme of s work of literature is,as we have seen,what it has to say,its basic subject.
Our view of the theme of a work as a whole will be closely related to our view of every
part and aspect of it. The style and placement of an item of the description on the first
page,the handling of a mirror character or episode in the middle,the particular
language,meaning and feeling of the last sentences.
Learning the quotation above,it is clear that the theme is a basic subject in a literary
work,which should be thought first before writing a literary work. If it is no theme in a
literary work,the readers will be confuses and they do not know what the literary is
talking about. According to Graham Little,there are some basic issues to identify themes
(1966:13):

1. What problem(s) or conflict(s) does this work deal?
2. What attitude is taken to such issues ?

The theme of a poem as a whole will be supported by some devices os the poem. Some of
them are imagery and figurative language.

B. Diction

Diction is the choice of words. It is about choosing the right words to be put into the
right place. Diction is about choosing words that will describe what a writer want to
say in his works or represents a writers thought. In his book, The criticism of poetry,
S. H. Burton. (1974:77) states:

Poetry is much more compressed and intense than prose,and so demands a highly
imaginative use of language,if the feelings aroused in the reader are to be those
which excited the poet as he wrote. Great poetry can not be made with words loosely
and unthoughtfully applied to the scenes,incidents or emotions that they are supposed
to be communicating: rather,it arouses in the reader an overwhelming sense that the
words choosen are right ones for the work in hand,

And poetry is words which are arranged in a regular pattern of rhymed and
accented lines or the art of writing of literary words in metrical form (understanding
poetry:2008:2).

The quotation shows how diction plays an important role in delivering a writers
thought. Therefore, the word in poetry are carefully chosen by the poets so that what
they want to say in their poems can be delivered to the reader as they are expected.

C. Imagery

Imagery refers to the pictures which we perceive with our minds eyes,
ears,nose,tongue, and skin. It is a device which is used to make the meaning of the
work strong and clear, S.H. Burton states in the criticism of poetry that:

Imagery in poetry is an appeal to the senses through words. Through the senses the
emotions and intellect of the reader can be swiftly stirred; consequently,poetry makes
much use imagery(1974:97).

Imagery is an essential aspect of yhe analysis of poetry. Imagery plays important role
in literary work. Imagery helps the readers to get imagination which is used by the
author to present his subject as it is. According to Christine Abriza,

Most figures of speech cast up a picture in your mind. These pictures created or
suggested by the poet are called images. To participate fully in the world of
poem,we must understand how the poet uses image to convey more than what is
actually said or literally meant. Imagery refers to thepicture which we perceive
with our minds eyes, ears,nose,tongue,skin, and through which we experience the
duplicate world created by poetic language.(..)

Learning the quotation above,it can be suggestion that imagery appeals five senses
owned by human being when a person reads a poems.The words in poem will appeal
his senses, for instance sense of seeing,sense of hearing.


D. Figurative Language

Christy Rakoczy states in Your dictionary that:

Figurative language is language that uses words or expressions with a meaning
that is different from the literal interpretation.(.)

The quotation above shows that figurative language refers to words that have the
hidden meanings. The words that are presented in the work of literature, can not be
meant literally,but those words invite our thought to find some other meanings.

Another opinion about figuratve language is stated by Carole Thompson that:

Figurative language uses figures of speech a way of saying something other
than the literal meaning of the words. Frost said,every poem I write is figurative in
two sense(.)


From the quotation above,it is clear that the meaning of the figurative language is
also the same as the meaning suggested by the previous quotation.

1. Symbol
Many poems contain symbolic elements that stand for something. Again Carole
Thompson states that symbol is any concrete thing or any action in a poem that
implies a meaning beyond its literal sense.

Symbol means a thing (could be an object,person,situation or action) which
stands for something else more abstract.(.)

Laurence perrine








2. Metonymy

Carole Thompson has opinion about metonymy. She says that:

Metonymy is figure of speech that uses a concept closely related to the ing
actually meant. The substitution makes the analogy more vivid and
meaningful.()

3. Personification

According to Carole Thompson,personification is a type of metaphor that
distinct human qualities,eg,honesty,emotion,etc are attributed to an
animal,object or idea.(..)

So,when something that is not human is given human like qualitirs,it is known
as personification.

4. Repetition

Carole Thompson also states that repetition is The return of a
word,phrase,stanza form,or effect in any form of literature.()

It is an effective device that may bring comfort,suggest order,or add special
meaning to a place of literature.

E. New Criticism

According to Tricia Ellis Christensen,New Criticism is the critics position was to
evaluate various aspect of a text that produces ambiguity. Critics analyzed
metaphore, simile,and other rhethorical tropes that resulted in stress and counter
stress,reconciling them to find the harmony in a work. Through analysis,the critic
could tell the readers how to interpret a text and what values was to be gained from
reading a text. In other words,the critic became the interpreter through which
literature could be understood.()

New Criticism differed greatly from previous from as it dismissed authorial intent,and
particularly ignored biographical and historical information about an author.
Instead,literature was to be interpreted based solely on the cohesiveness of the work.
To a new critics,whatever the author intended was invalid,as the form of the work
always transformed intent,producing new meanings.

Jay Walsh says that according to New Criticism,a type of formalist literary criticism
that developed in the 1920s-30s and reached its peak in the 1940s-50s. John Crowe
Ransom is responsible for naming New Criticism in his book of the same
name,published in 1941. New Critics treat a work of literature as if it were self
contained. They do not consider the readerresponse.authors intention,or historical
and cultural context. New Critics perform a close reading of the text,and belief the
structure and meaning of the text should not be examined separately. New Critics
especially appreciate the use of literary devices in a text. The New Criticism has
sometimes been called an objective approach to literature.(/////)

Literary criticism prior to New Criticism had dwelt on several ways to interpret
literature,with no consensus as to the best method. Some critics evaluated literature in
terms of the authors history, showing how works were representative or differed
from the time periods in which they were written. Others evaluated works in terms of
the authors life and background.


























CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY