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Chapter 5

Synchronous Generator
2
Home Work Assignment
Problems: 5.1, 5.2 (exclude part (e), 5.4,
5.5, 5.7, Due Next week on Monday.
3
Synchronous Gen. Introduction
! In Synchronous generator, DC current is
supplied to the rotor winding, which
produces rotor magnetic field.
! The rotor is then rotated by prime mover
(diesel engine, steam turbine or water
turbine), producing a rotating magnetic
field in the machine.
! The rotating magnetic field induces a three
phase set of voltages with in the stator
windings of the generator.
4
Synchronous Generator Rotor
Construction
Rotor is a large electro magnet with a DC
winding on it. The poles are of two types:
1. Salient or Protruding or Sticking out of
the surface of the rotor.
2. Non Salient or flushing with the rotor
surface.
5
! Thin laminations same like transformer to
reduce eddy currents.
! DC current must be supplied to the rotor
Salient Pole Rotor
4 or more poles
Non salient Pole Rotor
Normally used for 2 or 4 poles
6
! How to supply DC to the rotor/field
1. By an external DC source by means of slip
rings and brushes.
2. From a special DC source, mounted directly
on the shaft.
" Slip rings are used for smaller machines
Disadvantages of Slip rings.
1. Slip rings increase maintenance, need to
check brushes regularly.
2. Carbon brushes has voltage drop,
significant power loss.
7
" For larger machines Brushless exciters
are used.
" It is a small AC generator with its field
circuit on the stator and armature
circuit on the rotor.
" Three phase output generated on the
rotor is then rectified and fed to the
rotor field circuit.
Brushless Exciters
8
5.2. Speed of rotation of synchronous
machine
! Electrical frequency is locked in or
synchronized with the mechanical rate of
the rotation of generator.
! To generate
60 Hz in 2 pole n
m
= 3600
50 Hz in 2 poles n
m
= 3000
120
P n
f
m
e
=
9
5.3: Internal Generated Voltage
Internal generated
voltage is given by:
Where
IF ! in electrical rad/sec
IF ! in mechanical rad/sec

K E
f
N
f N E
A
c
c A
=
=
=
2
2

2

2

2
2
P N
K
N
K
f
c
c
=
=
=
10
Internal Generated Voltage
K E
A
=
Where K is machine design constant, is flux
and ! is frequency
speed flux E
A
& !
11
I
f
and are related by magnetization curve:

IF
f A
f A
I E
I E
&
& &


can be related for a fixed !
12
Magnetization Curve for E
A
and I
f
E
A
I
F
13
5.4. The Equivalent Circuit of Synchronous
Generator
E
A
Internal voltage generated
V

Output voltage at generator terminals.
E
A
= V

, Only when there is no armature current


i.e., no load condition.
In reality E
A
" V

because:
1. self inductance of armature coil
2. Resistance of armature coil
3. Distortion of air gap magnetic field by current
flowing in stator.
4. The effect of salient pole rotor shape.( no
discussion in this course)
14
! When generator spins, E
A
is induced in stator
windings.
! If loaded current flows in the stator which will
produce a magnetic field.
! This stator magnetic field distorts the original
rotor magnetic field. The effect is called
Armature Reaction which can be modeled by
X:
! E
stat
lags I
A
by 90
! Self inductance of the stator coil can be modeled
by L
A
=> reactance X
A
Or Total reactance is given by X
S
=X
A
+X
A stat
jXI E =
15
! Resistance of winding R
A
=>
We can draw the full equivalent circuit.
A A A S A
I R I jX E V =

5.4: The Final Equivalent Circuit of


Synchronous Generator
16
17
18
Since the three phases of synchronous
generators are identical in all respects except
for phase angle. This leads to use of per
phase equivalent circuit.
IA
+
-
DC
jXs
RA
EA1
When it is true?
- Only if the three phases loads are
balanced.
Per Phase Equivalent Circuit
19
Phasor Diagram
IA V! IARA
jXSIA
Unity power factor
V!
EA
IARA
IA
jXSIA
IA
V!
EA
jXSIA
IARA
Lagging Power Factor
Leading Power Factor
20
For a given :
E
A
Required for lagging p.f. > E
A
required
for leading p.f.
Equivalently (or we can say that),
For given field current and magnitude of
load current :
Terminal voltage for lagging load < Terminal
voltage for leading load.
In real machine,
therefore some times R
A
can be neglected.

V
A
R X >>
21
Mechanical power Electrical Energy
(Prime Move)
The speed is almost constant regardless
of power demand. If the speed is not
constant the systems frequency would
wander.

Power and Torque in Synch. Machine


22
Pin="app#m Pconv= "ind#m Pout=$3VT#
I2
cos%
Stray losses Friction
and
windage
losses
Core
losses
I R losses
2
Power Flow Diagram Synch. Generator
23
m ind conv
P =
Cos I E P
A A conv
3 =
Angle between EA and IA

Cos I V P
Cos I V P
A out
L T out
3
3
=
=

Sin I V Qout
Sin I V Qout
A
L T
3
3
=
=
X
S
>> R
A
therefore can neglect R
A
24
r
& && &
% %% %
r
V! !! !
jX
S
I
A
E
A
% %% %
% %% %
E
A
Sin& && &=X
S
I
A
Cos% %% %
25
P depends upon when = 90

S
A
X
E V
P

3
max
=
(Static Stability Limit of the
generator)
S
A
S
A
A
S
A
A
A A S
X
Sin E V
P
X
Sin E V
Cos I V
X
Sin E
Cos I
Sin E Cos I X

3
3
3
=
=
=
=
26
Normally full load torque angle is 15 to 20
S
A
A
X
Sin E V
Cos I V P

3
3 = =
For fixed

V

Sin I Q
Sin E P
Cos I P
A
A
A

&
27
S m
A
ind
m ind conv
X
Sin E V
P

3
= !
=
Induced torque in terms of electrical quantities
28
5.7: Measuring Synchronous Generator
Model Parameters
Need to Find
! Relationship between field current &
flux (or between I
f
and E
A
because
E
A
# $).
! The Synchronous reactance.
! The armature resistance.
29
1. Run the generator at rated speed.
2. Terminals are disconnected from the load.
3. Set the field current to zero.
4. Increase the field current gradually in
steps and measure the terminal voltage.
5. Since I
A
= 0, terminals are open therefore
E
A
= V
!
6. Construct a plot of E
A
or V
T
versus I
f
from
this function.
- The plot is called Open Circuit Characteristic.
Open Circuit Test
30
- Given I
f
you can find the V
T
generated.
Air gap line
(OCC)
VT (v)
If (A)
31
1. Adjust the field current to zero, short
circuit the terminals of the generator
through an ammeter.
2. Increase I
f
and measure I
A
(armature
current or line current).
Short Circuit Test
32
S A
A
A
jX R
E
I
+
=
2 2
S A
A
A
X R
E
I
+
=
V! !! !=0v
jXsIA
EA
33
When V$ = 0
Machine internal impedance =
Since X
S
>> R
A
If I
A
and E
A
are known X
S
can be calculated
1. E
A
from O.C.C at a given I
f
2. I
A,sc
at that I
f
3. Find X
S
(Approx.) by:
2 2
S A S
X R Z + =
A
A
I
E
=
A A
A
S
I
oc V
I
E
X

=
A
A
S
I
E
X =
34
" The winding resistance R
A
can be
approximately calculated by
applying DC voltage to the winding
while machine is stationary and
measure the resulting current.
" Since DC voltage therefore the
reactance of winding will be zero.
Short Circuit Ratio
" The ratio of field current required
for rated voltage at open circuit to
the field current required for rated
armature current for short circuit.
35
OCC
SCC
Xs
Air gap line
If
VT, V
36
5.8: Effect of load changes on
synchronous generator operating alone
-In this analysis we will ignore the resistance
R
A
.
Case I Given that
Load
Generator
37
! Field current is Constant and prime
mover keeps the speed constant.
is constant
What is effect of load changes?
1. Operating at lagging p.f and |I
A
|
increases but angle is same (same p.f)
(R
A
neglected)
If lagging loads are added (+Q or inductive
reactive power loads). V$ decreases
significantly.
A
E !
. . K E
A
=
A S A
I jX V E + =

38
E
A
E
A
jI
A
X
S
V!
&
&
%
I
A
Result
When load increases V$ decreases.
39
EA
EA
&'
&
IA
I
A
&'&
jI
A
X
S
V'!
V!
I
A
2. Generator Loaded with unity p.f. and I
A
increases:
If unity p.f, no reactive powers
are added to generator,
there is a slight decrease
in V$ and the
terminal voltage.
40
3. Generator Loaded with leading p.f:
! If leading loads ( Q or capacitive
reactive power loads) are added to
generator, V$ and the terminal voltage
will rise.
! A convenient way to compare the voltage
behavior of two generators by their
voltage regulation
100

=
nl
fl nl
V
V V
VR
41
! Synchronous generator operating at
1. Lagging p.f. has fairly large
positive voltage regulation.
2. Unity p.f. has small positive voltage
regulation.
3. Leading p.f. has negative voltage
regulation.
42
! If load varies, change E
A
to keep V
$
constant
. . K E
A
=
How to keep V$ Constant when load
changes
43
Change K or !? (No, why?)
# K machine design
# Frequency should not change in normal system,
So change $
f
by I
f
.
E
A
jIAXS
V!
jI
A
X
S
E
A
I
A
44
Case Study
! Lagging p.f. and I
A
increases.
! This will decrease V
!
! To bring V
!
back to its original value
1. Decrease R
f
, this will increase I
f
.
2. Increase in I
f
will increase !
f
3. Increase in !
f
increases
4. When E
A
increases V
!
increases.
. . K E
A
=
45
K E
A
=
- This process can be reversed when the
load decreases.
46
1. Several generators can supply
bigger loads than one machine
itself.
2. Increase reliability (what is
reliability?).
- If one fails the total power is not
lost.
3. If many generators - can shut down
one and do the maintenance.
Advantages Of Parallel Operation of
AC Generators
47
4. If only one generator, then when
operating at low load it is
inefficient.
-When several generator operates
then at low load can use few of
them running at higher load
instead of running all the
generators at low load thus making
the over system more efficient.
Advantages Of Parallel Operation of
AC Generators
48
! The two generators must have
1. Same rms line voltages
2. Same phase sequence
3. Same phase angle
4. Almost same frequency.
Then the two generators can be put in
parallel operation.
Paralleling Conditions