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CHAPTER 20

CELLULAR COMMUNITIES: TISSUES, STEM


CELLS, AND CANCER
2009 Garland Science Puli!"in#
E$%racellular Ma%ri$ and C&nnec%i'e Ti!!ue!
20-1 Both multicellular plants and animals have _____________________.
(a) cells capable of locomotion
(b) cells with cell walls
(c) a cytoskeleton composed of actin filaments, microtubules, and
intermediate filaments
(d) tissues composed of multiple different cell types
20-2 For each of the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the best word or phrase
selected from the list below. Not all words or phrases will be used; use each word
or phrase only once.
Plants are sedentary and thus their cells have different needs from
those of cells found in motile animals. For example, in plant cells,
__________________ generates the turgor pressure that drives cell
growth. Plants have cell walls, but cell growth is possible in the
developing tissue because the __________________ cell walls are
expandable. The __________________ cell walls are deposited
once growth has stopped, and can be specially adapted to their
function. Fibers made from __________________ (the most
abundant organic macromolecule on Earth) are found in plant cell
walls, and provide tensile strength. In woody tissues, the
__________________ in the cell walls makes the tissue more rigid
and waterproof. The deposition of the cell wall is directed by the
__________________ cytoskeleton.
cellulose lignin secondary
collagen membranous microtubule
epidermis osmosis tertiary
nuclear lamin actin
pectin primary
20-3 Which of the following statements about plant cell walls is true?
(a) The microtubule cytoskeleton directs the orientation in which cellulose is
deposited in the cell wall.
(b) The molecular components of the cell wall are the same in all plant
tissues.
(c) Because plant cell walls are rigid, they are not deposited until the cell has
stopped growing.
(d) The cellulose found in cell walls is produced as a precursor molecule in
the cell and delivered to the extracellular space by exocytosis.
20-4 Indicate the direction in which the plant cell shown in Figure Q20-4 is most likely
to grow. The black lines indicate the direction of the cellulose microfibrils around
the cell. Explain your answer.
Figure Q20-4
20-5 Which of the following molecules are not found in plants?
(a) cellulose
(b) lignin
(c) collagen
(d) pectin
20-6 Indicate whether the following molecules are found in plants, animals, or both.
A. intermediate filaments
B. cell walls
C. microtubules
D. cellulose
E. collagen
20-7 Which of the following statements about animal connective tissues is true?
(a) Enzymes embedded in the plasma membrane synthesize the collagen in
the extracellular matrix extracellularly.
(b) In connective tissue, the intermediate filaments within the cells are
important for carrying the mechanical load.
(c) Cells can attach to a collagen matrix by using fibronectin, an integral
membrane protein.
(d) Proteoglycans can resist compression in the extracellular matrix.
20-8 A major distinction between the connective tissues in an animal and other main
tissue types such as epithelium, nervous tissue, or muscle is _______________.
(a) the ability of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts to change shape
(b) the amount of extracellular matrix in connective tissues
(c) the ability of connective tissues to withstand mechanical stresses
(d) the numerous connections that connective tissue cells make with each
other
20-9 What are the main structures providing tensile strength in the following?
A. animal connective tissue
B. animal epidermis
C. plant cell walls
20-10 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Explain your answer.
Like many other extracellular proteins, newly synthesized collagen
molecules undergo post-translational processing inside the cell to
convert them into their mature form; they are then secreted and
self-assemble into fibrils in the extracellular space.
20-11 Fibroblasts organize the collagen of the extracellular matrix by ______________.
(a) cutting and rejoining the fibrils
(b) processing procollagen into collagen
(c) twisting fibrils together to make ropelike fibers
(d) pulling the collagen into sheets or cables after it has been secreted
20-12 Match the four lettered lines in Figure Q20-12 with the appropriate numbered
label.
Figure Q20-12
1. integrin
2. actin
3. collagen
4. fibronectin
20-13 Which of the following statements about integrins is false?
(a) Integrins use adaptor proteins to interact with the microtubule
cytoskeleton.
(b) Integrins can switch to an activated state by binding to an extracellular
matrix molecule.
(c) Integrins can switch to an activated state by binding to an intracellular
protein.
(d) An activated integrin molecule takes on an extended conformation.
20-14 Proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of animal tissues ________________.
(a) chiefly provide tensile strength
(b) allow cartilage to resist compression
(c) are linked to microtubules through the plasma membrane
(d) are polysaccharides composed of glucose subunits
20-15 Which of the following statements is false?
(a) Proteoglycans can act as filters to regulate which molecules pass through
the extracellular medium.
(b) The negative charge associated with proteoglycans attracts cations, which
cause water to be sucked into the extracellular matrix.
(c) Proteoglycans are a major component of compact connective tissues but
are relatively unimportant in watery tissues such as the jellylike substance
in the interior of the eye.
(d) Glycosaminoglycans are components of proteoglycan.
E(i%"elial S"ee%! and Cell )unc%i&n!
20-16 For each of the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the best word or phrase
selected from the list below. Not all words or phrases will be used; use each word
or phrase only once.
__________________ join the intermediate filaments in one cell to
those in the neighboring cell. __________________ anchor
intermediate filaments in a cell to the extracellular matrix.
__________________ involve cadherin connections between
neighboring cells and are anchorage sites for actin filaments.
__________________ permit the passage of small molecules from
one cell to its adjacent cell. __________________ prevent the
leakage of molecules between adjacent cells.
adherens junctions gap junctions highway junctions
desmosomes hemidesmosomes tight junctions
20-17 Label the five different types of cellcell junction shown in Figure Q21-17, and
identify the apical and basal surfaces of the epithelium.
Figure Q20-!
20-18 Match the molecules (list 1) with the cell structures in which they are involved
(list 2). A cell structure may be listed more or less than once.
20-19 A basal lamina ______________________.
(a) is a thin layer of connective tissue cells and matrix underlying an
epithelium
(b) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix underlying an epithelium
(c) is attached to the apical surface of an epithelium
(d) separates epithelial cells from each other
20-20 Tight junctions ______________________.
(a) allow small water-soluble molecules to pass from cell to cell
(b) interact with the intermediate filaments inside the cell
(c) are formed from claudins and occludins
(d) are found in cells in connective tissues
20-21 Adherens junctions ______________________.
(a) can be used to bend epithelial sheets into tubes
(b) are most often found at the basal surface of cells
(c) are found only in adult tissues
(d) involve fibronectin and integrin interactions
20-22 At desmosomes, cadherin molecules are connected to ________________.
(a) actin filaments
(b) intermediate filaments
(c) microtubules
(d) gap junctions
20-23 Hemidesmosomes are important for ______________________.
(a) tubulation of epithelial sheets
(b) linkages to glycosaminoglycans
(c) forming the basal lamina
(d) attaching epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix
20-24 Which of the following statements about gap junctions is false?
(a) Gap junctions are made of connexons.
(b) Molecules up to 1000 daltons in molecular weight can move across gap
junctions.
(c) Because gap junctions do not allow ions to pass through, they are not used
for electrically coupling cells.
(d) Gap junctions can close in response to extracellular signals.
20-25 Which type of junction involves a connection to the actin cytoskeleton?
(a) adherens junctions
(b) desmosomes
(c) tight junctions
(d) gap junctions
20-26 Which type of junction contributes the most to the polarization of epithelial cells?
(a) adherens junctions
(b) desmosomes
(c) tight junctions
(d) gap junctions
20-27 Cadherins ______________________.
(a) are used to transfer proteins from one cell to another
(b) mediate cellcell attachments through homophilic interactions
(c) are abundant in the plant cell wall
(d) bind to collagen fibrils
20-28 Plasmodesmata ______________________.
(a) permit small molecules to pass from one cell to another
(b) are found only in animal cells
(c) are closed by the neurotransmitter dopamine
(d) provide tensile strength
Ti!!ue Main%enance and Rene*al
20-29 Match the appropriate cell type found in the mammalian skin with the best
description of its function.
20-30 Name the three key mechanisms important for maintaining the organization of
cells into tissues.
20-31 Place the following in order of their replacement times, from shortest to longest.
". epidermal cell
#. nerve cell
$. bone matrix
%. red blood cell
&. cell lining the gut
20-32 Cells that are terminally differentiated ______________________.
(a) will undergo apoptosis within a few days
(b) can no longer undergo cell division
(c) are unable to move
(d) no longer produce RNAs
20-33 An adult hemopoietic stem cell found in the bone marrow
______________________.
(a) will occasionally produce epidermal cells when necessary
(b) can produce only red blood cells
(c) can undergo self-renewing divisions for the lifetime of a healthy animal
(d) will express all the same transcription factors as those found in an
unfertilized egg
20-34 Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells ______________________.
(a) can only be produced through therapeutic cloning
(b) can give rise to all tissues and cell types in the body except germ cells
(c) can be implanted in foster mothers to produce cloned cows and other
animals
(d) come from the inner cell mass of early embryos
20-35 How do reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning differ?
(a) The DNA in the nucleus of cells produced for therapeutic cloning is
genetically identical to the donor genome, whereas in cells produced for
reproductive cloning it is not.
(b) Reproductive cloning requires a supply of fertilized donor egg cells,
whereas therapeutic cloning requires unfertilized egg cells.
(c) Therapeutic cloning requires nuclear transplantation, whereas reproductive
cloning does not.
(d) Embryos are placed into foster mothers during reproductive cloning but
not during therapeutic cloning.
20-36 Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells ______________________.
(a) are created by the expression of a set of key genes in cells derived from
adult tissues so that these cells can differentiate into a variety of cell types
(b) require a supply of donor egg cells, such as embryonic stem cells
(c) can differentiate into a greater variety of adult tissues than embryonic stem
cells
(d) are created by nuclear transplantation
20-37 A stem cell divides into two daughter cells. One of the daughter cells goes on to
become a terminally differentiated cell. What is the typical fate of the other
daughter cell?
20-38 Your friend is a pioneer in ES cell research. In her research, she uses an ES cell
line that originated from an inbred strain of laboratory mice called FG426. She
has just figured out methods that allow her to grow an entire liver from an ES cell
and has successfully grown 10 livers. She demonstrates that the newly grown
livers are functional by successfully transplanting one of the new livers into a
FG426 laboratory mouse.
You are particularly excited about this, because you have a sick pet mouse,
Squeaky. You are very attached to Squeaky, as you found him when you were out
camping in New Hampshire. Unfortunately, Squeaky has developed liver disease
and will not live much longer without a liver transplant. After you see your friend
on TV talking about her new method for growing mouse livers, you immediately
grab your cell phone to ask her whether Squeaky could have one of the newly
grown livers. Just as you are about to dial your friend, you remember something
you learned in cell biology and realize that instead, you should ask your friend
about possibly using therapeutic cloning for Squeakys benefit.
A. Why do you think that one of the newly grown livers may not work in
Squeaky?
B. Explain why therapeutic cloning would solve this problem.
Cancer
20-39 A malignant tumor is more dangerous than a benign tumor because
______________________.
(a) its cells are proliferating faster
(b) it causes neighboring cells to mutate
(c) its cells attack and phagocytose neighboring normal tissue cells
(d) its cells invade other tissues
20-40 Which of the following statements about cancer is false?
(a) Viruses cause some cancers.
(b) Tobacco use is responsible for more than 20% of all cancer deaths.
(c) A mutation in even a single cancer-critical gene is sufficient to convert a
normal cell into a cancer cell.
(d) Chemical carcinogens cause cancer by changing the nucleotide sequence
of DNA.
20-41 Cancer is a disease of enhanced proliferation and cell survival. DNA repair
mechanisms are normally important for cell survival. 'hen a cell senses %("
damage) the cell cycle is inhibited until the damage is fixed. *iven the importance
of %(" repair mechanisms) how can their failure can lead to the production of
cancer cells with a competitive advantage over normal cells+
20-42 Which of the following genetic changes cannot convert a proto-oncogene into an
oncogene?
(a) A mutation that introduces a stop codon immediately after the codon for
the initiator methionine.
(b) A mutation within the coding sequence that makes the protein hyperactive.
(c) An amplification of the number of copies of the proto-oncogene, causing
overproduction of the normal protein.
(d) A mutation in the promoter of the proto-oncogene, causing the normal
protein to be transcribed and translated at an abnormally high level.
20-43 Which of the following statements about tumor suppressor genes is false?
(a) Gene amplification of a tumor suppressor gene is less dangerous than gene
amplification of a proto-oncogene.
(b) Cells with one functional copy of a tumor suppressor gene will usually
proliferate faster than normal cells.
(c) Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes leads to enhanced cell survival and
proliferation.
(d) Individuals with only one functional copy of a tumor suppressor gene are
more prone to cancer than individuals with two functional copies of a
tumor suppressor gene.
20-44 A certain mutation in the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes the
mutated receptor protein to send a positive signal along the associated
intracellular signaling pathway even when the EGF ligand is not bound to it. This
signal leads to abnormal cell proliferation in the absence of growth factor. On the
basis of this information, would you class the gene for the EGF receptor as a
tumor suppressor gene or a potential oncogene? Explain your answer.
20-45 Ras is a GTP-binding protein that is often defective in cancer cells. A signal from
a growth factor through a receptor tyrosine kinase often stimulates normal cells to
divide. When the receptor tyrosine kinase binds the growth factor, Ras is
stimulated to bind GTP. Ras in turn activates proteins that promote cell
proliferation. A common mutation in cancerous cells causes Ras to behave as
though it were bound to GTP all the time.
A. Why is this mutation advantageous to cancerous cells?
B. Your friend decides that the signaling pathway involving the Ras protein
is a good target for drug design, because the Ras protein is often defective
in cancer cells. Your friend designs a drug that will turn off the receptor
tyrosine kinase by preventing it from dimerizing. Do you think that this
drug will affect cells that have a defective Ras protein that acts as if it
were always bound to GTP? Why or why not?
20-46 People who inherit one copy of the Rb (retinoblastoma) gene that is normal and
one copy that is mutatedthat is, people who are heterozygous for Rbhave a
greatly increased risk of cancer.
*iven this information) do you agree or disagree with the following statement+
&xplain your answer.
The Rb mutation must have a dominant effect, which means that it
must result in an increase in Rb function. Thus, Rb in its mutant
form must be an oncogene.
20-47 Figure Q20-47 shows a sequence of mutations that might underlie the
development of colorectal cancer. Explain why the loss of p53 is advantageous to
cancerous cells.
Figure Q20-,!
20-48 Drugs that block the function of oncogenic proteins hold great promise in the
fight against cancer. Should cancer researchers also be attempting to design drugs
that will interfere with the products of tumor suppressor genes? Explain.
20-49 Rb is a tumor suppressor gene; its normal function is to help restrain cell division.
Loss of both copies of Rb is a causative factor in some kinds of cancer. You
propose to treat these cancers by injecting the patients with a viral vector that
carries a copy of the Rb gene and has the ability to infect all the cells of the body,
thereby artificially driving expression of Rb in all the cells, including the cancer
cells. Your colleague says No!You'll simply kill the patient, because you will
halt cell division throughout the body.
A. Why would halting cell division throughout the body kill a full-grown
adult person?
B. Is your colleague right in thinking that forced expression of Rb in every
cell will halt all cell division?
20-50 In 1971, Dr Judah Folkman published the angiogenic hypothesis suggesting that
a tumor cannot grow beyond 12 millimeters without the development
(angiogenesis) of new blood vessels that provide access to oxygen and nutrients.
During the 1990s, it was discovered that vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF) stimulates the proliferation and migration of the cells that form blood
vessels, leading to the formation of new blood vessels. VEGF binds to receptor
tyrosine kinases (RTKs) on the cell surface and causes the RTKs to dimerize and
become active, thereby initiating an intracellular signaling cascade that stimulates
cell division and inhibits apoptosis. Many cancer cells secrete high levels of
VEGF. Increased VEGF expression in a tumor is correlated with a poor medical
outcome for the patient. Some evidence suggests that blocking VEGF-dependent
signaling may prevent the formation of new blood vessels and lead to the death of
immature blood vessels without disturbing mature blood vessels. You work for a
biotechnology company that seeks to create anticancer drugs that prevent the
growth of tumors and/or cause tumors to shrink, while leaving normal cells
relatively untouched. After learning about VEGF, you have a bright idea for a
new mechanism of action for a potential anticancer drug. What is your idea?
H&* +e ,n&*: Ma-in# Sen!e &. %"e Gene! %"a% Are Cri%ical .&r
Cancer
20-51 Your studies in cell biology have revealed how APC, a protein encoded by a
tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in people with colorectal
cancer, functions in the Wnt signaling pathway (see Figure Q20-51). This has
inspired you to study Wnt signaling. You would like to design a drug to treat
people with colorectal cancer. Given the pathway shown in Figure Q20-51 and
the knowledge that most human colorectal tumors harbor mutations in the APC
gene, name a protein from the pathway that would be a good target for an activity-
blocking anticancer drug. Explain your answer.
Figure Q20--