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nC8MAL vALuLS lnC8LASL uLC8LASL

88C counL:
Male: 4.7 Lo 6.1 mllllon cells/mcL
: 4.2 Lo 3.4 mllllon cells/mcL
A counL of acLual (or esLlmaLed) number of
88C's per cublc mm of whole blood.
PemaLocrlL:
Male: 40.7 Lo 30.3
lemale: 36.1 Lo 44.3

1he hemaLocrlL measures percenLage by
volume of packed red blood cells ln a whole
blood sample.
uehydraLlon (such as from severe dlarrhea)
kldney dlsease wlLh hlgh eryLhropoleLln producLlon
Low oxygen level ln Lhe blood for a long Llme due
Lo hearL or lung dlsease
olycyLhemla vera
Smoklng








AuLolmmune dlseases such as lupus eryLhemaLosus or
rheumaLold arLhrlLls
8lood loss (hemorrhage)
8one marrow fallure (for example, from radlaLlon,
lnfecLlon, or Lumor)
Chronlc kldney dlsease
Pemolysls (red blood cell desLrucLlon)
Leukemla and oLher blood cancers
Long-Lerm lnfecLlons such as hepaLlLls
oor dleL and nuLrlLlon, causlng Loo llLLle lron, folaLe,
vlLamln 812, or vlLamln 86
MulLlple myeloma


Pemoglobln:
Male: 13.8 Lo 17.2 gm/dL
lemale: 12.1 Lo 13.1 gm/dL


Pgb ls Lhe plgmenL parL of Lhe eryLhrocyLe,
and Lhe oxygen-carrylng parL of Lhe
blood.

olycyLhemla vera - a blood dlsorder ln whlch
your bone marrow makes Loo many red
blood cells
Lung dlsease
uehydraLlon

lron deflclency
vlLamln 8-12 deflclency
lolaLe deflclency
8leedlng
Cancers LhaL affecL Lhe bone marrow, such as leukemla
Llvlng aL a hlgh alLlLude
Peavy smoklng
8urns
Lxcesslve vomlLlng
LxLreme physlcal exerclse
kldney dlsease
Llver dlsease
PypoLhyroldlsm
1halassemla - a geneLlc dlsorder LhaL causes low levels
of hemoglobln and red blood cells

8ed blood cell lndlces:
MCv: 80 Lo 93 femLollLer
MCP: 27 Lo 31 pg/cell
MCPC: 32 Lo 36 gm/dL

A reporL of Lhe lndlvldual characLerlsLlcs of
Lhe 88C. 1he followlng are Lhose
characLerlsLlcs whlch are used Lo lndlcaLe
anemla.


MCv= macrocyt|c

MCnC= hyperchrom|c.

MCv= m|crocyt|c

MCPC= hypochrom|c
LA1LLL1 CCun1

130-400 bllllon plaLeleLs per llLre of
blood (or 130-400 x 109/L)

laLeleLs help Lhe blood cloL.
(1P8CM8CC?1CSlS)

Anemla
Chronlc myelogenous leukemla (CML)
olycyLhemla vera
rlmary LhrombocyLhemla
8ecenL spleen removal
(1P8CM8CC?1CLnlA)

Cancer chemoLherapy
CerLaln medlcaLlons
ulssemlnaLed lnLravascular coagulaLlon (ulC)
PemolyLlc anemla
Pypersplenlsm
ldlopaLhlc LhrombocyLopenlc purpura (l1)
Leukemla
Masslve blood Lransfuslon
rosLheLlc hearL valve
1homboLlc LhrombocyLopenlc purpura (11)
Cellac dlsease
vlLamln k deflclency

W8C counL:
4,300 Lo 10,000 cells/mcL

W8C's are our body's flrsL llne of
defense agalnsL lnvadlng bacLerla and
mosL oLher harmful organlsms.
(LLukCC?1CSlS)
lnfecLlous dlseases
lnflammaLory dlsease (such as rheumaLold arLhrlLls
or allergy)
Leukemla
Severe emoLlonal or physlcal sLress
1lssue damage (such as burns)
(LLukCLnlA)
AuLolmmune dlseases (such as sysLemlc lupus
eryLhemaLosus)
8one marrow fallure (for example, due Lo lnfecLlon,
Lumor, radlaLlon, or flbrosls)
ulsease of Lhe llver or spleen
nLu18CPlLS
47.6 Lo 76.8
(1,930 Lo 8,400/ul)
lnfecLlon, gonorrhea, osLeomyellLls, oLlLls medla,
chlckenpox, herpes, oLhers
lschemlc necrosls due Lo Ml, burns, carclnoma
MeLabollc ulsorders, dlabeLlc acldosls, eclampsla,
uremla, LhyroLoxlcosls
SLress 8esponse, due Lo acuLe hemorrhage,
surgery, emoLlonal dlsLress, oLhers
lnflammaLory dlsease, rheumaLlc fever, acuLe gouL,
vascullLls, myoslLls

8one marrow depresslon, due Lo radlaLlon or cyLoLoxlc
drugs
lnfecLlons, such as Lyphold, hepaLlLls, lnfluenza, measles,
mumps, rubella
hypersplenlsm, hepaLlc dlsease, sLorage dlsease
Collagen vascular dlsease, sysLemlc lupus eryLhemaLosus
ueflclency of, follc acld or vlLamln 812
L?MPCC?1LS
16.2 Lo 43
(660 Lo 4,600/ul)
lnfecLlons, perLussls, syphllls, Luberculosls,
hepaLlLls, mumps, oLhers
CLhers, LhyroLoxlcosls, hypoadrenallsm, ulceraLlve
collLls, lmmune dlseases

Severe deblllLaLlng lllness, congesLlve hearL fallure, renal
fallure, advanced Luberculosls
CLhers, uefecLlve lymphaLlc clrculaLlon, hlgh levels of
adrenal CorLlcosLerlods, oLhers
MCnCC?1LS
0.6 Lo 9.6
(24 Lo 960/ul)
lnfecLlons, subacuLe bacLerlal endocardlLls,
Luberculosls, hepaLlLls, malarla
Collagen vascular dlsease, sysLemlc lupus
eryLhemaLosls, rheumaLold arLhrlLls
Carclnomas, monocyLlc leukemla, lymphomas
---
LCSlnCPlLS
0.3 Lo 7
(12 Lo 760/ul)
Allerglc dlsorders, asLhma, hay fever, food or drug
senslLlvlLy, oLhers
araslLlc lnfecLlons, Lrlchlnosls, hookworm,
roundworm, ameblasls
Skln ulseases, eczema, psorlasls, dermaLlLls,
herpes, pemphlgus
neoplasLlc dlseases, Podgkln's dlsease, chronlc
myelocyLlc leukemla
Mlscellaneous, collagen vascular dlsease,
ulceraLlve collLls, pernlclous anemla, scarleL fever,
excesslve exerclse, oLhers
SLress response, due Lo Lrauma, shock, burns, surgery,
menLal dlsLress, Cushlng's Syndrome
8ASCPlLS
0.3 Lo 2
(12 Lo 200/ul)
Mlscellaneous dlsorders, Chronlc myelocyLlc
leukemla, polycyLhemla vera, some chronlc
hemolyLlc anemlas, Podgkln's dlsease, myxedema,
ulceraLlve collLls, chronlc hypersenslLlvlLy sLaLes,
Mlscellaneous dlsorders, hyperLhyroldlsm, ovulaLlon,
pregnancy, sLress
rothromb|n 1|me 1 or ro 1|me

1= 11 - 13.3 seconds
ln8=0.8-1.1

1hls LesL ls a measure of phase lll of Lhe
cloLLlng process.

SupplemenLs LhaL conLaln vlLamln k
Plgh lnLake of foods LhaL conLaln vlLamln k, such as
llver, broccoll, chlckpeas, green Lea, kale,
Lurnlp greens and producLs LhaL conLaln
soybeans
LsLrogen-conLalnlng medlcaLlons, such as blrLh
conLrol pllls and hormone replacemenL Lherapy

8lood-Lhlnnlng medlcaLlons, such as warfarln
(Coumadln), heparln
Llver problems
lnadequaLe levels of proLelns (facLors) LhaL cause blood
Lo cloL
vlLamln k deflclency
CongenlLal facLor deflclency
resence of coagulaLlon facLor lnhlblLors
art|a| 1hrombop|ast|n 1|me 11

normal values:
11: 60-70 seconds
CongenlLal deflclencles of lnLrlnslc sysLem cloLLlng
facLors such as facLors vlll, lx, xl, and xll,
lncludlng hemophllla A (ChrlsLmas dlsease)
and hemophllla 8

Larly sLages of ulC: clrculaLlng procoagulanLs exlsL ln Lhe
early sLages of ulC, shorLenlng Lhe a11
LxLenslve cancer (eg, ovarlan cancer, pancreaLlc cancer,
A11: 30-43 seconds

Lhe 11 ls also used Lo deLecL cloLLlng
abnormallLles.
CongenlLal deflclency of llLzgerald facLor
(prekalllkreln)
von Wlllebrand dlsease,
Pypoflbrlnogenemla
Llver clrrhosls
vlLamln k deflclency
ulssemlnaLed lnLravascular coagulaLlon (ulC):
Peparln Lherapy, whlch lnhlblLs Lhe lnLrlnslc
paLhway aL several polnLs
Coumarln Lherapy, whlch lnhlblLs Lhe funcLlon of
facLors l, lx and x, prolonglng Lhe a11
colon cancer)
lmmedlaLely afLer acuLe hemorrhage
An acuLe-phase response leadlng Lo hlgh facLor vlll levels
8|eed|ng 1|me
normal values:
lvy meLhod: 1-6 mlnuLes
uuke meLhod: 1-3 mlnuLes

A raw measuremenL of Lhe Llme needed for
an arLlflclally produced skln puncLure Lo sLop
bleedlng.
LhrombocyLopenlc purpura, plaLeleL abnormallLy,
vascular abnormallLy, leukemla, severe llver
dlsease, ulC dlsease, aplasLlc anemla, facLor
deflclencles (v, vll, xl), ChrlsLmas dlsease,
hemophllla
Podgkln's dlsease
D-D|mer

less Lhan 230 mlcrograms per llLer (mcg/L)

Lo help rule ouL Lhe presence of a Lhrombus.
Lhere ls a blood-cloLLlng problem very llLLle of Lhe subsLance LhaL's released as a blood cloL
breaks up
Lrythrocyte sed|mentat|on rate (LS8)

Male: </= 20 mm/hr
lemale: </= 30 mm/hr

dlagnose or monlLor Lhe progress of an

PypersenslLlvlLy vascullLls
ClanL cell arLerlLls
WaldensLrm macroglobullnemla
olymyalgla rheumaLlca
MeLasLaLlc cancer

CongesLlve hearL fallure
PypervlscoslLy
Pypoflbrlnogenemla (decreased flbrlnogen levels)
Low plasma proLeln (due Lo llver or kldney dlsease)
olycyLhemla
lnflammaLory dlsease. Chronlc lnfecLlon
Pyperflbrogenemla
Slckle cell anemla
A|bum|n

3.4 - 3.4 grams per declllLer (g/dL)

measures Lhe amounL of Lhls proLeln ln Lhe
clear llquld porLlon of Lhe blood.


uehydraLlon
Plgh proLeln dleL

AfLer welghL-loss surgery
Crohn's dlsease
Low-proLeln dleLs
Sprue
Whlpple's dlsease
Ammon|a

13 - 43 mlcrograms per declllLer (mcg/dL)

done lf you have or your docLor Lhlnks you
have a condlLlon LhaL may cause a Loxlc
bulldup of ammonla. lL ls mosL commonly
used Lo dlagnose and monlLor hepaLlc
encephalopaLhy, a severe llver dlsease.

* shou|d not eat or dr|nk for 8 - 12 hours
before the test

CongesLlve hearL fallure
CasLrolnLesLlnal (Cl) bleedlng - usually ln Lhe upper
Cl LracL
CeneLlc dlseases of Lhe urea cycle
Plgh body LemperaLure (hyperLhermla)
Leukemla
Llver fallure
Low blood poLasslum level (hypokalemla)
MeLabollc alkalosls
Severe muscle exerLlon

PyperLenslon
AssoclaLed wlLh some anLlbloLlcs
8|carbonate
Arterial: 22 to 26 mEq/liter
(2128 mEq/L)
venous: 19 to 25 mEq/liter

The kidneys excrete these ions
into the urine and out of the body
when not needed. As the body

Metabolic alkalosis

Hyperventilation, dizziness
numbness and tingling in extremities,
weakness, twitching of the muscles,
and some arrhythmias may be seen.

Metabolic acidosis

pancreatic drainage and have had a
ureterosigmoidostomy
dehydration, shock or diabetic acidosis.
Mental confusion, disorientation, and other
neurological signs acidosis, salicylate
demands the bicarbonates to
neutralize acids, the kidneys
conserve bicarb ions to keep the
body in balance.


poisoning, paraldehyde
D|rect 8|||rub|n

0 Lo 0.3 mg/dL

8lllrubln ls a yellowlsh plgmenL found ln blle,
a fluld made by Lhe llver.
This test looks for bilirubin in your
blood or urine.
Bilirubin is a substance made when
your body breaks down old red blood
cells, a normal process. Bilirubin is
also part of bile, which your liver
makes to help digest the food you
eat.
*shou|d not eat or dr|nk for at |east 4 hours
before the test.

(!aundlce)

Hepatitis.
gall stones
Inflammation of the bile duct

blllary obsLrucLlon / cholesLasls, drug lnduced
cholesLasls.

-nC8MAL-
1ota| 8|||rub|n

0.3 Lo 1.9 mg/dL

8lllrubln ls lefL afLer Lhese older blood cells

hepaLlc damage (hepaLlLls, Loxlns, clrrhosls), blllary
obsLrucLlon, hemolysls, fasLlng.

-nC8MAL-
are removed. 1he llver helps break down
blllrubln so LhaL lL can be removed from Lhe
body ln Lhe sLool.

*shou|d not eat or dr|nk for at |east 4 hours
before the test.

Creat|n|ne

0.3 - 1.4 mg/dl

renal fallure lncludlng prerenal, drug-lnduced
(amlnoglycosldes, vancomycln, oLhers),
acromegaly.

loss of muscle mass, pregnancy.
Creat|n|ne ur|ne

urlne creaLlnlne (24-hour sample) values
can range from 300 Lo 2000 mg/day.

approximately 0.6 to 1.2
milligrams (mg) per deciliter
(dL) in adult males and 0.5 to
1.1 milligrams per deciliter in
adult females.

CreaLlnlne ls a breakdown producL of
creaLlne, whlch ls an lmporLanL parL of
muscle. CreaLlnlne ls removed from Lhe
body enLlrely by Lhe kldneys.
urlnary LracL obsLrucLlon, rhabdomyolysls, reduced
blood flow ln Lhe kldneys, prerenal azoLemla,
myasLhenla gravls, laLe sLage muscular dysLrophy,
kldney fallure, kldney lnfecLlon, a dleL hlgh ln meaL
and glomerulonephrlLls
Low creatinine values are rare; they almost
always reflect low muscle mass.
Theoretically, low values may also reflect
increased glomerular filtration rates (GFRs).
Creat|n|ne C|earance

Male: 97 Lo 137 ml/mln.
Decreased creatinine clearance
indicates decreased glomerular filtration
rate (GFR). This can be due to
kldney problems, such as damage Lo Lhe Lubule cells
kldney fallure
1oo llLLle blood flow Lo Lhe kldneys
lemale: 88 Lo 128 ml/mln

1he creaLlnlne clearance LesL helps provlde
lnformaLlon abouL how well Lhe kldneys are
worklng. 1he LesL compares Lhe creaLlnlne
level ln urlne wlLh Lhe creaLlnlne level ln
blood.
conditions such as progressive renal
disease, or result from adverse effect
on renal hemodynamics that are often
reversible, including drug effects or
decreases in effective renal perfusion
(eg, volume depletion, heart failure
uamage Lo Lhe fllLerlng unlLs of Lhe kldneys
Loss of body flulds (dehydraLlon)
8ladder ouLleL obsLrucLlon
PearL fallure
I8S
70 and100 mllllgrams per declllLer (mg/dL)

CveracLlve Lhyrold gland
ancreaLlc cancer
ancreaLlLls
8are Lumors,
lncludlng pheochromocyLoma,acromegaly,Cushlng
syndrome, or glucagonoma
PypoplLulLarlsm (a plLulLary gland dlsorder)
underacLlve Lhyrold gland
lnsullnoma (very rare)
1oo llLLle food
1oo much lnsulln or oLher dlabeLes medlcaLlons
Urea
nDL
LDL
8UN

7-20 mg/dl

renal fallure, pre-renal azoLemla, shock, volume
depleLlon, posLrenal (obsLrucLlon), Cl bleedlng,
sLress, drugs (amlnoglycosldes, vanco eLc).

sLarvaLlon, llver fallure, pregnancy, lnfancy, nephroLlc
syndrome, overhydraLlon.
Ck-M8


follow-up LesL Lo an elevaLed Ck ln order Lo
deLermlne wheLher Lhe lncrease ls due Lo
hearL damage or skeleLal muscle damage
suggesLs LhaL skeleLal muscles were damaged
(lncludlng physlcal damage from Lrauma, surgery,
lnflammaLlon, and decreased oxygen (lschemla))
kldney fallure can cause a hlgh Ck-M8 level.

Myog|ob|n

0 - 83 nanograms per mllllllLer (ng/mL).


PearL aLLack
MallgnanL hyperLhermla (very rare)
Muscular dysLrophy

Serum myoglobln levels may be obLalned Lo
conflrm suspecLed muscle damage,
lncludlng hearL and skeleLal muscle damage.
8habdomyolysls
SkeleLal muscle lnflammaLlon (myoslLls)
SkeleLal muscle lschemla (oxygen deflclency)
SkeleLal muscle Lrauma
1ropon|n I

less Lhan 10 g/L

Lo deLermlne lf chesL paln ls due Lo a hearL
aLLack. 1he LesL ls usually repeaLed Lwo
more Llmes over Lhe nexL 12 Lo 16 hours.

1ropon|n 1

0-0.1 g/L



Abnormally fasL hearL beaL
Plgh blood pressure ln lung arLerles (pulmonary
hyperLenslon)
8lockage of a lung arLery by a blood cloL, faL, or
Lumor cells (pulmonary embolus)
CongesLlve hearL fallure
Coronary arLery spasm
lnflammaLlon of Lhe hearL muscle usually due Lo a
vlrus (myocardlLls)
SLrenuous exerclse (for example, due Lo maraLhons
or LrlaLhlons)
1rauma LhaL ln[ures Lhe hearL such as a car
accldenL
Weakenlng of Lhe hearL muscle (cardlomyopaLhy)

Iree 1r||odothyron|ne (I13)
Iree 1hyrox|ne (I14)
Serum tr||odothyrox|ne (13)
100 - 200 ng/dL (nanograms per declllLer).

check your Lhyrold funcLlon

urugs LhaL can lncrease 13 measuremenLs
lnclude:
8lrLh conLrol pllls
CveracLlve Lhyrold gland (for example, Craves
dlsease)
13 LhyroLoxlcosls (rare)
1oxlc nodular golLer
ShorL- or long-Lerm lllness
1hyroldlLls (swelllng or lnflammaLlon of Lhe Lhyrold gland
-- PashlmoLo's dlsease ls Lhe mosL common Lype)
SLarvaLlon
underacLlve Lhyrold gland

CloflbraLe
LsLrogens
MeLhadone
urugs LhaL can decrease 13 measuremenLs
lnclude:
- Amlodarone
- Anabollc sLerolds
- Androgens
- AnLlLhyrold drugs (for example,
propylLhlouracll and meLhlmazole)
- LlLhlum
- henyLoln
- ropranolol

Serum thyrox|ne (14)
4.3 Lo 11.2 mlcrograms per declllLer
(mcg/dL).

check your Lhyrold funcLlon


Craves dlsease
Cerm cell Lumors
Plgh levels of Lhe proLeln LhaL carrles 14 ln Lhe
blood (can occur wlLh pregnancy, use of
blrLh conLrol pllls or esLrogen, llver dlsease,
and as parL of an lnherlLed condlLlon)
lodlne-lnduced hyperLhyroldlsm
SubacuLe LhyroldlLls
1oxlc mulLlnodular golLer
1rophoblasLlc dlsease
Cver-LreaLmenL wlLh Lhyrold hormone medlclne
PypoLhyroldlsm (lncludlng PashlmoLo's dlsease and
several oLher dlsorders lnvolvlng an underacLlve
Lhyrold)
lllness
MalnuLrlLlon or fasLlng
use of cerLaln medlcaLlons
1hyro|d St|mu|at|ng normone (1Sn)

0.4 - 4.0 mlu/L (mllll-lnLernaLlonal unlLs per
llLer)
underacLlve Lhyrold gland (hypoLhyroldlsm). Craves dlsease
1oxlc nodular golLer
use of cerLaln medlcaLlons (lncludlng
glucocorLlcolds/sLerolds, and oplold palnklllers such as

LesL lf you have sympLoms or slgns of an
overacLlve or underacLlve Lhyrold gland. lL ls
also used Lo monlLor LreaLmenL of Lhese
condlLlons.
morphlne)
AL1] SG1
10 Lo 40 lnLernaLlonal unlLs per llLer (lu/L).

1hls LesL ls used Lo deLermlne lf a paLlenL
has llver damage.

Clrrhosls (scarrlng of Lhe llver)
ueaLh of llver Llssue (llver necrosls)
PepaLlLls
PemochromaLosls
Lack of blood flow Lo Lhe llver (llver lschemla)
Llver Lumor or cancer
MedlcaLlons LhaL are Loxlc Lo Lhe llver
Mononucleosls ("mono")
ancreaLlLls (swollen and lnflamed pancreas)

Amy|ase- ancreat|c

30-100 u/llLer



acuLe pancreaLlLls, pancreaLlc ducL obsLrucLlon,
alcohol lngesLlon, mumps, paroLlLldls, renal
dlsease, cholecysLlLls, pepLlc ulcers, lnLesLlnal
obsLrucLlon, mesenLerlc Lhrombosls, posLop
abdomlnal surgery.

Llver damage, pancreaLlc desLrucLlon (pancreaLlLls, cysLlc
flbrosls)
AS1] SGC1
10 Lo 34 lu/L.

1hls LesL ls malnly done along wlLh oLher
LesLs (such as AL1, AL, and blllrubln) Lo
dlagnose and monlLor llver dlsease.
Clrrhosls (scarrlng of Lhe llver)
ueaLh of llver Llssue
PearL aLLack
PemochromaLosls
PepaLlLls
Lack of blood flow Lo Lhe llver (llver lschemla)
Llver cancer or Lumor
Medlclnes LhaL are Loxlc Lo Lhe llver
Mononucleosls ("mono")

Muscle dlsease or Lrauma
ancreaLlLls (swollen and lnflamed pancreas)
Gamma G|utamy| 1ranspept|dase (GG1)

0 Lo 31 lnLernaLlonal unlLs per llLer (lu/L).

1hls LesL ls used Lo deLecL dlseases of Lhe
llver or blle ducLs.
Lell Lhe dlfference beLween llver or blle ducL
dlsorders and bone dlsease. lL may also be
done Lo screen for or monlLor alcohol abuse.

urugs LhaL can lncrease CC1 levels lnclude:
Alcohol
henyLoln
henobarblLal
urugs LhaL can decrease CC1 levels lnclude:
- 8lrLh conLrol pllls
CloflbraLe

Alcohol abuse
ulabeLes
llow of blle from Lhe llver ls blocked (cholesLasls)
PearL fallure
PepaLlLls
Llver lschemla (lack of blood flow)
Llver necrosls
Llver Lumor
Lung dlsease
ancreas dlsease
Scarrlng of Lhe llver (clrrhosls)
use of drugs LhaL are Loxlc Lo Lhe llver


Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDn)

103 - 333 lu/L (lnLernaLlonal unlLs per llLer).

LuP ls mosL ofLen measured Lo check for
Llssue damage. 1he proLeln LuP ls ln many
body Llssues, especlally Lhe hearL, llver,
kldney, muscles, braln, blood cells, and
8lood flow deflclency (lschemla)
Cerebrovascular accldenL (such as a sLroke)
PearL aLLack
PemolyLlc anemla
lnfecLlous mononucleosls
Llver dlsease (for example, hepaLlLls)
Low blood pressure
Muscle ln[ury

lungs. Muscular dysLrophy
new abnormal Llssue formaLlon (usually cancer)
ancreaLlLls
1lssue deaLh
L|pase
0 Lo 160 unlLs per llLer (u/L).

Lo help dlagnose and monlLor acuLe
pancreaLlLls, chronlc pancreaLlLls, and oLher
dlsorders LhaL lnvolve Lhe pancreas.
pancreaLlc ducL obsLrucLlon, pancreaLlc cancer, and
oLher pancreaLlc dlseases.
8lockage of Lhe bowel (bowel obsLrucLlon)
Cellac dlsease
uuodenal ulcer
Cancer of Lhe pancreas
lnfecLlon of swelllng of Lhe pancreas
permanenL damage Lo Lhe llpase-produclng cells ln Lhe
pancreas. 1hls can occur ln chronlc dlseases LhaL affecL
Lhe pancreas such as cysLlc flbrosls.
Ant|strepto|ys|n (ASC)
A negaLlve LesL resulL means you have llkely
noL had a recenL sLrep lnfecLlon.

1hls LesL ls done lf you have sympLoms of a
prevlous lnfecLlon by group A SLrepLococcus.
Some lllnesses caused by Lhls bacLerla are:
8acLerlal endocardlLls
ClomerulonephrlLls, a kldney problem
8heumaLlc fever , whlch can affecL Lhe
hearL, [olnLs, or bones
ScarleL fever
SLrep LhroaL
poslLlve LesL means you recenLly had a sLrep
lnfecLlon, even lf you had no sympLoms. 1he ASC
LesL may sLay poslLlve (someLlmes called
deLecLable) for 2 Lo 4 monLhs afLerward you are
flrsL lnfecLed.

C-react|ve prote|n (Ck)

?ou are aL low rlsk of developlng
cardlovascular dlsease lf your hs-
oslLlve

Cancer
ConnecLlve Llssue dlsease

C8 level ls lower Lhan 1.0mg/L
?ou are aL average rlsk of developlng
cardlovascular dlsease lf your levels
are beLween 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L
?ou are aL hlgh rlsk for cardlovascular
dlsease lf your hs-C8 level ls hlgher
Lhan 3.0 mg/L



LesL Lo check for lnflammaLlon ln Lhe body.
PearL aLLack
lnfecLlon
lnflammaLory bowel dlsease (l8u)
Lupus
neumococcal pneumonla
8heumaLold arLhrlLls
8heumaLlc fever
1uberculosls
nba1c
3.6 or less ls normal.

?our docLor may order Lhls LesL lf you have
dlabeLes. lL shows how well you are
conLrolllng your dlabeLes.

lf your PbA1c ls above 6.3 and you do noL already
have dlabeLes, you may be dlagnosed wlLh
dlabeLes.
lf your level ls above 7 and you have dlabeLes, lL
ofLen means LhaL your ls noL well conLrolled.


Lye dlsease
PearL dlsease
kldney dlsease
nerve damage
SLroke