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1. White House Plan to Reduce Gun Violence. Congressional Digest. March 2013. Web.

Paraphrasing: The United States of America has lost many innocent lives due to the gun
violence committed by few criminals. According to President Barack Obama, most of the gun
owners respect the Second Amendment and make use of gun only in need; its just a small
ratio of people in nation who make wrong use of gun resulting in tragic mass shootings like
the one in Newtown, Aurora, Oak, Creek, and Tucson. (8)

Summary: President Barack Obama believes that as per Second Amendment every
individual in the United States has the right to bear arms. But for better protection of children
and people in the societies, some steps should be obeyed. This includes close background
check more precisely the criminal background check by the licensed firearm dealers, of the
buyers. President gave the authority of presidential memorandum to some federal agencies to
keep a record of the background check system up-to-date and prohibiting dangerous people
from having gun; banned possessing military-style assault weapons; created serious
punishments for gun trafficking; and proposed to keep 15,000 cops on the streets in cities and
town across the country and so on. (8-9)

pp. 8
After the Sandy Hook Elementary School tragedy, the President said, We wont be able to
stop every violent act, but if there is even one thing that we can do to prevent any of these
events, we have a deep obligation, all of us, to try.

2. Dreier , Peter. Massacres and Movements: Challenging the Gun Industrial
Complex. New Labor Forum (Sage Publications Inc). May 2013. Web.

Paraphrasing: In the United States, on an average, almost thirty people are killed due to gun
violence every day which does not result into a huge public reaction. The family, friends and
relatives of people who lost their dear ones mourns and very rarely they organize a protest
against the police who could not provide security and lacked in their duty. Thus, this is
typical cycle which repeats after every killing. (92)

Summary: Generally changes happen in incremental steps and not as in a whole. Likewise,
until the mass killings in Newtown, gun control was not an issue of concern in the 2012
presidential campaign. Practically Americans have contradicting views over the Second
Amendment. Some believe that according to Second Amendment an individual has the right
to bear arms, be that any kind of arms. On the contrary, some believe that the government
should not allow general public to keep or carry dangerous assault weapons. A month after
Newton killings-where twenty children and six adults were killed. Mass shooting in Newton
changed the perspective of Americans towards the right to bear arms. Within a week of the
incident, presidents of more than 300 colleges signed on an open letter requesting to stop gun
violence immediately. (92-93)

Dreier, Peter. pp. 93
A Pew Research centre conducted a survey where- 85 percent of Americans favor making
private gun sales and sales at gun shows subject to background checks, with comparable
support from Republicans, Democrats, and independents. Two-thirds of Americans (67
percent) favor creating a federal database to track gun sales. Majorities favor a ban on
assault-style weapons (55 percent) and high-capacity ammunition clips (54 percent).

3. Jenson, M. Jeffery. Aggression and Violence in the United States: Reflections on the
Virginia Tech Shootings. Social Work Research 31.3 (September 2007): 131-134. Web.

Paraphrasing: In April 2007, the shootings at Virginia Tech University which include
deaths of 32 students and professors, was a tragic loss for the whole nation. The shooter,
Seung-Hui Cho was under depression and lived a socially isolated life. Several times, Mr.
Cho was suggested to go for mental health treatment and counselling by the professors of the
university. The victims of this incident were the normal students. (131)

Summary: Sadly, the mass shootings in Virginia Tech University can be used as an example
of the other mass shootings that took place in other universities. Sometimes there has been an
increase and sometimes there has been decrease in violence. The statistic is issued by
different organizations of U.S. government at different times. The trend in violence depends
upon the host of individual, social and economic patterns. It has been observed that
perpetrators involved in shootings were having some mental illness which led them to
extreme level and take innocent lives. Due to the mass shootings, there has been an
enhancement in the gun control policies. (131-132)

Jenson, M. Jeffery. pp. 131
According to Smith in 2007, The Virginia Tech shootings were preceded by deadly violence
on at least 12 other college campuses dating to the well-known Kent State shootings of 1970.
It is disturbing that seven of these 12 incidents have occurred since 1991; four have happened
since 2000.

4. Emma E. McGinty, Daniel W. Webster, Marian Jarlenski, and Colleen L. Barry.
News Media Framing of Serious Mental Illness and Gun Violence in the United States,
1997-2012. American Journal of PublicHealth 104.3 (2014): 406-413. Web.

Paraphrasing and Quotation:
Emma E. McGinty, Daniel W. Webster, Marian Jarlenski, and Colleen L. Barry. pp.
According to National Centre for Injury Control and Prevention, 65,000 persons in the
United States are shot in criminal attacks each year extensive news media coverage of
mass shootings draws public attention to the problem in a way that every day gun
violence does not. Mass shootings in Blacksburg, Virginia Tech; Tucson, Arizona; Aurora,
Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut; got extensive media coverage about policies to gun
violence. As per media, the possible reasons behind gun violence in the United States are:
violent video games, bullying, gang involvement, childhood neglect and abuse, and Serious
Mental Illness (SMI). (406)

Summary: The shooters involved in mass shootings in the Virginia Tech, Tucson, and
Aurora had SMI problem. The relationship between SMI and violence is dependent on
substance abuse and trauma. To avoid this situation, many state and federal level
policymakers proposed policies to prevent people with SMI problem from bearing guns.
According to experts, negative public attitude which includes under treatment, poverty,
homelessness affect the people suffering from SMI. To further study the connection between
SMI and gun violence an analysis was made based upon 25% of random samples from 1997-
2012. Based upon the analysis, observations were made. (406-407)

5. Report to the President on Issues Raised by The Virginia Tech Tragedy. Virginia
Tech Tragedy. June 2007. Web.

Paraphrasing and Quotation:
pp. 1
The whole nation felt the loss after the mass shooting incident in Virginia Tech. People in all
over the country prayed for the victims of the incident. According to the report from Virginia
Tech University after the mass shooting incident, Questions were raised about the proper
balance between providing for the safety and security of our communities, while
protecting privacy and liberty, and helping people with mental illness get the care they
need. (1)

Summary: The report which is written to the President George W. Bush after Virginia tech
tragedy does not appeal for specific investigation but talks about recommended actions that
could be followed by the federal government for the safety and security of local and state
communities. The recommendations include the following as the key findings: Critical
Information Sharing Faces Substantial Obstacles; Accurate and Complete Information on
Individuals Prohibited from Possessing Firearms is Essential to Keep Guns Out of the Wrong
Hands; Improved Awareness and Communication are Key to Prevention; It is Critical to Get
People with Mental Illness the Services They Need; Where We Know What to Do, We Have
to be Better at Doing It. (1-2)