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Problems and Possible Ways of their Solutions.

(May 1999)

E.A. Izmailov, M.M. Kolesnik, A.M. Osipov, A.V. Akimov.

The Moscow Institute of Electromechanics and Automatics

5 Aviatzionny per. Moscow, 1253 19

Russia

Phone: 155-06-47. Fax: 152-26-3 1

Abstract

Key words: hemispherical resonator gyro,

fundamental wave, quadrature wave.

Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG) technology is

now considered as one of the promising gyroscope

technologies. However, to implement HRG potential

capabilities one should solve a number of problems

connected both with manufacturing an isotropic

resonator having a high mechanical Q-factor and with

conserving its parameters within the gyro.

The article. basing on the experience of developing

HRGs of two standard sizes, presents some of the

mentioned problems and the results of mock-up tests.

Introduction

All known gyro types are based on using either the law

of conservation of momentum or moment of momentum

of solid bodies, material points or fundamental particles

or on using main statements of the theory of relativity.

In any case, gyro quality is determined by the

conservatism level of its proper sensing element and a

pickup system. The more energy dissipates within the

sensing element and the pickup system under other

similar conditions, the lower the gyro accuracy and

reliability are. From this point of view the HRG has

good potential characteristics. Using inertial properties

of a standing wave in a high Q-factor resonator, which

is an axis-symmetrical shell, in combination with an

electrostatic system for excitation. support and control

of vibrations on a resonance frequency, and with a

similar pick off system, the HRG is characterised by

extremely low specific energy losses.

The above mentioned HRG feature is also a basis of its

unique property - to preserve information on angular

movement of an object during momentary interruptions

in power if the HRG is used as an integrating gyro (IG).

Depending upon tolerable error, this interruption can be

of several dozens of seconds.

The same sensing element, depending upon switching

external electronic circuits, can be used both as an IG

and an angular rate sensor (ARS) [ 11.

As the majority of gyros, existing and being developed,

the HRG is an integral system consisting of a sensing

element and functional electronics which not only

generates an output information signal but also provides

conditions for sensing element operation. Depending

upon the conditions of HRG application, this electronics

can be of various complexity ( also from the point of

view of implemented functions), however, there are

common problems and without their solving there is no

sense to speak about the complexity of electronics types.

Simple design of the HRG sensing element consisting of

2-3 rigidly connected parts, and potentially low cost are

also attractive. The current HRG development

experience allows to predict its cost which is at least five

times less than that of a laser gyro provided they have

similar accuracy parameters.

Practical works on HRG creation proved the validity of

main statements of fundamental investigations

conducted in this field [2], [3], [4], [5], and revealed

some application matters presented in this article.

Sensing Element

The HRGs sensing element is a hemispherical

resonator in which a standing wave is excited by

electrostatic forces. As the HRG is based on inertial

properties of the standing wave, it is clear, that

minimisation of energetic connection of this wave with

structural elements moving in the inertial space is the

main way to increase HRG accuracy. The value of this

connection is subdivided into two components:

dissipation of the resonators vibratory energy and

position force action on the vibrating shell.

In case of an ideally made resonator, the first

component includes: energy losses in the resonator and

energy losses in the electrostatic pick off and wave

control systems. This means, that the resonator material

and the whole process of resonator manufacture must

finally provide a vibratory loop with minimum possible

damping. As the resonator is a spatial shell in which the

presence of precedence directions is prohibitive, only

isotropic material can be used for its manufacturing. In

addition, this material must feature minimum possible

losses for internal friction. Fused quartz most fully

Paper presented at the RTO SC1 International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems,

held at Elektropribor, St. Petersburg, Russia, 24-26 May 1999, and published in RTO MP-43.

6-2

meets these requirements. However to retain potentially

high characteristics of the material in a manufactured

resonator one must solve such technological problems as

full removal of internal stress and a defective layer.

These defects appear in the process of mechanical

treatment, mainly in the process of shaping. It means

that in these processes the forces appearing in the

treatment zone shall be tangentially directed to the

surface being treated. However, in this case internal

stress and a defective layer also appear. Therefore,

chemical and thermal treatment is the necessary

condition to obtain a high-quality resonator.

Creation of the technological process for manufacturing

a resonator on the basis of the above requirements

allowed to produce resonators with the mechanical Q-

factor of (12-13~10~ for a 60-mm diameter and (6-

9)x lo6 for a 20-mm diameter (Figure 1).

As for electrostatic systems, there are problems

connected with pick off channel optimisation and

damping minimisation due to currents induced in the

resonator metal coating. The latter problem is not in

conflict with the requirement to minimum vibration

damping in the resonator because it complies with the

requirement to minimum thickness of the film provided

it retains its homogeneity. But this implies additional

requirements to the quality of treatment and preparation

of the resonator surface to applying the metal film as

well as to the process of film applying. In particular.

surface quality shall comply with the optical class of

cleanness for which chemical and mechanical treatment

is used at the final stage.

Fused quartz features the presence of nonsaturated

radicals on the surface which causes absorption of

different substances. including water. from the

atmosphere by the surface layer. This phenomenon not

only reduces the Q of the resonator but also negatively

influences the quality of the applied metal film which

finally deteriorates Q as well. Therefore, not only

surface layer passivation is necessary but observance of

technical hygiene as well.

In case of electrovacuum application of the metal film,

the most promising method is the one which potentially

provides maximum possible plasma homogeneity

provided it has enough energetic parameters. In this

case, deterioration of the resonator reference Q after

metal film application does not exceed (5lo)%.

It is apparent, that the ideal resonator can not be made.

As it was mentioned in well-known publications [6],

this leads to resonance frequency difference and

vibrations of resonator center of mass. The methodology

for eliminating difference in resonance frequencies is

fully elaborated at present. It includes both adjustment

operations at the phase of sensing element

manufacturing and structural compensation methods

implemented in functional electronics. However, it

should be taken into consideration that the emergence of

the compensation loop of the resonance frequency

residual difference requires solving the task of phase

error minimisation. Elimination of the resonator mass

center vibrations is a more complicated task. Solving

this task is necessary because when the resonator mass

center is vibrating the vibratory energy is substantially

dissipated at the resonator fastening points and in body

members including metallic ones. As far as this process

is principally instable, the standing wave energetic

connection with structural elements moving in the

inertial space also becomes instable. The experience of

development and investigation of 60-mm diameter and

20-mm diameter HRG mock-ups shows that with the

reduction of the resonator diameter the influence degree

of the resonator mass center vibrations becomes

prevailing.

As it is well-known, the process of resonator

symmetrization consists in mass elimination along the

resonator rim perimeter. Availability or nonavailability

of teeth on the resonator rim depends upon its

manufacturing cost and mass elimination procedure as

well, which may be much more expensive than the

resonator manufacturing. If the resonator does not have

teeth, mass elimination shall not cause change in

material structure (at the place of elimination) and

emergence of internal stress. For example, in the course

of comparative experiment minor effect of the COZ laser

radiation in the balancing zone of the resonator without

teeth caused anisotropy of its mechanical Q-factor of SQ

- 40% under simultaneous decrease of maximum value

of - 20%. Similar effect on the resonator with teeth

practically did not influence its reference Q. Thus, if

toothless resonator is used, mass must be eliminated

only by chemical or ion-chemical processes. The

resonator with teeth can be effectively symmetrized

using COZ laser radiation.

The second component in the mentioned case emerges

due to: force electrode system asymmeq, phase errors

of control signal generation, and induced wandering

potentials. Symmetrization of the force electrode system

is implemented both at the design stage and by selecting

appropriate procedures for sensing element assembly

and adjustment. As the residual asymmetry (if the above

procedures are rationally selected) is a small and stable

magnitude, it can be eliminated algorithmically.

Wandering potentials can be eliminated both by

implementing equipotentiality for the resonator metal

film and stability of permanent potentials on all

electrodes. The most complicated problem is

minimisation of phase errors of control signal

generation. As it is connected not only with the

electronic circuits errors and their instability but with

noise in the data channel as well, the best decision can

6-3

be made only when control action generation

algorithms, functional electronics building structure and

component capabilities are considered as a whole.

Pick off Electrode System

The pick off electrode system generates both the

necessary control actions on the resonator and the HRG

output signal as well. It contains 8 electrodes

symmetrically located relative to the resonator; the

electrodes together with the resonator surface form the

same number of capacitors (Figure 2). Of course, in

reality neither absolute symmetry of electrodes nor their

absolute identity are feasible. In addition, a real gap

between electrodes and the resonator surface is not

similar either. Therefore, each capacitor will have its

own C, magnitude and its deviation from an ideal

angular position vi, where i = 1,2,..., 8. Let US write Ci

in the form of an equivalent flat capacitor:

(1)

where: d - dielectric penetrability;

S, - an equivalent area;

6i - an equivalent gap.

Here and further the second resonator vibration mode is

considered. Assuming that resonator vibration

amplitude is A<<Fi, the change of the capacitor

magnitude can be presented in the form of:

Ai=Kix Al,

(2)

where: K, = -5;

4

A, - gap change under resonator vibrations.

--.,_-. - - - - Fundamental Wave

..--...

Quadrature Wave

Figure 2. The pick off electrode system.

Let us assume that there is only the fundamental wave

in the resonator and that the pick off signal is generated

due to constant voltage U applied to the resonator

surface. Assuming that all capacitors are connected to

similar active resistors and there is no relation between

them, output signals over sin and cos channels can be

written with an accuracy of up to the scale factor:

u,=UAr(EIcos28+E2sin28)cosot; (3)

~=UAAE&QB-E4cos2t3)cosot,

where: E1=K1~os~1+K3~os~3+K~cos~5+K~cos~~;

E2=KI sincp, -K3sincp3-K5sincp5+K7sincp7;

E3=K2~os~2+&~os~4+K~cos~6+K~cos~~;

E4=K2sin~-K&in~4-K&in(P6fK-8Sin(Ps;

o - angular frequency of resonator vibrations;

t - time.

6-4

Signals (3) are used to control resonator vibration

amplitude and to determine angular position of the

wave. An expression for estimation of the amplitude

square will be obtained in the form of

A; = O,ZSUA~[B, + B2(40 - c$)] (4)

where: B, =Ef +Ei +E, +Ef;

B, =&* +E;)* +(E; +E$ +2(&!$ -E,E,)* ;

6, = urctg

2(W, - EdA)

E;+E,2--;-Et

Thus, in case of pick off channel non-identity the

amplitude stabilisation loop will produce a false signal

with a period of 48.

It is not dilficult to show that an evaluation error of

wave angular position is determined by the relation:

8 = 4 5arctg 4 + B4 sin@ + 6-I)

B, +B,cos(48+&)

(5)

where: B3=E2+E4;

(E, - E,)2 + (Ed - E2)2 ;

B5=E, +E3;

5, = arctg

E4 -E2 .

E, -E,

Expression (5) describes the HRG scale factor error

which is also a periodic function of 48. In addition,

there is a certain constant shift defined by a relative

angular error of electrode location.

Now let us consider the display of the same asymmetry

under parallel existence of fundamental and quadrature

waves having different angular frequencies of or and oq

vibrations. It is evident that such a mode can exist only

in case of orientation of the mentioned waves over

orthogonal axes of the resonator frequency anisotropy.

Subject to this factor, expression (3) can be rewritten in

the following form:

~=U[A,AE1cos28+E2sin28)coswfi-A@, sin28-

E+os2O)sino,t];

(6)

&=U[At(E&20-

E4cos29)cosoft+A,(E3cos2B+E4sin29)sino,t].

Let us introduce an instant angular frequency o defined

by the relation:

WflOIW,,

then: of = o + wl and q,=o - 02.

(7)

Subject to (7) equation (6) is transformed into:

b=U(z,cosot-z2sinot); (8)

K=U(z+osot-z4sinot),

where:

zl =(A& cosol t-

A,E2sino2t)cos28+(A&2cos~,t+A~E,sinW)sin28;

z2=(A& sinw I t-

A,E2cosW2t)cos28+(Af2sinol t+A?\,E, coso2t)sin28;

z3=(Arl$coso1 t-A, E&ino2t)sin28-

(A&cos0,t+A~E~sin0~t)cos2%

z4=(AfE3sino1 t-d, E4cosw2t)sin28-

(A&&ino, t+AqE3cosa2t)cos20;

As for the real resonator m <Cl, z, are slowly

w

changed periodic time functions.

Phase shift between u, and uC signals is obtained from

(8) as an angle between corresponding vectors in coswt,

sinwt planes (Figure 3).

Y =urctg z

2A,A$3, *a, - $ >t

(A, +A;)& +[(A; -A;,,& -2B&JsW+ -@1sfi4@

-[(A; -A;)B, +2B8A,A4sin(w, -wJ]cas4B

(9)

where: B6=E1E3+E2E4;

B7=E2E3-E,Ed;

B8=E, E3-E2E4;

Bs=E, E4+E2Es;

It follows from (9) that \v is a nonshifted estimation of

A4 for the considered asymmetry of pick off electrodes

and therefore is suitable to be used in an appropriate

control loop. Using v as a control signal of the

electronic balancing loop (quadrature wave

suppression), equation (9) can be simplified subject to

(o&J+O:

2A,A,B,

y = arctg (A> + Ai)B, + (A> - At)B,, sin(48 - 4)

> (10)

where: B,, = (E; + E,~)(E: + E,f) ;

4

& = arctg--

4

It should be mentioned, that in case of pick off electrode

system symmetry i.e. E2=E4=0 and E,=E3, the \v

function described by the relation:

T = arctg

2A,A,B6

(Af -A,) sin48

6-5

Substituting corresponding symbols, we obtain:

Figure 3.

has the first order break v =5/2 either in case of ATA,

or under A#A, in case of 8=(n-l)n/4. In real conditions

full symmetry of pick off electrodes is slightly probable,

but it is necessary to take into consideration the

mentioned feature of the ,l~ function when the control

loop is being formed.

Let us consider free vibrations of the resonator described

by equations (8). It is not difficult to show that in the us,

uc plane (Figure 4) they describe ellipse [7]:

YT(uC) ,

Figure 4.

b2{ (A:+As2)B, ,+[(A: -Aq2)B,2+4ArA,B,5 sin(c+

o,)t]cos48-2[(A:-A,z)B,5-AfAqB,2sin(o,-

o,)t]sin48}+g2{(A:+Aq2)B,3+[(A?-Aq2)B,.I-

4AfAqB,6sin(o,-o,)t]cos48+2[(Af2-

A,2)B,6+AfAqB,4sin(o~o,)t]sin48)-

2u&{ (At+A,2)B,7+[(A: -A,*)Bp-2ArA,B9sin(wt-

o,)t]sin48-[(Afz-Aq2)B9+2ArAqBgsin(wf

o,)t]cos48}=2U2Af2A,2B,j2cos2(o,-Qt. (11)

where: B, ,=E32+E42;

B,2=E42-E32;

B, 3=E, 2+E22;

2 2

B,4=E, -E2 ;

BI~=E&

B,ts=Ed%;

It follows from (11) that coefficients which define

ellipse parameters are periodic time functions. Hence,

we can watch some ellipse evolutions in the us, uc plane

(for example, the screen of a double-beam oscillograph).

For the purpose of simplification, the further

consideration will be provided for symmetric electrode

system. Taking into account. that fundamental axes of

the ellipsoid are orthogonal we can determine them by

evaluating the expression for one of them. In this case

the desired relation is as follows:

4 = Okrctg

(A~-A~)sin48-2A,A,sin(wf-w,)tcos4e,(12)

(A;-A;)cos4f?

Thus, fundamental axes of the ellipse will make angular

movements. In this case, at the moments of t=(n-

l)d(ofw,J cp will exactly correspond to the angular

position of the fundamental wave ( in the us, tic plane

(p=2e).

It follows from (11) that at the moments of t=(2n-l)rr/2,

the ellipse degenerates into direct lines:

AfA7

sin(48 - nrctg ~

A;-A; ; (13)

24, =

Ar -A2 Us

1 + sin(48 + arcfg +)

/ 4

sin( 48 + arctg ~

A; -A;)

u, =

A; -A; Us

1 + sin(48 - arctg r)

/ 4

Thus, ellipse evolution consists in its angular vibrations,

accompanied by its ellipticity change and degeneration

at the boundaries into direct lines (13). Ellipse vibration

period precisely equals CO,-W,, and an angular amplitude

of its vibrations is determined by the amplitude

6-6

relationship Aif and A4. If AFA, at the moments of t=(n-

l)~/(o~oJ the ellipse is changed into a circumference.

In this case direct lines (13) exactly coincide with

angular position of fundamental and quadrature waves,

It follows from the above, that availability of two

different resonance frequencies under free vibrations of

the resonator do not cause wave drift. This fully agrees

with conclusions of the publication [2]. In addition, the

obtained result is an information basis when the

resonator is balanced for elimination of the 4-th

harmonic of the resonator elasticity and mass

inhomogeneity. We should mention here that it is not

difficult to provide practically ideal symmetry of the

pick off electrode system in the production equipment.

In case of generating an pick off signal by applying

alternating voltage of angular frequency R, to the sin

channel electrodes and frequency 0, to the cos channel

electrodes [S], the signals taken from the hemisphere to

the purely resistive load for each frequency can be

represented in the form of:

u,=UIC-21 [E~+A~E,cos2Cl+E2sin28)cosoft-A,(E2sin28-

El cos28)sino,t]sinR, t;

u,=U2R2[Es+Ar(E3sm28-

E~cos20)coso~+A,(E~cos28+E4sin2B)sino,t]sin~~~. (14)

where: E5=K,+K5-Kj-K7;

Eg= K2+K6-K4-Kg.

Technically It is not difficult to provide U,!&=U&&

condition. Having provided an ideal synchronous

detection of signals (14) in accordance with

corresponding carrier frequencies we will obtain signals

different from (6) by availability of permanent members

Es and E6 which express modulation deviation from

100%. Upon liquidation of these members, we obtain

the above considered expression (6). Thus. ignoring

nonideality of the above mentioned operations we can

make a conclusion that errors which occur from

asymmetry of the pick off electrode system do not

depend upon pick off signal generation procedure.

Force Electrode System

The force electrode system includes a ring electrode and

16 discrete electrodes. The ring electrode is used for

parameter stabilisation of the resonator vibration

amplitude. The discrete electrodes opposite the ring one

are combined into pairs and provide resonator excitation

on its resonance frequency. electronic balancing of the

resonator, and wave position control in case of using the

HRG as an ARS. As the force is proportional to the

square of potential difference between the resonator

surface and an electrode, control with the help of

alternating potentials will generate a certain permanent

force.

Practically, the force electrode system features

asymmetry similar to that of the pick off electrode

system. An exception is the ring electrode the

asymmetry of which is generated by gap irregularity. In

the result, permanent force acting on the resonator shell

from the side of vibration amplitude preserve loop will

be the function of 0. As this force changes shell

elasticity, the resonator elasticity-mass parameters will

also become a certain function of 8. which can be

expanded into a Fourier series according to 8. It can be

easily shown that the most characteristic gap

irregularities of eccentricity and ovality type generate

just the first four expansion members or first four

inhomogeneity harmonics. Thus. even in case of

absolutely symmetrical resonator the functioning of the

vibration amplitude preservation loop under asymmetric

gap will cause two resonance frequencies and

occurrence of resonator mass center vibrations, which is

more unpleasant [6]. The latter will inevitably cause

losses of the resonator vibrating energy in the HRG

structural elements and consequently deterioration of

the resonator Q and its asymmetry. It is well known [2]

that the resonator SQ is the reason of HRG drift. Thus,

ring electrode asymmetry is the source of J3RG

additional drift. If to take into account the error of

generating information signal of the vibration amplitude

preservation loop (4), the drift caused by this loop will

be the function of 40.

An additional drift is proportional to the square of

potential difference (necessruy to preserve vibrations).

vibration amplitude, relative asymmetry of the gap and

in inverse proportion to Q. Hence, Q increase and

vibration amplitude decrease will cause decrease of the

additional drift. Decrease of relative asymmetry of the

gap under other similar conditions is possible only by

increasing its nominal value which will require increase

of potential difference. In addition, gap increase and

vibration amplitude decrease requires increase of

hemisphere potential to keep the required signal-to-

noise ratio in the pick off channel. Thus. there is a task

of rational selection of the said parameters.

Figure 5 and Figure 6 present drift velocity

dependencies of one of the HRG mock-ups with a 20-

mm diameter resonator. These dependencies were

obtained in different conditions: the results shown on

Figure 6 were obtained for a reduced vibration

amplitude and an increased potential on the hemisphere.

As vividly seen from the comparison of the presented

curves, they comply with the said above.

Electronic balancing is made by providing appropriate

constant potential difference between the hemisphere

and two pairs of orthogonal discrete electrodes. In case

6-7

Figure 5. Case-Oriented Drift as a Function of Pattern Angle.

I - vertical component of Earth rotation.

Jw

I-

I ! I I/ I

------__ _--_ _________ ___ ____________

i I I 1 r :

d I I

I I i 1 /

/ I I ! I

I I I I I I I I I

-I I I I I 1

I 1

c

2% ml

-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 b

Figure 6. Case-Oriented Drifr as a Function of Pattern Angle.

I - vertical component of Earth rotation.

of full symmetry, these potentials create the 4-th

harmonic of resonator elasticity-mass parameter

inhomogeneity which compensates for its initial

inhomogeneity which becomes apparent in availability

of two resonance frequencies. Subject to discrete

electrode system asymmetry the mentioned potentials

will also create lower harmonics of inhomogeneity, i.e.

we shall obtain the result described above.

Equation (9) obtained before, which is an information

signal of electronic balancing loop (quadrature wave

suppression) does not take into account phase errors of

electronic circuits which generate w assessment.

Availability of these errors will cause the shift of the

assessment. In the result, in the resonator there will be

kept two resonance frequencies, the difference of which

is determined by the value and the sign of the \v

assessment shift. Availability of vibration amplitude

stabilisation loop under these conditions will lead to the

drift independent of 8 [2]. By this fact we can explain

availability of constant shift of the curves on Figure 5

and 6 relative to the Earth angular velocity. As phase

errors of the electronic circuits can not be considered as

stable unlike electrode system asymmetry, full or partial

calibration of these circuits is expected to become

apparent in the drift characteristic. Unfortunately, in the

course of experiments it was possible to calibrate only

electronic circuits of input amplifiers of pick off signals

u, and LL. Figure 7 shows drift plots of the said above

mock-up. The plots are drawn by wave return into the

initial point by the mock-up body turn. No calibrations

were made. Figure 8 shows similar plots, but each time

calibration of input amplifiers in initial state was made.

The results obtained are not in conflict with the said

above.

6-8

I

1 7 13 1925313743495561 6773 79859197103 109115121127133139145151157 163

Figure 7. Three 0.5h dr&?i lines.

The calibration was not pe$orrned.

Trend%,[dgr/h]: I-10.13; II-10.09; III-IO.04

Figure 8. Two 0.5h drift lines.

Two calibrations was performed.

Trend 28, [dgr/h] : I - 10.13; II - IO.11

Summary system asymmetry. Experimental data comply with the

statements given above.

Based on the development experience of HRG mock-

ups of two standard sizes, some essential problems of

HRG technology are raised and methods of their solving

are proposed. Errors in pick off signal generation and

assessments of vibration parameters used in control

loops have been analysed. It is shown that free

vibrations of the resonator having two resonance

frequencies do not cause drift. A model of the drift

additional components is given which is defined both by

pick off electrode system symmetry and force electrode

6-9

References

l.Lynch D.D., Matthews A., Dual-Mode Hemispherical

Resonator Gyro Operating Characteristics, 3-rd Saint

Petersburg International Conference on Integrated

Navigation Systems, 1996, part 1, pp. 37-44.

2. XypameB B.D., KJIHMOB A.M., BOJIHOBO~~

Tsepnorexbmrii mpoc~ocon, M., Hayrq 1985, c. 123.

3. Zhuravlev V.F., Theoretical Foundation of

Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG), Izv. RAN,

Mekhanika Tverdogo Tela, Allerton Press Inc., Vol. 28,

N3, 1993, pp. 3-15.

4. Lynch D.D., Vibratory Gyro Analysis by the Method

of Averaging, 2nd Saint Petersburg International

Conference on Gyroscopic Technology and Navigation,

1995, part II, pp. 26-34.

5. Zhuravlev V.F., Lynch D.D., Electric Model of a

Hemispherical Resonator Gyro, Izv. RAN, Mechanika

Tverdogo Tela, Allerton Press Inc., Vol. 30, N5, pp. 12-

24.

6. Zhbanov Yu.K., Theoretical Aspects of Balancing the

Hemispherical Resonator Gyro, 2nd Saint Petersburg

International Conference on Gyroscopic Technology and

Navigation, 1995, part II, p. 88.

7. Shatalov M.Y., Elements on General Control of

Vibratory Gyroscopes, 5-th Saint Petersburg

International Conference on Integrated Navigation

Systems, 1998, pp. 204-213.

8. Lynch D.D., Matthews A., Varty G.T., Transfer of

Sensor Technology from Oil-Drilling to Space

Application, 5-th Saint Petersburg International

Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems, 1998, pp.

27-36.

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