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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 31, NO.

1, FEBRUARY IYW 4 1
Adaptive Decoupling Control of Induction
Motor Drives
c . c . CHAN, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, w. s. LEUNG, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, AND c. w. NG
Abstract-A novel control approach for a robust induction motor
drive system with a voltage source inverter has been developed. In the
scheme, the induction motor and its corresponding inverter gating signal
are controlled based on the decoupling control theory. In addition, an
adaptive optimal speed regulator employing the model reference adaptive
control (MRAC) is incorporated into the drive system to compensate for
unfavorable errors. The principles and special features of the control
scheme are discussed, and the configuration of the drive system is
presented. Comparison is made between conventional proportional plus
integral (PI) control and the MRAC. Test results showed the robustness
and superior dynamic performance of the proposed control system.
NOMENCLATURE
el Primary voltage.
e2 Secondary voltage.
il Primary current.
i2 Secondary current.
M Magnetizing inductance.
LI Primary inductance.
L2 Secondary inductance.
Lo Equivalent total leakage inductance.
rl Primary resistance.
r2 Secondary resistance.
w, Supply frequency.
w, Rotor frequency.
uslip Slip frequency.
T, Electrical torque.
h2 Secondary flux.
J Total inertia.
D Viscosity resistance.
*
a
p
p , s Laplace operator.
P Number of pole pairs.
Upper suffix denotes reference value.
Lower suffix denotes a-axis component.
Lower suffix denotes &axis component.
I. INTRODUCTION
N THE PAST decade, dc motors have been commonly used
I for electric traction. As the flux and torque control variables
of a dc motor are inherently physically decoupled, a dc motor
drive systemcan have very good dynamic behavior. However,
the advantages of dc motors can be offset by their large size,
heavy weight, high cost, and complicated maintenance when
compared with ac squirrel-cage induction motors. An ac
squirrel-cage induction motor, if properly controlled, can
provide a speed-torque characteristic similar to that of a
Manuscript received December 21, 1988. This work was supported by the
The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic
IEEE Log Number 8930412.
Universities and Polytechnics Grant Committee (UPGC), Hong Kong.
Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
separately excited dc motor. Since the advent of both high-
power switching devices and fast microprocessors, there has
been rapid progress in ac variable speed drives. In recent
years, the use of decoupling control has already succeeded in
solving the problems of machine model simplification and
control variable separation [ 11, [2]. Earlier works concen-
trated on employing a current-source inverter (CSI) for the
implementation of such a current command-oriented type of
control. However, the use of a CSI inevitably requires a large
inductor and a complicated controlled rectifier in the power
circuit. In this paper, a current band-band control of the
inverter is introduced. As a result, a voltage-source inverter
can be used effectively as a controlled CSI. Despite the
aforementioned advantages, however, decoupling control is
sensitive to rotor resistance changes. A new adaptive speed
regulator based on model reference adaptive control (MRAC)
is proposed to take care of the drive system parameter
changes. In addition, the state variable filter technique is
introduced to solve the difficulties in acquiring the motor
torque, which is not directly measurable. The proposed drive
system is applied to a 20-kW, four-pole, three-phase induction
motor drive system for an electric van. As a result, the authors
have pioneered the adaptation of modem control theory to a
practical application for high-power induction motor drives.
Experimental results show the industrial viability of the
proposed system.
II. CONTROL THEORY
A. Decoupling Control
It is well known that the mathematical model of an induction
motor can be obtained using the two-axis theory. By choosing
the reference frame a - p, which is rotating synchronously
with the supply voltage phasor, the dynamics of a squirrel-
cage induction motor can be represented by the following
nonlinear differential equations:
. [;;I
0278-0046/90/02OO-00404$01 .OO O 1990 IEEE
4 2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 37, NO. I , FEBRUARY 1990
.;
I I
I I
DC lmt
1
I
Fig. 1. Decoupling control drive system using the PI controller.
and
where
It can be seen from the above equations that an induction
motor is a complicated nonlinear system with cross-coupled
control variables. However, according to the decoupling
control theory [l], [2], if the axis of the secondary flux is
chosen to coincide with the a axis, the secondary torque
current must coincide with the 0 axis when the decoupling
conditions are satisfied, namely, X28 =0 and i2cr =0.
Hence, the airgap flux and motor torque of an induction
motor are decoupled from each other and can be separately
controlled, as desired. The above decoupling conditions can be
attained through slip frequency control as
where K is determined by the flux-speed profile of the drive
system. When the speed is below the base speed, constant
torque operation is obtained by maintaining the flux at the
rated value. However, because the speed is above the base
speed, the flux is programmed to be inversely proportional to
speed to obtain a constant power operation. With decoupling
control governed by (3) and ( 4) , various types of closed-loop
speed control schemes can be adopted. A decoupling control
drive system using a conventional proportional plus integral
(PI) controller is built up, as shown in Fig. 1, for performance
evaluation.
Ad.* ul dl . num
H
Fig. 2. Decoupling control drive system using the MRAC.
(1)
model takes the same form as the plant
B. Adaptive Control
Unfortunately, the decoupling conditions will be violated if
the systemparameters are changed after prolonged running
[ 2] , [4]. As a remedy (shown in Fig. 2) , an MRAC is adopted
to compensate for unfavorable errors.
The design of such a control system may be divided into two
parts. First, a linear reference model is made to satisfy the
dynamic specification of the drive system. The reference
where
On the other hand, the dynamic specification of the drive
system after decoupling conditions are satisfied can be
specified as a second-order system as
where ( and w, are the damping factor and the undamped
natural frequency, respectively.
Solving for (5)-(8) using the perfect model following
conditions of [3] yields
al l =D / J - 2J-un
aI2= 2{ wnD- D2 / J - wi J
aZ1 =1/ J
az2 =- D / J
bI l =wi J
b2l= 0.
(9)
The feedforward and feedback gain matrices Ku and Kp ,
respectively, are
L , J d
&?
D rl D2
K -2
U -
2 J - wn- - - - , J L , w' J+- - 2( unD] J (10)
CHAN et al. : ADAPTIVE DECOUPLING CONTROL OF MOTOR DRIVES 43
where Kg is related to the plant parameters as TABLE I
SPECIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC VAN
Gross vehicle weight 1800 kg
(battery included)
Maximum speed 75 h / h r
L' 2
Second, in order for the drive system to follow the reference
model even after the systemparameters have deviated from
those used in the controller design, an adaptive mechanismhas
to be adopted. In an adaptive model following the control
system, the control input consists of two parts. One is the
regular input Upl , which is generated by the linear model
following control, and the other is the adaptation signal Up2,
which is generated by the adaptive mechanismto eliminate or
reduce the effect on parameter changes. Hence
Climbing capability 20'
Battery Lead acid, 216V. 105Ah
Range per charge 100h @ 40 h/ hr
Motor 20kW continuous,
135V, 3-phase
induction motor.
4 pole
Inverter P W M transistorized,
2Hz-I00Hz, 400 A peak
For ease of implementation, F, F' , M, and M' are chosen
tobe positiveconstants; N =1 and G =[g '3; 0 </3 <1 .
Their values can be determined by computer simulation.
C. State Variable Filter
In practice, the plant state Te is difficult to obtain. One
Up2= AK,(e, t ) X, + AK,(e, t)UM (14)
where e is the error vector
e P XM-Xp
and X, is the plant state vector
Xp=[ Te, ur I T*
solution to this problem is to implement a state variable filter
at the plant output. The state Te is then replaced by its filtered
state variable Tef. The transfer function of the state variable
filter is constructed as
(15)
The equivalent feedback systemis given by [3]
and the dynamic equation of the plant is
e =XM - X, =AMe +Bp U,
(17)
v=He (18)
1 D
r - J e J
(j - _ T _ _
(1 9)
As U, and wrf are observable, it is not difficult to show that
U= AKpXp+ AK,UM.
Ter is also observable:
According to the hyperstability theory, in order for a
closed-loop system to be asymptotically hyperstable, the
transfer function of the linear part must be positive real,
J
CO
Tef= - (U, - wrf ) +DO,. (28)
whereas the nonlinear part must satisfy the Popov integral
inequality as
In fact, if we choose a suitable value for the filter time
constant CO, the error introduced by the replacement of T, and
Tcf can be neglected.
111. SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The Proposed induction motor drive systemis applied to a
1800-kg electric van. Table 1 gives the design specifications of
the electric van. The electric van is designed for use in urban
areas with many steep roads; hence, the climbing capability
and start-stop performance are the prime concerns, whereas
the top speed is of less importance. Fig. 3 shows the functional
block diagram of the electric van. A 216-V battery pack
provides the main power source to a high-power transistorized
PWM inverter, where it is inverted to a variable-voltage
variable-frequency three-phase ac and delivered to the drive
motor. The ac induction motor then drives the rear wheels
through a clutch and variable ratio gear box assembly. The
power flow is reversed in the case of regeneration, i.e., the
motor becomes an induction generator, and hence, the inverter
becomes a rectifier that converts ac power into dc and charges
1; wT v d t 2 - A2 , A>O. (20)
The solution for (17)-(20) can be obtained by proceeding in
a way similar to that in [3] using the PI adaptation law:
PI,= 1/ l m; J2
(21)
(22)
1
Pi2 =- - Pi1 D
Wi J
(23)
AK, =l' Fv( GX,) dr +Fv'( GX,)
(24)
(25) the batteries.
AK, = it Mv ( NUM) ~ d7+h'fv'(NUM)T. ~
44
Number of poles 4
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 37, NO. I , FEBRUARY 1990
Ratedoutput 20 kW
3 phase To auxiliary
supply sub-systems
On Board Charger DC/DC converter
i ecl ! i l
Main Battery
TI &,
I I Contactor I
I --
Main Inverter
Controller Controller
A I
T ' Inverter 1
Motor
U
Fig. 3. Functional block diagram of the electric van
38.4 A
6.6720 mH
0.0375 n 6.6720 mH
A. Motor and Inverter
The motor used was designed by a computer-aided optimi-
zation program to maximize the performance of the electric
van. Its nominal parameters are shown in Table 11. The motor
frame size is 160 L, which is one class smaller as compared
with a standard motor.
The inverter used is a full bridge transistorized PWM
inverter, and it has advantages over its thyristorized counter-
part in terms of commutation, size, weight, cost, and
efficiency. In addition, higher switching frequency may be
used to produce a better sinusoidal ac output. The most
advanced 400-A, 450-V power transistors available on the
market, are employed. The inverter output frequency range is
from 2 to 100 Hz.
B. Controller
The controller of the electric van is composed of a main
controller and an inverter controller, as shown in Fig. 4. The
two controllers form a 8086-based multiprocessor system, and
each processor is allocated different tasks. Information flow
between processors is done by means of the 16K global
memory through the global bus. The inverter controller
fetches the three-phase current commands from the global
memory and generates the gating signal to the transistorized
PWM inverter based on the current band-band control. This
Amknson
PUJd
I
I
Fig. 4. Functional block diagram of the controller.
AMPLITUDE FREOUEN
(b)
diagram.
Fig. 5. Current band-band control scheme: (a) Motor current; (b) block
current band-band control enables the adoption of a voltage-
source PWM inverter into a current command-oriented control
method. Furthermore, it minimizes the transistor switching
spike current, providing an inherent output current limit, and
resulting in an approximate sinusoidal current for lower
motor harmonic losses. An example of the current band-band
control is shown in Fig. 5. The main tasks executed by the
inverter controller are shown in Fig. 6. One complete
execution cycle takes about 0.4 ms.
Meanwhile, the main controller executes a collection of
programs that includes sampling of the speed command and
the motor speed, calculation of the motor current commands
according to the aforementioned control strategy, and storing
of the current commands into the global memory. Besides, the
main controller also executes housekeeping tasks of the van.
CHAN et al.: ADAPTIVE DECOUPLING CONTROL OF MOTOR DRIVES
Rcad
wr 9 w;
45
Start spced
ADC
Initialize
Wait for
interrupt
Obtain it,
tore sampled
currents t o
global RAM
Calculatc i
a i m p 2
limit
Load current
commands to
interrupt
Read sampled
motor
isablc gating
@I 61
Initiate
annunciator
Cl Start cumnt 0
fi Interrupt
Fig. 6. Program flow diagram of the inverter controller.
The main tasks executed by the main controller are shown in
Fig. 7. An Intel 8087 numeric data coprocessor is used to
enhance the calculation speed of the main controller. One
complete execution cycle takes 2.5 ms to accomplish the
adaptive decoupling control.
IV. TEST RESULTS
The proposed induction motor drive system was tested on a
20-kW four-pole squirrel-cage induction motor with a regener-
ative dynamometer and flywheel coupled on its shaft. Fig. 8
shows the electric drive system during test. The fundamental
building block of the decoupling control was employed.
Comparison was made between the MRAC and the conven-
tional PI controller.
Fig. 9 shows the step responses of the motor speed and the
motor current of the drive system using the PI controller.
Because of the high power rating of the induction motor, a
software current limit of 150 A was imposed by the main
controller to avoid excessive current stress in the inverter.
Furthermore, the value of the integration time constant of the
PI controller was made sufficiently low to avoid excessive
speed overshoot. The long rise time (about 0.8 s) of the drive
systemis due to a) the high inertia of the dynamometer load, b)
the current limit imposed, and c) the slow dynamics of the
rotor circuit.
Fig. 10 shows the step motor speed response of the drive
systemusing the MRAC. Better starting transients and shorter
response times are achieved by the feedforward gain matrix
Ku of the controller. Fig. 11 shows the motor speed response
when a half-rated load of disturbance was suddenly applied to
the motor shaft. Because the load disturbance is observable by
Initializc
Calculate
Calculate
P . P i
Coordinate
transform
Store currcnt
commands 10
Global RAM
semaphorc
Fig. 7. Program flow diagram of the main controller.
Fig. 8. Electric drive systemduring test.
the state variable filter, fast corrective action can bemade by
the adaptive mechanism. Only a very slight transient speed
variation (about 30 rpm) was observed.
Fig. 12 shows the motor speed of the drive systemafter
prolonged running. The motor was started, and its speed was
recorded for a few minutes. Recording was then interrupted
with the motor still running at high speed. After 90 min.
recording of the motor speed was again taken. Fig. 12(a)
shows the motor speed of the drive systemusing the PI
controller. Significant speed variation after prolonged running
was observed. The violation of the decoupling conditions by
the increased rotor resistance accounts for the degradation in
46 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 31, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1990
% I
- -
Load appl i ed Load removed
I
_ . - _ _ _ r x ---
4P
Fig. 11. Motor speed of the MRAC drive system with half-rated load
disturbance. Y axis: 600 rpmldiv., X axis: 1 sldiv.
(b)
Fig. 9. Step responses using the PI controller: (a) motor speed. Y axis: 300
r/min/div., x axis: 0.5 s/div; (b) motor current. y axis: 100 A/div., x axis:
0.5 sldiv.
(b)
Fig. 12. Motor speed of the drive system after prolonged running. (a)Motor
speed of the drive systemusing the PI controller; (b) motor speed of the
drive systemusing the MRAC. y axis: 600 r/min/div, x axis: 5 divlmin.
systemhas fast response, no serious shock, and it was very
stable during acceleration.
V. CONCLUSION
A new control scheme for induction motor drives was
developed. The control scheme adopted the modern control
theory, namely, the decoupling control and adaptive control.
With the integration of decoupling control and adaptive
control, the dynamic performance and robustness of the
induction motor drive was significantly enhanced. The special
features of the new control scheme lie in its high dynamic
performance and simple control configuration, which can be
easily implemented by microprocessors at a modest cost.
Experimental results are satisfactory. The proposed control
scheme is suitable for high-performance robust speed control
and position control, particularly those in a hazardous environ-
ment.
Fig. 10. Step motor responses using the MRAC. Y axis: 300 rpddi v., x
axis: 0.5 s/div.
performance. However, as shown in Fig. 12(b), the drive
systemusing the MRAC can adapt to the rotor resistance
variation.
It can be seen from the experimental results that the
dynamic performance of the system is highly satisfactory. The
41 LHAN er ai.: A UA Y I I V ~ UbCVUPLINti CONTROL OF MOTOR DRIVES
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