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# Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Fundamental of Electric Traction Drives
Fundamental of Electric Traction Drives
Design
Design
Wensheng Song PH.D
Email:songwengsheng@163.com
Train Control & Traction Drive Lab,
Southwest Jiaotong University
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Outline
Mathematical Description of Mathematical Description of Train Operation Train Operation
Process Process
Train Forces Description Train Forces Description
Traction Characteristic Design of Train Traction Characteristic Design of Train
Capability Calculation and Design of AC Capability Calculation and Design of AC- -DC DC- -AC AC
Traction Drive System Traction Drive System
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Train operation process is a very complex control process,
which is related to traction power supply, train signal, rail line
section, all kinds of speed limit, train formation, train
traction/braking performance, the operation experiences of
driver and so on.
The train operation objects are not only safety, arriving on
schedule, reliability, high speed, high operation density, but
also includes passengers comfortableness, train energy
consumption saving, and exactness of train stop. Therefore,
Train operation control system is a typical time-delaying,
nonlinear, and multi-object system.
The core problem is how to control the the traction/braking
force of train running in various operation conditions in real-
time.
Mathematical Description of Train Operation Process
Mathematical Description of Mathematical Description of Train Operation Train Operation Process Process
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Mathematical Description of Train Operation Process
Mathematical Description of Mathematical Description of Train Operation Train Operation Process Process
Mathematical description of train operation process is the
fundamental of studying and analyzing train traction control. As
the time is used to the variable
,
the movement equations of train
are shown as follows:
Where cThe joint force of train (N/kN).
Acceleration coefficient;
r Gyrating mass coefficient (usually 0.06 );
JTrain energy consumption (J);
p(t)Train energy consumption per unit time (kW);
TThe whole trip operation time (s);
vThe operation speed of train (m/s);
sThe operation distance of train (m);
tThe operation time of train (s);

dv
c
dt
=
ds
v
dt
=
0
( )
T
J p t dt =

0.00981
=
1+

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Mathematical Description of Train Operation Process
Mathematical Description of Mathematical Description of Train Operation Train Operation Process Process
As the distance is used to the variable, The movement equations of train
are derived as follows:
Where Train energy consumption per unit distance (kW);
S The total operating distance of train (m);
The nonlinear movement equation of train is generally described as:
Where f(v) The traction/braking force of train (N);
w
0
(v) The basic operating resistance force of train (N);
g(s) The additional operating resistance force of train (N);
( ) s
0
( )
( )
S
s
J d s
v

dv c
ds v

=
1 dt
ds v
=
0
( ( ) ( ) ( ))
dv
v f v w v g s
ds
=
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Train Forces Description Train Forces Description
Train Forces Description
At the contact point of the driving wheelset and rail,
the relative rest and non-sliding phenomenon of the
driving wheelset and rail are named adhesion
phenomenon, which is caused by the normal
pressure of the wheelset.
Traction force
(1)The axle traction force of the driving wheelset(f
i
)
which is also called the adhesion traction force.
Actually, it is the static frictional force of the
driving wheelset and rail.
(2)The axle traction force of the train (F
i
)
which is to produce the torque T
i
to drive the wheel
rolling with the speed v.
i i
f G Mg = =
'
i i i i
F F T R = =
i i
f F =
R
i
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Train Forces Description Train Forces Description
Train Forces Description
The adhesion balancing situation will be
damaged in the following conditions.
(1)If traction force F
i
force f
i
, the idling phenomenon happens.
(2)If traction force F
i
force f
i
, the sliding phenomenon happens.
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Train Forces Description Train Forces Description
Train Forces Description
The train operation resistance force
(1) The basic resistance force
It is produced by the friction and impact between
components and parts, the train surface and air, the wheel
and rail.
Bridge & Tunnel situation of the rail line.
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Train Forces Description Train Forces Description
Train Forces Description
The basic resistance force
The unit resistance is generally adopted to represent
the train resistance
2
0
( ) W a b v c v M g = + +
Where W
0
The basic operation resistance force of train (N)
MThe traciton quality (t)
vThe operation speed of train(km/h)
gThe acceleration of gravity (m/s
2
)
a,b,cThe coefficient being relative with
mechanical resistance.
0
0
( ) N/t
W
v
M
=
10
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Traction demands Traction demands
Traction demands
P=FV
(1). The heavy load characteristic of
the freight train results in the demand
of the greater traction force
(2). The high speed characteristic of
the passenger train results in the
demand of the higher speed
F-(N)
V-(m/s)
speed passenger train, both of them require a greater traction
power to satisfy with the demand of transportation.
The power:
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Traction Characteristic Design of Train Traction
Traction
Characteristic Design of Train
Characteristic Design of Train
The relationship curve of train flange traction/braking force and speed is represented as
Traction characteristic of trainwhich is the most important and original datasheet to
calculate the performance of train traction and braking.
Constant Traction Force for Start-upConstant Power for running
The relationship of traction force and power is shown as follows
3.6
kN
k
k
k
P
F
V

=
Accurate Constant
Traction Force
Constant Traction Force
Constant Power
Constant Power
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Traction Characteristic Curve Design of Train Traction Characteristic Curve Design of
Traction Characteristic Curve Design of
Train
Train
Traction Force
Power
resistance
V
max
1.The starting traction force is dependent on the maximum starting acceleration and
the average of the acceleration.
3.The traction force at the maximum speed point is satisfied with max
max
3.6
( )
k
k
k
P
F v
v
=
2.The traction force at the turning point of pre-constant traction force region and constant
power traction region is satisfied with
m
3.6
( )
k
k
m
P
F v
v
=
13
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Traction Characteristic design of Train Traction
Traction
Characteristic design of Train
Characteristic design of Train

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340

K
N
)
CRH5
CRH3
CRH2
CRH1
CRH1
CRH3
CRH380AL
CRH380BL
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a
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F
o
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Capability Calculation and Design of AC-DC-AC
Traction Drive System
Capability Calculation and Design of AC
Capability Calculation and Design of AC
-
-
DC
DC
-
-
AC
AC
Traction Drive System
Traction Drive System
Case 1: CRH2-300km/h, EMU
24 Motors number 300km/h The operating speed
6M2T
Marshalling
350km/h The max speed
6 Motor cars,4 Trailer
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The Structure Configurations of AC Traction Drive System
The Structure Configurations of AC Traction Drive System The Structure Configurations of AC Traction Drive System
Gear box
AC
motor
Inverter
Pulse
Rectifier
Transformer
25000V
AC-DC-AC traction system for AC motor drive
Capacitor
Power line
Wheel
Traction Converter
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The Structure Configurations of CRH2 Traction
Drive System
The Structure Configurations of CRH2 Traction
The Structure Configurations of CRH2 Traction
Drive System
Drive System
M
M
M
M
ab
U
N
I
d
U
d
I
M
U
M
I
Converter Inverter
Transformer
Pantograph
Motor
Auxiliary
Winding:490kVA
A
u
AB
S
1a
S
2a
S
3a
S
4a
S
1b
S
2b
S
3b
S
4b
B
C
1
C
2
o
p
n
u
1
u
2
i
o
T
1a
T
2a
T
3a
T
4a
T
1b
T
2b
T
3b
T
4b
b
T
1c
T
2c
T
3c
T
4c
c
a
i
a
i
b
i
c
M
3~

25kV
50Hz
i
s
i
n
4 motors
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Capability Calculation and Design of AC-DC-AC Traction
Drive System
Capability Calculation and Design of AC Capability Calculation and Design of AC- -DC DC- -AC Traction AC Traction
Drive System Drive System
?
c
P =
?
Tr
S =
?
T
S =
?
SI
P =
?
I
P =
?
MI
P =
?
MO
P =
?
k
P =
18
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Capability Calculation and Design of AC-DC-AC Traction
Drive System
Capability Calculation and Design of AC Capability Calculation and Design of AC- -DC DC- -AC Traction AC Traction
Drive System Drive System

Parameters
Symbol (values or
calculation formulas)
The output power of wheel-sets
P
k

Power factor of Transformer
P
fTr
=1.0
The second winding voltage of transformer
E
s
=1500
The efficiency of converter
0.975
CONV
=
The efficiency of inverter
0.985
INN
=
The efficiency of gear box
0.95
Gear
=
Power factor of traction motor
0.87
MM
Pf =
The efficiency of traction motor
0.94
MM
=
The output power of traction motor
MO MI MM
P P =
The input power of traction motor
P
MI

The voltage of traction motor
( 6 )
M c
E E
The current of traction motor
1
( 3 )
M I M
I P E =
The total output power of inverter
P
I
=P
MI
Motor numbers
The total output power of converter
c I INN
P P =
The total output power of transformer
/
Tr c CONV
P P =
The second winding current of transformer
( )
s Tr s Tr
I P E Pf =

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Capability Calculation and Design of AC-DC-AC
Traction Drive System
Capability Calculation and Design of AC
Capability Calculation and Design of AC
-
-
DC
DC
-
-
AC
AC
Traction Drive System
Traction Drive System
Constant power point
135km/h
195.8kN
CRH2 300km/h Traction characteristics
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Capability Calculation and Design of AC-DC-AC
Traction Drive System
Capability Calculation and Design of AC
Capability Calculation and Design of AC
-
-
DC
DC
-
-
AC
AC
Traction Drive System
Traction Drive System
k
P
1
342.7 / 0.87
393.9(kVA)
I MI MM
P P Pf =
=
=
1
4
4 393.9
1575.6(kVA)
I I
P P =
=
=
1575.6/ 0.985
1599.6(kW)
c I INN
P P =
=
=
1599.6/ 0.975
1640.6(kVA)
Tr c CONV
P P =
=
=
2
2 1640.6/1 490
3771.2(kVA)
T Tr Tr APU
P P Pf P = +
= +
=