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-

1966
With this method the stability coefficient is determined by the formula:
FS=

1
m
[
N
i
tan
i
+c
i
l
i
+T
iud
]
cos
i
cos
(

i
)

1
m
T
isdv
cos
i
cos
(

i
)

(24)
where:
Ni normal component of soil weight
Tiud tangential component (shear strength) of soil weight in passive zone
Tisdv tangential component (shear strength) of soil weight in active zone
The calculation is performed in the following seuence!
"et#s e$amining options for scheduled across the sliding surface!!
%ach restricted presumed slip surface compartment is divided into separate units by vertical
planes& conducted in the field by fracture of the sliding surface& so that each bloc' is uniform
according to its ground base shear characteristics!
(re determined the values of Ni normal components and Ti tangential components of the
weight force on bloc's& and also traction ci ) li
*tability coefficient calculated total collapse compartment!
+omparison of simulation results& obtained by the options considered& will be set to the
minimum stability coefficient corresponding to the position of the critical slip surface! %$ample
of calculation is given in (ppendi$ ,-!
.f the slip curve at the end portions (within the first and last bloc's (fig! ,2)) is not
predetermined by the geological structure of the massifs& then is not necessary to estimate
the most advantageous position!
The first and last bloc's outline several possible positions sliding surfaces at different angles
of inclination to the horizontal / (0ig! ,2)!
0or each of the identified variants are calculated values % horizontal force interaction
between the ad1acent bloc's!
The magnitude acting between the first and the second bloc's is calculated by the formula:
(22)
0ig! ,2! 3esign scheme to the method of prof! 45 *hahunyantsa
a 6 slip surface passes through the toe7 b 6 sliding surface e$tends through the base of the slope
8alue of %& acting between the last and penultimate units& should be determined ta'ing into
account different possible directions of sliding surfaces within the last bloc':
a) for upward with respect to the horizontal direction of a sliding surface:
(29)
b) at its downstream direction:
(2:)
where n6factor stability of the slope& the value of which should be ta'en eually
acceptable!
+omparing the results obtained& for settlement in the first bloc' should ta'e the
position of the sliding surface which corresponds to the largest value of %,& and at last bloc'
6 the one which produces the minimum value %m6,!
.f the potential sliding surface is a plane& soil weight for this same plane and the
direction of all forces acting on the bloc' are vertically (fig! ,;)& stability coefficient is
determined by the formula:
(2<)
where = 6 resultant of all forces acting on the sliding bloc'7
/ 6 angle of the sliding surface to the horizon
(ll remaining notation are the former ones!

0ig! ,;! 3esign scheme for the plane sliding surface (after prof! univ! *hahunyantsa 45)
The minimum value of the stability coefficient corresponding critical slip surface (/)& we find
from (2:)7
where >6soil bul' density& t ? m7
@ 6 scale height of the slope& m7
A 6 the angle of inclination of the slope to the horizontal surface
.f *lope comple$ is a homogeneous draining soil& without cohesion (cB-)& on a solid
foundation& the stability coefficient is determined by the formula:
Where:
A 6 angle of the slope surface to the horizon7
C 6 angle of internal friction of soil
Appendix
10
Slope stability calculation by the method of professor. GM
Shahunyantsa
The figure shows a cross section of the emban'ment with a counter bench& bac'filled
on the hillside!
Name of soils of the emban'ment are at the base of the diagram! Dn contact of the
emban'ment with the slope there is a layer of soft soil (loam with pebbles& which is in a fluid
state)& which predetermines the possibility of sliding surface (shown in the drawing with a
dotted line)! @ighlighted landslide is divided into ,, bloc's array of for computing procedure!
Erocedure for calculating the stability of the sliding surface is presented in the table!
*tability factor on emban'ment shift contact layer is defined by the formula (24)
%$ample diagram of slope stability calculation by method *hahunyantsa
Block
number

c
ton/
m
2

P =
Weight
of block
s
i
n

c
o
s

T

s
d
v

=

P


s
i
n

,

t
Restraining forces
c
o
s

(

)
c
o
s

[
9
+

1
1

+

1
2
]

x

[
1

]
[
!
]

x

[
1

]
T

u
d

=

P


s
i
n


,

t
N

=

P


c
o
s


,

t
N


t
g

,

t
c


l
1 2 " # $ % ! 9 1& 11 12 1" 1# 1 1$ 1%
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2 % 2, " 2! 2"," &,%# &,!19 1"'# ( 19'1 2'# !' &,!!" &,992 1'12 12'2 1'&
" % 2, "&
"& )
2"
"& )
$#,9 &,&! &,!$2 "",& ( $,& $'9 9 &,91% &,992 1'&! 1%'2 ",%
# % 2, 29 22 1"",1 &,#! &,!% $#, ( 11$, 1#'" 2#, &,92% &,992 1'&% #1, $9,&
% 2, 2# 1% 2#'& &,#&% &,91# 1&",2 ( 2"2'& 2!, #%,& &,9$ &,992 1'&# !9'& 1&%'&
$ % 2, & ( % 19%'& & 1'&& ( 19%'& 2#,2 "1,! &,992 &,992 1'&& $,& &
% % 2, !
"& )
1
"& )
11'& &,1#! &,9!9 22," ( 1#9'& 1!," 2!,2 1'&& &,992 &,992 #$,1 22,1
! % 2, & ( % $2,& & 1'&& ( ( $2,& %'$ 11'& &,992 &,992 1'&& 1!,$ (
9 & #,# & & #, & 1'&& ( ( #, ( 1!' 1'&& 1'&& 1'&& 1!' (
1& & #,# ( 1& ( 1& "2,$ &,1%# &,9! ( '% "2,1 ( "#,& &,9! 1'&& 1'&2 #&, (
11 & #,# ( 1# ( 1# #'# &,2#2 &,9%& ( 1'1 #'" ( 29, &,9%& 1'&& 1'&" "1,$ (
*
"%2,#
*
2#,&
Weight of bloc': E B F>&
Where F B area of bloc' and > B specific weight of soil (ton?m
;
)
.f we consider the red system of coordinates then the cut vertical planes which define
the border ob bloc' i are defined by:
6 downward: height hi B yof slip plane i 6 y of terrain i
6 upward: height hi6, B yof slip plane i6, 6 y of terrain i6,
and F B -!2G(hi H hi6,)G($i6, 6 $i) and so the A angle of slope is inserted indirectly!
l B length of bloc'#s slip plane B ($i6, I $i)?cos /
(UCRAINA)
+or com,arison, calculations assess t-e stabilit. of t-e slo,e at t-e site obser/ation 0eck ,erforme0 an
a00itional calculation met-o0 blocks met-o0 123 4-a-un.antsa5'
.n the calculations considered surface of sliding& which is more dangerous& for each of
them was determined safety factor of stability! The method of calculating the stability of
slopes& 45 *hahunyantsa is based on solving a given cross6sectional plane in the presence
of an array of fi$ed6slopes surface of sliding!
*lopes stability calculation by this method is performed in the following order:
6 Jsing surveying data and geotechnical surveys data about materials shear area&
were builded section of the landslide body by this vertical section7
6 Krea' cut landslide body vertical lines into separate compartments so that the line
slip displacement in each compartment had a constant slope!
%ach compartment is determined by the formula of the weight:
Pi= hi li , (1)
where E i 6 weight of i6th compartment7 li 6 line length slip in the compartment7
hi 6 height of the compartment
Ne$t the normal and tangential acting forces on each bloc' are computed by the
formulas:
T i =P sin i (2)
N i =P i cos i , (3)
where /i6 the angle of the i6th compartment to the horizontal& deg!
*lopes stability factor by the method of 4! *hahunyantsa L;M is given by:
(4)
where N 6 retaining force (friction force Nitg
i
and adhesion cili):
(2)
0 6 shifting forces (tangential component of gravity of bloc' Ti& Tci seismic and
hydrodynamic forces 0w):
(9)
where C i 6 angle of internal friction of soil within the i6th compartment& deg7
ci 6 specific adhesion of soil within the i6th compartment 'Ea7
li 6 the length of the slip surface within the i6th compartment& m7
Tci6component seismic shifting of forces is determined by the formula:
= ., (7)
where O 6 the coefficient of seismicity7
0w 6 hydrodynamic force which is given by:
Fw =gAi
cp
, (8)
where ( 6 area of the seepage area7
.cp 6 average pressure gradient seepage above the curve slip!
(lso& when calculating the defined movable pressure acting on each separate
compartment and sliding neighborhood as a whole L4M:
al =F!"#s$, %&'
where Ost 6 normalized coefficient of stability that the effects of class (responsibility)
**; observation dec' is LOstM B ,&22!
Evaluation method of slope stability with a graphical polygon
forces
in !"#$%"&'()**
+$ #$,*-"./0"&&$1 $)"&#"
2./$1-*0$./* $+$,3&"045 .#,$&$0
%6789: .;<6=>?@:; 1ABC
%valuation of the sustainability of forces polygon method proposed by 45
*hahunyantsa 5, is performed as follows:
,! Erofile is plotted and the slope is determined by the estimated surface
displacement given the geological conditions!
0ig! 29! The scheme builds on the graphic method polygon forces
(rray located above the sliding surface is bro'en into a number of vertical bloc's by
vertical lines! The size and number of sections is selected in accordance with the geological
structure& the morphology of the slope and shape of the surface displacement! Within each
section is considered a flat sliding surface (0ig! 29)!
2! (t any selected compartment described in above manner (for e$ample& slot
number 2& see 0ig! 29)& act T2 6 the tangential components of normal force N2& =2 6 weight of
the volume of roc' prism cover& and %, and %2 the forces of neighboring bloc's& and on the
slip surface of the possible failure of bloc' are reactions from the surface eual to the forces
of adhesion c2l2 and friction N2tgC2& and normal reaction N2! Nesultant friction force and the
normal reaction will be eual to the surface:
and the tilt angle to the normal of the surface displacement is the angle C2! 0orces6
parallel with sliding surface will be the tangential components Ti of =i forces& if they are
directed towards the possible shift of the array! (ll other forces are the forces or not directly
affect the stability (strength Ni)& or resist the opportunity to shift!
Ky stability coefficient understands ratio of all the tangential forces Tud& who resist to
displacement& to all tangential forces Tsdv see'ing to cause displacement!
.n order for the entire array had stability coefficient O& it is necessary that each
compartment satisfy the condition:

ud

sdv
= -.
;! .n compiling the euilibrium conditions instead of the tangential component of force
Ti& =i 6 accept value OTi& if the force tends to move the array T (compartments number ,& 2&
4)& and does not change the value of the force Ti& if it resists to displacement (compartment
number ;)! .t is difficult to determine the direction of forces %! The simplest is the assumption
that the force % directed horizontally! Pou can ta'e the angle of inclination to the horizontal
forces %& eual to the angle of inclination of the surface of a possible displacement in the
compartment& in which is the centre of gravity of the entire array!
Df you Enow the direction of the reaction supporting structuresF the slope to the
horiGontal direction of the forces E should be taEen as the slope of the reaction
structure.
4! 0or each compartment magnitude and direction of forces Ni& Ti& ci& li and Ti6, are
'nown! The force %i6, is 'nown by solving the problem of the previous compartment& bearing
in mind that in the first compartment force %i6, is absent! 5agnitude of the forces %i and *i&
given their directions are un'nown and are a result of plotting for each section of the polygon
of forces! Eroblem of determining the pressure at the base of the landslide for a given
coefficient of the slope stability is solved for each compartment consistent building polygons
forces similar to those shown in 0ig! 29! *trength %i6, are common sides of polygons for this
compartment and the last& and when moving from one compartment to another should only
change the direction of force %i6,& which is part of the reaction compartment to the previous
one& on the contrary& as in this case& the force %i6, transmitted from the previous
compartment is active! 0orce %i defined for the last compartment is a complete landslide
pressure that develops at the base of the slope for a given factor of stability!
Note! .f the construction of the polygon of forces in some i6th compartment %i force
becomes eual to zero& or too' a negative value& ie disappeared or become a force instead
of supporting shear (which is impossible if the soil can not occur tensile stress)& it shows that
part of the array from the beginning to the border somewhere inside this compartment has
not only given the stability coefficient& but even e$cess!
.n the case where the force % is in the i6th compartment is toward the direction of
displacement& in the construction of a polygon of forces for the ne$t compartment i H ,& %i in
this polygon is not included& if the tensile stress is not allowed& the assumption is ta'en into
account only the tensile stress of the force %i at which the tensile stresses do not e$ceed the
permissible!
2 ! To determine the stability of the slope O & should be as'ing different values of O&
determine the value of % for the last compartment by constructing polygons forces! (ccording
to information received build change curve % (for the last compartment ) ! 3egree of stability
of the slope will correspond to such stability coefficient O& at which % B -& ie un'nown uantity
stability factor is the abscissa of the intersection curve % B f (O) with the horizontal a$is O! To
construct the curve % B f ( O) should ta'e these values O& at which the value of % was both
positive and negative!
See also SHAIJDK L MKIGK N O000.




-
- 1!"
O.P. Method of tangential forces
%mployed the method name and its variants L,4& ,2& ,:& ,Q& 24& ;-& ;<& ;QM: the usual
method& 45 *hahunyantsa& leaning against the method of sections& method of Eeterson&
algebraic summation method& the method of flat surfaces shift method of algebraic addition
of forces& leaning against the slope method& etc!
5ethod is most often used when the sliding surface in any of the available methods is
clearly defined throughout! 0or e$ample& when the talus slips on the roc'& and the roof is
ta'en as the last sliding surface! .n such a case it is convenient to consider actual shear
forces directed tangentially to the sliding surface! When this sliding surface are composed of
a series of flat portions& i!e! in the form of a bro'en line!
45 *hahunyants& for e$ample& proposed to use for determining the stability
coefficient an array of soil sliding down at a fi$ed sliding surface& the formula derived for the
circular cylindrical surface:
(:,)
*uch a method has been accessed and many other authors& although mathematically
it is not uite strict: in this case sometimes develops multidirectional strength!
Neferring to the decomposition of forces shown in 0ig! Q& and& ta'ing into account the
seismic action we obtain:
6 .n the absence of groundwater:
(72-a)
6 by simply flooding the slope:
6 (72-)
6 the slope under the influence of seepage flow:
6 (72-n)
(s before& the weight of the soil is ta'en into account with a weighting number (if the cut
length of the slope portion& eual to one):
P
ni

i
l
i
h
cp.i
-
e
l
i
h
i
(
i
h
cp.i
-
e
h
i
)l
i
. (73)
Weight of the soil without weighing:
P
i

i
l
i
h
cp.i
. (74)
0ig! Q! 5ethod of tangential forces:
a 6 the case of plane sliding surface& b 6 case sloping sliding surface
.f within the compartment being considered (on the surface or on the edge of the slope) are
any buildings& their weight should be added to the weight of the soil in this compartment!
.n the particular case where fi$ed sliding surface of the whole landslide flat as shown in 0ig!
Q& and in written formulas trigonometric function of the angle of inclination of the surface to
the horizon (sin / and cos /) can be ta'en out outside the summation sign! Then in the case
of a homogeneous soil (constant shear characteristics) for the whole landslide landslide
pressure prism formula has a simple form (in the absence of groundwater):
(
on
#
y
(Psin u )
c
) - tg Pcos u - c*, (75)
where E 6 weight of the sliding prism7
" 6 length of the slip plane!
5ore freuently& in practice& it happens that the sliding surface is not flat& but may be
provided from individual sections having different inclinations to the horizontal! .n this case it
is convenient to define landslide pressure for individual compartments& and then build it
changes epure!
(ssume that the landslide mass moving over the surface abcde (0ig! Qb)!
To determine the stability coefficient and the magnitude of the whole landslide pressure&
divide the whole mass of landslide into a number of sliding bloc's so that each of them has a
flat (linear& plane) sliding surface! 0urther define the weight of each compartment Qi and
decompose it into normal and tangential components to the slip plane of each bloc'! To
determine the pressure of landslide consider the euilibrium conditions of individual sections
of the landslide& ta'ing the sum of the pro1ections of e$ternal forces on the direction of motion
of each compartment! 0or convenience& it will begin with consideration of the upper
compartment ,& then move on to the ne$t two& etc! To cover one should ta'e the sum of the
pro1ections of all forces on the slip plane ab& including the un'nown pressure from the
neighbouring compartment 2& and euate it to zero! Thus we find the magnitude of the
reaction %,& which should be applied to compartment , by compartment 2 in the direction ab&
so that the , compartment is in euilibrium! 8alue E1 is landslide pressure!
(dopting the notation indicated in 0ig! Qb& we find (initially e$cluding groundwater and
seismic forces):
(
1
tg
1
N
1
c
1
l
1
- )
1
0;
(
1
tg
1
P
1
cos u
1
c
1
l
1
- P
1
sin u
1
0,
whence we get:
(
1
P
1
sin u
1
- tg
1
P
1
cos u
1
- cl
1
.
When considering the balance compartment 2 is necessary to consider the action of force
E1& but with the opposite sign! *imilarly& is considered the euilibrium condition for all other
compartments! .n general& to determine the pressure of any sliding compartment of the
landslide& the e$pression will be:
(
i
P
i
sin u
i
- tg
i
P
i
cos u
i
- c
i
l
i
(
i-1
, (76)
Where:
(
i-1
- landslide pressure pro1ection of previous compartment to the sliding direction of
the compartment being considered!
To determine the magnitude of the landslide pressure for the individual compartments of the
landslide from the data build epure landslide pressures (0ig! Qb)& which is reuired to select
the holding place for laying a structure along the length of a landslide& is rationally to choose
that bloc' with a minimum of %i! To obtain the reuired safety factor when calculating
landslide pressure& as before& the shear force is multiplied by the calculated stability factor
Ou!
.n RnormalR method of calculation often %i6, are eual to the tangent of the resultant force in
the previous compartment rather than its pro1ection on the direction of the sliding
compartment being considered! The difference in the angles of inclination to the horizontal
lines of the sliding surface in ad1acent compartments less than ,-S error in this method of
calculation is obtained insignificant! (t sharp fluctuations slope slip surface this difference
can not be neglected! @owever& since we consider the R5ethod of tangential forces&R write
the formula for determining the pressure of landslide in the case of simple summation of
tangential forces! .f you do not forget that the summation must necessarily be seuential&
starting with the upper section (so that %i6, included in the sum)& the formula for determining
landslide pressure will be as follows:
.n the absence of groundwater:
(
al
|#
u
+
(P
i
sin u
i
)
ci
) - (P
i
cos u
i
tg
i
c
i
l
i
)|. (77-a)
.n a simple flooding slope:
(
al
|#
y
+
(P
ni
sin u
i
)
ci
) - (P
ni
cos u
i
tg
ni
c
ni
l
i
)|. (77-)
When e$posed to the slope of seepage:
(
on
|#
y
+
(P
i
sin u
i
)
ci
) - (P
ni
cos u
i
tg
ni
c
ni
l
i
)|. (77-n)
O.R. Analytical method GM Shahunyants
This method L2;& ;9& ;QM& as well as the previous one& it is most convenient to use when the
configuration of the sliding surface all through is already installed! The 45 *hahunyants#
method generally is similar to the method of tangential forces& but in this case are more
strictly observed the laws of structural mechanics! (s before& the landslide is thought for
calculations as an array of bloc's which divide the landslide into a number of compartments!
Jsually ta'e compartments such that no practical loss of accuracy can be within them to ta'e
over the plane and the surface order to the ground conditions& slope shape& the effect of
e$ternal forces& etc! were practically uniform!
Sig. 10. Analytical method GM Shahunyantsa
Will determine the sustainability of the unit at an arbitrary surface potential displacement (0ig!
,-)! +onsider the euilibrium condition for any i6th compartment (eg& second)! (ll e$ternal
active forces (weight of the soil compartment& e$ternal load& etc!) acting on the i6th
compartment leads to resultant Ei! This force decompose at the point its applications into
components: normal Ni and tangential to the possible shift plane compartment =i! 45
*hahunyants generally accepts that the resultant of the e$ternal forces active inclined to the
vertical at an angle Ti! We will simplify the argument to consider the case where the force Ei
is vertical& ie the angle Ti B -& then:
N
i
P
i
cos u
i
)
i
P
i
sin u
i
. (78)
The slope of sliding surfaces within each compartment in the direction of possible
displacement unit values /i are ta'en with the plus sign in the fall in the direction of sliding
surfaces and with a minus sign in the opposite direction!
0ollowing the basic laws of structural mechanics by providing a separate consideration i6th
compartment& we must replace the influence on him of the unit overlying force %i6,& and the
influence of the underlying 6 the same force %i! .n general& 45 *hahunyants accepts that the
strength %i6, is directed at an angle Ui6, to the horizon& the strength %i 6 at an angle Ui to the
horizon& etc! We assume in this case that the forces %i directed along a line parallel to the
direction of the reaction of the retaining structure& which will ta'e the horizontal (as it is
usually ta'en at the vertical edges of contact with the ground containment structure)!
Therefore& considering all the forces %i oriented horizontally& ie Ui B -! Nesisting shear of i6th
compartment at its base plane inclined at an angle /i to the horizon& is the cohesion force c
i
l
i
and friction force S
i
n
tg
i
(where S
i
n
is the normal reaction of the base)! *ince the magnitude
of %i-1 is& as will be shown below& the 'nown rate of the previous compartment& the un'nown
forces are only S
i
n
and %i! To find them& simply we are using two euations of statics!
Ero1ecting all the forces on the normal to the base compartment and the direction of the
base& we obtain:
S
i
n
N
i
((
i
sin u
i
- (
i-1
sin u
i
); (79)
)
i
c
i
l
i
S
i
n
tg
i
((
i
cos u
i
- (
i-1
cos u
i
). (80)
*ubstituting the value of S
i
n
in the e$pression for )
i
and increasing in recent times #
u
+
& obtain
an euation for %i:
#
u
+
)
i
N
i
tg
i
c
i
l
i
|(
i
(cos u
i
tg
i
sin u
i
) - (
i-1
(cos u
i
tg
i
sin u
i
)|. (81)
We .ncrease the value )
i
times #
u
+
in order to ensure that every i6th compartment is in
stabilized against shift its base with the given stability factor #
u
+
! .n this case all possible shift
bloc' will have the same general coefficient of stability!
*ubseuently the tangential component )
i
of the e$ternal active forces P
i
, if it tends to move
the compartment at its base& is denoted by )
i-sd
! .f the same tangential component )
i
is
directed to the unit side opposite to the direction of possible displacement& it will have the
force to hold the compartment from potential displacement& and it should not be increased in
the value times #
u
+
! We denote )
i
& in this case& by )
i-ud
!
Erevious euation can be simplified by remembering that:
cos u
i
tg
i
sin u
i
(cos u
i
cos
i
sin u
i
sin
i
)/cos
i
cos(u
i
-
i
)/cos
i
. (82)
(fter these e$planations we find the value %i:
(83)
0or compartments in which )
i
B )
i-sd
in formula (<;) values )
i-ud
will be ta'en zero& where )
i
B )
i-ud
& the value )
i-sd
should be zero! *ince in most practical cases& the direction of
incidence of the sliding surface along the entire length coincides with the possible
displacement of the landslide bloc' (ie a monotone)& in the subseuent formulas we will be
featured only )
i
& which we mean as )
i-sd
& and )
i-ud
will assumed to be zero! ToweverF in
each case when performing the calculations should be aware of the possibility of
forces Q
i-#$
.
(
i
reaction of each bloc'& situated beloww the i6th compartment& in the general case
can be determined by successive calculations& going from the first compartment where (
i-1
is
zero& to the last one! *euentially determined forces %i& is especially useful when it is
impossible to calculate without advance on separate stable part of the slope across from the
unstable (VW)!The first of the sections for which %i got zero or even negative& separates the
overlying stable part of the unit (including himself) of the underlying! While avoiding tensile
stresses in the soil the underlying part should be considered separately! AnalyGing
consistently values EiF it is easy to install places the gaps of the soil the place of
transition from stable to unstable parts of the unitUF place expedient arrangement of
retaining structures for exampleF places the lowest values Ei and moderate values of
the biasing layer thicEnessUF etc.
When ma'ing )
i-ud
B - last written our formula becomes:
(84)
0or the first compartment %i6, B -& so
0or the second compartment
.n general& the pressure of the landslide is eual to:
(85)
.t is obvious that the slope of the entire thrust force %op supporting the last compartment&
must be zero (since nothing supports this last compartment)! Dn this basis& it is possible to
get a free slope stability coefficient euating %op B - (in this case& when it becomes the
degree of stability of the slope& and not on the value of the stoc' of its consolidation& it will be
#
u
not #
u
+
)!
(86)
.f the surface potential displacement 6 a plane with the same characteristics C and c
brea'down into compartments is not reuired& the landslide pressure is determined by the
formula:
(87)
Thus it is possible to determine not only the active earth pressure on retaining structure
(opposite the direction of structural response) %a B %op& but passive pressure (resistance)
%o B %op! *ince the tangential force in rebuffing force becomes =& resisting shear& this fact
should be ta'en when Ou B ,!
The ma$imum value of %a and the minimum value of %o can be found from the condition
6 a negative value of the second derivative in the first case and positive in the second!
0or the particular case of the ordinary +oulomb pressure (prism collapse at retaining wall
with horizontal bac'fill surface) at Ou B , we obtain in this manner well6'nown formula:
(
on
(1/2)+
2
tg
2
(45 + /2) |ptg(45 + /2) - c|+tg(45 + /2), (88)
where p 6 vertical load on the bac'fill behind the wall! @ere the upper signs refer to the case
%op B %a& and the lower 6 to the case %op B %o!
Thus& the method of 4! *hahunyantsa is one for calculating the coefficients of free slope
stability (slope)& and for determining the force transferred by the retaining structure!
The magnitude of the filter strength 1& in the presence of hydrodynamic pressure& and the
magnitude of seismic forces =c& at the location of the slope in the seismic area& defined as
before& by the formulas:
,
i

e
e
i
sin
]i
)
ci
P
i
. (89)
This method will also assume appro$imately (in stoc') that filtration and seismic forces are
shearing forces (ie& directed parallel to the base compartment)!
Nemembering the e$pression (:<) components of Ni and =i through the main force Ei& we
obtain the final formula for determining the coefficient of slope stability and landslide pressure
values! .n the absence of groundwater:
(90-a)
(91-a)
.n normal water saturation slope:
(90-)
(91-)
When e$posed to the slope of seepage:
(90-n)
(91-n)
Dften& in practice& there are cases of e$posure to 1et slope groundwater flow (eg& on the
southern coast of the +rimea or the slopes of the +aucasus mountains)! .n this case& the
hydrodynamic pressure is necessary to consider and weigh the soil 6 do not consider as a
continuous saturation of soil slope is missing! That is& the formula should be used only on the
basis of the filtration pressure:
(90-r)
(91-r)
0or the derivation of formulas for determining the pressure and landslide stability coefficient
were used two euations of statics! The third static condition (momentum euation) ma'es it
possible to determine the point of application of the reaction %op over the retaining structures
(or force %i for any i6th compartment)! This solution is e$act for circular cylindrical sliding
surfaces and rough in others! The shown method is described by considering the 4!5
*hahunyants method of polygon forces!
Written formulas can also be used for the scheme& ta'ing into account that the force %
inclined from the horizontal by an angle U& is constant for all compartments! *ince the angle
of limited uantities U - XU XY) (where Y 6 the angle of shear)& it can be assumed to be
appro$imately -&2 Y! 0or this scheme& the calculation formulas in the e$pression
(corresponding to U B -) is replaced by
where q c-.s$.
O.B. Graphoanalytical method of polygons of forces GM Shahunyantsa
.f the surface of the possible displacement is 'nown& for e$ample& predetermined geological
structure of the slope& set in the performance of engineering surveys or adopted using
different theoretical methods& stability analysis is often appropriate to maintain the array
method of polygons of forces L2;& ;<& ;QM!
The basis of the calculation is preserved hypothesis of solidified body! This hypothesis is
bro'en& if the surface is not displacement plane and circular cylinder surface (which actually
overlying the array can be shifted as one unit) as well as with any other surface during
displacement of the outline of the array having the local tension! Kut these local stresses can
create an array of motion purely local effect in the form of individual crac's or brea' local soil
compaction! *ince the calculation is to determine the conditions for stability of the array& it is
possible to save as a wor'ing hypothesis about solidified body! This assumption lies in the
conventional framewor' of the assumptions that have been adopted in almost conventional
calculations of structural mechanics! .n many cases of building settlements item is
considered as a whole and is calculated on the common tension! .f reuired& further include
the effect of local stresses!
This method will show the e$ample of determining the pressure on the retaining structure&
based on the assumption that no interaction with the structure the array will be stable or
unstable enough!
Sig. 11 and presented an array of drum on which there are any structures (not shown)! (n
array landslide protectionsupported by structure is in euilibrium! .s necessary to determine
earth pressure on retaining structure& eual in magnitude and opposite in direction of the
reaction of the building!
Sig. 11. Method of polygons of forcesV
a 6 the design scheme of the slope& b 6 a diagram of one of the compartments of a polygon of forces& v 6 detail sole
compartment& g 6 general polygon of forces
We divide the entire array into a number of compartments! .n weight derived compartments
P
i
we include weight of soil and structures located on each compartment! .n each
compartment acts tangential )
i
and normal N
i
components of the weight compartment P
i
!
+ut out mentally any compartment of the array (for e$ample& ; 6 see 0ig! ,,b) and apply to it&
other than those of forces& the forces of %2 and %;& replacing effect on him neighboring
compartments! Dn the surface of (K possible shift compartment are reactions from the
surface eual to the limit euilibrium conditions& adhesion and friction forces on the surface
(with the full manifestation of these forces)& and a normal reaction! (dhesive force is denoted
by /
3
c
3
l
3
! 0riction force T
3
and the normal reaction S
3
n
on surface (K replace their
resultant S
3
(see 0ig! ,,v)! 0riction force T
3
S
3
n
tg
3
& and the resultant
S
3
(92)
The angle of inclination of the resultant S
3
to the normal to the surface (K is thus eual to the
angle
3
internal friction of soil on the soil surface (K (see 0ig! ,,v)& as the tangent of this
angle is the ratio of the friction force T
3
tg
3
S
3
n
to normal reaction S
3
n
!
The entire bloc' will have a predetermined coefficient #
y
of stability if for each compartment
will be sustained the same reuirement!
0orces& shearing the entire massif on the sliding surface will be tangential components )
i
of
forces P
i
& if they are directed towards the possible shift of the bloc'! (ll other forces& including
reaction and retaining structures& forces are either not directly affect the stability (as strength
N
i
)& or resist the opportunity to displacement!
+onsider the stability factor for the possible displacement of each compartment on the sliding
surface (received for each compartment in the plane) as the ratio of the tangential forces
holding array (!
y
)& to all tangential forces trying to cause its displacement ()
cn
)! Then we
can write for a given coefficient of stability it is necessary to:
!
y
- #
y
)
cn
0 (#
y
!
y
/)
cn
; !
y
#
y
/)
cn
). (93)
.n other words& given the tas' of ensuring the stability coefficient Ou can be reduced to the
usual euilibrium conditions& when considering the forces instead of shearing tangential
forces ta'e power in Ou times greater in magnitude and acting in the same direction! *o we
ta'e in compiling the euilibrium conditions& instead of the tangential component of the value
)
i
of forces P
i
& the #
y
)
i
value& if )
i
force tends to move the bloc' (as is the case in
compartments ,& 2 and 4)! 0orce value )
i
is accepted without changes if it resists to
displacement (as is the case in the compartment ;)!
.n the calculations assume that (
i
force is directed along a line parallel to the direction of the
reaction of the retaining structures (
on
! .n 0ig! ,,& the reaction of structure to landslide thrust
(
on
is directed horizontally& so all forces (
i
are horizontally oriented!
*olving the problem of relatively independently of each compartment (see 0ig! ,,b) we
should consider for each compartment forces )
i
& /
i
and (
i-1
as 'nown! The force (
i-1
is
'nown by solving the problem of the previous compartment& bearing in mind that in the first
compartment force is absent! Jn'nown forces in each compartment are therefore forces (
i
and S
i
!
"eaving for the moment the issue of determining the force application points& solve the
problem of determining the force magnitudes (
i
and S
i
& which are determined by their
directions! There are enough two statics conditions! This problem can be solved either
analytically (see the previous method of calculation)& or constructing the polygon of forces!
The latest decision will usually provide sufficient accuracy! .t was shown for the third
compartment in 0ig! ,,& b! 0or the entire slope problem is solved graphically from
compartment to compartment& building for each bloc' the polygon of forces! .n 0ig! ,, g
these polygons are shown continuously following one after the other with common side of
polygons (
i
6 for current and previous compartment! .n the transition from one compartment
to another should only change the direction of force (
i-1
(which is part of the reaction
compartments to the previous) on the reverse& as in this case& the force %i6, is transmitted
from the previous compartment active!
*trength (
4
& which is defined for the last compartment& will be the complete reaction& and
must ensure retaining structure in order to the landslide has the given stability factor #
y
!
.n this regard& the calculation of the the retaining structures should be reuired only to
customary conditions of euilibrium for the stability coefficient already ta'en into account in
determining the strength of (
on
! Neaction point of the retaining structures& (
on
being already
'nown in magnitude and direction& can be found using the remaining third euilibrium
condition! To do this& find the center of the curve& as close as possible to the actual matching
sliding curve (in 0ig! ,,& and replacing the arc circle of radius r with center D shown in
dashed lines)! The arm from the center D to the direction of the force (
on
6 reaction the
retaining structures 6 is denoted by z!
Ta'ing moment of all forces about the center D& we obtain:
(
on
0 1(#
y
L)
icn
- L/
i
- LS
i
sin
i
- LN
i
tg
i
- L)
iy
);
0 (#
y
L)
icn
- L/
i
- LS
i
sin
i
- LN
i
tg
i
- L)
iy
)1/(
on
. (94)
Eolygon of forces also allows you to define the best location and the retaining structures& and
places most li'ely brea's the array and places of possible occurrences mounds and terraces
bulging when sliding the array (ie Ou Z ,)& and a number of other problems which in practice
often great interest!
0rom consideration of 0igure ,,& z is seen& for e$ample& that would be a more rational
arrangement of the retaining structure at the border of the fourth and the third compartment&
as this would lower the reaction %op& since it is eual to %;& but not %4 (a polygon of forces
can be seen that the %; X%4)!
.n constructing the polygon of forces must ensure that it become not in a compartment i6th
strength eual to zero or of opposite sign& that is& not if it disappears or becomes instead
whether the shear forces supporting force! "ast physically can not be (if the soil can not
occur tensile stress) and show only that part of the array from the beginning to the border
somewhere inside this compartment has not only given the stability coefficient& but even
e$cess! Thus& the construction of the polygon of forces directly determines the stability
boundary portions of the array! When there is a negative force value (when it is in the
direction of i6th compartment in the displacement direction) and a force for drawing the
polygon the ne$t compartment i H , strength %i in this polygon is e$cluded (provided to
prevent tensile stress& the tensile stress on the assumption may be considered a that part of
the strength %i& where the tensile stresses do not e$ceed the permitted)!
The described method of constructing polygons forces can be applied to solve the problem:
3oes this array stability factor of not less than specifiedV
.f the array does not have a predetermined stability coefficient Ou& %op strength is eual& for
e$ample& in the case considered& %4& which must be attached to the end of the last
compartment to provide the coefficient array& will focus on maintaining the array! .f the actual
rate stability eual to or more than the array specified& the force %op B %4 will be either zero
or directed toward the possible shift of the array! This shows that in order to actually reduce
the high stability coefficient to a given& you need to ma'e shearing force %op B %4! .n the
e$ample above the array has given stability factor Ou& since the force %op B %4 in the
polygon of forces was aimed at maintaining the slope!
.f there is necessary accounting seismic impact force =si and a slope or groundwater 1i& they
are added directly to the forces =i and thus also involved in the construction of the graphics!
Weigh ground considered analogous manner as described in the previous calculation
methods!
(s can be seen from the above& the method considered polygons forces allows to directly
determine the magnitude of the landslide pressure to which shall be calculated landslide
retaining structure!
O.A. Wapid method of calculation by GM Shahunyantsa
(s practice shows calculations performed in the design antilandslide retaining structures
deep foundations& analytical method 45 *hahunyantsa is very effective! Kuildings designed
for landslide pressure calculated by this method are normally operated for several years!
%specially convenient application written using the above formulas digital computer! .n this
case& calculations on the developed model programs reuire minimal labor costs!
Dften& however& still have to perform the calculations by hand (in the absence of a computer&
when the rough calculations& comparing options& when the settlement pri'ido' directly in a
nature during the e$amination of landslides& when deciding on the possibility of installing
mechanisms on a slope& etc!) when reuired operational e$pense and there is no sense or
ability to go on the car! .n this case the formula 4! *hahunyantsa advantageous to use a
modified form of several proposed by the author of this wor' L;M!
"et us write the slope shown in 0ig! ,2& the previously derived euation (Q, g)!
*ubstituting into this euation the values: P
i

i
a
i
h
cp.i
(for >i should ta'e into account not only
the volumetric weight of the soil& but also the weight of the e$ternal load on the compartment
when it is available)7 )
ci

e
a
i
h
cp.i
; ,
i

e
a
i
h
i
sin
]i
, after simple transformations we obtain:
(95)
There are designated:
(96)
0or these three ratios using digital computer graphics can be constructed by the type
presented in 0igures ,;& ,4& ,2& in order to facilitate the calculations!
Sig. 1O. Wapid method of calculation by GM ShahunyantsaV
a 6 overall design scheme of the slope& b 6 pressure diagram landslide
0rom the graph in 0ig! ,; interesting thing is clear: with increasing surface slip angle / effect
of the change of the angle of internal friction C decreases! This is natural& because with
increasing angle / main role is played by the force of gravity& do not depend on the strength
characteristics of soils! .f you are doing real particular slope calculations will not 'eep within
the above assumption of monotony and the sliding surface in a compartment she would not
falling and rising& it may be considered the adoption eoi from 0ig! ,; at a negative angle /i!
(t continuous saturated soil& where it is reuired& it should be physical and mechanical
properties of roc's with regard to their soa'ing water: >vi& cvi& Cvi! .n this case the seismic
force& not only the weight of the ground& but the similar manner& by weight water!
.n addition to the graphs& the author of this wor' composed Table! , 6 ; (see (ppendi$)&
contributing to the implementation of sufficiently accurate calculations! 0urthermore& in the
tables are data necessary for broader than in the graphs& the range of input parameters!
When the location of the slope in the non6seismic adopted [ B -& in the absence of
groundwater flow 6 hi B -! .n this case& formula (Q2) ta'es the form:
(97-a)
or what is the same
(97-)
0ig! ,;! 4raphics depending 2
-i
#
y
+
sin u
i
- cos u
i
tg
i
When using the given e$pressions should be remembered that to determine the total
pressure of the landslide at the end of i6th compartment of the landslide of the bloc' located
above the slope& you need to consistently summarize all landslide pressure from overlying
each of the compartments& starting with the first (uppermost)
0ig! ,4! 4raphics depending c
-i
c
i
/(h
cp.i
cos u
i
)
0ig! ,2! 4raphics depending
i
cos
i
/cos (u
i
-
i
)
(98)
Jsing these formulas constructed diagram landslide pressure along the length of the entire
slope (see 0ig! ,2b)! +alculations it is recommended to be performed using a blan' tab! 2
and ;!
*everal simplified by this method may be& formula (Q-6i) for determining the stability of a
slope factor! (fter simple transformations& it ta'es the following form! .n the general case:
(99-a)
the absence of groundwater in non6seismic areas:
(99-)
+alculating the coefficient of stability is recommended that using pre Table! 4 and 2!
3 45 6 7 3 2
Calculation landslide pressure formula (Q2)
3 45 6 7 3 3
Calculation landslide pressure formula (97-a)
3 45 6 7 3 4
Compute the slope stability by the formula (99-a)
3 45 6 7 3 5
/-mpu$2 $h2 sl-p2 s$a8ili$9 89 $h2 :-1mula (99-)