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# A New Approach for On-Site Calibration of

Voltage Transformers

Dr. Michael Krger, Florian Predl, OMICON Austria
Content
> Measurement Methods
Conventional Measurement Method
Alternative Measurement Method (Using a Model)

> Case Studies
Onsite Measurement on a 66kV Reference VT
Measurement on a 66kV CVT

Page 2 OMICRON
Conventional Measurement Method

Source: IEC 61869-3
Page 3 OMICRON
Measurement Procedure
1. Measurement of short-circuit impedance
2. Measurement of secondary winding resistance
3. Measurement of secondary short-circuit impedance (only if more
than one secondary winding)
4. Measurement of initial magnetization curve
5. Measurement of turns ratio correction
6. Calculation of voltage ratio error and phase displacement based
on the equivalent circuit diagram
Page 4 OMICRON
1. Measurement of Short-Circuit Impedance
Inductive Voltage Transformer
Page 5 OMICRON
1. Measurement of Short-Circuit Impedance
Capacitive Voltage Transformer
Page 6 OMICRON
2. Measurement of Secondary Winding
Resistance
Page 7 OMICRON
4. Measurement of the Magnetisation Curve
Page 9 OMICRON
4. Measurement of the Magnetization curve

Page 10 OMICRON

=
=
B f B V
A f n
V
B
A f B n V
C
C
C
or
2

44 , 4

H
C
B
R
F
l
u
x

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

B

[
T
]

Magnetic Force H [A/m]
5. Measurement of Turns Ratio Correction
Page 11 OMICRON
5. Measurement of Capacitive Ratio
Page 12 OMICRON
1st step: 2nd step:
5. Measurement of Turns Ratio Correction
Measurement of capacitive ratio in two steps:

Ratio of K
total
to K
ind
is equal to capacitive ratio:

= 1 +

The total voltage ratio of a capacitive voltage transformer is equal to the
product of capacitive ratio and inductive ratio obtained at higher voltages
(3kV):

@3
Page 13 OMICRON
5. Measurement of Turns Ratio Correction
Example for turns ratio correction from a 10kV reference VT (inductive VT)
Page 14 OMICRON
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

r
a
t
i
o

e
r
r
o
r

i
n

%

Primary voltage in V
Ratio Error (V) [%]
Reference
Ratio Error without turns ratio
correction correction
Ratio error with turns ratio
correction
Case Study 66kV Reference VT
Nameplate data Secondary terminal box
Page 15 OMICRON
Case Study 66kV Reference VT
Obtained voltage ratio error of class 0.03% 1.5min reference VT
Page 16 OMICRON
Power Voltage ratio error in % of rated voltage
VA VA [%] cos phi 80% 100% 120%
1,0000 100,0% 1,0000 -0,0064% -0,0038% -0,0019%
0,0000 0,0% 1,0000 -0,0052% -0,0025% -0,0006%
Case Study 66kV reference VT
Obtained phase displacement of class 0.03% 1.5min reference VT

Page 17 OMICRON
Power Phase displacement table (min)
VA VA [%] cos phi 80% 100% 120%
1,0000 100,0% 1,0000 -2,5727 -2,5655 -2,5576
0,0000 0,0% 1,0000 -2,3296 -2,3225 -2,3146
Case Study 66kV Reference VT
Conclusions:

Results have proven to be very stable over frequency range of
50Hz to 60Hz and for all successive measurement conducted
The biggest absolute variance between all successive tests was
0.001% in regards to the voltage ratio error and 0.03min in
regards to the phase displacement

Voltage ratio error results were within the requirements of 0.03%
Phase displacement results were off the specs by -1min (still
acceptible for calibrating class 0.1 metering VTs)

Page 18 OMICRON
Case Study Capacitive VT 66kV
Page 19 OMICRON
Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT)
VA
fu [%]
Reference
fu [%]
VOTANO
phi [min]
Reference
phi [min]
VOTANO
25 0,08 0,11 -0,50 -0,43
100 -0,22 -0,20 1,00 1,41
Conclusions:

Voltage ratio error results are within 0.03%
Phase displacement results were 1min

michael.krueger@omicron.at
Questions and Remarks?