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ON-SITE TESTING OF

HV CABLES AND GIS


CEPED 2013, Bali, Indonesia
Dr. Ralf Bergmann
HIGHVOLT Prftechnik Dresden GmbH
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Content:
On-Site HV Cable testing
Why spend money on HV tests?
Physical background: Cable characteristics and test
methods
Generation of continuous AC test voltages
Experience with continuous AC voltage testing
Test system examples
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Content:
On-Site GIS testing
Test requirements
Test procedures
Test systems
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ON-SITE HV CABLE TESTING -
WHY SPEND MONEY ON
ON-SITE HV TESTS
On-Site Testing of HV Cables
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 4 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Jakarta at night
With energy transmission by cables
5 31/10/2013
Jakarta at night
Without energy transmission by cables
31/10/2013 6 On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Large cable installation in Indonesia in the
future
PLN to lay $2b submarine cable from Sumatra to Java

Rangga D. Fadillah, The J akarta Post, J akarta | Business |
Fri, February 17 2012, 9:19 AM

.
The cable will span 700 kilometers connecting Bangko in South Sumatra and
Bogor in West J ava. The cable will be used to transmit power supply from South
Sumatra, where a number of coal-fired power plants are currently under
construction, to meet surging electricity demand in J ava.

The cable will be able to transmit power with a total capacity of up to 3,000
megawatts [MW] from Sumatra to J ava, Nasri explained.
.
31/10/2013 7 On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Bali crossing with overhead cable or subsea
cable
31/10/2013 8 On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Beautiful landscape should not be
destroyed by overhead lines
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Save energy transmission and distribution by
cables is essential
Cable connections are and will be even more in the future a
backbone of transmission and distribution systems especially due to
the special conditions of Indonesia
Interconnections of islands
Energy distribution in growing cities
Protected areas (national parks, recreation areas, tourism)
Because of power demand increase, the cables are stressed often to
its maximum load capacity (and sometimes higher)
An unexpected break down of the cable may result in fatal
consequences for the customer (outage for hours) and the utility
(penalty)
9 31/10/2013
31/10/2013 10 On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Is on-site testing of HV cabls after installation
necessary?
Consequently, an evaluation of the cable condition based on on-site testing is
technically and economically necessary
HV cable seems to have a proven and quite simple design in respect to other
components like transformers
HV cable will be manufactured in a highly automated way, failures caused by
humans are minimized
HV cables have to pass an intensive test program in the factory
Significant works will be done at site, like jointing
Small mistakes can result in mayor failures




Withstand tests
covered by IEC standards
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Different testing during lifetime of a cable
Manufacturing
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Transportation Installation
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Power
frequency
50/60 Hz
Operation
Power frequency
50/60 Hz
Cable life
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Requirements for dedicated on-site test
methods
After installation or repair
Load during on-site test should correspond to operational stress
Negligible ageing caused by on-site test
Easy adoption to different test requirements as voltage, cable
capacitance cable losses etc.
Designed for easy and frequent transportation, assembly and
operation
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Diagnostic testing
Failures should be discovered easily
Negligible ageing of the remaining cable by the on site test
PHYSICAL BACKGROUND:
CABLE CHARACTERISTICS
AND TEST METHODS
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 13 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Possible Defects in Cables
Crack
Delaminating
Protrusion at
semicon surfaces
Void
Vented-tree (length 2.38 mm) at
semicon surface combined with
electrical tree
Source: ABB Energiekabel GmbH
Water tree combined
with electrical tree
14 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
General Characteristics of HV Cable
Operation: electrical field control by
capacitance (C) at 50 Hz
HV
Equivalent circuit
at AC stress
XLPE Cable:
tan =
i
c
>>i
r
C R
Ground
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Examples for Typical Cable Geometry
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Cable Class Rated Voltage Insulation thickness Field strength at inner
semicon, voltage peak
at 50 Hz
MV cable 24 kV 5.5 mm 4 - 5 kV/mm
HV cable 138 kV 17.8 mm 7 - 10 kV/mm
EHV cable 400 kV 26 mm 12 - 15 kV/mm
16 31/10/2013
Differences of MV, HV and EHV cables
relevant for HV testing
Technical Consequences
Field strength increases with cable voltage
MV cables tolerate relatively large defects in operation,
very small defects can lead to breakdown of EHV cables
Example: small voids of the same size
- in a 10 kV cable joint may be harmless,
- may be dangerous for a 30-kV cable,
- cause quick breakdown in HV and EHV cables
(Result from: M.U. Zuberi, A. Masood, M.F. Khan, Ekram Husain & A. Anwar: Estimation of partial discharge inception voltages due to voids in
power cables, Aligarh Muslim University, India)
More sensitive tests for HV and EHV cables necessary
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 17 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Requirements for dedicated on-site test
methods
After installation or repair
Load during on-site test should correspond to operational stress
Negligible ageing caused by on-site test
Easy adoption to different test requirements as voltage, cable
capacitance cable losses etc.
Designed for easy and frequent transportation, assembly and
operation
18 31/10/2013
Diagnostic testing
Failures/Faults should be discovered easily
Negligible ageing of the remaining cable by the on site test
VLF
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Field Reduction at Different Test Frequencies
Con-
tinuous
AC
0
20
40
60
80
100
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
%

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Test frequency in Hz
Defect 1
Defect 2
Defect 3
IEEE 400: Conductivity in defects can assume much different values
than in the bulk insulation material
19 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Requirements for dedicated on-site test
methods
After installation or repair
Load during on-site test should correspond to operational stress
Negligible ageing caused by on-site test
Easy adoption to different test requirements as voltage, cable
capacitance cable losses etc.
Designed for easy and frequent transportation, assembly and
operation
20 31/10/2013
Diagnostic testing
Failures/Faults should be discovered easily
Negligible ageing of the remaining cable by the on site test
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Test of AC XLPE Cables with DC is not to
recommended
Operation: electrical field control by C
Testing: DC changes electrical field distribution
DC creates space charges on failures
(field emission, PD)
HV
Equivalent circuit
XLPE Cable:
tan =
i
c
>>i
r
C R
Ground
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VLF: Not suitable for HV / EHV Cables
Technical Consequences
Maximum field for healthy insulation: 30 kV/mm (IEC 62067)
3 or 4 U
0
simply not possible for HV and EHV cables
(would damage healthy insulation)
VLF at 2 U
0
not able to find important defects
VLF not suitable for HV and EHV cable systems
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 22 31/10/2013
What about DAC?
Description of test method:
Charging the cable with DC voltage,
Discharging the cable through an inductance
Causes damped oscillation,
Usually repeated 50 times.
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
-100
-75
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
-15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
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time / s
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Test procedure involves charging the cable with DC:
Duration up to approx. 1 minute per shot
Up to one hour of DC ramp voltage stress for total test
duration
Cable risk due to space charges exists
Quick reversal of test voltage immediately after DC stress
DAC Danger for the test object?
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 24 31/10/2013
Undefinedness of DAC test parameters
Damping:
Influenced by
Capacitance of
test object
Resistances of
test system
Tan delta of cable
Frequency:
Depends on
Capacitance of
test object
Inductance in test
system
Duration of AC
stress undefined,
0.4 260 ms/shot
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 25 31/10/2013
Undefinedness of DAC test parameters
Duration of AC stress:
Undefined
0.4 260 ms/shot
Varies by factor 600

30 minutes of continuous AC are equivalent to
6,920 4.5 Million shots of DAC
Total testing time: Days 8 Years
DC stress during most of the time
(Charging takes 99.x % of total test time)
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 26 31/10/2013
DAC Testing Time Insufficient
PD activity requires
starting electron
generated by radiation
Smaller defects have
less volume
Lower starting electron
generation probability
in a given time
Longer PD inception
time
Longer testing time
necessary to find
defects
Mark Fenger: Experiences with Commissioning Testing of HV &
EHV Cable Systems: The Influence of Voltage Level and Duration
for Identifying Life Limiting Defects, Kinectrics Inc., Canada
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 27 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
What voltage wave shape can be used to test
XLPE cable reliably and safely?
AC voltage in range of 20 to 300 Hz is the only
recommended wave shape to test XLPE cable
reliably and safely

VLF 0.01 to 1 Hz is not an reliable test method
because the test frequency is to far away from the
operation frequency of 50 Hz (different behavior of
insulation)

DC test can even damage an XPLE cable

Damped AC testing is more an DC test as an AC
test, only very few AC cycles
28 31/10/2013
GENERATION OF
CONTINUOUS
AC TEST VOLTAGES
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 29 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Technical Solutions for HV AC Generators
T
R

L
C

T
H

C
H

C
L

MD
C
C

AC
ACTC
Compensated
transformer
ACRL
Resonant test system with tuned
inductance as series resonant circuit
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MD
C
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AC
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C
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C
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MD
C
C

AC
ACRL
Resonant test system with tuned
inductance as parallel resonant circuit
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H

C
H

C
L

MD
C
C

AC
ACRF
Resonant test system
with tuned frequency
AC
f
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Comparisons of different AC Test Systems
Mode of on-site test system
ACTC
compensated transformer
ACRL
variable inductance
ACRF
variable frequency
Frequency 50 / 60 Hz 50 / 60 Hz 20 to 300 Hz
Quality factor of resonance (5) 40 to 60 80 to 200
Power supply Single / two phase Single / two phase Three phases
Specific weight 15 to 20 kg/kVA 3 to 10 kg/kVA 0.5 to 2 kg/kVA
Maximum test power
per mobile system
0.5 MVA 4 MVA 35 MVA
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Principle of Pulse Width Control of
ACRF Circuit
Control and Feeding Unit
Exciter
Transformer
Voltage
Divider
Test Object
Protection Impedance Resonant Reactor
400 V
3~
U
E
U
P
Frequency
Pulse width
U
E
U
P
Frequency
Test voltage
magnitude
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
On-site Testing of Cables: Increasing Power
by Reactor Combinations
higher
voltage
longer cables
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
On-site Testing of Cables: Arrangement of
an ACRF System, Type WRV T on a Trailer
Control and feeding unit
Exciting
transformer
HV reactor
HV filter and
protection unit
Canvas
Truck with trailer
34 31/10/2013
EXPERIENCE WITH
CONTINUOUS
AC VOLTAGE TESTING
Particular Tests
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 35 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Survey among Users of Continuous AC Test
Equipment Total Tests in each Cable Class
13
181
2078
1199
541
188
1
10
100
1000
<50 kV 50...100 kV 100...150 kV150...250 kV250...350 kV350...500 kV
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Rated cable voltage U
0
/ kV
Usage of Continuous AC testing in the field
IEEE PES Insulated Conductors Committee Spring meeting 2012, Group F11D
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
PD measurement On-Site
Manufacturing
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Transportation Installation
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50/60 Hz
Operation
Power frequency
50/60 Hz
Cable life
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PD PD PD PD
PD
PD
PD
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TEST SYSTEM EXAMPLES
Particular Tests
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 38 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
On-site Testing of Cables: Truck with Test
System 260 kV / 83 A
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
On-site Test of a 400 kV Cable System, 20 km
in London
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Test of a 400 kV Cable System at the
Madrid Airport
Courtesy of Pirelli Cables, Italy and UK
Installation of test system on-site
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
ACRF Configuration for Testing a 15 km long
400 kV Cable System at Madrid Airport
Frequency
converters
and
controls
Exciter
transformers
HV reactors
16H II (9+9) H =8.5 H
Voltage
divider
Blocking
impedances
Cable under
test:
15 km, 3.3 F
Test voltage: 260 kV (approx. 1.2 U
0
)
Test frequency: 30 Hz
Test power: 42 MVA (50 Hz equivalent: 70 MVA)
Feeding power
Demand: <400 kVA, 400 V (3 phases)
1
Master
Up to 8
Slaves
42 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Photos: Courtesy of CEPCO, K.S.A.

On-site Test of a 400 kV Cable System in
Jeddah, K. S. A.
43 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
On-site Testing of cables: Testing Under
Extreme Conditions
Photo: Courtesy of Kinectrics

- 20 C











50 C
Photo: Courtesy of KEMA
Photo: Courtesy of Nexans,
Marubeni, CEPCO
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Max. testable cable length: 100 km













Photos: Courtesy of ABB Power Tech Products, Sweden
AC Routine Test Facilities at a Supplier of
Submarine Cables
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On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
ACRF System for MV Cable Testing
installed in a Van
Control and feeding unit
Test voltage lead
Exciting transformer
HV resonant reactor
46 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Voltage range: 3050100 kV
Current range: 102550 A
Frequency: 20300 Hz
On-site Test Systems for Medium Voltage
Equipment
Application: Mediumvoltage cables
Rotating machines
Capacitor banks
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ON-SITE GIS TESTING
TEST REQUIREMENTS
On-Site Testing of HV Cables
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 48 31/10/2013
Same Testing Method used:
Test with AC voltages
(necessary for same behaviour of particles in GIS)
Test voltages up to 800 kV
Test current in to order of less than up to a few A
Duty cycle of a few minutes only
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 49 31/10/2013
ON-SITE GIS TESTING
TEST PROCEDURES
On-Site Testing of HV Cables
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 50 31/10/2013
Common Duty Cycle of GIS Testing
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k
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time in min
PD Measurement
(few minutes)
Test Voltage
(few minutes)
Conditioning
(some minutes)
Maximum some ten minutes
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 51 31/10/2013
Standardisation: IEC 62271-203/2nd CD
Test Setup Requirements

Need of mobile HV AC test system

Preferably metal-enclosed design

Conventional or UHF PD measurement

Need of mobile HV impulse test system
LI up to 1700 kV and
SI up to 1200 kV
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 52 31/10/2013
ON-SITE GIS TESTING
TEST SYSTEMS
On-Site Testing of HV Cables
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 53 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
AC resonant test system with variable frequency; 1.5 A/ 325 kV
Courtesy of Shenyang Kaidi High Voltage Electric, PR China
Mobile HV AC Resonant Test System
Metal-enclosed test systems with variable
frequency based on SF
6
-insulated
reactors up to 800 kV and 4.5 A
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Mobile HV AC Resonant Test System
Advantages

Light-weight small HV AC testing device

Needs no safety clearance during operation

Allows sensitive conventional PD measurement

Very reliable test system also under harsh
conditions on site

Easy to operate
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 55 31/10/2013
Connection by HV Lead WRV / G
Photo: courtesy of ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG, Mannheim / Germany
460 kV, 1.5 A
metal-enclosed
HV reactor
HV divider /
coupling
capacitor
HV lead
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 56 31/10/2013
Connection by HV Lead WRV / T
260 kV, 83 A
tank type resonant
reactor
HV lead
HV lead
Photos: courtesy of China Light and Power Co.,
Hong Kong
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 57 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
AC resonant test system with variable
frequency; 3 A/ 640 kV
Courtesy of AREVA Aix-Les-Bains, France
Mobile HV AC Resonant Test System
Metal-enclosed test systems with variable frequency based on
SF
6
-insulated reactors up to 800 kV and 4.5 A
58 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Mobile Modular HV AC Resonant Test System
Resonant test system of series M,
600 kV, 10 A
Courtesy of ABB, Switzerland
Modular test system of variable frequency Series M up to 1200 kV
59 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Voltage range:
100680 kV

Current:
0.51.5 (3) A

Frequency:
40300 Hz

On-site Test Systems with SF
6
-Insulated
Reactors
Application mainly for GIS also multiple
application with SF
6
.

60 31/10/2013
SUMMARY
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 61 31/10/2013
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS
Summary
On-site testing of HV cables and GIS is absolutely necessary
Assembly faults in joints and end terminations, particles etc. for GIS
For commissioning and condition assessment tests
Continuous AC test voltage finds the defects critical for service
Testing stress close to operating conditions
WRV test systems comply with requirements for on-site
testing
Easy transportability and handling
Modularity
Low demand on feeding power
62 31/10/2013
YOUR COMMENTS AND
QUESTIONS
Thank you for your attention!
On-Site Testing of HV Cables and GIS 63 31/10/2013