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LENGUA INGLESA TEORA Y PRCTICA

CONCEPTOS GRAMATICALES
Para poder dominar una lengua extranjera es fundamental que estemos
familiarizados con la terminologa gramatical de la Lengua Espaola, que como
todas las lenguas, est compuesta por un conjunto de signos que tienen sus
propias reglas.
Lenguaje. Facultad que nos permite comunicarnos.
Lengua. Est compuesta por signos y reglas.
Habla. Uso que hacen los individuos de la lengua.
Norma. Establece las reglas de uso.
El lenguaje tiene varias funciones:
FUNCIONES DEL LENGUAJE
Representativa Se transmite algo objetivo.
Expresiva Se transmite algo subjetivo
Apelativa Intenta provocar una reaccin
Potica En ella se usan recursos lingsticos y literarios que cambian el sentido
normal del mensaje.
CATEGORAS GRAMATICALES DEL ESPAOL
Partes variables Sustantivo.
Adjetivo.
Artculo.
Pronombre.
Verbo
Partes invariables Adverbio.
Preposicin.
Conjuncin
Sujeto. Para conocerlo preguntamos al verboquin?
Atributo. Aparece con verbos copulativo (ser,estar, etc) se conce preguntado
qu es?
Complemento directo. Se conoce preguntando qu es loque?
Complemento indirecto. A quin? o para quin?
Complemento circunstancial. Modo: cmo?
Lugar: dnde?
Tiempo: cundo?
Complemento agente. En oraciones pasivas. Fue escrito por l.
Es bueno que estemos conozcamos el significado de los siguientes trminos:
Lexema. Antes se le denominaba raz.
Morfema. Nos informa del genero, nmero, etc.
Fontica. Estudia los sonidos.
Fonologa. Estudia los fonemas.
Lexicologa. Estudia el lxico o vocabulario de una lengua.
Fonema. Es la unidad ms pequea. La lengua espaola tienen 24: cinco
vocales y diecinueve consonantes
Divisin de las consonantes segn el modo de articulacin.
Oclusivas.
Fricativas.
Africadas.
Lquidas.
Divisin de las consonantes segn el lugar de articulacin.
Bilabiales.
Labiodentales.
Linguodentales.
Linguointerdentales.
Linguoalveolares.
Linguopalatales.
Linguovelares.
Segn su sonoridad se clasifican en.
Sonoras.
Sordas.
Morfologa. Estudia la forma de las palabras.
Semntica. Estudia el significado de las palabras.
Morfema. Unidad lingstica que se aade al lexema o raz para formar una
palabra.
Sintaxis. Parte de la gramtica que se ocupa de las reglas mediante las cuales
se combinan las unidades lingsticas para formar la oracin.
Sintagma. Es una o ms palabras relacionadas entre s.
Oracin. Unidad lingstica mnima, constituida por dos sintagmas: el nominal y el
verbal que realizan la funcin de sujeto y predicado.
Sujeto. Es la persona u objeto del que se dice algo.
Predicado. Expresa todo lo que se dice del sujeto.
Oracin simple. Tiene como ncleo del predicado un solo verbo.
Sustantivo. Se refiere a nombres, animales, cosas, etc.
Pedro come pan.
Verbo. Indican las acciones que enlazan los sujetos.
Comer, Bailar, Ir.
Adjetivo. Califica al nombre. Inma es rubia.
Pronombre. Sustituye al nombre. Pepe es mi amigo, l nunca me falla.
Adverbio. Modifica al verbo. Ella come mucho.
Conjuncin. Une oraciones ypalabras.
Pueden ser coordinadas y subordinadas.
Habla ingls y francs.
Determinante. Matiza al nombre. Mi hermana. Un coche.
Preposicion. Relaciona palabras. Vive en Sax.
Artculo Puede ser determinado o indeterminado:
El, la, los, las Un, una, unos, unas.
El libro es til.
Las oraciones pueden tener las siguientes partes:
Sujeto. Es quien realiza la accin.
Se conoce preguntando quin? al verbo. Yo como a las 2.
Verbo Indica lo que hace el sujeto. Ella estudia mucho.
Complemento directo. Se conoce preguntandoal verbo qu es lo qu?
Ellos comen bocadillos.
Complemento Indirecto. Se conoce preguntando al verbo a quin o para quin
?
Las cartas son para Mara.
Complemento Circunstancial de tiempo. Se conoce preguntando al verbo
cundo? Ayer vi a Juan.
Complemento Circunstancial de modo. Se conoce preguntandal verbo cmo?
Me duele la cabeza terriblemente.
Complemento circunstancial de lugar. Se conoce preguntando al verbo
dnde?
Se caso en Monvar.
Locuciones adverbiales. Pueden aparacer al principio, en medio o al final de la
frase. La vi esta maana. Esta maana la vi.
Atributo. Acompaa al verbo ser, estar y algunos otros como existir, parecer. Ella
es guapa.
Persona. Hay tres en singular: yo, t, l, ella y ello.
Tres en plural: nosotros, vosotros y ellos.
l es Pepe. Nosotros somos de Elda Ellos son altos.
Genero. Puede ser masculino, femenino o neutro.
Perico es alto.
Gloria es alta.
Nmero. Puede ser singular o plural.
Tengo un coche.
Ellos tienen dos coches.
Determinantes. Pueden ser: posesivos, demostrativos, numerales, cardinales,
partitivos, indefinidos .
Mi casa. Algunas personas Esta habitacin.
Artculo. Pueden ser determinados o indeterminados
El libro es bueno. Un libro es un buen regalo.
Pronombres. Pueden ser personales, demostrativos, posesivos, relativos,
interrogtivos, numerales, indefinidos.
La mias es rpida. rpida. Quin vive aqu? Algunos vendrn luego.
Verbo transitivo. Puede llevar complemento directo
Compro el pan cada da
Verbo intransitivo. No llevan complemento directo. Viven en Aspe.
Verbo regular. Forma el pasado y el participio aadiendo la misma desinencia.
En
ingls -ed. To play, played, played.
Verbo irregular. Forma el pasado y el participio pasado de otra forma. Go, went,
gone.
Infinitivo. Es la forma verbal acabada en en ar, -er, -ir.
En ingls suelen llevar la partcula to.
Cantar, comer, reir. To come, to play,Must, can.
Participio de presente. En ingls acaba en -ing.
Playing, singing.
Participio de pasado. En castellano acaba en -ado -ido.
Comido, contado.
Modo. Es una caracteristica del verbo.
Puede ser: indicativo, subjuntivo, imperativo y condicional.
Tiempo. Situa temporalmenta la accin. Presente, pasado y futuro. Pueden ser
simples, continuos y perfectos.
Yo como.Yo com. Yo comer. Yo he comido.
Voz. Existen dos: activa y pasiva.
Activa: Ernesto vende piel
Pasiva:Las pieles son vendidas por Ernesto.
Afirmativas. Yo vivo en Elda.
Negativas. No como carne roja.
Interrogativas. Eres de Villena?
Interrogativa negativa. No eres t la prima de Olga?
Transitiva. Pepe come carne.
Intransitiva. Ellos viven en Logroo
Reflexiva. Ella se lava sola.
Reciproca. Pepe y Raquel se odian.
Impersonal. Llueve mucho en Letonia.
Enunciativa. Tengo mucho hambre. Nunca bebo caf.
Interrogativa. Cunto vale el disco?
Exclamativa. Qu bonito!
Imperativa. Cllate ya!
Desiderativa. Ojal llueva maana.
Tipos de oraciones simples
Atributivas Expresan cualidades del sujeto, y suelen usar los verbos ser y estar.
Predicativas Expresan acciones con verbos predicativos. Pueden ser activas y
pasivas.
Transitivas Llevan complemento directo: Yo como bocadillos de calamares.
Intransitivas No tienen complemento directo.
Reflexivas El sujeto realiza y recibe la accin.
Recprocas Los sujetos realizan y reciben la accin mutuamente: Ellos se miran.
Personales Llevan sujeto gramatical.
Impersonales Carecen de sujeto. Hace sol.
Pasivas El sujeto recibe la accin verbal y el verbo est en forma pasiva.
Pasivas reflejas Tienen el sujeto en voz activa: Se venden pollos de campo, ivas o
Enunciativas Pueden ser afirmativas o negativas.
Interrogativas Se utilizan para preguntar.
Exclamativas Expresan emociones.
Imperativas Expresan mandatos y ruegos.
Desiderativas Expresan deseos.
Dubitativas Indican posibilidades o probabilidades.
COORDINADAS
Copulativas. Estudia y trabaja.
Adversativas. Estudia mucho sin embargo no aprueba.
Disyuntivas. Entra o sal.

SUBORDINADAS
Temporales. Mientras caminabamos ibamos cantando.
Modales. Debes hacerlo como dice la guia.
Consecutivas. Ha aprobado, por lo tanto se matricular en derecho.
Condicionales. Lo har si no te quejas ms.
Causales. Puesto que lo sabe todo que conteste Manuel.
Finales. Iremos para que te revisen la vista.
Concesivas. Aunque no me gusta lo har.


















































TO BE

El verbo to be significa ser o estar. Comparte con to do y to have la
caractereristica de ayudar a formar otros tiempos verbales, por eso se le
denomina verbo auxiliar. Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y tambin
con: who, where, how, etc.
Im Peter. Peters here. Thats Manoli. Whos that girl?
Yo soy Pedro. Pedro est aqu. Esa es Manoli. Quin es esa chica?
Las contracciones se suelen usar en las conversaciones.
Interviene en la formacin de los tiempos continuos o progresivos.
Las formas negativas las hace aadiendo not y las interrogativas por medio de
la inversin, es decir, poniendo primero el verbo y luego el sujeto.
Esta estructura la comparte con el verbo to havecuano indica posesin y con los
verbos modales.

PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO
I am/I'm.
Yo soy o yo estoy.
I was.
Yo era o yo estaba.
I will/ shall be.
Yo ser o yo estar.
You are/you're. You were. You will be.
He is/he's. He was. He will be.
She is/she's She was. She will be.
It is/it's. It was. It will be.
We are/we're. We were. We will/ shall be.
You are/you're. You were. You will be.
They are/they're. They were. They will be.
Are not contrae en arent.
Is not contrae en isnt.
Was not contrae en
wasnt
Were not contrae en
werent
La contraccin es ll.
Will not contrae en wont.
Shall not contrae en
shant.
Are you from
Elda?
He is not from Elche Were they in the cinema?
Eres de Elda? l no es de Elche. Estaban ellos en el cine?


PRINCIPALES USOS
Para preguntar la edad. How old are you?
o Qu edad tienes? I am forty. Tengo cuarenta aos.
Indicar la profesin. I am a teacher. Soy profesor.
La ideologa. He is a socialist. El es socialista.
El credo religioso. He is a catholic. El es catlico.
Formar los tiempos continuos. I am writing with a computer. Estoy
escribiendo con un ordenador.
o I was swimming yesterday. Estuve nadando ayer.
o I will be walking on the beach. Estar caminando por la playa.
La formacin de la voz pasiva. The book was written by Emilio.Este libro lo
escribi Emilio.
Este libro fue escrito por Emilio.
Para medidas. I am six feet tall. Mido seis pies.
o How big is the town? Cmo es de grande el pueblo?
o It is quite big. Es bastante grande.
o How wide is the river Vinalop? Qu anchura tiene el ro Vinalop?
o It is 200 metres wide. Tiene 200 metros de ancho.
o How high is Boln? Qu altura tiene Boln?
o It is nearly 1.000 metres high. Tiene casi 1.000 metros de altura.
o How small is an atom? Cmo es un tomo de pequeo?
o It is very small Es muy pequeo.

Indica tallas. I am size 8. Gasto la talla 8
Con adjetivos. I am happy and you are right. Yo estoy contento y t tienes
razn.
Unido a: Where (Dnde?),What (Qu?),Who Quin?),Why, (Por qu?)
etc,
o Wheres the boy?Dnde est el nio?
o Whens your birthday?Cundo es tu cumpleaos?
Con ciertas expresiones.
o I am right. Tengo razn.
o I am cold. Tengo fro.
Contrae con demostrativos y adverbios.
o Thats right. As es.
o Hows that?. Cmo es eso?



1) I ......................sure I will.
a - Am
b - Are
c - Is
2) I ................a teacher.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
3) Camara.......in Elda.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
4) Where...........you from?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
5) How old ........you?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
6) It.........hot today.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
7) It.......a telephone.
a - Am
b - Are
c - Is
8) They........students.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
9) This dog.......................white.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
10) The houses.........old.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
11) ........these books interesting?
22
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
12) What........those people doing?
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
13) The baby.......eating the food.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are


14) The window........open.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
15) Cats.........black or white.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
16) Don't .............cheeky.
a - Be
b - Have
c - Do
17) How old are you? I................
a - Have 20 years
b - Am 20 years
c - Have 20 years
18) That is Mr. Pedro Civera. How .................he?
a - Old is
b - Many years is
c - Many years has
19) He ............in Madrid last week.
a - Was
b - Were
c - Be
20) ......they in the same class as you at Azorn High School?
a - Was
b - Were
c - Be
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21) Yes, they........interesting books.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
22) Manolo.......a boy.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
23) I...........a teacher.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
24) Manuela.......tall.
a - Am
b - Are
c - Is


25) The tables........not small.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
26) ........the Plaza Mayor very big?
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
27) You.........the limit.
a - Are
b - Is
c - Am
28) I ....................tall.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
29) My friends..........very nice.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
30) Horacio ......in Elche.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
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31) Juan Carlos and Clemente........friends.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
32) She.........36 years old.
a - Are
b - Is
c - Am
33) My sister.......happy.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
34) What......your name?
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
35) How.............you?
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are


36) Elda........in Alicante.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
37) My name........Pedro.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
38) I.........in the classroom.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
39) Jose Prez ....................a mechanic.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
40) My mother ..................very good.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
41) You.....................tall.
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a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
26
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. C 8. C 9. B 10.C.11.B 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.B 16.A 17.B 18.A
19.A 20.B.21.B 22.B 23.B 24.C 25.C 26.B 27.A 28.B 29.C 30.B.31.C 32.B 33.B 34.A 35.C
36.A 37.B 38.A 39.A 40.A. 41.B


TO HAVE
Se traduce por tener. Puede ir acompaado de la partcula got. No se
produce alteracin del significado si aparece o no, pero cuando aparece
el verbo puede ir contraido. Tampoco se usa en las respuestas breves.
PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO
I have/l've.
To tengo.
I had.
Yo tuve o yo tena.
I will have.
Yo tendr.
You have/you've. You had. You will have.
He has/he's. He had. He will have.
She has/she's. She had. She will have.
It has/it's. It had. It will have.
We have/we've. We had. We will have.
You have/you've. You had. You will have.
They have/they've. They had. They will have.
Have + not contrae en
havent.
Has + not contrae en
hasnt.
Had + not contrae en
hadnt.
I have a car.
Tengo un coche.
I have got a car.
Tengo un coche.
PRINCIPALES USOS
Indicar posesin. I have a white car.
Tengo un coche blanco.
I have got a white car.
Tengo un coche blanco.
Puede indicar otro tipo de actividades.
Ingestin de alimentos tanto slidos
como lquidos.
I have breakfast at 7:45.
Desayuno a las 7:45.
I have a drink on Friday.
Me tomo una copa los viernes.
Otros. I have a bath and my wife has a
shower.
Yo me bao y mi mujer se ducha.
We have a walk on Sunday.
Damos un paseo los domingos.
We had a good time there.
Lo pasamos muy bien all.
Construccin de tiempos perfectos. I have been in New York.
He estado en Nueva York.
I have had a headache.
He tenido un dolor de cabeza.
I will have gone to Madrid.
Habr ido a Madrid.
Obligacin. I have to go to Alicante tomorrow.
Tengo que ir a Alicante maana.
Combinado con better indica consejo.
La contraccin es Youd better.
You had better buy a new pair of shoes.
Sera mejor que te comprases un par de
zapatos.
La construccin causativo have, se
utiliza cuando alguien hace algn
servicio para nosotros.
Im going to have my hair cut.
Me voy a cortar el pelo.
Con el significado de tener puede tener dos modos de hacer la forma
interrogativa. La segunda es ms usada en ingls americano.
Have you got a car?
Tienes un coche?
Do you have a car?
29
Tienes un coche?
Utiliza de igual modo do para hacer la interrogativa cuando hace
referencia a usos idiomticos.
Did you have a bath?
Te baaste?
30
1) I..........a white car.
a - Have
b - Has
c - Is
2) Mary.........a German boyfriend.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Are
3) We .....................a nice park near Sagasta Sqaure.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Is
4) My flat.......................seven rooms.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Having
5) My sister ...................a white car.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Haveen
6) Pepita ........three daughters.
a - Has
b - Haave
c - Having
7) My mother .......a lot of pictures.
a - Have
b - Has
c - Having
8) Susana.......two cars.
a - Is
b - Have
c - Has
9) Mr and Mrs Garca ........a house on the beach.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Haveing
10) You..................two dictionaries.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Jaf
11) My sister.....a new TV set and a DVD player.
31
a - Has
b - Have
c - Having
12) Elda......................six parks.
a - Have
b - Has
c - Having
13) ......................she got a boyfriend?
a - Has
b - Have
c - To have
14) We ......................three cinemas in Plaza Mayor.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Haven
15) Manuela ..............a cat.
a - Have
b - Has
c - Having
16) I........................to go to Madrid last month.
a - Have
b - Had
c - Must
17) Hey...........a look, Rocio Jurado is there with her husband.
a - Have
b - Take
c - Put
18) I'd rather ..............paella than gazpachos.
a - Have
b - Has
c - Had
19) "Do you have " a car and "Have you got a car " are:
a - The same
b - Not the same
c - It depends
20) I ................................a headache.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Is
21) She.................got a cold.
32
a - Is
b - Have
c - Has
33
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. A 7. B 8. C 9. B 10.B
11.A 12.B 13.A 14.B 15.B 16.B 17.A 18.A 19.A 20.B
21.C
34
TO DO
Se traduce por hacer. En presente tiene dos formas, do y does, esta
ltima se usa en la Tercera Persona del Singular (He, she, it). La forma del
pasado es did. Todas se usan como auxiliares para la forma interrogativa y
la negativa del presente y del pasado simple de los verbos no modales.
Recuerda que siempre que aparezcan, el verbo ir en infinitivo.
PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO
I do.
Yo hago.
I did.
Yo hice.
I will do.
Yo har.
You do. You did. You will do.
He does. He did. He will do.
She does. She did. She will do.
It does. It did. It will do.
We do. We did. We will do.
You do. You did. You will do.
They do. They did. They will do.
Do not contrae en dont.
Does not contrae en
doesnt.
Did not contrae en
didnt.
Will not do contrae en
wont do.
PRESENTE PASADO
Construir las formas
negativas.
He doesnt eat meat.
No come carne.
I dont want to go to the
cinema.
No quiero ir al cine.
I didnt go to the
cinema.
Yo no fui al cine.
Construir las formas Do you love her? Did you go to England?
35
interrogativas. La quieres?
Does he speak
Valenciano?
Habla valenciano?
Fuiste a Inglaterra?
Tiene tambin un uso
enftico.
He does love running.
Le encanta correr.
He did say what he
wanted to say.
Dijo lo que quera decir.
PRINCIPALES USOS
Otros usos idiomticos. I did the shopping in Carrefour.
Hice la compra en Carrefour.
I do the washing up every night.
Friego los platos cada noche.
I never do the cleaning.
Nunca hago la limpieza.
Sometimes I do the cooking.
A veces cocino.
She hates doing the ironing.
Ella odia planchar.
Con la expresin Yo tambin. -I like Mara Callas.
Me gusta Mara Callas.
-So do I.
Y a m tambin.
Con la expresin Yo tampoco. I dont smoke.
Yo no fumo.
Neither do I.
Yo tampoco.
36
LOS PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS
En ingls se hace necesario usar los pronombres personales, ya que de no
hacerlo y usar slo la forma verbal existira ambigedad. En el ejemplo: Go
to London, no sabramos quin va, podra ser yo, t, nosotros, nosotras,
vosotros, vosotras, ellos o ellas.
En castellano no pasa lo mismo. Si decimos Vamos a Alicante, las
desinencias verbales nos sacan de dudas. Est claro que somos nosotros.
PRONOMBRES
PERSONALES
SUJETO
PRONOMBRES
PERSONALES
COMPLEMENTO
ADJETIVOS
POSESIVOS
PRONOMBRES
POSESIVOS
PRONOMBRES
REFLEXIVOS
I . Yo. Me. A m, me. My. Mi. Mine. El mo. Myself. Me.
You . T. You. A ti, te. Your. Tu. Yours. El tuyo. Yourself. Te.
He. l. Him. A l, le. His. Su de l. His. El suyo.
(de l).
Himself. Se.
She. Ella. Her. A ella, le. Her. Su de
ella.
Hers. El suyo.
(de ella).
Herself. Se.
It. Ello. It. A ello, le. It. Su de ello. Its. El suyo.
(de ello).
Itself. Se.
We. Nosotros o
nosostras.
Us. A nosotros, a
nosotras, nos.
Our.
Nuestro,
nuestra.
Ours. El
nuestro.
Ourselves. Nos.
You .Vosotros
o vosotras.
You. A vosotros,
a vosotras, os.
Your.
Vuestro,
vuestra.
Yours. El
vuestro.
Yourselves. Os.
They. Ellos o
ellas.
Them. A ellos, a
ellas, les.
Their. Su de
ellos, su de
ellas.
Theirs. El suyo. Themselves.
Se.
Los pronombres personales pueden funcionar dentro de la frase como
sujetos o complementos
SUJETO COMPLEMENTO
Ella es alta. Dale esto a ella.
37
You are a teacher. This is for you.
I siempre se escribe con mayscula.
You se puede traducir por T, Vd, vosotros, vosotras y Vds.
You e it tienen la misma forma como sujetos que como complementos.
You are young.
T eres joven.
I love you.
Te quiero.
No utilizan preposicin delante del objeto indirecto, pero s, si sigue al
Objeto Directo.
She gave me a kiss.
Ella me dio un beso.
She gave a kiss to me.
Ella me dio un beso a m.
El complemento Indirecto sin to se coloca delante del Complemento
Directo
I gave Sarah a kiss.
Yo le di a Sara un beso.
El Complemento indirecto con to se coloca detrs del Complemento
Directo
I gave a kiss to Inma.
Le di un beso a Inma.
It se usa generalmente para cosas y a veces tambin para bebs.
Look at the baby, it is smiling.
Mira al bebe, est sonriendo.
La diferencia entre un adjetivo y un pronombre posesivo es que el adjetivo
acompaa al nombre y el pronombre lo substituye.
ADJETIVO PRONOMBRE
38
Mi casa es grande. La ma tambin.
My house is big. Mine is also big.
Los pronombres reflexivos indican:
Acciones que recaen sobre el mismo
sujeto.
He washes himself every morning.
Se lava cada maana.
Enfatizan. He himself can go.
l puede ir solo.
Pueden ir precedidos de by, en cuyo
caso significan yo solo, t solo..
I went to Madrid by myself.
Fui yo solo a Madrid.
Each other. El uno al otro They love each other.
Se quieren.
One Another. A todos They gave presents one another.
Se hacen regalos.
One. She is the prettiest one.
Ella es la ms guapa.
I was the second one in the race
Fui el segundo en la carrera.
39
ADJETIVOS Y PRONOMBRES DEMOSTRATIVOS
SINGULAR PLURAL
THlS este, esta, esto. THESE estos, estas.
THAT ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella,
aquello.
THOSE esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas.
Como adjetivos concuerdan con el nombre.
This man is my teacher of English.
Este hombre es mi profesor de ingls.
That woman is my wife.
Esa mujer es mi esposa.
These books are interesting.
Estos libros son interesantes.
Those girls are from Italy.
Aquellas chicas son de Italia.
Se usan cuando hablamos por
telfono.
This is Peter.
ste es Pedro.
En ciertas expresiones. Thats right.
Es correcto.
En presentaciones This is Mary, my friend
sta es Mara, mi amiga.
40
1) Let me introduce..........
a - Me
b - Myself
c - Mine
2) I hope you enjoy..........stay.
a - You
b - Your
c - Yourself
3) .......am sorry.
a - I
b - Me
c - My
4) I will show .........the house.
a - Yours
b - Your
c - You
5) What's............name?
a - You
b - Your
c - Yours
6) What is...........motto?
a - Your
b - You
c - Yours
7) Peter and Mary have ................house in Villajoyosa.
a - Their
b - They
c - Them
8) Sara is very happy with .........new doll.
a - She
b - Her
c - Hers
9) Oscar is at home playing with...............toys.
a - His
b - He
c - Him
10) Carlos is in Elche. .............works there in a shoe factory.
a - Him
b - He
c - His
11) ..................says that Isabel is her best friend.
41
a - She
b - Her
c - Hers
12) Felipe is very proud of ..................new car.
a - Him
b - His
c - He
13) Pilar and Paco are paying for...................new house.
a - Them
b - Their
c - They
14) Barbie has ...........hair blonde.
a - Her
b - She
c - Hem
15) The door is open because...............is very hot.
a - It
b - Its
c - Itt
16) .....................play tennis with their sons.
a - They
b - Them
c - Theirs
17) The girls are playing with ..................dolls.
a - Them
b - Their
c - They
18) Mara is pretty and..............is also very tall and slim.
a - She
b - Her
c - Hers
19) ...............doesn't like writing with a fountain pen.
a - He
b - She
c - Me
20) ...............always play football in Castelar Square.
a - Them
b - Theirs
c - They
21) Pepe is poor but he says that...............is happy.
a - He
42
b - Him
c - Hers
22) The computer is old...........was bought in 1980.
a - It
b - Its
c - Him
23) My sister is working with ..................new computer.
a - Her
b - His
c - She
24) Excuse.......
a - Me
b - My
c - Mine
25) I am looking at..........
a - Your
b - You
c - I
26) Pleased to meet ............
a - Yours
b - Us
c - You
27) How do ............do?
a - You
b - Yours
c - Him
28) Help .............., Pepe.
a - You
b - Yourself
c - Yours
29) Here ...........are.
a - We
b - Us
c - Our
30) Shut up and mind your ........business.
a - Our
b - Ours
c - Own
31) ................Goodness.
a - My
b - Me
43
c - I
32) ...........sounds great.
a - I
b - That
c - Me
33) Give..........a ring when you get home please.
a - Mine
b - Me
c - My
34) Didn't .............say you wanted to come with us?
a - Yours
b - Us
c - You
35) Thank ......very much.
a - You
b - Yours
c - Youm
36) Please give ............a hand.
a - Us
b - We
c - Our
37) Give.............regards to your family.
a - Me
b - My
c - I
38) Let ........take a photograph of you.
a - Me
b - My
c - Us
39) Let ...........introduce myself.
a - Me
b - I
c - My
40) I like............
a - She
b - Her
c - Hem
41) I play football with.........
a - He
b - Him
c - His
44
42) The book is............
a - My
b - Mine
c - Me
43) She is ..................secretary.
a - Me
b - My
c - Mine
44) I am................father.
a - He
b - His
c - Him
45) Inmita is ..................daughter.
a - Me
b - My
c - Mine
46) The dictionary is............
a - Me
b - My
c - Mine
47) The umbrella is..........
a - He
b - Her
c - Hers
48) He is..................teacher.
a - Our
b - We
c - Us
49) .........live in Elda.
a - Us
b - We
c - Our
50) If you work for......you will not have to suffer a boss.
a - You
b - Yours
c - Yourself
51) Many people nowadays live by.......
a - Them
b - Themselves
c - Their
45
52) We enjoyed ..........in our honeymoon.
a - Us
b - Ours
c - Ourselves
53) Help................Feel at home.
a - Yourself
b - You
c - Yours
54) The keys on the table are.........Mine are here.
a - You
b - Your
c - Yours
55) I am very proud of this town of......
a - Me
b - My
c - Mine
56) ........faithfully.
a - Your
b - Yours
c - Yourself
57) Maika is a friend of.........................
a - Me
b - I
c - Mine
58) It was a problem of.........that made us arrive late.
a - Hers
b - She
c - Her
59) I like swimming. -.......too.
a - I
b - My
c - Me
60) Visit...........when you come to Elda.
a - Us
b - Our
c - Ours
61) ....................wife's name is Inma.
a - I
b - Me
c - My
62) .....................father was the Mayor.
46
a - He
b - His
c - Him
63) She is ...................new teacher, her name is Laura.
a - Us
b - Our
c - Ours
47
Soluciones
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. B 10.B
11.A 12.B 13.B 14.A 15.A 16.A 17.B 18.A 19.B 20.C
21.A 22.A 23.A 24.A 25.B 26.C 27.A 28.B 29.A 30.C
31.A 32.B 33.B 34.C 35.A 36.A 37.A 38.A 39.A 40.B
41.B 42.B 43.B 44.B 45.B 46.C 47.C 48.A 49.B 50.C
51.B 52.C 53.A 54.C 55.C 56.B 57.C 58.A 59.C 60.B
61.C 62.B 63.B
48
HABER IMPERSONAL. THERE IS
Se usa para indicar que hay una o ms cosas. Al formarse con el verbo to
be hace las formas interrogativas y negativas como el mencionado verbo.
AFIRMATIVA INTERROGATIVA NEGATIVA
There is a car.
Hay un coche.
Is there a car?
Hay un coche?
There is not a car.
No hay un coche.
There was a boy.
Haba un nio.
Was there a boy?
Haba un nio?
There was not a boy.
No haba un nio.
PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO CONDICIONAL
There is. There was. There will be. There would be.
There are. There were.
There's.
There is someone waiting for you.
Hay alguien esperndote.
There are four biscuits on the plate.
Hay cuatro galletas en el plato.
Is there anything I can do for you?
Hay algo que pueda hacer por t?
49
1) Crevillente is a very modern town. There.....................not many old buildings.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
2) There.......................a photograph of the Mayor in the newspaper!
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
3) Excuse me, ..............there a restaurant near here?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
4) There........................five people in my family.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
5) There.....not a film in the camera.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
6) How many cinemas.. there in Villena?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
7) .........................there a concert next Sunday?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
8) ..........................there a bus from Alicante at 7.00?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
9) There...........two trains to Madrid every day.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
10) There.......some computers in this University.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
11) .......there a nice park in Alicante?
50
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
12) ................there a supermarket near here?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
13) There...........................two letters from the bank.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
14) There.............many people in the club now.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
15) There.................a parade next Saturday.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
16) There........a football match on TV tonight.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
17) ..............there a swimming-pool in your hotel?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
18) There...............many restaurants in Benidorm.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
19) There.............a concert next June in Santa Pola.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
20) .....................there many people in the Festivities in Villena?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
51
Soluciones
1. B 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. A 8. A 9. B 10.B
11.A 12.A 13.B 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.A 18.B 19.A 20.B
52
LOS PRONOMBRES INDEFINIDOS SOME, ANY,
NO y SUS COMPUESTOS
Expresan cantidades indefinidas.
Some.
Se usa con oraciones afirmativas. Se
traduce por algo, algn, algo de.
I have some magazines from the
library.
Tengo varias revistas de la biblioteca.
En interrogativas cuando la
respuesta que se espera es
afirmativa.
Do you want some chocolates?
Quieres bombones?
Any.
Se usa en oraciones interrogativas y
negativas. Se traduce por nada,
ningn, algn.
Have you any good book to lend me?
Tienes algn buen libro para
dejarme?
I havent any money.
No tengo dinero.
No.
Se usa en oraciones con el verbo en
afirmativa pero el sentido de la frase
es negativo.
I have no money.
No tengo dinero.
Los compuestos de some, any y no se comportan de la misma manera.
Something.
Algo.
Anything.
Algo, nada.
Nothing.
Nada.
Everything.
Todo.
Somebody.
Alguien.
Anybody.
Alguien, nadie.
Nobody.
Nadie.
Everybody.
Todos.
Somewhere.
Algn lugar.
Anywhere.
Alguna parte,
ninguna parte.
Nowhere.
Ninguna parte.
Everywhere.
Todas partes.
Someone.
Alguien.
Anyone.
Alguien, nadie.
No one.
Nadie.
Everyone.
Cada uno.
53
Is there anybody who wants to come with me to Madrid?
Hay alguien que quiera venir conmigo a Madrid?
There is nothing more to say.
No hay nada ms que decir.
54
1) I want..........water please.
a - Some
b - Any
c - Somebody
2) I want...........................ice.
a - Myself
b - Any
c - Some
3) I haven't got...........................pets.
a - A
b - Some
c - Any
4) I have.............................money.
a - Some
b - Any
c - Do
5) Do you want..............................bread?
a - Some
b - Both
c - Any
6) I want...........................coke.
a - Any
b - Three
c - Some
7) I haven't ......................................money.
a - Some
b - Any
c - Something
8) We haven't......................................matches.
a - Some
b - Everything
c - Any
9) We have......................................French wines.
a - Any
b - Some
c - Much
10) There aren't.................................biscuits.
a - Some
b - Any
c - Anything
11) I have.............................old pictures of Elda.
55
a - Me
b - Some
c - Any
12) Are there.....................................letters?
a - Some
b - Any
c - No
13) Would you like .........................chocolates?
a - Any
b - Will
c - Some
14) Have you seen ................love film lately?
a - Some
b - Any
c - No
15) Have you got...........................brothers or sisters?
a - Any
b - My
c - Some
16) There are.....................................boys playing football outside.
a - These
b - Some
c - Any
17) Is there.........................................cinema in town?
a - Any
b - Some
c - Six
18) Is there .....................................swimming pool in Petrel?
a - Some
b - Any
c - Big
19) I've got ....................................books on computers
a - Any
b - Some
c - Me
20) I want...........................apples.
a - Somenody
b - Any
c - Some
21) They haven't........................relatives in Seville.
56
a - Some
b - Any
c - Theirs
22) Have you ........brothers or sisters?
a - Some
b - Any
c - No
23) ..............understands me.
a - Onebody
b - Nobody
c - Anyboby
24) ...................smells nice!
a - Anything
b - Something
c - Nothing
25) There's ...............like a siesta.
a - Nothing
b - Something
c - Anything
26) is there .........we can do to help?
a - Anybody
b - Anything
c - Anywhere
27) I would like to buy him .........typical of Spain.
a - Something
b - Nothing
c - Anything
28) There is......milk in the fridge.
a - No
b - Some
c - Many
29) I want..........to eat.
a - Some
b - Something
c - Anywhere
30) There is .......which is not very clear in this.
a - Something
b - Anything
c - Nothing
57
31) Would you like ..............more chocolates? I know they are your favourite
ones.
a - Any
b - Much
c - Some
58
Soluciones
1. A 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. C 7. B 8. C 9. B 10.B
11.B 12.B 13.A 14.B 15.A 16.B 17.A 18.B 19.B 20.C
21.B 22.B 23.B 24.B 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.A 29.B 30.A
31.C
59
OTROS INDEFINIDOS
All.
Hace referencia a ms de dos.
All my friends came to my party.
Todos mis amigos vinieron a mi fiesta.
Both.
Se refiere a dos.
Both are 14.
Los dos tienen catorce aos.
Each.
Cada.
Each and every day I sleep siesta.
Todos los das duermo la siesta.
Either.
O.
Either you stay here or come with us.
O te quedas o vienes con nosotros.
Every.
Cada.
Every day I go running.
Todos los das voy a correr.
Neither.
Ni.
Neither of them are happy.
Ninguno de ellos est contento.
Neithernor
Ni..ni.
I neither like coffee nor tea.
No me gusta ni el caf ni el t.
None.
Ninguno de los dos.
None wanted coffee.
Ninguno quiso caf.
60
PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS
INTERROGATIVAS
Who.
Quin? Se usa con
personas.
Who came yesterday?
Quin vino ayer?
Whom.
A quin? Se usa
compaado por
preposiciones.
Whom did you speak to?
Con quin estabas hablando?
The man with whom you spoke is Pepe.
El hombre con quien estabas hablando es Pepe.
Whose
De quin? Se usa en la
forma posesiva.
Whose car is this Ford Fiesta?
De quin es este Ford Fiesta?
Which.
Qu o Cul?
Which is your favourite singer?
Quin es tu cantante favorito?
What
Qu? Se usa cuando no
hay antecedentes.
What do you think of him?
Qu piensas de l?
How.
Cmo?
How is your mother?
Cmo est tu madre?
How many.
Cantos?
How many books do you read a year?
Cuntos libros lees al ao?
How much.
Cunto?
How much is that CD?
Cunto cuesta ese disco?
How long.
Cunto tiempo?
How long will it take to go to Madrid by plane?
Cunto tiempo tardar en ir a Madrid en
avin?
How far.
A qu distancia?
How far is Elche from Santa Pola?
Qu distancia hay entre Elche y Santa Pola?
How fast.
A qu velocidad?
How fast can you type?
A qu velocidad mecanografas?
61
How often.
Con qu frecuencia?
How often do you play football?
Con qu frecuencia juegas al ftbol?
Why.
Por qu?
Why was he late?
Por qu lleg tarde?
When.
Cundo?
When did you go there?
Cundo fuiste all?
Where.
Dnde?
Where do you live?
Dnde vives?
What kind.
Qu clase?
What kind of music do you like?
Qu clase de msica te gusta?
62
1) ........do you spend your free time?
a - How
b - When
c - Which
2) ........your phone number?
a - What is
b - Where is
c - How is
3) ........do you live with?
a - Who
b - Where
c - How
4) ........do you do on Sundays?
a - Where
b - What
c - How
5) ........were you born?
a - Where
b - Which
c - What
6) ..........sports do you practise.
a - Which
b - Where
c - How
7) ..............do you live?
a - Where
b - Which
c - How
8) ................says this is a good film?
a - Who
b - Where
c - What
9) He is the one ....is in London, isn't he?
a - Who
b - Which
c - Where
10) ..............did you know it was my birthday today?
a - Where
b - What
c - How
11) What ........good idea!
63
a - A
b - Some
c - Few
12) Wow! ...........a sight.
a - How
b - Where
c - What
13) ............silly!
a - How
b - Where
c - Which
14) ..................delicious sweets you have in Elda.
a - How
b - Where
c - What
15) .. is Arguiano?, -He is a marvellous cook, he came to Elda in 1997.
a - Who
b - Where
c - Which
16) We both realise ...........important it is.
a - How
b - Which
c - Where
17) ...............interesting!
a - What
b - What an
c - How
18) Mercedes is ......................came to the party wearing the red dress.
a - The one who
b - What
c - One which
19) Juan, .........................did you have lunch with, last Saturday?
a - Who
b - Whose
c - Which
20) .is Salvador? - The boy I met yesterday.
a - Who
b - What
c - That
21) .................came yesterday?
64
a - Who
b - Whom
c - Whose
22) ....................love opera
a - Whom
b - Who
c - Whose
23) And this is ..happened that night.
a - What
b - Who
c - That
24) Is that book ..............you wanted to buy?
a - The one
b - That
c - What
25) Look at those boys, Mary....one is your brother?
a - Who
b - Where
c - Which
26) This is the Harley .........I want to buy.
a - Where
b - What
c - Which
27) ............is this pencil?
a - How
b - Whose
c - Who
28) ........father is the President of The Moros Musulmanes?
a - Whose
b - What
c - Which
29) .........wrote several books on grammar?
a - Who
b - Where
c - Which
30) is the restaurant?
a - Where
b - Which
c - What
31) .........celebrate San Antn all together?
a - What about
65
b - Why don't we
c - How about
32) .........very nice car is a Mercedes.
a - What a
b - How
c - How a
33) ........I arrive in Moscow I will send a fax.
a - As
b - When
c - Now
34) ......a pretty girl.
a - What
b - What a
c - How
35) ......pretty girls.
a - What
b - What a
c - How
36) .........tall is the cathedral?
a - What
b - How
c - Where
37) ..........silly of you is to say that!
a - What
b - How
c - What a
38) ........long have you been studying English?
a - Where
b - How
c - What
39) ........horrible weather you have in England!
a - What a
b - What
c - How
40) ........paid the bill?
a - Where
b - Who
c - How
41) ......did you see at the fair?
a - Where
b - Who
66
c - Whose
42) ........is your favourite film?
a - What
b - Which
c - Who
43) .........happened when we went?
a - What
b - Where
c - How
44) ..........does she want?
a - Where
b - What
c Who
45) .......is this old car?
a - Whose
b - Who
c - Whom
46) .........did you give the parcel?
a - Whose
b - Whom
c - How
47) .........was that pretty girl who was with you in the Plaza Mayor?
a - Who
b - Whose
c - Whom
48) .......came with Pepe?
a - What
b - Who
c - Where
49) .....did he say?
a - Who
b - Which
c - What
50) ..is this car?
a - Who
b - Whom
c - Whose
51) .......did you givethe first prize in the contest?
a - Whose
b - Who
67
c - Whom
52) ..........a pretty girl!
a - What
b - How
c - What a
53) ........stupid of him!
a - What
b - How
c - What a
68
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. A 7. A 8. A 9. A 10.C
11.A 12.C 13.A 14.C 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.A 19.A 20.A
21.A 22.B 23.A 24.A 25.C 26.C 27.B 28.A 29.A 30.A
31.B 32.A 33.B 34.B 35.A 36.B 37.B 38.B 39.A 40.B
41.B 42.B 43.A 44.B 45.A 46.B 47.A 48.B 49.C 50.C
51.C 52.A 53.B
69
El NOMBRE
CONTABLES E INCONTABLES
Los nombres se pueden clasificar en contables e incontables.
Contables son aqullos que podemos contar con la ayuda de un numeral.
Tienen forma de plural y pueden llevar el artculo a/an o the, some, few
etc.
One book. Two pencils. Three boys. Four cars.
Un libro. Dos lapiceros. Tres nios. Cuatro coches.
Los incontables no tienen plural, algunos de ellos pueden ser tanto
contables como incontables. Existe un cambio en el significado.
I bought a paper. Give me some paper to write.
Compr un peridico. Dame papel para escribir.
She has a new iron. This is made of iron.
Tiene una nueva plancha. sto est hecho de hierro.
Give me a glass. This is Bohemian glass.
Dame un vaso. Esto es cristal de Bohemia.
I drink coffee. Give me two coffees.
Bebo caf. Dame dos cafs.
Algunos nombres incontables:
Butter.
Mantequilla.
Help.
Ayuda.
News.
Noticias.
Tea.
T
Chocolate.
Chocolate.
Homework.
Deberes.
Paper.
Papel.
Time.
Tiempo.
Coffee.
Caf.
Hope.
Esperanza.
Physics.
Fsica.
Toothpaste.
Pasta de dientes.
Cream. Hunger. Rubbish. Trouble.
70
Crema. Hambre. Basura. Problema.
Dirt.
Suciedad.
Information.
Informacin.
Sand.
Arena.
Water.
Agua.
Flour.
Harina.
Mathematics.
Matemticas.
Sky.
Cielo.
Weather.
Tiempo
atmosfrico.
Food.
Comida.
Milk.
Leche.
Soap.
Jabn.
Work.
Trabajo.
Fun.
Diversin.
Money.
Dinero.
Wine.
Vino.
Silver.
Plata.
Furniture.
Mobiliario.
Music.
Msica.
Sugar.
Azcar.
Advice.
Consejo.
71
MUCH, MANY, FEW, LITTLE, A LOT OF
CONTABLES
Many.
Muchos o muchas.
I have many friends.
Tengo muchos amigos.
Few.
Pocos o pocas.
A few.
Unos pocos o unas pocas.
She has read few books.
Ella ha ledo pocos libros.
I have a few good friends.
Tengo unos pocos buenos amigos.
So Many.
Tantos.
We have so many books that I dont
know where to put them.
Tenemos tantos libros que no s
dnde ponerlos.
So Few.
Tan pocos.
He is alone, he has so few friends.
Est solo, tiene tan pocos amigos.
Too Many.
Demasiados.
Too many cooks spoil the broth.
Demasiados cocineros echan a perder
el caldo.
Too Few.
Demasiado pocos.
There were too few to start the party.
Haba demasiado pocos para
empezar la fiesta.
INCONTABLES
Much.
Mucho.
I dont drink much coke.
No bebo mucha Coca-cola.
Little.
Poco.
A little
Un poco.
He eats little fruit.
Come poca fruta.
With a little milk please.
Con un poco de leche.
So Little.
Tan poco.
He drinks so little water.
Bebe tan poca agua.
72
Too Much.
Demasiado. ms de lo necesario.
They eat too much meat.
Comen demasiada carne.
Too Little.
Demasiado poco. menos de lo
necesario.
They have too little money.
Tienen demasiado poco dinero.
So Much.
Tanto.
They spend so much on clothes that
they never have enough money.
Gastan tanto en ropa que nunca
tienen suficiente dinero.
CON CONTABLES E INCONTABLES
A lot of.
Mucho, muchos.
We have a lot of books.
Tenemos muchos libros.
We drink a lot of water.
Bebemos mucha agua.
Lots of.
Montones de. Mucho, Mucha.
Lots of people came yesterday.
Mucha gente vino ayer.
Plenty of.
Mucho, muchos.
Tiene el matiz de de sobra.
There are plenty of good books in the
library.
Hay muchos buenos libros en la
biblioteca.
I dont have to hurry, Ive got plenty of
time.
No tengo que apresurarme, tengo
mucho tiempo.
Partitivos ms utilizados con los nombres incontables.
A bar of.
Una barra de.
A bar of chocolate.
Una barra de chocolate.
A bottle of.
Una botella de.
A bottle of wine.
Una botella de vino.
73
A can of.
Una lata de bebida.
A can of coke.
Un lata de Coca-cola.
A cup of.
Una taza de.
A cup of coffe.
Una taza de caf.
A piece of.
Un trozo de, una porcin de.
A piece of paper.
Un trozo de papel.
A tin of.
Una lata de.
A tin of tuna.
Una lata de atn.
A packet of.
Una bolsa de.
A packet of crisps.
Una bolsa de papas.
74
1) Only ....................live in the country nowadays.
a - Few
b - Little
c - Much
2) There is....................noise in this city.
a - Few
b - Many
c - Much
3) There are ........schools in Salinas.Only two.
a - Little
b - Few
c - Much
4) I'll have........................coffee.
a - Few
b - A
c - Any
5) In Petrel there are...................mountains.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Little
6) There's...........................................whisky in the bottle
a - Few
b - Little
c - Many
7) ....................good friends are better than many.
a - Little
b - Few
c - Much
8) I have .........................money left.
a - Little
b - Few
c - Many
9) I want..........................milk in my coffee please.
a - Some
b - Any
c - Few
10) I spend.........................time watching TV.
a - Much
b - Many
c - Few
11) We have to study.........................books.
75
a - Much
b - Many
c - Any
12) There are .................................desks in this class.
a - Much
b - Little
c - Many
13) Not ...................people smoke in this University.
a - Manys
b - Many
c - Fews
14) They pay Zidane .......................money.
a - Much
b - Many
c - Few
15) There aren't ..............................towns in Teruel.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Little
16) I didn't drink ............................wine yesterday.
a - Much
b - Many
c - Few
17) There are only ..........................people in the concert.
a - Few
b - Little
c - Many
18) I want to have ............................friends.
a - Little
b - Many
c - Much
19) Now I have.................................money.
a - Few
b - Many
c - Little
20) They asked me ...........................questions.
a - Many
b - Little
c - Much
21) I don't have ................................time.
76
a - Much
b - Many
c - Little
22) I'll try .............English tea.
a - Some
b - Many
c - Any
23) Don't ask me so ..........questions.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Less
24) How ..............shirts are you going to buy?
a - Many
b - Much
c - Often
25) I have .....time.
a Little
b - Much
c - Yet
26) How ...........people are living in Villena?
a - Much
b - Many
c - Some
27) ...............much is the English book?
a - How
b - Which
c - Where
28) I drink........................coke.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Few
29) My wife eats ..................oranges.
a - Many
b - Little
c - So
30) My brother has...................CDs.
a - A lot os
b - A lot of
c - Much
31) I study..........
77
a - Few
b - Many
c - Much
32) Is there ..................water in the bottle? No, there isn't.
a - Many
b - Lot
c - Much
33) There is .................milk in the jug.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Lot of
34) We have.................magazines and books about Elda.
a - A lot
b - A lot of
c - Lots
35) There are...................boys waiting for you outside.
a - Much
b - A few
c - Fewing
36) I don't eat..........................meat.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Few
37) We eat ...............fish.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Few
38) Lorenzo has ....................money.
a Much
b - Many
c Few
78
Soluciones
1. A 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. A 10.A
11.B 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.A 16.A 17.A 18.B 19.C 20.A
21.A 22.A 23.A 24.A 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.B 29.A 30.A
31.C 32.C 33.B 34.B 35.B 36.B 37.B 38.A
79
EL GENERO
Un gran nmero de nombres carecen de l, por eso tenemos la misma
palabra para masculino y femenino.
Teacher.
Profesor.
Doctor.
Mdico.
Student.
Estudiante.
Lawyer.
Abogado.
Artist.
Artista.
Reader.
Lector.
Musician.
Msico.
Driver.
Conductor.
Otras palabras tienen una forma para el masculino y otra para el femenino
y neutro.
MASCULINOS FEMENINOS NEUTROS
Father.
Padre.
Mother.
Madre.
Flower.
Flor.
Brother.
Hermano.
Sister.
Hermana.
Cat.
Gato.
Boy.
Chico.
Daughter.
Hija.
Door.
Puerta.
Otros tienen forma masculina y femenina
MASCULINO FEMENINO
A male doctor.
Un doctor.
A woman doctor.
Una doctora.
Actor.
Actor.
Actress.
Actriz.
Bachelor.
Soltero.
Spinster.
Soltera.
Boy.
Chico.
Girl.
Chica.
80
Brother.
Hermano.
Sister.
Hermana.
Bull.
Toro.
Cow.
Vaca.
Cock.
Gallo.
Hen.
Gallina.
Duke.
Duque.
Duchess.
Duquesa.
Emperor.
Emperador.
Empress.
Emperatriz.
Father.
Padre.
Mother.
Madre.
God.
Dios.
Goddess.
Diosa.
Horse.
Caballo.
Mare.
Yegua.
Host.
Anfitrin.
Hostess.
Anfitriona.
Husband.
Esposo.
Wife.
Esposa.
Lion.
Len.
Lioness.
Leona.
Lord.
Seor.
Lady.
Seora.
Man.
Hombre.
Woman.
Mujer.
Nephew.
Sobrino.
Niece.
Sobrina.
Poet.
Poeta.
Poetess.
Poetisa.
81
Prince.
Prncipe.
Princess.
Princesa.
Son.
Hijo.
Daughter.
Hija.
Steward.
Auxiliar de vuelo.
Stewardess.
Azafata.
Tailor.
Sastre.
Dressmaker.
Modista.
Uncle.
To.
Aunt.
Ta.
Waiter.
Camarero.
Waitress.
Camarera.
Widower.
Viudo.
Widow.
Viuda.
Curiosamente, Baby puede llevar el pronombre it y los gatos y los
perros he o she.
Los pases, los barcos y los coches se consideran femeninos y a veces se
personifican.
- Do you like my car?
Te gusta mi coche?
- She is beautiful.
Es bonito.
82
EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES
La regla general es aadir ( -s).
Car.
Coche.
Cars. Book.
Libro.
Books. Pen.
Boli.
Pens.
En los nombres que acaban en , s, z, ch, x, sh y o se aade ( -es)
Potato.
Patata.
Potatoes. Brush.
Cepillo.
Brushes. Box.
Caja.
Boxes.
Kiss.
Beso.
Kisses. Pouch.
Bolsa.
Pouches. Church.
Iglesia.
Churches
Bush.
Arbusto.
Bushes. Box.
Caja.
Boxes. Church.
Iglesia.
Churches.
Sin embargo, las palabras de origen extranjero que terminan en -o
solamente aaden una -s.
Kilo.
Quilo.
Kilos. Kimono.
Kimono.
Kimonos. Piano.
Piano.
Pianos.
Photo.
Foto.
Photos. Soprano.
Soprano.
Sopranos. Solo.
Solo.
Solos.
Piano.
Piano.
Pianos. Radio.
Radio.
Radios.
Tomato.
Tomate.
Tomatoes.
Los nombres acabados en -y precedida de vocal siguen la regla general,
pero si la -y va precedida de consonante se transforma en -i y se
aade -es.
Toy. Toys. Boy. Boys. Monkey. Monkeys.
83
Juguete. Chico. Mono.
Lady.
Seora.
Ladies. City.
Ciudad.
Cities. Country.
Pas.
Countries.
Hay doce sustantivos que terminan en -f o -fe, cuyo plural cambia por
-ves.
Wolf.
Lobo.
Wolves. Thief.
Ladrn.
Thieves. Sheaf.
Gavilla.
Sheaves.
Loaf.
Barra de
pan.
Loaves. Leaf.
Hoja.
Leaves. Half.
Mitad.
Halves.
Wife.
Esposa.
Wives. Shelf.
Estantera.
Shelves. Self.
Uno mismo.
Selves.
Life.
Vida.
Lives. Knife.
Cuchillo.
Knives. Calf.
Ternero.
Calves.
Las dems palabras que terminan en -f o -fe aaden una -s.
Safe.
Caja de
seguridad.
Safes. Chief.
Jefe.
Chiefs. Cliff.
Acantilad
o.
Cliffs.
Existen plurales irregulares.
Man.
Hombre.
Men. Woman.
Mujer.
Women. Mouse.
Ratn.
Mice.
Foot.
Pie.
Feet. Goose.
Ganso.
Geese. Ox.
Buey.
Oxen.
Child.
Nio.
Children. Tooth.
Diente.
Teeth.
84
Algunos animales o peces no cambian en plural:
Sheep.
Oveja.
Deer.
Ciervo.
Trout.
Trucha.
Cod.
Bacalao.
Squid.
Calamar.
Mackarel.
Caballa.
Salmon.
Salmn.
Carp.
Carpa.
Plaice.
Platija.
Duck.
Pato.
Partridge.
Perdz.
Al igual que otras palabras como:
Aircraft.
Aeronave.
Spacecraft.
Nave
espacial.
Hovercraft.
Aerodeslizador.
Otros tan slo tiene forma plural
People.
Gente.
Cattle.
Ganado.
Police.
Policia.
Folk.
Gente.
Shorts.
Pantalone
s cortos.
Jeans.
Pantalones
vaqueros.
Pyjamas.
Pijama.
Glasses.
Gafas.
Scissors.
Tijeras.
Binoculars.
Prismticos.
Thanks.
Gracias.
Trousers.
Pantalones.
Stairs.
Escaleras.
Algunos de los acabados en -s van siempre en singular.
Mathematics.
Matemticas
Gymnastics
Gimnasia.
Politics.
Poltica.
Phonetics.
Fontica.
Los nombres colectivos, police, crew, family, team, etc., pueden llevar el
verbo en singular o en plural, segn el sentido que le demos a la frase:
Our police is very efficient.
Nuestra polica es muy eficaz.
Our team is the best.
Nuestro equipo es el mejor.
The police are looking for the thief.
La polica esta buscando al ladrn.
Our team are wearing the new T-shirts.
Nuestra equipo lleva la nueva
camiseta.
85
Penny tiene dos posibles plurales. Pennies hace referencia a las monedas y
pence a la cantidad total.
I have 4 pennies. I paid 50 pence.
Tengo cuatro peniques. Pagu cincuenta peniques.
Las palabras compuestas formadas con preposiciones o adverbios forman
el plural en la primera parte del nombre
Maid of honour.
Dama de honor
Maids of honour. Brother in law.
Cuado.
Brothers in law.
Las palabras que incluyen man o woman forman el plural modificando las
dos partes
Manservant. Menservants.
PRONUNCIACION DE LA DESINENCIA DE
PLURAL.
/s/. Cats. /z/ Windows. /iz/ Houses.
Cuando los nombres
acaban en consonante
sorda.. p, t, k, f
Cuando los nombres
acaban en consonante
sonora o vocal. b, d, g, v,
m, n, l, r, w, j
Cuando los nombres
acaban en s, z, x, ch, ss, ...
86
1) El plural de dish es........
a - Dishes
b - Dishs
c - Dishen
2) Las palabras acabadas en vocal "+ y " como boy, hacen el plural......
a - Aadiendo s
b - Cambiando la "y " por i y aadiendo s
c - Aadiendo -es
3) Las palabras "glass, dish, church, fox y buzz " hacen el plural........
a - Aadiendo -s
b - Aadiendo -es
c - Aadiendo -ies
4) What are you.........?
a - Hobby
b - Hobbies
c - Jobis
5) What .......have you visited?
a - Country
b - Countries
c - Cantris
6) I want two ......................of Fanta.
a - Glass
b - Glassves
c - Glasses
7) I like tomato ..............
a - Sandwiches
b - Sandwichs
c - Sandwicheves
8) In the sea there are many .................
a - Fishess
b - Fishs
c - Fish
9) I bought three ............
a - Salmons
b - Salmon
c - Salmones
10) I like ...........................................
a - Potatos
b - Potatoes
c - Pototaves
11) I do not like...........
87
a - Mouses
b - Mouse
c - Mice
12) My penthouse has two.
a - Rooves
b - Roofs
c - Roofes
13) This tree has many ..................................................
a - Leafs
b - Leaves
c - Leafss
14) I use paper .......................................................
a - Handkerchiefs
b - Handkerchieves
c - Handkerchiefes
15) In the zoo I saw four .....
a - Sheep
b - Sheeps
c - Sheppes
16) I never go to ...............................................
a - Discoes
b - Discos
c - Discooes
17) In my kitchen there are many ..............................
a - Shelves
b - Shelfs
c - Shelving
18) Europe has many different.............................
a - Countrys
b - Countries
c - Countris
19) I prefer ghost .............................
a - Stories
b - Storyes
c - Storis
20) She has many .............................
a - Worries
b - Worrys
c - Worryes
21) We always use silver ................
88
a - Knives
b - Knifes
c - Knifs
22) The forest has many ...........
a - Deers
b - Deer
c - Deeres
23) Las palabras " kilo, photo, piano, solo, dynamo y magneto " hacen el
plural......
a - Aadiendo -s
b - Aadiendo -es
c - Aadiendo -ves
24) Las palabras "glass, dish, church, fox y buzz " hacen el plural........
a - Aadiendo -s
b - Aadienod -es
c - Aadiendo -ies
25) Sheep, deer, swine, fish, trout, salmon, aircraft hacen el plural........
a - Aadiendo -es
b - Esa misma forma les sirve para el plural
c - Aadiendo -s
26) The police ........coming very soon.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Be
27) This mountain is more that 1500 ..........high.
a - Foot
b - Foots
c - Feet
28) Which .................are you from?
a - Country
b - Countri
c - Kantry
29) She gave him four .........of bread.
a - Loafs
b - Loaves
c - Loavings
30) The indians had many.......
a - Chiefs
b - Chieves
c - Cifs
89
31) My favourite.........were a ball and the Scalextrix.
a - Toys
b - Toyes
c - Tois
32) In the Tarzan films there are many.........
a - Monkeis
b - Monkeys
c - Mankis
33) A famous English king had six........
a - Wifes
b - Wives
c - Wivess
34) We always buy three.......of bread in Perete.
a - Loafs
b - Loaves
c - Loavess
35) All of us have two.......
a - Feet
b - Foot
c - Foots
36) The plural of goose is...
a - Gooses
b - Geese
c - Gees
37) The plural of mouse is...
a - Mouses
b - Mice
c - Mices
38) The plural of carp is...
a - Carps
b - Carpe diem
c - Carp
39) The plural of partridge is
a - Partridges
b - Partdrigess
c - Partridge
40) Para decir que hay muchos peces en el mar diremos......
a - There's a lot of fishes in the sea
b - There's a lot of fish in the sea
c - There are a lot of fishes in the sea
41) I like........................with cream.
90
a - Strawberries
b - Strawberryes
c - Strauberries
42) Before my daughters were born I visited many....................with my wife.
a - Countries
b - Countryes
c - Cauntries
91
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. C 9. B 10.B
11.C 12.B 13.B 14.B 15.A 16.B 17.A 18.B 19.A 20.A
21.A 22.B 23.A 24.B 25.B 26.B 27.C 28.A 29.B 30.A
31.A 32.B 33.B 34.B 35.A 36.B 37.B 38.C 39.C 40.B
41.A 42.A
92
FUNCIONES DEL NOMBRE.
FORMACIN DE PALABRAS COMPUESTAS
Algunos nombres surgen de la combinacin de dos palabras.
Adjetivo + nombre. Handful. Puado.
Nombre + nombre. Toothpaste. Pasta de dientes.
Ing + nombre. Washingmachine. Lavadora.
Pronombre + nombre. Shegoat. Cabra.
Verbo + nombre. Breakfast. Desayuno.
Preposicin + nombre. Overwork. Exceso de trabajo.
Preposicin + verbo. Income. Ingresos.
Todos los nombres pueden tener las siguientes funciones
Sujeto. Mara is a teacher.
Mara es profesora.
Predicado. Mara is a sociable woman.
Mara es una mujer sociable.
Complemento Directo. I saw a woman there.
V una mujer all.
Complemento Indirecto. This present is for that woman.
Este regalo es para esa mujer.
Algunos sufijos nos pueden ayudar a identificar a los nombres.
-er. -er. -ee. -tion. -ist. -ism. -ness.
Profesiones. Cosas. Personas. Nombres
Verbos.
Profesiones. Ideologas. Nombre.
Baker. Opener. Employee. Pollution. Violinist. Comunism. Hapiness.
93
Panadero. Abridor. Empleado. Contamina
cin.
Comunism
o
Felicidad.
-ance. -hood. -ment. -tion. -ity.
Nombre. Nombre. Nombre. Nombre. Nombre.
Abundance
Abundancia.
Childhood.
Niez.
Shipment.
Envo.
Education.
Educacin.
Ability.
Habilidad.
Algunos sufijos nos pueden ayudar a identificar a los adjetivos o adverbios.
-al. -ic. -ive. -ful. -less. -ous. -ly.
Practical.
Prctico.
Historic.
Histrico.
Exclusive.
Exclusivo.
Faithful.
Leal.
Hopeless.
Sin
esperanza
Industrious
Trabajador
Friendly.
Amistoso.
-ed. -en. -ant. -ive. -ible. -like. -worthy.
Excited.
Excitado.
Wooden.
De
madera
Irrelevant.
Irrelevant
e
Compreh
ensive.
Comprensi
vo.
Sensible.
Sensato.
Childlike.
infantil
Trustworthy.
Fiable
Algunos prefijos negativos.
Dis- Il- Im- In- Ir- Non- Un-
Dishonest.
Deshonesto
Illegal.
Ilegal.
Impolite.
Mal
educado.
Invisible.
Invisible.
Irregular.
Irregular.
Nonsmoker.
No
fumador.
Unthinkable
Impensable
Algunos prefijos de los ms usados.
Anti- Over- Pre- Semi- Super- Post- Under
Antibiotic.
Antibitic
o
Overdose
Sobredosis
Predictable
.
Predecible.
Semiprofe
ssional.
Semiprofe
Supernat
ural.
Supernat
Postpone.
Posponer.
Undermin
e
Socavar.
94
sional. ural.
95
GENITIVO SAJN
Es una construccin especial que se utiliza para indicar posesin. La
estructura del genitivo sajn es: Poseedor + s + cosa poseda.
Normalmente la utilizamos con personas y rara vez con objetos.
Aadir apstrofo y una s es la regla
general.
Peters bike.
La bici de Pedro.
Acabados en s, como nombre propio
aade slo .
Pits car.
El coche de Pit.
Plurales irregulares no terminados en
s o -es siguen la regla general.
A mens club.
Un club para hombres.
Ms de un sujeto. My brother and sisters friends.
Los amigos de mi hermano y de mi
hermana.
My brothers and sisters friends.
Los amigos de mi hermano y las
amigas de mi hermana.
Algunas expresiones. A days break.
Un descanso de un da.
Todays paper.
El peridico de hoy.
The cars engine.
El motor del coche.
A stones throw.
A tiro de piedra.
Casas y tiendas. I went to my sisters
Fui casa de mi hermana.
She was at the bakers.
Estaba en la panadera.
Tiendas, hospitales e iglesias. He goes to his friends.
96
l va a casa de su amigo.
He got married in Sant Louis.
l se cas en la Iglesia de San Luis.
I was at the dentists.
Yo estaba en el dentista.
Los plurales regulares acabados en s
slo aaden el apstrofo.
A girls school.
Una escuela de chicas.
97
1) This is the .............., isn't it?
a - Balls' boys
b - Boys' the ball
c - Boys' ball
2) La casa de Manoli.
a - House's manoli
b - Manoli's house
c - The manoli's house
3) El coche de mi amigo.
a - The my friend's car
b - My friend's car
c - Car's my friend
4) La casa de los Torres.
a - The Torres' house
b - Torres'ss house
c - The house of Torres'
5) Las obras de Cervantes.
a - Cervantes' works
b - Cervante's works
c - The cervantes's works
6) El teorema de Pitgoras.
a - Pythagoras's the therom
b - The pythagora's theorem
c - Pythagoras's theorem
7) La madre de mi suegra.
a - My mother-in-law's mother
b - My mother's- in- law mother
c - My mother's-in -law's mother
8) Vamos a casa de Clemente.
a - We are going to Clemente's
b - We are going to the Clemente's
c - We are going to Clementes
9) Ella est en la pelu.
a - She's at the hairdresser's
b - She is at hairdresser
c - She is the hairdresser
98
Soluciones
1. C 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. A 9. A
99
EL ARTCULO INDETERMINADO
Los artculos preceden y detreminan a los sustantivos.
Su traduccin es un, una. Tiene dos formas a y an.
Es invariable en gnero y nmero, por lo tanto la misma forma sirve para
masculino y femenino. Carece de plural. Se suele usar some para
expresar el significado de unos.
A se emplea con palabras que comienzan por sonido consonntico.
An va con las que comienzan por sonido voclico.
Las palabras que comienzan por h muda como honest, llevan an.
Las palabras que comienzan por semiconsonantes como university llevan
a.
Hace las misma funciones que el artculo espaol. Designa personas y
cosas.
Se puede usar con el sentido de un tal
There is a Mr. Prez waiting for you.
Hay un tal seor Prez esperndote.
A AN
A house.
Una casa.
An apple.
Una manzana.
A car.
Un coche.
An hour.
Una hora.
A university.
Una universidad.
An honest person.
Una persona honrada.
A uniform.
Un uniforme.
An honor.
Un honor.
A union. An umbrella.
100
Un sindicato. Un paraguas.
A European.
Un europeo.
An MP.
Un miembro del Parlamento.
Acompaa a ciertos nmeros y
expresiones de cantidad.
A hundred.
Cien.
A couple of hours.
Un par de horas.
Para indicar el precio de las cosas. It is 10 euros a kilo..
Cuesta 10 euros el kilo.
Usamos a o an cuando es la
primera vez que hablamos de un
objeto.
The woman had a nice house near the
beach. La mujer tena una bonita casa
cerca de la playa.
Cuando la referencia no est clara. I want a book but I dont want an
English book.
Quiero comprar un libro pero no quiero
un libro ingls.
Con profesiones, religiones, e ideas
polticas.
I am a lawyer and he is a nurse.
Yo soy abogado y ella es enfermera.
He is a Catholic and I am a Jew.
l es catlico y yo soy judo.
He was a socialist and now he is a
conservative. l era socialista y ahora es
conservador.
Con enfermedades. Last week I had a terrible cold.
La semana pasada tuve un resfriado
horrible.
My wife has a toothache.
A mi mujer le duele un diente
Con expresiones. As a rule.
Por regla general.
101
On a diet.
A dieta.
Con exclamaciones. What a pretty woman.
Qu mujer ms guapa!
Con adverbios. Once a year.
Una vez al ao.
A puede ser cambiado por one en algunos casos.
One morning I saw him here.
Una maana le vi aqu.
102
EL ARTCULO DETERMINADO THE
Es parte invariable de la oracin y va tanto con nombres en singular como
con nombres en plural. Se puede traducir por: el, la los y las. Tiene dos
pronunciaciones segn vaya precediendo a vocales o consonantes.
The girl. The girls. The car. The cars.
La chica. Las chicas. El coche. Los coches.
USOS
Ros. The Nile.
El ro Nilo.
Mares. The Black Sea.
El mar Negro.
The Atlantic Ocean.
El Ocano Atlntico.
Montaas. The Alps.
Los Alpes.
Islas. The Canary Islands.
Las Islas Canarias.
Desiertos. The Sahara.
El desierto del Sahara.
Pases en plural. The Netherlands.
Los Pases Bajos.
Cosas nicas. The Universe.
El Universo.
The Sun.
El Sol.
The Moon.
La luna.
103
The Earth.
La Tierra.
Con instrumentos musicales. I play the piano.
Yo toco el violn.
Junto a un adjetivo hace referencia a
un colectivo, a un tipo de personas.
The blind.
Los ciegos.
The rich.
Los ricos.
The poor.
Los pobres.
The British.
Los britnicos.
Con los superlativos. Water is in my opinion the best drink.
El agua es en mi opinin la mejor
bebida.
Tambin con algunas expresiones. He was in the navy.
l estuvo en la marina.
The police.
La polica.
I went to the Post Office.
Yo fui a la oficina de correos.
They were in the radio this morning.
Ellos estuvieron en la radio sta
maana.
I went to the cinema last Sunday.
Yo fui al cine el pasado domingo.
I have spent very good moments in
the theatre.
Yo he pasado muy buenos momentos
en el teatro.
Con fechas se lee pero no se escribe. 30th November is my birthday.
El da treinta de noviembre es my
104
cumpleaos. Esto debe leerse
November the thirtieth o the
thirtieth of November.
Con algunas palabras modifica el
significado
Bed, class, court, college, church,
hospital, market , prison, university,
town.
In hospital.
En el hospital. (hospitalizado)
In the hospital.
En el hospital. (de visita)
Junto a las palabras Republic, State,
Kingdom.
The United Kingdom.
El Reino Unido.
The Arab Republic.
La Repblica rabe.
Con cosas nicas. The moon isnt red.
La luna no es roja.
Con contables en singular hace
referencia a la totalidad.
The orange is an excellent fruit.
La naranja es una excelente fruta.
Con los adjetivos pasa lo mismo. The rich also cry.
Los ricos tambin lloran.
The blind.
Los ciegos.
Con apellidos. The Barrymore.
Los Barrimore
The Parker.
Los Parker.
NO SE UTILIZA
Con das de la semana. I play tennis on Monday.
Yo juego al tenis los lunes.
Meses. In July I go to San Juan beach.
En el mes de julio voy a la playa de
San Juan.
105
Estaciones y fiestas. Easter is a great holiday.
Pascua es una gran fiesta.
Idiomas. Italian is very romantic.
El italiano es muy romntico.
Meses, estaciones, semanas, aos. On Monday
El lunes
Colores. Red is my favourite colour.
El color rojo es mi color favorito.
Deportes, actividades y juegos. Swimming is good for you.
La natacin es buena para ti.
I dont play cards.
Yo no juego a las cartas.
Comidas. Lunch, breakfast and supper are the
meals of the day.
La comida, el desayuno y la cena son
las comidas del da.
Expresiones. At night.
Por la noche.
At dawn.
Al anochecer.
At sunrise.
Al amanecer.
Cuando nos referimos al sentido
general de algo.
Wine is good for you.
El vino es bueno para ti.
The wine from Pinoso is the best.
El vino de Pinoso es el mejor.
Con las partes del cuerpo. Wash your hair.
Lvate el pelo.
Canales hechos por el hombre. Suez canal.
El canal de Suez
Con las palabras bed, school, He is in bed.
106
hospital, prison, college,
university.
El est en cama.
Con las comidas. I have lunch at home.
Como en casa.
Con ver la tele. I never watch TV.
Nunca veo la tele.
Con personas. Doctor Ferreira no The doctor Ferreira.
El doctor Ferreira.
107
1) He......... boy.
a - An
b - The
c - That
2) Today I ate..........apple.
a - An
b - A
c - Any
3) My sister is ..........doctor.
a - An
b - A
c - Something
4) Mr. Garca is...........honest man.
a - A
b - An
c - Both
5) I like drinking .........coke.
a - An
b - A
c - Many
6) Is he ........architect?
a - A
b - An
c - Little
7) Is Salinas............big city?
a - A
b - An
c - These
8) I went to the swimming pool.......hour ago.
a - An
b - A
c - The
9) He has ........cat.
a - An
b - A
c - Many
10) I want to be ........lawyer.
a - Some
b - A
c - An
11) Do you like .......English language?
108
a - A
b - The
c - Some
12) He's ........engineer.
a - An
b - A
c - Some
13) I would like to be ........lawyer.
a - A
b - An
c - Some
14) What ........................relief to get rid of him.
a - An
b - A
c - Some
15) They only cost 30 euros ...........hour.
a - An
b - A
c - The
16) I never listen to...radio at night.
a - A
b - The
c - -
17) .......moon goes round the Earth.
a - A
b - The
c - -
18) My father-in-law likes watching......TV.
a - A
b - The
c - -
19) Why don't you eat..........breakfast?
a - A
b - The
c - -
20) Tabarca is........island near Santa Pola.
a - The
b - A
c - An
21) Toms lives in........country.
a - The
109
b - -
c - A
22) Before......lunch we played ATAJOS.
a - The
b - -
c - A
23) .......capital of Spain is Madrid.
a - The
b - -
c - A
24) ...........Vinalop is the only river we have.
a - -
b - The
c - A
25) ........USA is a very big country.
a - -
b - The
c - A
26) I would like to live near........sea.
a - -
b - The
c - A
27) .......wine is good if you drink properly.
a - -
b - The
c - A
28) ........wine from Rioja is my favourite.
a - -
b - The
c - A
29) ......policemen have a hard life.
a - The
b - -
c - A
30) My mother-in-law is always with........telephone in hand.
a - The
b - A
c - -
31) I didn't learn to play .......guitar in don Emilio's.
a - -
b - The
110
c - A
32) .............rich also cry.
a - -
b - A
c - The
33) ......French drink more wine than we do.
a - -
b - A
c The
34) ......women like going to the hairdresser more than men.
a - -
b - The
c - A
35) Pepe had an accident so he is in ......hospital.
a - -
b - The
c - A
36) I went to.......hospital to vist my friend Enrique who had a heart attack.
a - The
b - -
c - A
37) Sarah goes to......church every Sunday with my wife.
a - -
b - The
c - A
38) He was in........prison because he killed a cat.
a - -
b - A
c - The
39) I studied at......Alicante University wih Bryn Moody.
a - -
b - The
c - A
40) Vladi has gone to........work now.
a - The
b - A
c - -
41) I prefer to stay...........home.
a - The
b - A
111
c - -
42) Before .......work we go running.
a - A
b - -
c - The
112
Soluciones
1. B 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. B 7. A 8. A 9. B 10.B
11.B 12.A 13.A 14.B 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.C 20.C
21.A 22.B 23.A 24.B 25.B 26.B 27.A 28.B 29.B 30.A
31.B 32.C 33.C 34.A 35.A 36.A 37.A 38.A 39.A 40.C
41.C 42.B
113
BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER, EITHER, EACH,
EVERY, NO.
Both.
Ambos.
Both Peter and Sarah like confetti.
Tanto a Pedro como a Sara les gustan los confetis.
We both like jazz.
A los dos nos gusta el jazz.
Both of the children have been to Paris.
Los dos nios han estado en Pars.
The children have both been to Paris.
Los dos nios han estado en Pars.
Give me both.
Dame los dos.
Both.and.
Tanto como.
I like both the film and the book.
Me gusta tanto la pelcula como el libro.
Both of them.
Ellos dos.
Both of them are happy.
Los dos son felices.
Neither. Ninguno.
Ni.
Neither of them came to my party.
Ninguno de los dos vino a mi fiesta.
-I dont like coffe.
A m no me gusta el caf.
-Neither do I.
Ni a m tampoco.
Either....or. O..o. Either you come with me or go with him.
O vienes conmigo o vas con l.
Neither....nor.
Ni.ni.
I like neither coffee nor tea.
No me gusta ni el t ni el caf.
All.
Todos. Ms de
dos.
All the students were happy after the exam.
Todos los estudiantes estaban contentos despus del
examen.
None. None of my friends wanted to buy my car.
114
Ninguno. Ms de
dos
Ninguno de mis amigos quiso comprar mi coche.
Most.
La mayora, la
mayor parte.
Most of them are from Canada.
Los dos son de Canad.
Each.
Cada uno.
Each student must buy a dictionary.
Cada estudiante debe comprar un diccionario.
Every. Todos y
cada uno
Every citizen paid the taxes.
Todos los ciudadanos pagaron los impuestos.
No. Nada. I have no money now.
Ahora no tengo dinero.
115
LOS ADJETIVOS.
Los adjetivos tiene la misin de modificar al sustantivo y normalmente le
preceden.
A red car.
Un coche rojo.
A beautiful woman.
Una mujer guapa.
Al ser en ingls parte invariable, slo tiene una forma para masculino,
femenino, singular y plural.
I have a red car.
Yo tengo un coche rojo.
She has a red dress.
Ella tiene un vestido rojo.
My daughter wears red shoes.
Mi hija lleva zapatos rojos.
They have red skirts.
Ellas tienen faldas rojas.
USOS
Detrs de los verbos copulativos: be,
look, sound, taste, appear, seem,
get , feel, stay, fall, etc.
She is nice.
Ella es agradable.
You look beautiful.
T tienes buen aspecto.
He feels strong.
l se siente fuerte.
Algunos adjetivos siempre llevan
preposicin.
I am interested in politics.
A m me interesa la poltica.
Los participios de presente y pasado
pueden hacer las veces de adjetivos.
He is tired.
El est cansado.
He is tyring.
116
El cansa. (es un pesado)
Los adjetivos que se colocan delante
de los sustantivos se llaman
atributivos.
A beautiful song.
Una cancin bonita.
Principal, sheer, chief y main. son
atributivos.
The main road is closed today.
La carretera principal est cerrada
hoy.
Afraid, awake, asleep, ashamed,
upset , alive, alone, asleep son
predicativos y van detrs.
She is still alive.
Ella est todava viva.
El significado de late y early depende
de su posicin.
We caught an early plane to London.
Cogimos un vuelo temprano para
Londres.
They were early at the party.
Ellos llegaron temprano a la fiesta.
Algunos nombres pueden funcionar como adjetivos.
A gold chain.
Una cadena de oro.
A leather case.
Una maleta de piel.
Muchos adjetivos son reconocibles por sus terminaciones.
-Y -Al -Ial -Ous -Ary -Ic
Happy.
Feliz.
Professional
Profesional.
Industrial.
Industrial.
Famous.
Famoso.
Voluntary.
Voluntario.
Economic.
Econmico
-Ful -Ive -Ent -Ible -Able -Ed -Less
Careful.
Cuidadoso.
Competitiv
e
Urgent. Legible. Profitable.
Beneficioso.
Limited. Useless.
117
Competitivo. Urgente. Legible. Limitado. Intil.
Los siguientes prefijos indican lo contrario del adjetivo que acompaan.
Un- In- Dis- Il- Im- Ir-
Unhappy.
Triste.
Incompeten
t
Incompeten
te.
Dishonest.
Deshonesto
Illegible.
Ilegible.
Impatient.
Impaciente
Irregular.
Irregular.
Otros prefijos tambin nos indican que estamos delante de un adjetivo.
Auto- Bi- Extra- Hyper. Inter-
Automatic.
Automtico
Bisexual.
Bisexual.
Extraordinary
Extraordinario.
Hypersensitive
Hipersensible
Interchangeable.
Intercambiable.
Mono- Multi- Pre- Super- Ultra-
Monochrom
e
Monocromo
Multilingual.
Multilinge.
Predominant.
Predominante
Superstitious.
Supersticioso.
Ultrasonic.
Ultrasnico.
Los adjetivos pueden estar formados por dos palabras unidas por un guin.
Top-quality.
De calidad suprema.
Tax-free.
Libre de impuestos.
Cuando aparecen varios adjetivos en una frase el orden debe ser el
siguiente:
Opinin. Dimensiones. Color. Origen. Material.
Cheap.
Barato.
New.
Nuevo.
Blue.
Azul.
French.
Francs.
Plastic.
Plstico.
118
Cualidad. Tamao. Forma. Edad. Color.
Famous.
Famoso.
Big.
Grande.
Round.
Redondo.
Old.
Viejo.
Blue.
Azul.
119
LA COMPARACIN CON ADJETIVOS
Puede ser de igualdad, inferioridad y superioridad.
IGUALDAD
As... As.
Tan como.
En los puntos va el adjetivo.
I am as tall as you are.
Yo soy tan alto como t.
So.....as.
No tan como.
He is not so intelligent as his brother
Mike.
l no es tan listo como su hermano
Miguel.
Los monosiabos y bislabos aaden -er en el comparativo.
Los monoslabos acabados en una consonante precedida de una nica
vocal, duplican la consonante. Como en fat . Fatter.
Si acaban en -y se sustituye por i.
GRADO POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO
Tall.
Alto.
Taller.
Ms alto.
He is taller than you.
l es ms alto que t.
The tallest.
El ms alto
Big.
Grande.
Bigger .
Ms grande.
My car is bigger than
yours.
Mi coche es ms grande
que el tuyo.
The biggest.
El ms grande.
Happy.
Feliz.
Happier.
Ms feliz.
The happiest
El ms feliz.
120
He is happier now.
l es ms feliz ahora.
Algunos adjetivos de dos slabas y todos los que tiene ms de dos usan
more ...than y the most.
GRADO POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO
Comfortable.
Cmodo.
More comfortable.
Ms cmodo.
The most comfortable.
El ms cmodo.
Interesting.
Interesante.
More interesting.
Ms interesante.
The most interesting.
El ms interesante.
COMPARATIVO
-Er. I am taller now.
Ahora soy ms alto.
More.than. It is more interesting than the film.
Es ms interesante que la pelcula.
Comparativo + and + comparativo. I am getting fatter and fatter.
Cada vez me estoy poniendo ms
gordo.
The + comparativo, the +
comparativo.
The richer, the sillier.
Cuanto ms rico, ms tonto.
SUPERLATIVO
The .....est con adjetivos de una o dos
silabas.
Se utiliza in para lugares y periodos de
tiempo.
The richest people in Elda.
Los ms ricos de Elda.
The + most + adjetivo con los de dos o The most beautiful girl in town.
121
ms silabas. La chica ms guapa del pueblo.
COMPARATIVO DE INFERIORIDAD
Less + adj + than. She is less intelligent than Rose.
Ella es menos inteligente que Rosa.
The least + adjetivo indican
inferioridad.
The least important of all his novels.
La menos importante de sus novelas.
GRADO POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO
Busy.
Ocupado.
Less busy.
Menos ocupado.
The least busy.
El menos ocupado.
LOS IRREGULARES
Algunos hacen la comparacin de forma irregular y no siguen reglas
concretas.
Good.
Bueno.
Better.
Mejor.
The best.
El mejor
Bad.
Malo.
Worse.
Peor.
The worst.
El peor.
Little.
Poco.
Less.
Menos.
The least.
El menos.
Much / Many.
Mucho.
More.
Ms.
The most.
El ms.
Far. Farther. The farthest.
122
Lejos. Ms lejos. Lo ms lejano.
Old.
Viejo.
Elder.
Ms viejo.
The eldest.
El ms viejo.
Elder y eldest se utilizan cuando hacemos referencia a miembros de una
misma familia.
My sister Berta is elder than me.
Mi hermana Berta es mayor que yo.
123
1) This is ......than this?
a - Long
b Longer
c - Longest
2) How.............are you?
a - Tall
b - Talling
c - Tallest
3) Isabel is ...........................than last year.
a - The thinnest
b - Thiner
c - Thinner
4) Everybody says that Jorge is ..............................than his brother.
a - More clever
b - The more clever
c - The most clever
5) Alicante is .......................................................than Elda.
a - Hotting
b - Hottest
c - Hotter
6) I am .............................teacher here.
a - The oldest
b - Older
c - Olderest
7) This park is ...............................................than the one in Almagro.
a - Nicer
b - Niceer
c - Nicest
8) This sweater is ...........................................than the one we saw yesterday.
a - Old-fashionest
b - Old-fashionedest
c - More old-fashion
9) A Mercedes is .....................................than a Seat Marbella.
a - Most expensive
b - More expensive
c - Expensiver
10) He's ......................................................than he was a year ago.
a - Healthier
b - Healthiest
c - Healthiere
11) Do you think English is ..............................than French?
124
a - More difficult
b - The most difficult
c - Difficulter
12) He eats a lot - he's getting ......................
a - Fatting
b - Fatter
c - Fattest
13) I think that Pilar is ..................................than Manoli.
a - More mature
b - The most mature
c - More maturest
14) He was the..................person I have ever met.
a - The most dishonest
b - More dishonet
c - Most dishonest
15) My mother was getting ................
a - Redder and redder
b - The more redest
c - Most red
16) A bed is ..........................a sofa.
a - More comfortable than
b - The more comfortable
c - The comfortablest
17) I think that Harry Potter's books are .....................................than the films.
a - More interesting
b - The most interesting
c - Interestinger
18) Have you got a ........................size?
a - Biggest
b - Bigger
c - Biger
19) My exam was ..........................................than I had thought.
a - Badder
b - Badding
c - Worse
20) Now I have ...............................time than when I was single.
a - Less
b - Lesser
c - Mucher
21) My neighbour Mara is ................................now that she has a new kitchen.
a - Hapiest
125
b - Happier
c - Happyer
22) This exercise is .......................................than the previous one.
a - Easier
b - Easyer
c - Easiest
23) Mari Carmen is ........................................than her sister.
a - Politest
b - More polite
c - The more polite
24) It is .....................................to walk after having dinner.
a - Better
b - The good
c - The gooder
25) When I was young Agustina was the .......................................swimmer in Elda.
a - Fastest
b - Fatesr
c - The ffasterest
26) Sarah is ..........................................in the class.
a - Tallest
b - The tallest
c - The taller
27) Paco was the................................of my friends.
a - Craziest
b - Crazier
c - Crasiest
28) This is ........................................book I have ever read.
a - The goodest
b - The bester
c - The best
29) Barcelona is .....................................than Madrid.
a - Farer
b - Farest
c - Further
30) You should eat ....................................chocolate.
a - Littler
b - Less
c - Littlest
31) Home.......home.
a - Good
126
b - Sweet
c - Nice
32) I was ..........cross with him.
a - So
b - As
c - The
33) Do you have to have the music ..........loud?
a - As
b - So
c - Some
34) He's the ...........person I know.
a - Meanest
b - Mean
c - Meaner
35) You'll need it when it gets ..........
a - Coldest
b - Colder
c - Colding
36) I'd ............say goodbye to you now.
a - Good
b - Better
c - Best
37) I don't mind, .......................the hours are reasonable and the pay is good.
a - Long so
b - As long as
c - As long So
38) That sounds .........................!
a - Exciteing
b - Exciting
c - Excite
39) He is as busy ............a bee.
a - So
b - The
c - As
40) That is the ............compliment you can pay to a girl like her.
a - Great
b - Greater
c - Greatest
41) So they have the ............of both worlds.
a - Best
b - Betteer
127
c - Goodest
42) The ..........he starts Spanish lessons the better.
a - Soon
b - Soonest
c - Sooner
43) They are ............than pears.
a - Big
b - Biggest
c - Bigger
44) I was .................sorry that I felt ashamed.
a - So
b - As
c - So as
45) Everything is ........wonderful in Spain!!
a - So
b - As
c - As so
46) The place I enjoyed .............was the museum of Moder Art.
a - Most
b - More
c - Little
47) This quick test is.................than the one we did yesterday.
a - Easiest
b - Easier
c - More easy
48) My mother's dress is.......................than my aunt's.
a - Longer
b - The longest
c - More long
49) Loli was ill, but now she ...........................
a - Looks best
b - Looks better
c - Is best
50) You have to be much .....................when you use this.
a - More careful
b - Carefuler
c - Carefulest
51) The Vinalop is ....................river in Elda.
a - The longest
b - Longer than
c - Longest than
128
52) Many people say Barcelona football team is .............than Real Madrid.
a - Better
b - Best
c - Good
53) This pullover is too big. I need a ...........one.
a - Smallest
b - More small
c - Smaller
54) All these children are nice, but ours are ................
a - Niecerest
b - Nicer
c - Nicest
55) I think he is the ......................in the class.
a - Good
b - Better
c Best
56) I think that "The Pillars of the Earth " is .........book I have read in my life.
a - The best
b - Best than
c - The better
57) This film is ........I have ever seen in my life.
a - Baddest
b - The worst
c - The most bad
58) What a pity he is in Almeria. I wish he lived ...............
a - Most near
b - Nearer
c - Nearest
59) She is very pretty but my girlfriend is ........
a - Prettier
b - Prettiest
c - The pretty
60) I am .............tall as Paco Cabrera.
a - As
b - So
c - So as
61) I am .............than last year.
a - More and more fat
b - More fat
c - Fatter
129
62) You'd ..........buy a better car.
a - Best
b - Better
c - Good
63) My .......sister is married.
a - Older
b - Elder
c - Oldesr
64) Novelda is.......than Monvar.
a - Far
b - Further
c - Furthest
65) Pepe is .......rich as Manolo.
a - So
b - As
c - Than
66) I am not......tall as a basketball player.
a - As
b - So
c - Than
67) The.........of a party is having to tidy the house.
a - Bad
b - Worse
c - Worst
68) She is.................now than when she was 28.
a - Prettyer
b - Prettier
c - Prittier
69) There are...............books in Martin Fierro for us.
a Most expensive
b - Expensive
c - Expensiver
70) You must buy these.. pills.
a - Good
b - Gooder
c The good
71) She loves ...........
a - Tall
b The tallest
c - Tallerst
72) They drank..........................bottle of whisky.
130
a - The most expensive
b - Expensiver
c The expensiver
73) They said he was a ...................teacher.
a - Bored
b - Boring
c - Borerst
74) I was .....................because the film was boring.
a - Boring
b - Borest
c - Bored
75) In a couple we will be .........
a - Richer
b The rich
c - Riching
76) They serve ..................coffee in town.
a - Badder
b - Gooder
c The worst
77) There are always .................. trees in the park.
a - Greener
b - Greenest
c Gren
78) All the Chinese have .................smiles.
a Lovelier
b - Lovely
c - Lovlyest
79) Peter felt ..................of what he had done.
a - Ashamed
b - Ashamer
c - Ashamest
80) The porter is a..................man.
a - Happier
b - Happiest
c - Happy
81) Felipe was the....................President.
a - Form
b - Formerst
c - Former
82) His .....................brother works in Per.
131
a - Elder
b - Old
c - Older
83) The ..................part of the book is not good.
a - Major
b - May
c - Most of
84) He is a lonely man, he feels............
a - Aoner
b - Alone
c - Alonest
85) Parents are happy when their children are..............
a - Aleppest
b - Aslepper
c - Asleep
86) Sometimes she drives me.............
a - Madder
b - Mad
c - Madest
87) I found a ................bottle on the beach.
a - Broker
b - Brokenest
c - Broken
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Soluciones
1. B 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. A 8. C 9. B 10.A
11.A 12.B 13.A 14.C 15.A 16.A 17.A 18.B 19.C 20.A
21.B 22.A 23.B 24.A 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.B 29.C 30.B
31.B 32.A 33.B 34.A 35.B 36.B 37.B 38.B 39.C 40.C
41.A 42.C 43.C 44.A 45.A 46.A 47.B 48.A 49.B 50.A
51.A 52.A 53.C 54.B 55.C 56.A 57.B 58.B 59.A 60.A
61.C 62.B 63.B 64.B 65.B 66.B 67.C 68.B 69.B 70.A
71.B 72.A 73.B 74.C 75.A 76.C 77.A 78.B 79.A 80.C
81.C 82.A 83.A 84.B 85.C 86.B 87.C
133
LAS PREPOSICIONES
Aunque la gramtica inglesa es bastante simple, tiene partes que
presentan cierta dificultad como las preposiciones. Por ejemplo, para decir
en, se pueden emplear in , on y at . Por lo tanto se les debe prestar
mucha atencin.
AT
Puntos concretos. We stopped at the zoo.
Paramos en el zoo.
He was at the station.
l estaba en la estacin.
I was at home and my wife was at a meeting.
Yo estaba en casa y mi mujer estaba en una
reunin.
Cafs y restaurantes We'll eat at MacDonald's, in San Juan Beach.
Comeremos en el MacDonalds de la Playa de San
Juan.
Sitios donde se estudia
o trabaja.
I was at school and then at university later on I worked
at IBM.
Fui al colegio, luego a la universidad y despus
trabaj en IBM.
Nombres de
actividades de grupo
He was at a meeting, then at the theatre and later at
a concert and at a lecture, afterwards at a match
and finally at the cinema.
l estaba en una reunin, luego fue al teatro,
despus a un concierto y a una conferencia,
despus a un partido y, finalmente, al cine.
Con el nmero de la
calle
I lived at 35 Prncipe de Asturias.
Yo viva en la calle Prncipe de Asturias 35.
Horas I wake up at six.
Me levanto a las seis.
Navidad y Pascua At Christmas I buy many presents and at Easter I go to
134
the beach.
En Navidad compro muchos regalos y en Pascua voy
a la playa.
Expresiones At present Im reading a novel.
Ahora estoy leyendo una novela.
He died at the age of 81.
l falleci a la edad de 81 aos.
At night.
Por la noche.
At sunrise.
Al amanecer
At noon.
Al mediodia
At sunset.
Al atardecer
At first sight.
A primera vista.
At midnight.
Al mediodia
At this moment.
En este momento.
At last.
Al fn.
At the bus-stop.
En la parada del
autobs.
At the office.
En la oficina.
At the top.
En la parte de
arriba.
At work.
En el trabajo.
At the station.
En la estacin.
At least.
Al menos.
At the bottom.
En la parte de
abajo.
Otros. It was love at first sight.
Fue amor a primera vista.
She is always at home.
Ella siempre est en casa.
At least it is a very good book.
Al menos es un buen libro.
At present they are working a lot.
En este momento estn trabajando mucho.
They were at war.
135
Ellos estuvieron en guerra.
The boss is at work
El jefe est trabajando.
ON
Algo que est tocando
o cercano a una lnea,
o algo parecido a una
lnea.
We have a house on the river.
Tenemos una casa al lado del ro.
Benidorm is on the coast.
Benidorm est en la costa.
Elche is on the road to Murcia.
Elche est en la carretera de Murcia.
Cuando algo est
tocando una
superficie.
The keys are on the table.
Las llaves estn en la mesa.
They fish on the lake.
Ellos pescan en el lago.
The new picture is on the wall.
El nuevo cuadro est en la pared.
Con transportes
pblicos, caballos,
motos y bicicletas.
I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the bus.
Yo la vi en el avin, tren, autobs.
Con pisos. I live on the second floor.
Yo vivo en el segundo piso.
Das. I study French on Monday.
Yo estudio francs los lunes.
On St. Valentines many people buy diamonds.
El da de San Valentn mucha gente compra
diamantes.
Expresiones. The train arrived on time.
136
El tren lleg en punto.
He is on a business trip.
Est de viaje de negocios.
The soldier is on duty.
El soldado est de servicio.
He came on foot.
Vino a pie.
The house is still on sale.
La casa est todava en venta.
On the other hand, I dont like it.
Por otra parte no me gusta.
On the whole, It was a very good play.
En resumidas cuentas, fue una buena obra.
Pginas. On page 26 you will find the exercises.
En la pgina 26 encontraris los ejercicios.
IN
Cuando algo est
dentro de algo.
My friends are in the cuartelillo.
Mis amigos estn en el cuartelillo.
The bottles are in the fridge.
Las botellas estn en la nevera.
Con pases. I live in Spain.
Yo vivo en Espaa.
Con regiones. They are in the Sahara.
Ellos estn en el desierto del Sahara.
Con grandes islas. We spent the summer in the Canary islands.
Ellos pasaron el verano en las Islas Canarias.
Partes del cuerpo. I have a pain in my stomach.
Me duele la barriga.
Con coche, taxi y I saw him in a new Mercedes.
137
avioneta. Yo le vi en un nuevo Mercedes.
Con algunos lugares. In bed.
En cama
In hospital.
En el hospital.
In court.
En el juzgado.
In church.
En la iglesia.
In prison.
En la crcel.
Nombres de calles. I lived in Onesimo Redondo street.
Yo viv en la calle Onsimo Redondo.
Partes del da I read the paper in the morning.
Yo por las maanas leo el peridico.
Meses. I got married in October.
Yo me cas en el mes de Octubre.
Aos. I met my wife in 1982.
Conoc a mi mujer en el ao 1982.
Estaciones. I go to San Juan beach in summer.
Voy a la playa de San Juan en verano.
Siglos. In he l9th century people did not wear jeans.
En el siglo XIX la gente no llevaba pantalones
vaqueros.
Perodos de tiempo. Spain was very rich in the Middle Ages.
Espaa era muy rica en la Edad Media.
Expresiones. He is always in a hurry.
Siempre tiene prisa.
In any case, you can come.
De cualquier manera puedes venir.
138
He was in danger.
Estuvo en peligro.
They are in love
Estn enamorados.
Everything is in order.
Todo est en orden.
In other words, I love you.
En otras palabras, te quiero.
I will tell you in private.
Te lo dir en privado.
She was in tears
Estaba llorando.
139
PREPOSICIONES MAS USADAS.
Aboard.
A bordo.
I was aboard a yatch.
Estuve a bordo de un yate.
About.
Sobre.
I was talking about music.
Estuve hablando de msica.
Above.
Por encima de.
Above all I love my family.
Quiero a mi familia por encima de todo.
Across.
A travs de.
I walked across the park.
Camin a travs del parque.
After.
Despus.
After the meeting I went to the doctor.
Despus de la reunin fui al mdico.
Against.
Contra.
It was against the public opinion.
Todo fue en contra de la opinin pblica.
Along.
A lo largo de.
I found many good people along the way.
Me encontr mucha buena gente a lo largo del
camino.
Among.
Entre.
I found a letter among the books.
Entre los libros encontr una carta.
Around.
Alrededor de.
I travelled around the world.
Viaj alrededor del mundo.
At.
En.
I was at the zoo.
Estuve en el zoo.
Before.
Antes de.
Before eating I read the press.
Antes de comer leo el peridico.
Behind.
Detrs de.
There was a mouse behind the door.
Haba un ratn detrs de la puerta.
Below.
Por debajo de.
The temperatures were below zero.
Las temperaturas estaban por debajo de cero.
140
Beside.
Al lado de.
I was beside the Mayor at the table.
Estuve al lado del alcalde en la mesa.
Between.
Entre (2).
Between you and me there is magic.
Entre t y yo hay magia.
Beyond.
Mas all de.
I live beyond the road.
Vivo ms all de la carretera.
By.
Por.
Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
Shakespeare escribi Hamlet .
I always travel by plane.
Siempre viajo en avin.
He comes everyday by bus
l viene todos los das en autobs.
He did it by chance.
Lo hizo por casualidad.
By far he is the best.
l es el mejor con mucho.
You must learn this by heart
Debes aprenderte esto de memoria.
He did it by mistake.
Lo hizo por error.
He got me by surprise.
Me cogi por sorpresa.
Down.
Abajo.
Go down the street.
Ve calle abajo.
During.
Durante.
During the summer I have a great time.
Durante el verano me lo paso muy bien.
Except.
Excepto.
Except for the price, I like it very much.
Excepto por el precio me gusta mucho.
For. I have lived in this flat for 20 years.
141
Durante, desde, hace. He vivido en este piso durante veinte aos.
From.
Desde.
From June to September I go swimming to the salt
lake.
Desde Junio a Septiembre voy a nadar al lago de
sal.
In front of.
Delante de.
She was sittting in front of me.
Estaba sentada delante de m.
In.
En.
I was in Greece in 1992.
Estuve en Grecia en el ao 1992.
Into.
En,
Dentro de.
I went into a taxi.
Sub a un taxi.
Near.
Cerca.
There was a disco near my house.
Haba una discoteca cerca de mi casa.
Next to.
Al lado de.
I live next to the theatre.
Vivo al lado del teatro.
Of.
De.
The son of Peter and Mary is tall.
El hijo de Pedro y Mara es alto.
Off.
En frente y separado.
Tabarca is off the coast of Santa Pola.
Tabarca est en frente de la costa de Santa Pola.
On.
En. (Sobre).
My keys are on the table.
Mis llaves estn en la mesa.
Onto.
En. (indica movimiento)
I jumped onto the car.
Salt sobre el coche.
Opposite.
Enfrente de.
I live opposite the cinema
Vivo enfrente del cine.
Out of.
Fuera de.
Please go out of the class.
Por favor sal fuera de clase.
He was out of control.
Estaba fuera de s.
142
At the moment he is out of work.
Ahora no tiene trabajo
Out of sight out of mind.
Ojos que no ven, corazn que no siente.
Over.
Sobre.
There is a bridge over the Vinalop river.
Hay un puente sobre el ro Vinalop.
Past.
Por al lado de.
I walk past your house in the morning.
Paso por al lado de tu casa por la maana.
Round.
Alrededor.
We went round the park.
Fuimos alrededor del parque.
Since.
Desde.
She hasn t written to me since last January.
No me ha escrito desde el pasado mes de Enero.
Through.
A travs de.
He came in through the gate.
Entr a travs de la puerta.
Till.
Hasta.
Til now Ive lived in Monovar.
Hasta ahora yo he vivido en Monvar.
To.
A.
I go to Sax every Saturday.
Voy a Sax cada Sbado.
Towards.
Hacia.
The WC is towards the end.
El aseo est hacia el final.
Under.
Debajo de.
The children are under the table.
Los nios estn debajo de la mesa.
Until.
Hasta.
Until I was ten, I lived in Petrel.
Hasta que tuve diez aos viv en Petrel.
Up.
Arriba
They are up the stairs.
Ellos estn arriba de las escaleras.
Upon.
Sobre
Once upon.
Hace
It was upon a cushion.
Estaba sobre un cojn.
One upon a time a little rabbit called Perico.
rase una vez un pequeo conejo llamado Perico..
143
With.
Con
I was with him in the military service.
Estuve con l en la mili.
Within.
Dentro de.
It is within two kilometres.
Est antes de dos kilmetros.
Without.
Sin.
I cant live without you.
Yo no puedo vivir sin ti.
144
Existen en ingls una gran cantidad de adjetivos que siempre van
acompaados por una preposicin.
To. With. About. At. Of. For.
Married to.
Casado
con.
Angry with.
Enfadado
con.
Worried
about.
Preocupado
por.
Good at.
Bueno en.
Proud of.
Orgulloso de.
Ready for.
Listo para.
Polite to.
Educado
con.
Satisfied
with.
Satisfecho
con.
Sorry about.
Triste por.
Bad at.
Malo en.
Ashamed of.
Avergonzado
de.
Suitable for.
Adecuado
para.
Happy with.
Feliz con.
Surprised at.
Sorprendido
por.
Afraid of.
Temeroso de.
145
1) I will meet her.................the station.
a - At
b - In
c - On
2) Please hang it................the wall.
a - On
b - At
c - In
3) This happened ...................Saturday.
a - On
b - In
c - At
4) ...................the past things were different.
a - On
b - At
c - In
5) My grandmother was always.................home.
a - At
b - In
c - On
6) You must change ................Albacete.
a - In
b - On
c - At
7) I prefer to stay ........the right hand side.
a - In
b - On
c - At
8) Please look...............the mirror.
a - At
b - In
c - On
9) We live ...................the second floor.
a - In
b - On
c - At
10) Monforte is .................the road to Alicante.
a - On
b - In
c - At
11) He always pays.................cash.
146
a - On
b - In
c - At
12) Arenales del Sol is .................the coast.
a - On
b - In
c - At
13) He is very good .............music.
a - In
b - On
c - At
14) I will see you........Monday.
a - In
b - On
c - At
15) I saw you............television.
a - In
b - On
c - At
16) I heard it........Radio Elda.
a - In
b - On
c - At
17) He is always ......a bad mood.
a - In
b - On
c - At
18) ......the moment things are very different.
a - In
b - At
c - On
19) .......Christmas we eat a lot of nougats.
a - In
b - At
c - On
20) ........Christmas day we eat relleno.
a - In
b - On
c - At
21) He was ........the Navy.
147
a - In
b - On
c - At
22) They were......both sides of the road.
a - In
b - On
c - At
23) She drives ........full speed.
a - At
b - In
c - On
24) The house is ........good condition.
a - In
b - At
c - On
25) It was always........my mind.
a - In
b - On
c - At
26) My grandmother died........the age of 80.
a - At
b - In
c - On
27) ........present they are very busy.
a In
b - On
c - At
28) Most people ............Elda prefer to go to the beach.
a - In
b - On
c - At
29) Please don't speak................the same time.
a - At
b - In
c - On
30) I don't work............Sunday.
a - In
b - On
c - At
31) I wake up.........8.00.
a - At
148
b - In
c - On
32) Aida was born.......1934.
a - In
b - On
c - At
33) I run..............night.
a - In
b - On
c - At
34) My daughters play with me .........home.
a - In
b - On
c - At
35) I look at the stars..................night.
a - At
b - In
c - On
36) My birthday is .......November.
a - On
b - In
c - At
37) The book is.......the table.
a - On
b - In
c - At
38) The coke is.........the kitchen.
a - In
b - On
c - At
39) I am writing .........the blackboard.
a - In
b - On
c - At
40) The chocalates are ............the box.
a - On
b - At
c - In
41) I am.................Spain.
a - For
149
b - From
c - Foreign
42) They are .............the theatre now.
a - At
b - On
c - In
43) The train arrives......................Victoria station.
a - At
b - In
c - On
44) Please tell me..........................once.
a - In
b - At
c - On
45) I waited for half an hour, and .......................last he came.
a - On
b - In
c - At
46) He is sitting...........................an armchair.
a - In
b - On
c - At
47) The picture is .......................the wall.
a - At
b - In
c - On
48) I put my hands ..................my pockets.
a - On
b - At
c - In
49) The shop is ........................Juan Carlos I street.
a - In
b - At
c - On
50) We go to church ......................Sundays.
a - At
b - In
c - On
51) It is .............................the foot of the page.
a - At
b - On
150
c - In
52) .....................my opinion, it is a very good book.
a - In
b - At
c - On
53) He is...........................the garden.
a - On
b - In
c - At
54) I am living .................a hotel near here.
a - In
b - On
c - At
55) The milk's .......................................the fridge.
a - In
b - At
c On
56) They sat ...........................the wall.
a - On
b - At
c - In
57) They made the film ....................Petrel.
a - In
b - At
c - On
58) I saw them ......................................the station.
a - In
b - At
c - On
59) Mary's not here - she's....................the office.
a - On
b - In
c - At
60) They were sitting ............................the floor.
a - In
b - On
c - At
61) The ham is...................................the shelf in the kitchen.
a - On
b - In
151
c - At
62) The money's.....................................my pocket.
a - At
b - On
c - In
63) They are all......................................the garden.
a - At
b - In
c - On
64) The papers are................................my desk.
a - In
b - At
c - On
65) They are all.....................................the car.
a - On
b - At
c - In
66) He's not..........................................work today.
a - On
b - In
c - At
67) I'll see you ........................................Monday.
a - In
b - At
c - On
68) I met him .........................................the holidays.
a - At
b - In
c - On
69) I'll pick you up..........................eight o'clock.
a - At
b - In
c - On
70) I'm going home.................................four.
a - On
b - In
c - At
71) They came to visit us ....................my birthday.
a - In
152
b - At
c - On
72) I can work ................the morning.
a - At
b - In
c - On
73) Did you have a good time ......................Christmas?
a - In
b - At
c - On
74) School finishes ..................................three o'clock.
a - On
b - In
c - At
75) We arranged to meet ..........................Seven.
a - At
b - In
c - On
76) I'll meet you............................the station.
a - At
b - In
c - On
77) He's still..........................................school.
a - At
b - In
c - On
78) That picture....................the wall was painted by Vladi Monz.
a - In
b - At
c - On
79) He's................................................the building somewhere.
a - On
b - At
c - In
80) You could phone me.....................work.
a - On
b - In
c - At
81) Why don't you stay........................home?
a - At
b - In
153
c - On
82) He'll be...........................................prison for robbery.
a - In
b - At
c - On
83) I'm studying law..............................University.
a - In
b - On
c - At
84) Is he...............................................hospital?
a - In
b - On
c - At
85) I'll see you......................................the meeting tomorrow.
a - At
b - In
c - On
86) We're meeting...............................7.00 on Tuesday.
a - At
b - On
c - In
87) We usually go .................................holiday to Tabarca.
a - At
b - On
c - In
88) What are you doing.........................Christmas?
a - On
b - In
c - At
89) I don't sleep much.............................night.
a - In
b - On
c - At
90) What about going to see 'Hamlet "....................the 15th.
a - At
b - In
c - On
91) Ill wait for you............the airport.
a - At
b - In
c - On
154
92) My wife is........the kitchen.
a - In
b - On
c - At
93) I was .......the station.
a - In
b - On
c - At
94) The water is..........the fridge.
a - On
b - In
c - At
95) They are........the floor.
a - In
b - On
c - At
96) The book is ..........the table.
a - In
b - On
c - At
97) My mother is.........home.
a - On
b - In
c - At
98) My house is..............the road to Sax.
a - In
b - On
c - At
99) I work..................Villena.
a - In
b - On
c At
100) The TV is
a - In
b - On
c - At
101) Come ........., let's go and watch TV.
a - On
b - In
c - At
155
102) Teresa's ...........the phone.
a - In
b - On
c - At
103) Please hurry .............
a - Down
b - In
c - Up
104) ...............last.
a - At
b - In
c - On
105) Hold ......................a moment.
a - In
b - At
c - On
106) It's always better to try new clothes ..........
a - On
b - In
c - At
107) .........cash.
a - In
b - On
c - At
108) ..............credit card.
a - By
b - With
c - In
109) I have to be..............home. I must study.
a - At
b - In
c - On
110) Would you like to come ............a concert with me?
a - To
b - From
c - At
111) Come ..............about ten o'clock.
a - At
b - In
c - On
156
112) I was sitting .........the garden reading the news about Elda.
a - At
b - In
c - On
113) I'll ring ..............a pizza.
a - For
b - From
c - To
114) There was a very beautiful woman ...................the crossroads near Castelar
Square.
a - In
b - On
c - At
115) What .......a T-shirt?
a - Around
b - About
c - Again
116) Yes I went ........a tour in Mexico.
a - On
b - In
c - At
117) The car is .............sale now.
a - In
b - On
c - At
118) I'm really looking ...............to the concert!
a - For
b - Forward
c - Up
119) They are .................High School.
a - At
b - In
c - On
120) That depends .....your grades.
a - On
b - In
c - At
121) I intend to get a job ........weekends.
a - In
b - On
c - At
122) It looks great ......!
157
a - On
b - In
c - At
123) This is celebrated ......the fourth Thursday of November.
a - On
b - In
c - At
124) We can have a picnic ..................the beach.
a - In
b - On
c - At
125) He's 10 and he's mad ................Harry Potter.
a - In
b - At
c - On
126) He is the expert ......................computers.
a - In
b - On
c - At
127) How ..............going out for a drink.
a - Around
b - Aside
c - About
128) I'll bring you a present ........the journey.
a - In
b - Up
c - On
129) I'm really looking ..........to visiting Berna.
a - Forward
b - For
c - Fast
130) We look ............him as one of the family.
a - On
b - In
c - At
131) Can I pay ........credit card?
a - With
b - By
c - As
132) I must go ...........a diet.
a - On
158
b - At
c - In
133) If you don't know the meaning of the word look it ........in the dictionary.
a - Up
b - For
c - Forward
134) Perhaps I should give ............smoking.
a - Up
b - At
c - On
135) Many are open ........the public.
a - Up
b - To
c - In
136) It's great while you are .....................holiday.
a - On
b - In
c - At
137) Where did you park the car? It's .............Pedrito Rico Road.
a - In
b - On
c - At
138) Tommy, don't sit on the floor, sit..................the chair.
a - On
b - In
c - At
139) Where is the supermarket? It's ...............Dahellos Road.
a - In
b - Into
c - On
140) Inma, please sit.....................the chair.
a - On
b - By
c - At
141) They arrived ................Elda yesterday.
a - In
b - On
c - At
142) I was listening to the news .........................TV when the baby began to
scream.
a - On
159
b - In
c - At
143) We waited a couple of hours......the airport.
a - At
b - In
c - On
144) We play tennis.......the club every Monday.
a - In
b - On
c - At
145) We were.......theatre last night.
a - In
b - On
c - At
146) I studied ........don Emilio's school from 1968 to 1975.
a - In
b - On
c - At
147) I met her ..........a lecture.
a - On
b - In
c - At
148) She studied........Oxford.
a - On
b - At
c - Of
149) She lives.....Oxford.
a - In
b - On
c - At
150) We live......the frontier.
a - On
b - In
c - At
151) Elda is ......the road to Albacete.
a - In
b - On
c - At
152) All the pictures are......the wall.
a - On
b - In
160
c - At
153) I live ......the second floor.
a - In
b - At
c - On
154) I was born......Elda.
a - On
b - In
c - At
155) We have a house......the coast.
a - In
b - On
c - At
156) I met her..........the croosroads.
a - At
b - In
c - On
157) I lived ......a desert island like Robinson Crusoe for a month.
a - On
b - In
c - At
158) I always travel ..........the plane.
a - On
b - At
c - In
159) I met her......the bus.
a - On
b - In
c - At
160) I found a wallet.......taxi.
a - In
b - On
c - At
161) I studied Shakespeare.........college.
a - At
b - In
c - On
162) We arrived .......France in 1990.
a - At
b - In
161
c - On
163) We arrived ........Paris in 1991.
a - At
b - On
c - In
164) I live........1 Plaza Mayor.
a - In
b - On
c - At
165) .......the weekend we go to Rabosa.
a - At
b - In
c - On
166) ......lunch time we drink coke.
a - In
b - On
c - At
167) ......the age of 11 I went to Alicante.
a - In
b - On
c - At
168) ......the beginning of the book I didn't like very much.
a - In
b - On
c - At
169) ........first sight I fell in love with her.
a - At
b - In
c - On
170) We became friends.......last.
a - In
b - On
c - At
171) We go shopping..................Mondays.
a - On
b - In
c - At
172) ........Christmas day my family come home.
a - In
b - On
c - At
162
173) ........the morning I never drink coffee.
a - At
b - In
c - On
174) .......1998 I got married.
a - In
b - On
c - At
175) I like going to the mountains......spring.
a - In
b - On
c - At
176) .......the Middle Ages many cathedrals were built.
a - On
b - In
c - At
177) I'll be back.......five hours.
a - In
b - On
c - At
178) Trains in Spain now arrive........time.
a - In
b - On
c - At
179) You must be ......time for the plane.
a - In
b - On
c - At
180) In the USA everybody works.......nine to five.
a - For
b - From
c - Since
181) Holidays in Spain are.......July to September.
a - For
b - From
c - At
182) All the trains come......Alicante.
a - From
b - For
c - Up
183) We are going .................the cinema tonight.
163
a - At
b - To
c - In
184) They went .......the car.
a - In
b - Into
c - On
185) We all ran ....................the church because it was raining cats and dogs.
a - In
b - Into
c - At
186) When we go to Madrid we always go......train.
a - By
b - On
c - In
187) The safest way to travel is.......road.
a - On
b - In
c - By
188) We got.......the bus at 8.00.
a - In
b - On
c - By
189) I go to work........foot.
a - In
b - On
c - By
190) Most students at the University work ......part time jobs such as Tele Pizza
and so on.
a - As
b - On
c - In
191) A car came.......the right.
a - For
b - From
c - By
192) A lorry crashed.......my car.
a - Into
b - Up
c - To
193) .......Christmas Eve we have dinner together.
164
a - In
b - At
c - On
194) Everybody in Elda is looking.......to the Moors and Christians festivities.
a - For
b - Forwards
c - Forward
195) My factory passed ........the hands of my uncle.
a - In
b - Into
c - To
196) The shop opened......the public in 1989.
a - At
b - For
c - To
197) She is always worried........money.
a - Around
b - Aside
c - About
198) You must always look........
a - Ahead
b - Head
c - Heading
199) ......Lent people many people don't eat meat.
a - At
b - On
c - In
200) She won't be back......the end of May.
a - As
b - Until
c - At
201) In the middle ....................August we organise many BBQs.
a - From
b - Of
c - On
202) People .......the beach should drink water all the time.
a - In
b - On
c - At
203) I couldn't play tennis because I had to look...........my daughter.
a - For
165
b - After
c - Up
204) I went for a walk........Castelar Square.
a - About
b - Afloat
c - Around
205) Antonio Poveda gave a lecture.................Roman culture.
a - For
b - Of
c - On
206) The girl........the window is Mara.
a - By
b - In
c - On
207) You should send the letters ......advance.
a - On
b - At
c - In
208) My father-in-law arrived...........Alicante airport from Italy yesterday. He
went to Lineapelle.
a - In
b - At
c - On
209) The tickets for the opera must be booked well........advance.
a - In
b - On
c - At
210) Sarah has a room ........her own and so does Inmita.
a - Of
b - From
c - For
211) You must be very good if you want to get........one these college.
a - In
b - Into
c - To
212) It will depend....................the amount of money.
a - In
b - On
c - At
213) We always play badminton......weekends.
a - On
166
b - In
c - At
214) Why don't we prepare a BBQ........San Juan beach.
a - On
b - In
c - At
215) My friend is mad......books.
a - In
b - On
c - At
216) He told her to shut......her mouth.
a - Up
b - At
c - By
217) My house is ..................the cinemas.
a - Near
b - Near of
c - Near off
218) The park is......................the hospital.
a - Next
b - Next to
c - Next about
219) Sol y Nive is.....................the bookshop.
a - Opposite
b - Opposite of
c - Off opposite
220) Jess ngel is.......Palencia
a - From
b - On
c - At
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. A 4. C 5. A 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. B 10. A
11. B 12. A 13. C 14. B 15. B 16. B 17. A 18. B 19. B 20. B
21. A 22. B 23. A 24. A 25. A 26. A 27. C 28. A 29. A 30. B
31. B 32. A 33. C 34. C 35. A 36. B 37. A 38. A 39. B 40. C
41. B 42. C 43. A 44. B 45. C 46. A 47. C 48. C 49. A 50. C
51. B 52. B 53. B 54. A 55. A 56. A 57. A 58. C 59. C 60. B
61. B 62. C 63. B 64. C 65. C 66. C 67. C 68. B 69. A 70. C
71. C 72. B 73. B 74. C 75. A 76. A 77. B 78. C 79. C 80. C
81. A 82. A 83. C 84. A 85. A 86. A 87. B 88. C 89. C 90. C
91. A 92. A 93. C 94. B 95. B 96. B 97. C 98. B 99. A 100. B
101. A 102. B 103. C 104. A 105. C 106. A 107. A 108. A 109. A 110. A
167
111. A 112. B 113. A 114. C 115. B 116. A 117. A 118. B 119. A 120. A
121. B 122. A 123. A 124. B 125. C 126. B 127. C 128. C 129. A 130. A
131. B 132. A 133. A 134. A 135. B 136. A 137. C 138. A 139. A 140. A
141. A 142. A 143. A 144. C 145. C 146. C 147. C 148. B 149. A 150. A
151. B 152. A 153. C 154. B 155. B 156. A 157. A 158. A 159. A 160. A
161. A 162. B 163. C 164. C 165. A 166. C 167. C 168. C 169. A 170. C
171. A 172. B 173. B 174. A 175. A 176. B 177. A 178. B 179. A 180. B
181. B 182. A 183. B 184. B 185. B 186. A 187. C 188. B 189. B 190. C
191. B 192. A 193. C 194. C 195. B 196. C 197. C 198. A 199. A 200. B
201. B 202. B 203. B 204. C 205. C 206. A 207. C 208. B 209. A 210. A
211. B 212. B 213. A 214. A 215. B 216. A 217. A 218. B 219. A 220. A
168
ADVERBIOS
Son modificadores de adjetivos, adverbios y oraciones. Con el verbo ser y
los verbos defectivos, se colocan detrs. Algunos se forman aadiendo
ly al adjetivo, otros como: fast , hard, late, early tienen la misma forma
que los adjetivos.
Modificando adverbios. He writes quite quickly.
Escribe bastante deprisa.
Modificando adjetivos. It is very cheap.
Es muy barato.
Modificando frases. Perhaps they will win.
Quizs ganen.
I am just going to sleep for half an hour.
Voy a dormir media hora.
He runs fast.
l corre rpido.
Los adverbios de lugar y tiempo se suelen colocar al principio o al final de
una frase.
Yesterday I bought a CD.
Ayer compr un CD.
I will go tomorrow.
Yo ir maana.
Los de lugar suelen preceder a los de tiempo
I met Pilar at Castelar yesterday.
Me encontr a Pilar ayer en Castelar.
El comparativo y superlativo lo hacen igual que los adjetivos.
Soon.
Pronto.
Sooner.
Ms pronto.
The soonest.
Lo ms pronto.
Quickly. More quickly. The most quickly.
169
Rpidamente. Ms rpido. Lo ms rpidamente.
Con los tiempos compuestos se coloca delante del verbo principal.
They have nearly finished our swimming pool.
Ellos casi han acabado nuestra piscina.
Already, just , now y then, pueden ir entre dos formas verbales.
I have already seen her.
Ya la he visto.
I have just come back from India.
Acabo de regresar de India.
Los de frecuencia: always, never, usually, sometimes, se colocan entre el
sujeto y el verbo, pero cuando es el verbo to be, se colocan detrs.
I never drink coffee.
Nunca bebo caf.
I always go to Alicante in the summer.
Siempre voy a Alicante en verano.
CLASIFICACIN
FRECUENCIA LUGAR MODO GRADO TIEMPO
Often.
Con
frecuencia.
Away.
Fuera.
Fast.
Rpido.
Enough.
Suficiente.
Yesterday.
Ayer.
Frequently.
Frecuenteme
nte.
There.
All.
Well.
Bien.
Very.
Mucho.
Daily.
Diariamente.
Sometimes.
A veces.
Near.
Cerca.
Slowly.
Lentamente.
Almost.
Casi.
Last week.
La semana pasada.
Always.
Siempre.
Here.
Aqu.
Undoubtedly
Sin duda.
Hardly.
A penas.
Tomorrow.
Maana.
Never.
Nunca.
Rather.
Bastante.
170
INTERROGATIVOS
Where.
Dnde?
When.
Cundo?
How.
Cmo?
How far.
A qu
distancia?
How long.
Cunto
tiempo?
How often.
Con qu
frecuencia?
Why.
Por qu?
Which.
Cul?
Ojo con enough, pues puede tener dos posiciones:
I have enough money.
Tengo suficiente dinero.
I am rich enough to buy a car.
Soy lo suficientemente rico como para comprar un coche.
Recuerda RICH ENOUGH MONEY. Enough lleva delante a los adjetivos y
detrs a los nombres.
El orden de los adverbios suele ser modo, lugar y tiempo.
I walk fast there in the morning.
Yo ando all rpido por la maana.
Muchos adverbios tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos.
A fast motorbike
Una moto rpida.
A motorbike that runs fast.
Una moto que corre rpida.
171
1) That's .............
a - Enough
b - Enougher
c - Enoughing
2) It's not ..........................long.
a - To
b - Too
c - As
3) It's .........fair.
a - No
b - None
c - Not
4) In the USA there are ...........public and private universities.
a - Both
b - All
c - Every
5) ...............is the University?
a - Where
b - When
c - Whom
6) ............all cars here are automatic.
a - Nearly
b - Near
c - Close
7) It says .......diving!
a - Not
b - No
c - Any
8) ............would I.
a - So
b - As
c - Some
9) I suppose .......
a - As
b - So
c - So as so
10) My wife feels ..........nervous about driving in England.
a - Too
b - To
c - Tooth
11) There is ...........a variety of things.
172
a - Such
b - So
c - Very
12) That girl is ............................pretty.
a - As
b - So many
c - So
13) I............smoke......drink alcohol.
a - Either-nor
b - Neither-nor
c - Neither-nir
14) They went he cinema..
a - Now
b Yesterday
c - Tomorrow
15) Cul es la correcta?
a - The house is big enough
b - The house is enough big
c - The house enough big
16) Cmo se denominan a los siguientes adverbios: almost, only, nearly,
enough, far, just, quite, rather, so, too, very, etc?
a - De frecuencia
b - De grado
c - De modo
17) ......Horacio and Pepe go to Elche on Monday.
a - All
b - Both
c - None
18) This wine is........Rioja or Ribera del Duero.
a - Either
b - Neither
c - So
19) We ..................speak Valenciano nor French.
a - Either
b - Neither
c - Nor
20) I ....................smoke nor drink wine.
a - Neither
b - Either
c - So
21) His French is very.....
173
a - Well
b - Good
c - Better
22) My daughters are .......sleeping.
a - Quietly
b - Quiet
c - Quieter
23) They prepare the gazpachos......
a - Perfect
b - Perfectly
c - Perfecting
24) My friend Toms is a .........driver.
a - Carefully
b - Care
c - Careful
25) Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman were.......married until they got a divorce.
a - Happy
b - Happily
c - Hapili
26) He is always very......and sends me a Jabugo ham on November the 30th.
a - Kindly
b - Kaind
c - Kind
27) She is very......in English.
a - Fluently
b - Fluent
c - Fluents
28) We never speak..........about our friends.
a - Badder
b - Badly
c - Worse
29) Inma likes Nesquick because it melts.................
a - Quick
b - Quickly
c - Quicker than
30) She never has.........to buy what she needs.
a - Money enough
b - Enough money
c - Enough monei
31) Everybody has ..........to make the beds.
a - Now
174
b - Yesterday
c - Best
32) There are.......good and bad methods of learning a language.
a - All
b - Neither
c - Both
33) Everybody spent the afternoon...
a - Happier
b - Happy
c - Happily
34) It was.............understood by all the students.
a - Easy
b - Easily
c - Easier that
35) It had been .........decided that a Ford Fiesta was the best option.
a - Quick
b - Quicker
c - Quickly
36) The party was.........planned.
a - Wonderfully
b - Wonder
c - Wonderful
37) ........it is not very clear if you are entitled or not to inherit the money.
a - Legally
b - Legal
c - Legaly
38) I don't think so......
a - Personally
b - Personal
c - Personaly
39) He drives..........
a - Fast
b - Fasting
c - Fastest
40) We always arrive...............
a - Early
b - Earliest
c - The earlier
41) My parents work..............
a - Hard
b - Harder than
175
c - The hard
42) Mara Callas sang ....................
a - Beautifully
b - Beautiful
c - Beatifuler
176
Soluciones
1. A 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. A 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. B 10.A
11.A 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.A 19.B 20.A
21.B 22.A 23.B 24.C 25.B 26.C 27.B 28.B 29.B 30.B
31.A 32.C 33.C 34.B 35.C 36.A 37.A 38.A 39.A 40.A
41.A 42.A
177
YET, STILL, ALREADY, DURING Y AGO
Yet.
Va al final de la oracin en
interrogativas y negativas. Con el
pretrito perfecto, an, todava.
I haven't finished the job yet.
No he acabado el trabajo todava.
Have you seen her yet?
La has visto ya?
Still.
Va detrs del verbo to be. Todava.
Va entre sujeto y verbo en afirmativas
e interrogativas
Va detrs del sujeto en negativas. Da
nfasis
My sister is still working .
Mi hermana est todava trabajando.
I still love her.
Todava la quiero.
Do they still live in Sax?
Viven ellos todava en Sax?
He still hasnt paid.
l todava no ha pagado.
Already.
Va detrs de to be.
This car is already too old.
Este coche es ya demasiado viejo.
Already.
En posicin final enfatiza.
He has the tickets already.
l ya tiene las entradas.
Already.
Se coloca entre el auxiliar y el verbo
en afirmativas e interrogativas.
I have already bought the grapes.
Ya he comprado las uvas.
Have you already bought the books?
Has comprado ya los libros?
During.
Indica un perodo de tiempo dentro
de otro.
During the summer I go to Santa Pola.
Durante el verano voy a Santa Pola.
Ago.
Se coloca al final de la oracin.
I went to Elche two days ago.
Fui a Elche hace dos das.
178
1) He is ..........in bed. He has been sleeping all night long.
a - Yet
b - Still
c - Already
2) She is ................waiting for the bus.
a - Yet
b - Still
c - Since
3) They ..................go to the mountains although they are 80.
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
4) Have you done your homework...................?
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
5) I am .............working there but I will change very soon.
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
6) Has he come..............?
a - Yet
b - Still
c - Already
7) They are.....................playing football.
a - Yet
b - Still
c - Already
8) He has.....................come back from school.
a - Already
b - Yet
c - St ill
9) I' ve worked in Elche ...................six years.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
10) l lived here in San Francisco ...................three months.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
11) I've worked in the same factory ...................1970.
179
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
12) He's been abroad ...................five years.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
13) I studied French .............twelve years.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
14) I' ve known her ..............1982.
a - Ago
b - Since
c - For
15) I've lived in Elda ...................I was a child.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
16) We have not been in Rome ...........we were married.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
17) I've known them ................years.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
18) We have been painting the room ...........2 months.
a - Ago
b - Since
c - For
19) I studied Italian ........a couple of months.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
20) She has been working here ...................she left school.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
21) I have been working in the restaurant ................six months.
a - For
180
b - Ago
c - Since
22) He has been in prison..................nine years.
a - Ago
b - Since
c - For
23) I haven't been to Tabarca .................I was at the University.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
24) I haven't seen my friend Mara ...................several years.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
25) We lived in Villena ........................1950.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
26) I have been writing a novel .................seven years.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
27) They have been going to England ...................1983.
a - Since
b - Ago
c - For
28) Horacio has been waiting for his wife......................8 o'clock.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
29) Pepica has lived in Salinas........................................she was ten years old.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
30) They are married. They got married six months ........
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
31) My sister has been reading a book ...........................a long time.
a - Ago
b - For
181
c - Since
32) I've been swimming every Friday ............................I was thirteen.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
33) She is in London now. She arrived there four days ................
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
34) Clemente has been writing an article ........................September.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
35) Ana has been working in Elche..................................9 o'clock.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
36) Rosi has been buying presents...................................Christmas.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
37) Marano has been playing tennis ...............................he was thirty.
a - Ago
b - Since
c - For
38) Jess has been working in this project..............October.
a - Since
b - Ago
c - For
39) She's been in London .....................Monday.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
40) It is raining. It started an hour ...............
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
41) He has been ill .........a long time.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
182
42) Manoln has lived in Aspe ..................................15 years.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
43) That old house has been empty .............many years.
a - Ago
b - Since
c - For
44) Pili is in her office. She's been there ..............7 o'clock.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
45) The bus is late. We've been waiting .........................20 minutes.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
46) Tere is here. She has been in Majorca ..........6 months
a - For
b - Ago
c - Since
47) I know Pepe. I first met him two years ..............
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
48) I have a camera. I have it .............................................1985.
a - Since
b - Ago
c - For
49) Laura is studying Medicine ............................1987.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
50) I've been learning English.............................January.
a - For
b - Ago
c - Since
51) My brother's been working in Alicante ................2 years.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
183
52) We've been trying to buy a house..................years now.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
53) I've only been cycling to work......................two months.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
54) Haven't you done it ....................?
a - Ago
b - Yet
c - For
55) It's very early, are you in bed ..?
a - Yet
b - Already
c Still
56) We haven't seen the new Harry Potter film ...
a - Yet
b - Already
c - Still
57) It's late and Juan is ...........in bed.
a - Already
b - Still
c - Yet
58) It's very late and your brother is......
a - Still in bed
b - Still in the bed
c - Already in bed
59) How long has Pepe been in hospital? ........seven days.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
60) It rained a lot.......the night.
a - For
b - Since
c - During
61) ........our stay in London we visited many museums.
a - Since
b - During
c - For
184
62) He ...........works in the same company.
a - Still
b - For
c - Yet
63) Are they.........waiting for the doctor?
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
64) I haven't read the book about Garzon......
a - Yet
b - Still
c - Already
65) I haven't written my Christmas cards......
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
66) My ford fiesta is.........very old.
a - Already
b - Still
c - Yet
67) I ................know the answer.
a - Still
b - Already
c - Yet
68) The leathers came five minutes...
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
69) It's at least five months ......I met her for the last time.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
70) I haven't finished........
a - Yet
b - Already
c - Still
185
Soluciones
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. B 10.A
11.A 12.A 13.B 14.B 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.A 20.B
21.A 22.C 23.A 24.B 25.B 26.B 27.A 28.A 29.B 30.C
31.B 32.A 33.C 34.C 35.B 36.A 37.B 38.A 39.B 40.A
41.A 42.B 43.C 44.C 45.B 46.A 47.C 48.A 49.C 50.C
51.A 52.B 53.A 54.B 55.A 56.A 57.B 58.A 59.B 60.C
61.B 62.A 63.A 64.A 65.B 66.A 67.B 68.C 69.A 70.A
186
EL IMPERATIVO
Se usa para dar rdenes y hacer sugerencias o consejos. Carece de forma
interrogativa.
AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA
Infinitivo sin to. Do not + Inf sin to.
Go home.
Ve a casa.
Come here.
Ven aqu.
Lets go home, its late.
Vayamos a casa es tarde.
Dont drink too much.
No bebas demasiado.
FORMA ENFTICA
Do go home.
Vete a casa ya.
El imperativo puede servir para hacer sugerencias, invitaciones, ruegos.
Do se puede usar con el verbo to be
Do be quiet.
Estte quieto.
Dont be cruel to her.
No seas cruel con ella.
Si utilizamos you indica irritacin.
Dont you go.
No se te ocurra ir.
El imperativo de la primera persona de plural se hace con lets. La
negativa con lets not .
187
Lets go.
Vayamos
188
1) Let's .......
a - Thinks
b - Thinking
c - Think
2) ..............that music down please.
a - Play
b - Turn
c - Put
3) Let's ..............a good restaurant, I am very hungry.
a - Finding
b - Found
c - Find
4) Why don't we go to the beach and ..............a swim.
a - Have
b - Has
c - Had
5) Let's .........home.
a - Went
b - Go
c - Gone
6) Boys, ......................here.
a - Come
b - To come
c - Comes
7) Manolo, .................go to the disco tonight.
a - Let us
b - We let's
c - We let
8) Pepita, ...down here.
a - Sitting
b - Sits
c - Sit
9) ........here at once.
a - Come
b - Coming
c - To cime
10) .the room before 7.00.
a - Clean
b - Cleaning
c - Cleans
11) Let.................come.
189
a - Her
b - She
c - Hers
12) Let................go.
a - Him
b - He
c - His
13) Let's......go to the cinema, it's better a disco.
a - Not
b - No
c - None
14) ......a girlfriend who share your hobbies.
a - Choose
b - To choose
c - Choosing
15) ......your mouth close all the time, only answer if the teaches asks you.
a - Keep
b - To keep
c - Keeps
16) Please.......................on the lights.
a - To switch
b - Switch
c - Switching
17) Don't forget ...............the letters.
a - Posted
b - To post
c - Posts
190
Soluciones
1. C 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. A 8. C 9. A 10.A
11.A 12.A 13.A 14.A 15.A 16.B 17.B
191
EL PRESENTE SIMPLE
Equivale al presente de indicativo. Se forma con el sujeto ms el infinitivo.
La tercera persona del singular, (he, she, e it ) aaden -s o -es. Las reglas
ortogrficas que aprendiste en la formacin del plural son las mismas que
se aplican en este caso a los verbos. Los verbos que terminan en -ss, -
sh, -ch, -x, -o aaden -es en la tercera persona del singular:
AFIRMATIVA Sujeto + Inf sin to I play tennis.
Yo juego al tenis.
He, she, it aaden (s) o
(es)
He kisses his mother.
l besa a su madre.
He watches TV everyday.
l ve la tele todos los
das.
NEGATIVA Sujeto + do + not + Inf sin
to.
I dont like cocido.
No me gusta el cocido.
He, She, It usan does. He doesnt love her.
l no la quiere.
He doesnt want to come.
l no quiere venir.
He doesnt read much.
l no lee mucho.
Do + not contrae en
dont.
We dont smoke.
Nosotros no fumamos.
Does + not contra en
doesnt.
He doesnt cook.
l no cocina.
INTERROGATIVA Do + S + Inf sin to. Do you love me?
Me quieres?
192
PRINCIPALES USOS
Indicar hbitos o costumbres. I never go to the university by car.
Yo nunca voy en coche a la
Universidad.
Para indicar verdades universales. The sun rises everyday.
El sol sale todos los das.
Para planes futuros. The play begins at 8 and ends at 10.30.
La obra comienza a las 8 y acaba a
las 10.30.
Para contar historias, cuentos, chistes,
acontecimientos deportivos, etc.
A waiter asks a couple.
Un camarero le pregunta a la pareja.
En el llamado presente histrico. Colombus discovers America in 1492.
Coln descubre Amrica en 1492.
Horarios. The plane leaves at 7.00.
El avin sale a las 7.00.
Con refranes. Time flies.
El tiempo vuela.
Se suele usar con adverbios o frases adverbiales tales como
Always.
Siempre.
Never.
Nunca.
Often.
Con
frecuencia.
Occasionally.
Ocasionalmente.
Every day.
Cada da.
Frequently.
Frecuentemente.
On Sundays.
Los domingos.
Sometimes.
A veces.
Seldom.
Rara vez.
In winter.
En invierno.
Usually.
Normalmente.
He always goes to Benidorm in summer.
Siempre va a Benidorm en verano.
She never tells me what to do.
Ella nunca me dice lo que tengo que hacer.
193
We play football every day.
Jugamos al ftbol todos los das.
Cuando un verbo termina en -y detrs de una consonante, cambiamos
la -y en -i, y aadimos -es.
I copy, he copies.
Yo copio, l copia.
I try, he tries.
Yo lo intento, l lo intenta.
Sin embargo, los verbos que terminan en y detrs de una vocal siguen la
regla general.
I play, he plays.
Yo juego, l juega.
I obey, he obeys.
Yo obedezco, l obedece.
Debido a su significado, algunos verbos usan siempre la forma habitual al
no admitir las formas continuas.
I love you.
Te quiero.
She likes me.
Me gusta
I believe you.
Te creo.
194
1) I ......................like liver.
a - Does
b - Doing
c - Do not
2) ...........you like to go to the cinema?
a - Does
b - Do
c - Are
3) What........your brother do?
a - Do
b - Does
c - Is
4) Where .........you live?
a - Is
b - Do
c - Does
5) What languages ........you speak?
a - Does
b - Are
c - Do
6) He............to the University.
a - Goes
b - Go
c - Is go
7) The Harry Potter film.........150 minutes.
a - Takes
b - Take
c - Taking
8) My wife.............at Azorn High School.
a - Teaches
b - Teach
c - Is tiching
9) Sometimes he.......his girlfriend who is stuying in England.
a - Missing
b - Misses
c - Miss
10) There.......not sharks in Tabarca.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
11) We........friends during our holidays.
195
a - Visiting
b - Visit
c - Is visiting
12) In summer, my daughter ...........her friend Roco.
a - Miss
b - Misses
c - Is missed
13) Laura ........magazines at night.
a - Reading
b - Read
c - Reads
14) The Maths teacher never.......late.
a - Come
b - Comes
c - Is comeing
15) He............the best player in Elda.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
16) I ...............................living in Elda.
a - Likes
b - Like
c - Liking
17) Mike .........potatoes and tomatoes in his cottages.
a - Grow
b - Grows
c - Grounig
18) Where........?
a - Does he lives
b - Does he living
c - Does he live
19) Which car ................................at the moment?
a - Are you haveing
b - Do you have
c - Is having you
20) What ..........................................for a living?
a - Does you do
b - Do you do
c - Do you does
21) I ...............................that this President will win again.
a - Does not think
196
b - Do not thinks
c - Do not think
22) He .............most of the homework with his mother.
a - Does
b - Doing
c - Do
23) I ..........................like Opera, I prefer Jazz.
a - Dis
b - Do
c - Do not
24) You ............................................know him.
a - Don
b - Do not
c - Does not
25) I .............................enjoy the film.
a - Does not
b - Do not
c - Am
26) I .............................want to study French.
a - Does
b - Do
c - Do not
27) Teresa ..........................................smoke.
a - Do
b - Does not
c - Did will
28) My mother .................................wear glasses.
a - Do
b - Does
c - Does not
29) Pepi..............................swim very fast.
a - Do
b - Does not
c - Do
30) .........................you like football?
a - Does
b - Do
c - Are
31) ...................Pepe read the paper?
a - Do
b - Does
197
c - Is
32) Julia...........................drink wine.
a - Do
b - Does
c - Does not
33) The doctor ...................................smoke at all.
a - Do
b - Does not
c - Are
34) Vladimir.......................................run a lot.
a - Does not
b - Do not
c - Is not
35) My sister.......................................travel much.
a - Does do
b - Does not
c - Are not
36) Jos Luis.......................................visit his relatives very often.
a - Does not
b - Do not
c - Is will
37) I ............................eat meat.
a - Do not
b - Does not
c - Will do
38) Where ...................................?
a - Do he lives
b - Does he lives
c - Does he live
39) I .........................................much of him as a writer.
a - Does not think
b - Do not think
c - Thinking
40) I ............................to the swimming pool every day at 5.00.
a - Going
b - Goes
c - Go
41) I think he ................................too hard at the moment.
a - Works
b - Is working
c - Does working
198
42) ............................what he's saying?
a - Do you understand
b - Does you understand
c - Did you understand
43) I can't answer the phone right now, I .................................a bath.
a - Am haveing
b - Am having
c - Having
44) Excuse me...........................................Italian?
a - Speaking
b - Does you speak
c - Do you speak
45) They ...............................television very often.
a - Does not watch
b - Do not watches
c - Do not watch
46) Somebody...............................to us.
a - Is listens
b - Listens
c - Is listening
47) She..........................to go home now.
a - Is wants
b - Is wanted
c - Wants
48) How often ........................................a magazine?
a - Do you read
b - Does you read
c - Did you reads
49) I'm sorry, I ............................................
a - Am not understand
b - Does not understand
c - Do not understand
50) Peter.............................................National Geographic?
a - Does you reads
b - Do you reads
c - Do you read
51) What time ......................................work every day?
a - Does she finishes
b - Do she finish
c - Does she finish
199
52) They.............................................lots of beer in Great Britain.
a - Drinks
b - Drink
c - Drinking
53) He ..............to the University.
a - Goes
b - Go
c - Going
54) The film ..........................................sixty-one minutes.
a - Taking
b - Takes
c - Take
55) Elia...........................at Azorn High School.
a - Teach
b - Teaching
c - Teaches
56) Sometimes he ...............................his girlfriend.
a - Misses
b - Misse
c - Missing
57) It ..................................always sunny in Alicante.
a - Are
b - Is
c - Were
58) We ...........................friends during our holidays.
a - Visiting
b - Visit
c - Are visit
59) Manolo and Ana ......................the festivities a lot.
a - Are like
b - Like
c - Liking
60) I .......................................................living in Elda.
a - Likes
b - Is like
c - Like
61) I ..............................to the San Juan Beach every July with my family.
a - Goes
b - Go
c - Going
200
62) Malena ........................................a lot of icecreams.
a - Eating
b - Eats
c - Eat
63) I'm ........I will.
a - Sure
b - Suring
c - Here
64) I ...........like kidney pie.
a - Don't
b - Doesn't
c - Has
65) ..........you like bacon?
a - Does
b - Do
c - Are
66) ............you like hamburguers?
a - Does
b - Is
c - Do
67) Don't ...............to him.
a - Listened
b - Listen
c - Listening
68) What do you do for a .............?
a - Living
b - Live
c - Liver
69) What does your father ...........?
a - Do
b - Does
c - Doing
70) You really .........celebrate Christmas.
a - Do
b - Does
c - Not
71) I ............you like it.
a - Hope
b - Hopes
c - Hoping
72) I ..........hope you've got everything now, Pepe.
201
a - Did
b - Do
c - Does
73) Everyone ...........paella and ham in Spain.
a - Loves
b - Love
c - Loving
74) 5.900 ...............insurance and unlimited mileage.
a - Including
b - Includes
c - Include
75) Juan, ...........................champagne on Christmas day?
a - Are you going to drink
b - Drink you
c - You drink
76) Every day he ....................after he finishes at the office.
a - Is going to run
b - Run
c - Runs
77) How much money ........................you spend on clothes ?
a - Do
b - Don't
c - Does
78) She usually ...................fresh bread every day.
a - Buys
b - Bought
c - Buying
79) Ismael ..............20 Kms a week.
a - Run
b - Ran
c - Runs
80) Oscar always ...................tennis
a - Play
b - Plays
c - Is play
81) It ..............a lot in winter in Bocairente.
a - Snows
b - Is snowed
c - Is snowing
82) What ..............you do on Monday evening?
202
a - Don't
b - Do
c - Does
83) I want you to .................to my party.
a - Came
b - Coming
c - Come
84) I can't .......chocolate.
a - Resist
b - Resisting
c - Resisted
85) I ................................a letter to my friend once a month.
a - Write
b - Writing
c - Am write
203
Soluciones
1. C 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. A 7. A 8. A 9. B 10.B
11.B 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.B 20.B
21.C 22.A 23.C 24.B 25.B 26.C 27.B 28.C 29.B 30.B
31.B 32.C 33.B 34.A 35.B 36.A 37.A 38.C 39.B 40.C
41.B 42.A 43.B 44.C 45.C 46.C 47.C 48.A 49.C 50.C
51.C 52.B 53.A 54.B 55.C 56.A 57.B 58.B 59.B 60.C
61.B 62.B 63.A 64.A 65.B 66.C 67.B 68.A 69.A 70.A
71.A 72.B 73.A 74.A 75.A 76.C 77.A 78.A 79.C 80.B
81.A 82.B 83.C 84.A 85.A
204
BE GOING TO
Su estructura es Sujeto + Be + Going to + Inf sin to.
Bsicamente se usa para indicar acciones planeadas en un futuro
cercano.
Cuando se tiene intencin de hacer
algo.
I am going to visit my friend.
Voy a visitar a mi amigo.
Para predecir algo. Its going to rain.
Va a llover.
Con un futuro relativamente
inmediato.
She is going to get married next
Sunday.
Se va a casar el prximo sbado.
205
EL PRESENTE CONTINUO
Al igual que todos los tiempos continuos, est formado por to be e -ing.
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Am, Is, Are +
Verbo + Ing.
I am reading.
Estoy leyendo.
Negativa. Sujeto + Am, Is, Are + Not
+ Verbo + Ing.
I am not cooking.
No estoy cocinando.
Interrogativa. Am, Is, Are + Sujeto +
Verbo + Ing.
Are you listening to me?
Me ests escuchando?
PRINCIPALES USOS
Acciones no acabadas que se
encuentran en proceso.
I am paying my flat.
Estoy pagando mi casa.
I am reading a good book.
Estoy leyendo un buen libro.
Acciones planificadas. I'm playing golf with my friend
Eduardo next Sunday.
Voy a jugar al golf con mi amigo
Eduardo el prximo domingo.
Quejas sobre acciones que se repiten. They are always complaining and
asking for more.
Siempre se estn quejando y pidiendo
ms.
Situaciones temporales. Im staying at a hotel because Im
having my house built.
Estoy viviendo en un hotel porque me
estn construyendo mi casa.
Suele ir acompaado de expresiones como:
206
Now.
Ahora.
At the moment.
En este momento.
Right now.
Justo ahora.
207
1) The dog......now.
a - Is barking
b - Is barks
c - Barking
2) Roco ............the potatoes.
a - Is cutting
b - Is cutted
c - Is cuts
3) Marta..................in the street.
a - Is danced
b - Is dance
c - Is dancing
4) I..................to my mother's house.
a - Am go
b - Are going
c - Am going
5) Isabel...............a chocolate cake.
a - Is eating
b - Is eat
c - Is ate
6) We..................a film on Tele Elda.
a - Are watching
b - Are watched
c - Watcheing
7) You..................too much.
a - Are work
b - Are working
c - Are worked
8) I am .................my composition.
a - Coeing
b - Doing
c - Duing
9) Mara Teresa................a new book.
a - Are writing
b - Is writeing
c - Is writing
10) Someone ...............................can you open the door?
a - Ring
b - Is ringing
c - Are ring
11) I ..................................a shower.
208
a - Am having
b - Has
c - Has having
12) Be careful, a lorry ...............................................very fast.
a - Come
b - Comeing
c - Is coming
13) Can you speak up, please? My elder daughter................a terribe noise.
a - Is making
b - Taking
c - Is makeing
14) I ................................at the moment.
a - Am smoking
b - Smokeing
c - Smoking
15) He is ......................of getting married soon.
a - Think
b - Thinking
c - Thought
16) All this noise ....................................................your grandmother now.
a - Annoys
b - Is annoying
c - Annoyed
17) He .....................................fat.
a - Get
b - Is getting
c - Gets
18) Carol ..........................................................................a lot of icecreams lately.
a - Are eating
b - Is eating
c - Eat
19) We.....................................to the new restaurant next month.
a - Are going
b - Go
c - Will go
20) We ..................................chess in the new tournament.
a - Are going to play
b - Plays
c - Would plays
21) They ................................her at the airport tomorrow morning.
209
a - Meet
b - Are meeting
c - Meets
22) I ...................................a Harley in November.
a - Am driving
b - Is driving
c - Driving
23) I ..............................him a Mara Callas CD for his birthday.
a - Give
b - Giving
c - Am giving
24) The new teacher.................................at seven.
a - Come
b - Is comeing
c - Is coming
25) We ...........................some money to charities.
a - Gives
b - Are giveing
c - Are giving
26) You .................................................a motorbike if you pass your exams.
a - Has have
b - Are having
c - Has
27) They ...........................to Majorca with all their friends.
a - Are going
b - Goes
c - Are go
28) He ...............smoking next year.
a - Give
b - Is giveing up
c - Is giving up
29) I ..........................her a new Polo for her birthday.
a - Buys
b - Am buying
c - Buy
30) My friend ...............................................next summer with his family.
a - Is coming
b - Come
c - Coming
31) I ............................lunch with him in La Sirena .
a - Have
210
b - Am having
c - Has
32) My friend....................................a party next Saturday.
a - Is celebrating
b - Is celebreteing
c - Is celebrate
33) Mara Jos and Marcial ..............................married next week in Santa Ana's.
a - Get
b - Are getting
c - Are geting
34) The King............................................Elda during the Festivities.
a - Is visiting
b - Is visitting
c - Is visit
35) We ........................................the car on Sunday.
a - Cleans
b - Are cleaning
c - Are cleanning
36) Mike .................................................a new book.
a - Write
b - Is writing
c - Is wrtitteing
37) I ............................with the new boss tomorrow.
a - Eat
b - Eating
c - Am eating
38) The sun ...............................................this afternoon.
a - Shine
b - Is shineing
c - Is shining
39) The waiter ..............................................a bottle of Rioja wine.
a - Bring
b - Bringed
c - Is bringing
40) Alejandro Sanz ...............................................a new album in March.
a - Release
b - Is releaseing
c - Is releasing
41) The weather forecast says it .....................................this afternoon.
a - Rains
b - Is raining
211
c - Would rain
42) Teresa and Horacio .........................................friends for dinner tonight.
a - Has
b - Are having
c - Haveing
43) My wife...............................................a party for our daughters.
a - Prepare
b - Is prepare
c - Is preparing
44) He .....................................a new CD now.
a - Listens
b - Is listening
c - Are listening
45) Horatio ..........................................a shower at the moment.
a - Is has
b - Is having
c - Has
46) I .....................a good CD.
a - Am listening to
b - I am listen
c - Listening
47) I .........................................................how to get to Alicante.
a - Am explaining
b - Explains
c - Does explain
48) He ......................................the violin in another orchestra.
a - Play
b - Is playing
c - Playeds
49) I can't, I .....................................a shower.
a - Am have
b - Am having
c - Am has
50) Sarah, be quiet I ............................on the phone.
a - Talk
b - Am talks
c - Am talking
51) A motorbike .............................................................very fast.
a - Comes
b - Come
212
c - Is coming
52) These children .........................a terribe noise.
a - Are make
b - Are makeing
c - Are making
53) He is .....................of buying a house.
a - Thinks
b - Thinking
c - Think
54) This music .................................................................your father.
a - Is annoying
b - Annoy
c - Annoyeind
55) My friend Juan ............................................fat.
a - Are getting
b - Getting
c - Is getting
56) We ..............................................................to the new restaurant.
a - Going
b - Are going
c - Goes
57) My sister ...........................................................a chocolate cake for my birthday.
a - Make
b - Is making
c - Is makeing
58) I ..........................tennis lessons in summer.
a - Takes
b - Is taking
c - Am taking
59) She .................................with us next April in Cazorla.
a - Is fishing
b - Fishes
c - Fish
60) They ................................her at the airport tomorrow morning.
a - Meet
b - Are meeting
c - Meet
61) The football match ................................at 6:00.
a - Starts
b - Are starting
c - Is start
213
62) I ................................her a new watch in the party.
a - Give
b - Gives
c - Am giving
63) We ....................................some books to the Public Library.
a - Are giving
b - Gives
c - Giving
64) The children ............................................their holidays in Benidorm.
a - Are going to begin
b - Is beginning
c - Begins
65) She.........................to visit us in May.
a - Is comeing
b - Comed
c - Is coming
66) They .................................to Alpera with all their friends.
a - Are go
b - Are going
c - Is going
67) He................................................smoking next year.
a - Is give up
b - Is giveing up
c - Is giving up
68) I ..........................her a diamond ring.
a - Am buy
b - Am buying
c - Am buyed
69) Pepe and Manolo ...................................in Plaza Mayor at 8.00.
a - Meeting
b - Is meeting
c - Are meeting
70) Calixta and Marcial ...................................married next week.
a - Are get
b - Are getting
c - Are geting
71) He ...............his girlfiend a lot at the moment.
a - Misses
b - Miss
c - Is missing
72) I ...............................the grass on Sunday.
214
a - Am cuting
b - Am cutt
c - Am cut
73) They ...............................the cuartelillo .
a - Are clean
b - Are cleaning
c - Are cleaned
74) I like ..........................................fresh air in the mountains.
a - Breathes
b - Breathing
c - Breathed
75) I'm............for a cup of tea.
a - Dyeing
b - Dieing
c - Dying
76) You are ....................me a lot.
a - Annoying
b - Annoy
c - Annoys
77) I'm .........to report a traffic accident.
a - Ring
b - Ringing
c - Rang
78) He likes ........and cycling.
a - Swim
b - Swimming
c - Swims
79) They'll drive you crazy .............questions about your family.
a - Asks
b - Asking
c - Asked
80) No, I ............................to have anything to eat today.
a - Am no going
b - Don't go
c - Am not going
81) What ..................wine or beer? Wine, please.
a - You drink
b - Are you going to drink
c - Drinks you
82) The sun is......today
215
a - Shineing
b - Shining
c - Shaining
83) I am ............a Spanish omelette for the picnic.
a - Makeing
b - Making
c - Meiking
84) I like..........everyday in La Ciudad Deportiva.
a - Swim
b - To swim
c - Swimming
85) She hates...........the plates
a - Washing
b - Wash
c - To wash
86) It is worth.........the Shoe museum, Castelar Square and taste the chocolates
of Totel.
a - Go
b - To go
c - Going
87) ........to write in English is not easy at the beginning.
a - Have
b - Having
c - To have
216
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. A 7. B 8. B 9. C 10.B
11.A 12.C 13.A 14.A 15.B 16.B 17.B 18.B 19.A 20.A
21.B 22.A 23.C 24.C 25.C 26.B 27.A 28.C 29.B 30.A
31.B 32.A 33.B 34.A 35.B 36.B 37.C 38.C 39.A 40.C
41.B 42.B 43.C 44.B 45.B 46.A 47.A 48.B 49.B 50.C
51.C 52.C 53.B 54.A 55.C 56.B 57.B 58.C 59.A 60.B
61.A 62.C 63.A 64.A 65.C 66.B 67.C 68.B 69.C 70.B
71.C 72.A 73.B 74.B 75.C 76.A 77.B 78.B 79.B 80.C
81.B 82.B 83.B 84.C 85.A 86.C 87.B
217
CONSTRUCCIN DE LA FORMA ING
Los verbos que acaban en -e, la sustituyen por -ing excepto dye.
Have.
Tener.
Having.
Come.
Venir.
Coming.
Live.
Vivir.
Living.
Practise.
Practicar.
Practising.
Dye.
Tintar.
Dyeing.
Cuando el verbo acaba en -ie la -i se convierte en -y.
Die.
Morir
Dying.
Lie.
Mentir, poner la mesa, poner huevos.
Lying.
Cuando los verbos acaban en -y siguen la regla general, es decir,
aaden ing.
Try.
Intentar
Trying.
Study.
Estudiar
Studying.
Play.
Jugar.
Playing.
Buy. Buying.
218
Comprar.
Ciertos verbos no se suelen usar en los tiempos continuos. Son los
denominados verbos de los sentidos.
Believe.
Creer.
Feel.
Sentir.
Appear.
Aparecer.
Consider.
Considerar.
Smell.
Oler.
Belong to.
Pertenecer.
Depend.
Depender.
Love.
Amar.
Have.
Tener.
Doubt.
Dudar.
Fear.
Temer.
Like.
Gustar.
Guess.
Adivinar.
See.
Ver.
Forget.
Olvidar.
Hope.
Esperar.
Taste.
Probar.
Owe.
Deber.
Imagine.
Imaginar.
Want.
Querer.
Cost.
Costar.
Prefer.
Preferir.
Sound.
Sonar.
Know.
Saber.
Realise.
Darse cuenta.
Dislike.
Disgustar.
Own.
Poseer.
Remember.
Recordar.
Doubt.
Dudar.
Wish.
Desear.
Suppose.
Suponer.
Hear.
Or.
Seem.
Parecer.
Think.
Pensar.
Hate.
Odiar.
Possess.
Poseer.
Understand.
Comprender.
219
220
EL PASADO SIMPLE
Equivale al imperfecto y el indefinido y se usa con acciones concluidas. Los
verbos regulares lo hacen de la siguiente forma:
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Inf sin to + Ed
Los acabados en -e
solo
-d.
I played chess.
Jugu al ajedrez.
I loved her.
Yo la quera.
Negativa. Sujeto + Did not , + Inf sin
to
Did + Not contrae en
dint .
I didnt go out.
No sal.
Interrogativa. Did + Sujeto + Inf sin to. Did you buy the new CD?
Compraste el disco?
LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES
Afirmativa. S+ 2 columna de la lista
de verbos irregulares.
I ate the cake.
Me com el pastel.
I bought a new house.
Compr una nueva
casa.
Negativa. S+ Did + Not + Inf . I didnt eat the cake.
No me com el pastel.
Interrogativa. Did + S + Inf. Did you eat the cake?
Te comiste el pastel?
Para formar el pasado de un verbo regular se aade -ed al infinitivo.
I worked.
Yo trabaj
You worked.
221
T trabajaste.
Los verbos monoslabos, y los bislabos que terminan en consonante, con
acento en la ltima slaba, duplican la consonante final:
Stop, Stopped
Parar.
Admit, Admitted
Admitir.
Prefer, Preferred
Preferir.
El verbo travel es una excepcin, pues acenta en la primera slaba.
Travel,
Travelled
Viajar.
Si el verbo termina en -e slo se aade -d.
I lived in Petrel but now I live in Elda.
Yo viv en Petrel, pero ahora vivo en Elda.
Los verbos que terminan en -y detrs de una consonante cambia la -y
por -i al aadir la -ed:
Try, Tried.
Intentar.
Cry, Cried.
Llorar.
Carry, Carried.
Llevar.
Study, Studied.
Estudiar.
Acciones que se completaron en el
pasado
We went to Paris last year.
Fuimos a Paris el ao pasado.
Acciones consecutivas I bought a car and went to Paris.
Compr un coche y fui a Paris.
Puede ir acompaado de expresiones temporales del tipo:
Ago.
Hace.
Yesterday.
Ayer.
Last winter.
El invierno
pasado.
In 1984.
En 1984.
I went to Paris when I was five years old.
222
Fui a Paris cuando tena cinco aos.
Con did, do, does el verbo va siempre en infinitivo. Por lo tanto las formas
interrogativas y negativas del presente siempe y pasado simple siempre
llevarn el verbo en infinitivo.
1) I ..........................dancing lessons every summer, but now I don't..
a - Take
b - Took
c - Taken
2) She ................................with me to Petrel two days ago.
a - Comes
b - Came
c - Is caming
3) They ...........................to Disneyland Paris last April.
a - Went
b - Goes
c - Will go
4) The food ............................................horrible.
a - Am
b - Was
c - Are
5) Last summer the weather ......................................worse than in England.
a - Is
b - Was
c - Will be
6) The French ...................................Spanish very bad in the past.
a - Speaks
b - Spoke
c - Speaking
7) We ............................Tarifa last summer.
a - Visited
b - Visits
c - Vistting
8) Sarah ......................a present for her friends in her last visit to Terra Mtica.
a - Is buy
b - Bought
c - Buys will
9) Inmita ..........to a swimming pool in the evenings when she was 3 years old.
a - Went
223
b - Go
c - Wenting
10) When we lived in Alicante my wife ...........................her mother every night.
a - Phone
b - Phoned
c - Phones will
11) My aunt ...........................................gazpachos in the Culebrn.
a - Ate
b - Eat
c - Will eats
12) Pepi .............................to Alicante to buy some new clothes.
a - Go
b - Went
c - Go will
13) We ...........................her in the market buying meat last Saturday.
a Saw
b - Sees
c - Seeing
14) I ..............................to her and I told her everything.
a - Spoke
b - Speaks
c - Speaking
15) We.....................................a lot in England last summer.
a - Enjoying
b - Enjoys
c - Enjoyed
16) I ...............................in love with her when I saw her.
a - Fall
b - Fell
c - Fallen
17) Mr. Garca.....................................a new computer for his factory.
a - Bought
b - Buy
c - Buying
18) Lady Hernndez...............................her old boyfriend in a restaurant.
a - Met
b - Meeting
c - Meets
19) Manuel ..................................the lesson when I explained it.
a - Understands
b - Understood
224
c - Undertsanding
20) Marisa ..............................your boyfriend in Petrel last night.
a - Saw
b - Sees
c - Seen
21) I ...............................more than ever last summer.
a - Swim
b - Swimming
c - Swam
22) They .................................to Alicante when they were young.
a - Will go
b - Goes
c - Went
23) She.........................in the opera with me.
a - Were
b - Was
c - Be
24) We ............................many museums in Japan.
a - Seen
b - Saw
c - Seen
25) The doctor ...........................................us hat it was nothing important.
a - Tolds
b - Telling
c - Told
26) My wife and I .....................................in Madrid at 12:00.
a - Arriveds
b - Arrived
c - Arriving
27) We ............................to buy the house but it was too expensive.
a - Tryes
b - Tried
c - Tryed
28) She ................................it was hotter than in Alicante.
a - Finds
b - Founding
c - Found
29) They ..........................all the night during the Festivities.
a - Dances
b - Dancing
225
c - Danced
30) The bus ...........................................in every city.
a - Stopped
b - Stopping
c - Stops
31) It ................................................during the festivies
a - Rained
b - Raining
c - Raineing
32) They ............................to dinner but she feel ill.
a - Has come
b - Came
c - Will come
33) I ........................................................Valle the Elda last Friday.
a - Read
b - Were reading
c - Red
34) They ..............................to the cinema at 9.00.
a - Goes
b - Wenting
c - Went
35) My parents ...................................................me some money when I got
married.
a - Giving
b - Gaven
c - Gave
36) Before I ................................they had come.
a - Went
b - Go
c - Will go
37) When we.....................everything was ready at the party.
a - Arrived
b - Arrives
c - Am arriving
38) We .................................the present until you rang us.
a - Saw
b - Did not see
c - Will saw
39) The girls .....................................................a present for their parents.
a - Bought
226
b - Was buy
c - Was buys
40) I .......................................................French before studying English.
a - Studied
b - Studyied
c - Studies
41) We............................................with him the night before.
a - Eats
b - Ateing
c - Ate
42) We .......................................your friends that you were out.
a - Tells
b - Told
c - Was teeling
43) We.............................in Telepizza and Telefnica until I decided to quit.
a - Invested
b - Nvesting
c - Invest
44) We .......................................all morning in Rabosa.
a - Walked
b - Walking
c - Was walking
45) I ..........them yesterday.
a - Took
b - Take
c - Taken
46) You .........them in the kitchen this morning.
a - Left
b - Leave
c - Leaves
47) That was the first place I .................
a - Look
b - Looked
c - Looking
48) I didn't ..........you.
a - Recognize
b - Recognised
c - Recognising
49) what time did you .......................to the cinema last night?
a - Go
b - Went
227
c - Going
50) Lzaro. ........................in time yesterday.
a - Arrived
b - Goes
c - Arrives
51) Mr. Martnez ......................for a loan, but then, he won the lottery.
a - Asked
b - Asking
c - Askeing
52) When did you ..................your summary of English grammar for Pedro ?
a - Finish
b - Finishes
c - Finished
53) Did you ..................in the San Silvestre race last year?
a - Run
b - Runed
c - Running
54) There ..................only a little coffee in the cup.
a - Had
b - Was
c - Were
55) I was going to write but the computer ...............down.
a - Break
b - Breaks
c - Broke
56) Mary, ..........................to the Costa Brava last year.
a - Went
b - Go
c - Goes
57) ......you born in Elda ?
a - Had
b - Are
c - Were
58) The shop was open this morning. It ...at 4:45.
a - Open
b - Was open
c - Opened
59) I ...............at the University from 1980 to 1985.
a - Studied
b - Studyed
c - Studyed
228
60) I ...............at the traffic light because it was red.
a - Stoped
b - Stopped
c - Stoppeed
61) She.......the big bags in our last travel.
a - Carryed
b - Carried
c - Carryeed
62) We........because it was getting late.
a - Hurryed
b - Hurried
c - Hurred
63) The thief........he had robbed all the jewels.
a - Adnited
b - Admitted
c - Admitedd
64) I ................to London in 1987.
a - Go
b - Went
c - Gone
65) I..........my friend Javi last Sunday.
a - See
b - Seen
c - Saw
66) He ...................arrive late yesterday.
a - Do
b - Does
c - Did
229
Soluciones
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. B 6. B 7. A 8. B 9. A 10.B
11.A 12.B 13.A 14.A 15.C 16.B 17.A 18.A 19.B 20.A
21.C 22.C 23.B 24.B 25.C 26.B 27.B 28.C 29.C 30.A
31.A 32.B 33.A 34.C 35.C 36.A 37.A 38.B 39.A 40.A
41.C 42.B 43.A 44.A 45.A 46.A 47.B 48.A 49.A 50.A
51.A 52.A 53.A 54.B 55.C 56.A 57.C 58.C 59.A 60.B
61.B 62.B 63.B 64.B 65.C 66.C
230
EL PASADO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Was, Were + Ing. I was reading Time.
Yo estaba leyendo la
revista Time.
Negativa. Sujeto + Was, Were + Not
+ Ing.
I was not sleeping.
No estaba durmiendo.
Interrogativa. Was, Were + Sujeto + Ing. Were they playing chess?
Estaban jugando al
ajedrez?
PRINCIPALES USOS
Para hablar acerca de lo que estaba
sucediendo.
I was reading when she came.
Yo estaba leyendo cuando ella lleg.
Cuando dos acciones estaban
ocurriendo al mismo tiempo.
I was reading a novel while she was
watching TV.
Yo estaba leyendo una novela
mientras ella estaba viendo la tele.
En descripciones. I was riding a car and then...
Estaba conduciendo cuando
Cuando hablamos de dos acciones pasadas, la ms larga se expresa con
pasado continuo y la ms corta en pasado simple
It was raining when I went to bed.
Estaba lloviendo cuando me fui a la cama.
Para indicar que una accin sucedi despus de otra, usamos el pasado
simple en ambos casos.
Yesterday I got up and had a shower.
Ayer me levant y me duch.
Puede ir con expresiones temporales del tipo:
231
All night.
Toda la noche.
The whole day.
Todo el da.
The whole
afternoon.
Toda la tarde.
For a long time.
Durante mucho
tiempo
1) My wife .................................................a bath when her mother phoned.
a - Was having
b - Were having
c - Was to have
2) Inma .................................................to the radio when I came home.
a - Was listen
b - Was listening
c - Were listening
3) Mike ...............................in the sofa reading a magazine.
a - Sit
b - Were siting
c - Was sitting
4) We ....................................in Almansa when my son was born.
a - Was living
b - Were living
c - Living
5) It ................................................dark, so we went home.
a - Get darker
b - Got darking
c - Was getting
6) The dog .....................................when a cat appeared.
a - Was runing
b - Was running
c - Were runing
7) They ...............................in a karaoke when their friends arrived.
a - Was singing
b - Were song
c - Were singing
8) I ......................................................when my mother came.
a - Wrote
b - Was writing
c - Were writing
9) I .........................................................when the phone rang.
a - Gotting dress
b - Was getting dressed
c - Were get dressed
232
10) The alarm clock...............................................but I couldn't stop it.
a - Ringing
b - Rings
c - Was ringing
11) He ..................................................................TV when his girlfriend came.
a - Were watching
b - Was watching
c - Watching
12) We....................................and it began to snow.
a - Riding
b - Were riding
c - Roding
13) She.........................the food before she served it.
a - Tastes
b - Taste
c - Was testing
14) Yesterday they ..................................................siesta when I phoned.
a - Was sleeping
b - Sleep
c - Were sleeping
15) We ................................tennis when she came.
a - Plays
b - Were playing
c - Wil play
16) She ...............................letters before you rang.
a - Was writing
b - Were writing
c - Writes
17) I ......................................................the press an hour before.
a - Were reading
b - Reads
c - Was reading
18) I ..........wondering if you would like to marry me.
a - Be
b - Is
c - Was
19) I was ................of going abroad.
a - Think
b - Thinking
c - Thinks
233
Soluciones
1. A 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. B 9. B 10.C
11.B 12.B 13.C 14.C 15.B 16.A 17.C 18.C 19.B
234
EL PRESENTE PERFECTO
Este tiempo, al igual que el resto de los tiempos perfectos, hacen
referencia a acciones ya acabadas, aunque tambin se use para
acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y todava tienen continuidad en
el presente.
Como todos los tiempos perfectos, se forma con el verbo to have y el
Participio Pasado.
Afirmativa Sujeto + Have, Has +
Participio Pasado.
I have played tennis.
He jugado al tenis.
I have eaten paella.
He comido paella.
Negativa Sujeto + Have, Has not +
Participio Pasado.
I have not played chess.
No he jugado al ajedrez.
I have not eaten
gazpachos.
No he comido
gazpachos.
Interrogativa Have, Has + Sujeto +
Participio Pasado.
Have you played golf?
Has jugado al golf?
Have you eaten
octopus?
Has comido pulpo?
PRINCIPALES USOS
Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado
pero se desconoce o no interesa el
momento exacto en que ocurrieron.
I have eaten paella.
He comido paella.
I have visited Paris.
He visitado Paris.
Acciones que se han repetido en el He has visited Madrid many times.
235
pasado. Ha ido a Madrid muchas veces.
Con just, indica que la accin ha
ocurrido recientemente.
I have just seen my wife.
Acabo de ver a mi mujer.
Con ever. (alguna vez) Have you ever been to Rome?
Has estado en Roma alguna vez?
Con always. I have always liked the country.
Siempre me ha gustado el campo.
Con already. We have already finished.
Ya hemos acabado.
For y since suelen acompaar a ste tiempo para referirse a acciones que
empezaron en el pasado y que continuan hasta el momento presente.
How long. Se utiliza para preguntar
por la duracin.
How long have you been wearing
glasses?
Cunto tiempo hace que llevas
gafas?
For.
Se emplea con perodos de tiempo.
Desde hace.
I have lived in Elda for 40 years.
Hace 40 aos que vivo en Elda.
Since.
Nos remonta a un punto concreto en
el pasado. Desde o desde que.
She has had the same car since 1987.
Tiene el mismo coche desde 1987.
I have been wearing glasses since
October.
Llevo gafas desde octubre.
236
1) My sister ............................................a chocolate cake for my birthday.
a - Has made
b - Has be made
c - Has been makeing
2) He has never ................................................ "Gone with the wind ".
a - Seen
b - See
c - Saw
3) I have ..........................................................paella every Saturday for years.
a - Ate
b - Eat
c - Eaten
4) They have just ............................................around Spain.
a - Travel
b - Traveled
c - Travelled
5) He has ............................................Diet Coke since he was at University.
a - Being drinking
b - Been drunk
c - Been drinking
6) Flavio has ............................................his girlfriend.
a - Forgave
b - Forgive
c - Forgiven
7) My mother has ........................................in Petrel all the morning.
a - Be
b - Been
c - Was
8) Their friends have .......................................a new job in Elche.
a - Finded
b - Founded
c - Found
9) Toni has ...............................................fireworks for the summer party.
a - Buyed
b - Bought
c - Boughting
10) Cayetano has ..........................................a new house for his family.
a - Build
b - Built
c - Boughts
11) Mario has ........................................................ for the beers in the bar.
237
a - Payed
b - Paid
c - Paying
12) I ........................................................for this moment since I was a child.
a - Have wait
b - Have been waiting
c - Have being waiting
13) We ............................in this house since 1997.
a - Lived
b - Have being living
c - Have been living
14) He .......................in Terra since 1999.
a - Is invested
b - Is invest
c - Has been investing
15) He ......................a book for a long time.
a - Writes
b - Is wrote
c - Has been writing
16) Lucas .................................................since last summer in this project.
a - Has been working
b - Has working
c - Had been working
17) I ....................................................this question many times.
a - Have answered
b - Has answer
c - Had answering
18) They ..............................in the same house since they got married.
a - Have living
b - Have lived
c - Has lived
19) We .....................................a single match this year.
a - Haven't played
b - Hasn't play
c - Have play
20) They .............................a lot with this teacher.
a - Has learnt
b - Have learnt
c - Have learned
21) We.........................................many good films, but this is the best one.
a - Has see
238
b - Has seen
c - Have seen
22) I ......................................................a new TV set this week.
a - Have buy
b - Have boughted
c - Have bought
23) We .................................. "El Cid " many times in summer.
a - Have climbt
b - Have climbed
c - Have climbing
24) He ...............................some shoes for his brother.
a - Has bought
b - Has buy
c - Have bought
25) They ..............................the news in Hello magazine.
a - Have readed
b - Have read
c - Have readt
26) He has.................................................on weight since he got married.
a - Puts
b - Put
c - Putting
27) Pepe has......................................a new apartment in Santa Pola.
a - Buying
b - Boughted
c - Bought
28) Mari Puri has.....................................all the chocolate cakes in the fridge.
a - Ate
b - Eating
c - Eaten
29) Our new neighbours have ............................with us about their problems.
a - Speaken
b - Spoken
c - Speaking
30) My brother-in-law has...................................football in Alicante.
a - Plays
b - Played
c - Playeding
31) I have.............................four faxes today to the Consellera.
a - Sent
239
b - Sended
c - Sented
32) He .................................his book yet.
a - Had finished
b - Has finishing
c Hasnt finished
33) Pepe.................................since last summer in this book.
a - Has being working
b - Has been working
c - Has be working
34) Mary ......................................an affair with John since she got her divorce.
a - Has been having
b - Have being having
c - Has been haveing
35) The neighbour's children ...................a terrible noise since we moved here.
a - Has been making
b - Have being making
c - Have been making
36) Olga ..........................................a picture of her daughter for a month.
a - Have being painting
b - Has been paint
c - Has been painting
37) Javi....................................................a lot of money in Russia since 1995.
a - Has being making
b - Has been making
c - Has be making
38) Fermina....her journey since she knew that we were also going there.
a - Has be preparing
b - Has being preparing
c - Has been preparing
39) We...........................................football this morning in "La Sirmat ".
a - Has being playing
b - Have been playing
c - Had be playing
40) Alberto Navarro .................................his last book for over fifteen years.
a - Has been writing
b - Has be writing
c - Has being writing
41) l have ..........my first marathon at the age of 42.
a - Runing
b - Run
240
c - Runed
42) I..........................Antonio Maestre since we went to don Emilio's school
together.
a - Know
b - Have known
c - Has been knowing
43) I..........................a lot with these quick tests.
a - Has learnt
b - Have learnt
c - Have learning
44) They.........................................................me that she has won the lottery.
a - Have tell
b Has told
c Have told
45) We .......................................to move to a bigger house.
a - Have decided
b - Has decided
c - Will decided
46) How long have you ....................there?
a - Be
b - Being
c - Been
47) He's ..............
a - Arrived
b - Arrive
c - Arrives
48) I've just....................to the manager.
a - Speak
b - Spoke
c - Spoken
49) Have you ...........my glasses?
a - Seen
b - See
c - Saw
50) Have you .............in the bedroom?
a - Looked
b - Look
c - Looking
51) They have just ......................
a - Disappeared
b - Disappear
241
c - Disappeareing
52) There has ........a car crash in Juan Carlos I street.
a - Be
b - Was
c - Been
53) What ................happened to him? he looks very sad.
a - Is
b - Has
c - Have
54) A little boy called Jaime ......been here.
a - Is
b - Have
c - Has
55) You have ........a great help to all of us, thanks a lot.
a - Been
b - Be
c - Was
56) I've .............the CD, but I prefer to see them live.
a - Bought
b - Buy
c - Buys
57) I've often ............them on TV, but this is something else!
a - Seen
b - See
c - Saw
58) Well, I've ..............packing.
a - Finished
b - Finish
c - Finishing
59) He has ...........teaching me Spanish.
a - Been
b - Be
c - Was
60) Jaime has never ..................late before.
a - Come
b - Came
c - Comes
61) The Sax train ...........................Its been half an hour late.
a - Arrived has just
b - Has just arrived
c - Has arrived just
242
62) -Have another chocolate. -No, thank you very much indeed, .............too
much.
a - I've eaten
b - I eaten
c - I ate
63) Hello, darling, have you ..........................dinner yet?
a - Cooked
b - Cooken
c - Do
64) My daughter hasn't ....................from school yet.
a - Comed
b - Coming
c - Come
65) It was nice to see him again. I .........him for ages.
a - Haven't seen
b - Haven t see
c - Saw
66) ................you done your homework?
a - Have
b - Has
c - Have to
67) It ...........for ages in Almeria.
a - Doesn't rain
b - Did rain
c - Hasn't rained
68) -Where is Clemente? -He ......to the bank.
a - Is
b - Has gone
c - Has went
69) I ..........to London since 1993.
a - Haven't been
b - Haven't gone
c - Haven't go
70) "Tres Superhombres en Tokyo " was the worst film I've ever ......
a - See
b - Saw
c - Seen
71) I.........a cigarette since last Christmas.
a - Haven smoked
b - Haven't smoked
243
c - Hasn't smoked
72) All flights to Madrid...........because of the fog.
a - Has been cancelled
b - Have been cancelled
c - Cancelled
73) He has...................to bed because he was a little tired.
a - Go
b - Went
c - Gone
244
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. C 6. C 7. B 8. C 9. B 10.B
11.B 12.B 13.C 14.C 15.C 16.A 17.A 18.B 19.A 20.B
21.C 22.C 23.B 24.A 25.B 26.B 27.C 28.C 29.B 30.B
31.A 32.C 33.B 34.A 35.C 36.C 37.B 38.C 39.B 40.A
41.B 42.B 43.B 44.C 45.A 46.C 47.A 48.C 49.A 50.A
51.A 52.C 53.B 54.C 55.A 56.A 57.A 58.A 59.A 60.A
61.B 62.A 63.A 64.C 65.A 66.A 67.C 68.B 69.A 70.C
71.B 72.B 73.C
245
EL PRETRITO PERFECTO CONTINUO
Como todos los tiempos continuos, indica acciones en proceso.
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Have, Has +
Been + Ing.
I have been reading the
paper.
He estado leyendo el
peridico.
Negativa. Sujeto + Have, Has not +
Been + Ing.
I have not been cooking.
No he estado
cocinando.
Interrogativa. Have, Has + Sujeto +
Been + Ing.
Have you been walking?
Has estado dando un
paseo?
PRINCIPALES USOS
Indica acciones muy recientes que
acaban de terminar.
She has been swimming.
Ella ha estado nadando.
He has been crying
l ha estado llorando.
Acciones que empezaron en el
pasado y que todava continuan.
I have been waiting for half an hour.
Llevo esperando media hora.
Puede ir acompaado de expresiones
como: the whole day, all week, etc.
He has been working the whole day.
Ha estado trabajando todo el da.
246
EL PASADO PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Had + Participio
Pasado.
I had seen her.
Yo la haba visto.
Negativa. Sujeto + Had not +
Participio Pasado.
I had not gone.
Yo no haba ido.
Interrogativa. Had + Sujeto + Participio
Pasado
Had she been with you?
Haba estado ella
contigo?
Equivale al pluscuamperfecto. Es el tiempo ms remoto en el pasado.
PRINCIPALES USOS
Acciones que ocurrieron antes que
otra.
When I had finished all my work, I went
to the swimming pool.
Cuando hube acabado mi trabajo
me fui a la piscina.
Suele usar expresiones del tipo:
Since.
Desde.
For.
Desde hace.
Till. Until
Hasta.
When.
Cuando
Before.
Antes.
By the time.
Para cuando.
Always.
Siempre.
247
EL PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO
Expresa acciones que haban estado ocurriendo en el pasado hasta un
momento concreto.
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Had been + Ing. I had been sleeping
siesta.
Haba estado durmiendo
la siesta.
Negativa. Sujeto + Hadn't been +
Ing.
She had not been
reading.
Ella no haba estado
leyendo.
Interrogativa. Had + Sujeto + Been +
Ing.
Had you been working?
Habas estado
trabajando?
We had been studying until her mother came.
Habamos estado estudiando hasta que vino su madre.
248
EL FUTURO SlMPLE
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Will + Inf sin to. I will go with you.
Ir contigo.
Negativa. Sujeto + Will not , + Inf sin
to.
I will not pay for that.
No pagar eso.
Interrogativa. Will + Sujeto + Inf sin to. Will you marry me?
Te casars conmigo?
Se puede usar shall en la primera persona del singular y del plural, aunque
su uso queda cada vez ms restringido a la expresin de ofrecimientos. Se
puede usar will en todas las personas de singular y plural. Tanto shall como
will contraen en -ll.
PRINCIPALES USOS
En sugerencias. Shall we go to the cinema?
Vamos al cine?
En promesas. I will buy you the car.
Te comprar el coche.
Determinaciones. I will go with you.
Ir contigo.
nfasis. I will never do it again.
No lo volver a hacer.
Predicciones. They will win the match.
Ellos ganarn el partido.
Lgicamente, indica acciones que
ocurrirn.
I will buy a Harley next year.
Me comprar una Harley el ao que
viene.
Con advertencias y condicines. If you dont hurry, youll be late.
Si no te das prisa llegars tarde.
Para expresar deseo o rechazo ante
algo.
Dont drink too much or youll get
drunk.
No bebas demasiado o te
249
emborrachars.
Ofrecimientos. I'll help you with your exercises.
Te ayudar con los ejercicios.
BE GOING TO
Indica planes para el futuro, tambin hace referencia a acciones que se
ve que van a ocurrir.
Im going to visit my mother.
Voy a visitar a mi madre.
Its going to rain.
Va a llover.
250
1) She ..................................with us next April in Cazorla.
a - Will go fishing
b - Would go fishing
c Went fishing
2) She .................................to Petrel next week.
a - Is moving
b - Is moved
c - Is going to moving
3) We.........................................a new computer for the students.
a - Are buy
b - Are going to buy
c - Will buys
4) I .......................................................in Aspe tomorrow.
a - Will be
b - Will is
c - Will am
5) I ......................................................my cousin in Madrid next week.
a - Visited
b - Will visit
c - Visit
6) They ...........................a new road in 2007.
a - Build
b - Will build
c - Builded
7) She .................................in the team next year.
a - Played
b - Playing
c - Will play
8) I .............................with them to Toledo next March.
a - Will go
b - Go
c - Went
9) They ...........................back at 8.00.
a - Is
b - Was
c - Will be
10) He .................................her in Alicante in 2005.
a - Will marry
b - Married
c - Would married
11) I ....................................to the Yelmo Cineplex cinemas tomorrow.
251
a - Went
b - Go
c - Will go
12) I .............................all my friends to a paella next Saturday.
a - Invite
b - Will invite
c - Would invite
13) I..........with you if you pay.
a - Will eat
b - Would eat
c - Had eaten
14) I will ........you your room.
a - Shows
b - Show
c - Showing
15) I won't .............long.
a - Be
b - Have
c - Do
16) I'll .......the waiter if they have Coke instead of Pepsi.
a - Asks
b - Ask
c - Asking
17) He will ........you a parcel for me.
a - Brings
b - Bring
c - Brought
18) We will ......immediately.
a - Come
b - Comes
c - Cam
19) I will ...............the car tonight.
a - Wash
b - Washed
c - Washing
20) Next Sunday I ....................play tennis with Eduardo.
a - Was played
b - Will plays
c - Am going to play
21) How .......................you go to Sax tomorrow?
252
a - Does
b - Shall
c - Will
22) -Where.......tonight? -Why don't we go to the new Mamma Luna?
a - Shall we go
b - We going
c - Go can we
23) We ..................go to Madrid to see Beauty and the Beast next month.
a - Will
b - Would
c - Need
24) If you can't water the plants, I ........do it for you.
a - Would
b - Will
c - going
25) ......you look after my daughters while I go to buy the paper?
a - Will
b - Must
c - Need
26) I..........send a letter as soon as I arrive.
a - Have
b - Will
c - Would
253
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. B 7. C 8. A 9. C 10.A
11.C 12.B 13.A 14.B 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.A 19.A 20.C
21.C 22.A 23.A 24.B 25.A 26.B 27. 28. 29. 30.
254
EL FUTURO CONTINUO
Expresa acciones que con seguridad tendrn lugar en el futuro.
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Will be + Inf sin
to + Ing.
I will be driving to
Alicante.
Estar conduciendo
hacia a Alicante.
Negativa. Sujeto + Will not + Inf sin
to + Ing.
I will not be eating there.
No estar comiendo all.
Interrogativa. Will + Sujeto + Be + Inf +
Ing.
Will you be studying in
Elx?
Estars estudiando en
Elx?
Suele ir acompaado de
expresiones temporales
como: At 7 oclock, this
time next
year/month/week.
What will you be doing at
7 oclok tomorrow?
Qu estars haciendo
maana a las 7?
255
EL FUTURO PERFECTO
Indica acciones que habrn acabado en el futuro. Normalmente son
suposiciones o presunciones.
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Will have +
Participio Pasado.
I will have eaten.
Habr comido.
Negativa. Sujeto + Will have + Not
+ Participio Pasado.
I will not have eaten.
No habr comido.
Interrogativa. Will + Sujeto + Will have +
Participio Pasado.
Will you have eaten?
Habrs comido?
I will have read the book next month.
Habr leido el libro el prximo mes.
Puede ir acompaado de referencias temporales
Tomorrow.
Maana.
In the year 2050.
En el ao 2050.
Next week.
La prxima semana.
Soon.
Pronto.
The day after tomorrow.
Pasado maana.
In the next year.
El ao que viene.
In the future.
En el futuro
In a month.
Dentro de un mes.
At 7 oclock.
A la siete en punto.
This time next year:
A esta hora el ao que
viene.
By 8.30.
Para las 8.30.
256
1) Barcelona............against Manchester United in June.
a - Will be playing
b - Will play be
c - Will be played
2) Everybody..........at Christmas.
a - Will have eat cocido
b - Will be eating cocido
c - Will cocido be eating
3) I .................................a new car by 2005.
a - Will buy be
b - Will have bought
c - Will have be buying
4) She .................5 kilos with this new diet.
a - Will have lost
b - Will have loose
c - Will have losted
5) I..................my first novel in 2007.
a - Will have written
b - Will have write
c - Will have wrote
6) We ................our house by 2018.
a - Will have pay
b - Will have be payd
c - Will have paid
7) My mother............her new portrait next week.
a - Will have paint
b - Will be paint
c - Will have painted
8) We.............the cuartelillo in September.
a - Will be bought
b - Will have bought
c - Will be buy
9) My friend ............his lecture in February.
a - Will have given
b - Will have gave
c - Will have give
10) I ........................................................in a new office next year.
a - Will be working
b - Will working be
c - Will have working
11) They ...........................in La Sirena next Saturday.
257
a - Will be having dinner
b - Will dinner have
c - Will be dinner
12) I..........to Berln in August.
a - Will flying
b - Will flying be
c - Will be flying
13) We .....................................our daughter next Christmas.
a - Will visitt
b - Will visitting
c - Will be visiting
14) They ................................for you at the airport.
a - Will be waited
b - Will be waiting
c - Will be wait
15) I .......................................................some new books tomorow.
a - Will be buying
b - Will buying be
c - Will bought
16) She...........................in the new disco next Saturday.
a - Will dancing
b - Will dancing be
c - Will be dancing
17) It...........in Madrid.
a - Will be snow
b - Will be snowing
c - Will snow be
18) I ......................tennis this evening.
a - Will be playing
b - Played
c - Will be play
19) I hope I ...................................................the report on Monday.
a - Will have finished
b - Will finished
c - Will be finish
20) By this time next year they .............................a lot with that teacher.
a - Will learnt have
b - Will have learnt
c - Will have learn
21) We ............................all the beer before winter.
a - Will drank
258
b - Will be dranking
c - Will have drunk
22) He ...............................many countries in April.
a - Will have seen
b - Will seen
c - Will be seen
23) I .............................everything before 12:00.
a - Will eaten
b - Will have eaten
c - Will be ate
24) My friend ..........................................before Christmas.
a - Will be come
b - Will come be
c - Will have come
25) Juan ...............................................a new computer in June.
a - Will have bought
b - Will bought
c - Will be boughting
26) His friends ........................................the new baby on Monday morning.
a - Have will visit
b - Will have visited
c - Will visited
27) The teachers .....................................all the exams this evening.
a - Will have corrected
b - Will be correct
c - Will correcting be
28) Tomorrow my secretary ......................all the memos.
a - Will have typed
b - Will types
c - Had typed
29) By twelve o'clock they will ...................studying English for two hours.
a - Have
b - Been
c - Have been
30) By the end of the year I will .........twenty books.
a - Have written
b - Had written
c - Writing
31) We..........by nine o'clock tomorrow night.
a - Will have finished
b - Will finished
259
c - Finish
260
Soluciones
1. A 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. C 8. B 9. A 10.A
11.A 12.C 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.C 17.B 18.A 19.A 20.B
21.C 22.A 23.B 24.C 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.A 29.C 30.A
31.C
261
EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE
El condicional se forma igual que el futuro, anteponiendo al infinitivo la
partcula: would o should.
La partcula should slo se usa en ingls muy formal. Normalmente se
emplea para expresar consejos o advertencias.
Puede contraer con el sujeto: I would en Id
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Would + Inf sin
to.
I would go with you.
Yo ira contigo.
Id go to the cinema.
Yo ira al cine.
Negativa. Sujeto + Would not + Inf
sin to.
I would not pay that.
Yo no pagara eso.
I wouldnt buy it.
Yo no lo comprara.
Interrogativa. Would + Sujeto + Inf sin
to.
Would you marry me?
Te casaras conmigo?
262
EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Would + Have+
Participio Pasado.
I would have gone with
you.
Yo habra ido contigo.
Negativa. Sujeto + Would not/
won't + Have+ Participio
Pasado.
I would not have paid
that.
Yo no habra pagado
eso.
Interrogativa. Would + Sujeto + Have+
Participio Pasado.
Would you have married
her?
Te habras casado con
ella?
263
CUADRO RESUMEN DE LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES
EL PRESENTE SIMPLE
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Inf.
3 p. (He, She, It )
aade
-s o -es
I live in Elda.
He kisses her.
She washes up every day.
Negativa. Sujeto + Dont o
Doesnt + Inf
I dont like coffee.
She doesnt smoke.
Interrogativa. Do o Does + S + Inf? Do you love me?
Does he go to school?
Usos. Acciones habituales.
Verdades universales.
Horarios.
Acciones en el futuro
sujetas a un horario.
I get up at 7.45.
Snow is cold.
The match starts at 6.00.
The train leaves at 6.00.
Otros. Le suelen acompaar: everyday, always, usually, often,
never, generally, etc.
EL PRESENTE CONTINUO
Afirmativa. S + Be (am, is, are) +
Ing.
I am reading.
Negativa. S + Be + Not + Ing. She is not smoking.
Interrogativa. Am, Is, Are + S + Ing? Are you running?
Usos. Acciones en proceso
Planes futuros.
Acciones repetidas.
I am readind a book.
I am playing tennis
tomorrow.
He is always talking.
Otros. Le suelen acompaar: at present, nowadays, now, at the
moment, etc.
264
EL PRESENTE PERFECTO
Afirmativa. S + Have (have o has) +
Participio pasado
I have played tennis.
I have eaten paella.
Negativa. S + Have + Not +
Participo pasado.
I have not washed the dishes.
I have not seen her.
Interrogativa. Have o Has + S +
Participo pasado?
Have you been there?
Usos. Acciones acabadas
de las que no se dice
cuando sucedieron.
I have read the book.
Otros. Puede llevar just , for, since, already, yet, etc.
EL PASADO SIMPLE
Afirmativa. S + Vb. Regular + ed
S + Vb Irr ( 2Columna).
I played.
I ate.
Negativa. S + Did + Not (didnt) +
Inf.
I did not play.
I did not eat.
Interrogativa Did + S + Inf? Did you play?
Did you eat?
Usos. Acciones que
ocurrieron en el
pasado.
A veces acompaa al
pasado continuo
I went to Barcelona.
I was reading the paper and then
it began to rain.
Otros. Le suelen acompaar: last year, yesterday, two days ago
etc.
EL PASADO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. S + Be (Was, Were) +
Ing.
I was writing a letter.
Negativa. S + Was, Were + Not +
Ing
I was not writing a letter.
265
Interrogativa. Was, Were + S + Ing? Were you writing a letter?
Usos. Acciones en proceso
en el pasado.
En narraciones.
Para descripciones.
I was painting the gate.
The girls were smiling.
EL PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. S + Have o Has + Been
+Ing.
I have been learning English for
20 years.
Negativa. S + Have o Has+ not +
Been + Ing.
I have not been sleeping.
Interrogativa. Have o Has + S + Been
+ Ing?
Have you been reading?
Usos. Acciones que
comenzaron en el
pasado y todava
continuan o acaban
de suceder, Resalta la
duracin de la accin.
Otros. For y since le suelen acompaar.
EL PASADO PERFECTO
Afirmativa. S + Had + Participio
Pasado.
I had gone.
Negativa. S + had + Not +
Participio Pasado.
I had not gone.
Interrogativa. Had + S + Participio
Pasado?.
Had she gone?
Usos. Acciones que
ocurrieron antes que
otra accin pasada.
Otros. Le suelen acompaar: when, before, bythe time etc.
EL PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. S + Had + Been + Ing. I had been watching TV.
266
Negativa. S + Had + Not + Been +
Ing.
I had not been watching TV.
Interrogativa. Had + S + Been + Ing?. Had she been ironing?
Usos. Acciones que estaban
en proceso antes que
otra accin pasada
ocurriera.
EL FUTURO SIMPLE
Afirmativa. S + Will o Shall + Inf. I will go.
Negativa. S + Will + Not + Inf. I will not go.
Interrogativa. Will + S + Inf? Will she come?
Usos. Acciones futuras.
Predicciones
Otros. Le suelen acompaar: tonight , tomorrow, next year, in a
month.
EL FUTURO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. S + Wil be + Ing I will be reading Valle de Elda.
Negativa. S + Will + Not + Be +
Ing.
I will not be watching TV.
Interrogativa. Will + S + Be + Ing? Will you be working?
Usos. Acciones futuras en
progreso.
EL FUTURO PERFECTO
Afirmativa. S + Will have +
Participio Pasado.
I will have arrived at 7.00.
Negativa. S + Will + Not + Have +
Participio Pasado.
I will not have finished.
Interrogativa. Will + S + Have +
Participio Pasado?
Will she have paid?
267
Usos. Acciones acabadas
en el futuro.
EL FUTURO PERFECTO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. S + Will have + Been +
Ing.
I will have been working.
Negativa. S + Will + Not + Have +
Been + Ing.
I will not have been working.
Interrogativa. Will + S + Have + Been +
Ing.
Will you have been working?
Usos. Acciones que estarn
finalizadas en el futuro.
EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE
Afirmativa. S + Would + Inf. I would go to London.
Negativa. S + Would + Not + Inf. I would not go to London.
Interrogativa. Would + S + Inf? Would you go to Lisbon?
Usos. Deseos en el presente
o en el futuro.
EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO
Afirmativa. S + Would + Have +
Participio Pasado.
I would have gone to London.
Negativa. S + Would + Not + Have
+ Participio Pasado.
I would not have gone to London.
Interrogativa. Would + S + Have +
Participio Pasado?
Would you have gone to Paris?
Usos. Lamentos sobre
acciones pasadas.
268
TIPOS DE ORACIONES
Podemos establecer dos grandes grupos: Las coordinadas y las
subordinadas. Las primeras son oraciones compuestas independientes
entre s. En cuanto a las subordinadas una depende de la otra.
Los nexos ms usados son los siguientes:
Copulativas. And.
Y.
He is tall and intelligent.
l es alto e inteligente.
Bothand.
Tanto...como.
They both teach French and Italian.
Ellos dos ensean francs e italiano.
Moreover.
Adems.
It rained a lot, moreover it snowed.
Llovi mucho, adems nev.
Likewise.
De igual modo.
I bought a ham; likewise did my neighbour.
Compr un jamn, al igual que mi vecino.
Besides.
Adems.
I have no money, besides I dont want to buy
anything else.
No tengo dinero, adems no quiero
comprar nada ms.
Disyuntivas. Or.
O.
You can stay or come with us.
Puedes quedarte o venir con nosotros.
Eitheror.
Oo.
They are either Italian or Greek.
Ellos son o italianos o griegos.
Neithernor.
Ni...ni.
I neither like Wagner nor the Rolling Stones.
Ni me gusta Wagner ni los Rolling Stones.
Adversativas But.
Pero.
I like Verdi but I prefer Puccini.
Me gusta Verdi pero prefiero Puccini.
Not onlybut
also.
Not only I read Valle de Elda but I also read
Vivir en Elda.
269
No slo...sino
tambin.
No slo leo Valle de Elda sino que tambin
leo Vivir en Elda.
Yet.
Aunque.
She is pretty, yet nobody loves her.
Ella es guapa, aunque nadie la quiere.
Although.
Aunque.
Although he is rich, he hasnt many friends.
Aunque es rico no tiene muchos amigos.
Causales. Because.
Porque.
I became rich because I saved a lot.
Me hice rico porque ahorr mucho.
For.
Para.
She studies for being a lawyer.
Estudia para ser abogado
As.
Como.
As I had studied French I could travelled
alone.
Como haba estudiado francs pude viajar
solo.
Since.
Puesto que.
Since they are adults they can go.
Ya que son adultos pueden viajar solos.
Owing to.
Ya que, debido
a.
The recital was cancelled owing to lack of
audience.
El recital se cancel debido a falta de
pblico.
Finales. In order to.
Para.
In order to be accepted you have to pay first.
Para que te acepten, debes pagar primero.
So as to.
Con el fin de.
They voted so as to elect the new President.
Votaron para elegir al nuevo presidente.
In case.
En el caso de
que. Por si.
I have an insurance in case I need it.
Tengo un seguro por si lo necesito.
270
For fear.
Por miedo a.
He eats a lot of oranges for fear of getting a
cold.
Come muchas naranjas por miedo a coger
un catarro.
Consecutivas. So.
Por eso.
He won the pools so he bought a new house.
Gan las quinielas y por eso se compr una
nueva casa.
Therefore.
Por lo tanto.
He has many friends therefore he is never
alone.
Tiene muchos amigos y por eso nunca est
solo.
Which is why.
Esa es la razn
por la que.
He is boring, which is why hes always alone.
Es aburrido, esa es la razn por la que
siempre est solo.
Sothat.
Para que.
I bought a present so that you liked it.
Compr un regalo para que te gustara
Comparativas. As.
Como.
He is as intelligent as his sister.
l es tan inteligente como su hermana.
Asas.
Tan como.
He is not as honest as his brother.
l no es tan honrado como su hermano.
Soas.
No tan como.
He is not so tall as me.
l no es tan alto como yo.
Similarly.
Del mismo modo.
Petrel has nice parks, similarly Elda has nice
museums.
Petrel tiene parques muy bonitos, de igual
modo Elda tiene museos muy bonitos.
Modo. As.
Como.
As a pianist she is the best.
Como pianista el es el mejor.
271
Like.
Como.
He eats like a lion.
Come como un len.
Concesivas. Although.
Aunque.
Although I prefer to stay I have to go now.
Aunque prefiero quedarme tengo que irme.
Though.
Aunque.
Though he is ill, he never complains.
Aunque est malo, nunca se queja.
Even though.
Incluso.
Even though he is rich he never shows off.
Aunque es rico, nunca presume.
Even if.
Incluso si.
Even if it rains I will go.
Incluso si llueve ir.
However.
Sin embargo.
I liked it, however, I didnt buy it.
Me gust, sin embargo no lo compr.
No matter.
No importa.
No matter if you love her, she doent love
you.
No importa si la quieres, ella no te quiere.
In spite of.
A pesar de .
In spite of having lived in France she doesnt
speak French.
A pesar de haber vivido en Francia no
habla francs.
Despite.
A pesar de.
Despite all the efforts he didnt win.
A pesar de todos los esfuerzos, no gan.
Condicionales
.
If.
Si.
If you need me, phone me.
Si me necesitas, llmame.
Tiempo. When.
Cuando.
When you want to visit us, let us know.
Cuando quieras visitarnos, hznoslo saber.
272
While.
Mientras.
While I was in Italy I ate a lot of pasta.
Mientras estuve en Italia com mucha
pasta.
Before.
Antes.
Before I worked in Elda, I worked in
Crevillente.
Antes de trabajar en Elda, trabaj en
Crevillente.
Since.
Desde.
I have lived here since 1962
Vivo aqu desde 1962
Whenever.
Cada vez que
Whenever he comes I visit him.
Cada vez que viene le visito.
Until.
Hasta.
Until I found it I was sad.
Hasta que lo encontr estaba triste.
Now.
Ahora.
Now I am hungry.
Ahora tengo hambre.
Once.
Una vez.
Once I pay the house I will buy a car.
Una vez que haya pagado el piso comprar
un coche.
No sonnerthan.
Apenas.
No sooner had they gone than I was asleep.
Apenas se haban ido me qued dormido.
Finally.
Finalmente.
Finally I read the book.
Finalmente le el libro.
In short.
En breve.
In short they will be here.
En breve estarn aqu.
Lugar. Where.
Donde.
This is the house where we lived until 1996.
Esta es la casa donde vivimos hasta 1996.
Wherever.
Dondequiera
Wherever she goes she buys some clothes.
Dondequiera que vaya se compra ropa.
273
que.
274
ORACIONES DE RELATIVO
Este tipo de oraciones suelen aadir informacin a lo que ya se ha dicho
en la oracin principal.
Usan los siguientes pronombres relativos:
Personas. Who. This is the man who came here
yesterday.
Este es el hombre que vino ayer.
That. This is the man that came yesterday.
Este es el hombre que vino ayer.
Cosas. Which. This is the book which I bought in Martn
Fierro.
Este es el libro que compr en Martn
Fierro.
That. The house that I sold.
La casa que vend.
Posesin. Whose. The boy whose bike is this is Mike.
El chico de quien es esta bici es Mike.
Lugar. Where. This is the school where I studied.
Esta es la escuela donde estudi.
Tiempo. When. This is the day when I was born.
Este es el da en el que nac.
Personas. Whom. The girl whom I loved.
Es la chica a quien am.
Why. The reason why I bought this is you.
La razn por la que compr esto eres t.
What. And this is what he said.
Esto es lo que l dijo.
The thing that. This is the thing that we should do.
Esto es lo que deberamos hacer.
275
That puede utilizarse en lugar de who o which en las oraciones de relativo
especificativas (defining)
This is the girl that I love.
This is the girl who I love.
Esta es la chica a quien quiero.
This is the car which I told you.
This is the car that I told you.
Este es el coche que te dije.
Las oraciones de relativo se dividen en:
NON-DEFINING O EXPLICATIVAS.
Van entre comas. Aaden informacin extra que podra omitirse y no
alterara el significado de la frase. No son imprescindibles para comprender
el significado. Se trata de una explicacin.
Nunca llevan that y nunca se puede omitir el relativo.
My wife , who is a teacher, reads a lot.
Mi mujer, que es profesora, lee mucho.
DEFINING O ESPECIFICATIVAS.
Son ms frecuentes y no van entre comas. Definen al antecedente.
The woman who came is my wife.
La mujer que vino es mi esposa
Who, which y that se pueden omitir cuando no son los sujetos de la
oracin.
The girl (who) he met is Mary.
La chica que conoci es Mara.
The CD (which) I bought is very good.
El disco que compr es muy bueno.
276
CONJUNCIONES
According to. Segn. I did it according to his instructions.
Lo hice segn l me dijo.
After. Despus. They came after I arrived.
Llegaron despus de que yo llegu.
Although. Aunque. Although It rained a lot the match
wasnt cancelled.
Aunque llovi mucho, no se cancel
el partido.
And. Y. I like wine and beer.
Me gusta el vino y la cerveza.
As. Mientras que, as
como.
As he came I saw him.
Le vi mientras vena.
As a result. Como
consecuencia.
He became poor as a result of
spending too much.
Se empobreci como consecuencia
de gastar demasiado.
As if. Como si. He behaves as if he doesnt know me.
l se comporta como si no me
conociera.
As long as. Mientras que. As long as you study you can play.
Mientras que estudies puedes jugar.
As soon as. Tan pronto como. As soon as I found it I complained.
Tan pronto como lo descubr me
quej.
As though. Como si. Act as though nothing happens.
Acta como si no pasara nada.
As well as. Al igual que. She, as well as me, will go to Madrid.
Ella, al igual que yo, ir a Madrid.
Because. Porque. We wont go because it is very cold.
No iremos porque hace mucho frio.
277
Because of Debido a. Because of her behaviour nobody
likes her.
Debido a su comportamiento nadie la
quiere.
Before. Antes. I read the paper before we eat.
Leo el peridico antes de comer.
But. Pero. It is expensive but I will buy it.
Es caro pero lo comprar.
Despite. A pesar. He came despite feeling bad.
l vino a pesar de sentirse mal.
Either..or. o.o. We can either go home or to the
cinema.
Podemos o bien ir a casa o al cine.
Even though. Aunque. Even though its late you can watch TV.
Aunque es tarde, puedes ver la tele.
Except. Salvo. I will go except if I have to work.
Ir salvo que tenga que trabajar.
Furthermore. Adems. He doesnt study and futhermore he
doesnt work.
l no estudia y adems no trabaja.
However. Sin embargo. He didnt study, however he passed his
exams.
l no estudi, sin embargo aprob sus
exmenes.
If. Si. If he comes tell him to visit me.
Si viene, dile que me visite.
In case of. En caso de. In case of fire ring the fire brigade.
En caso de incendio llama a los
bomberos.
In order to. Para. In order to pass you have to study a lot.
Para aprobar debes estudiar mucho.
Moreover. Adems. I went to London, moreover I went to
278
Scotland.
Fui a Londres y adems a Escocia.
Neithernor. Nini. I neither like coffee nor tea.
No me gusta ni el t ni el caf.
Nevertheless. Sin embargo. I didnt want to go, nevertherless I
enjoyed the trip.
No quise ir, sin embargo disfrut del
viaje.
Notwithstanding. No obstante. I like the shoes, notwithstanding they
are very expensive.
Me gustan los zapatos, no obstante
son muy caros.
Or. O. Phone or fax.
Telefonea o manda un fax.
Otherwise. De otra manera. Send us the money, otherwise we wont
send you the shoes.
Mndenos el dinero, de otra manera
no le mandaremos los zapatos.
Provided. Siempre que. Provided you pay I accept the offer.
Siempre que pague acepto la oferta.
Since. Ya que. Since I have been invited I have to go.
Ya que me han invitado, tengo que ir.
So as to. Para. I save money so as to buy a new
house.
Ahorro dinero para poder comprar
una nueva casa.
Therefore. Por lo tanto. There is a concert next Monday,
therefore Ill buy the tickets.
Hay un concierto el prximo lunes, por
lo tanto comprar las entradas.
Though. Aunque. He is rich though not very intelligent.
Aunque es rico no es muy inteligente.
To. Para. I went to England to learn English.
Fui a Inglaterra para aprender ingls.
279
Unless. A menos que. Unless they pay we wont send them
anymore shoes.
A menos que paguen no les
mandaremos ms zapatos.
Until. Hasta que. Until I noticed I liked opera I listened to
classical music.
Hasta que me di cuenta de que me
gustaba la pera yo escuchaba
msica clsica.
Whenever. Cada vez que. Whenever they feel like, they go to
Madrid.
Cada vez que les apetece, van a
Madrid.
Where. Donde. They stopped where they saw a light.
Ellos pararon donde vieron una luz.
Whereas. Mientras. He is shy whereas she is not.
l es tmido mientras que ella no.
Whether..or. Sio. Whether you like it or not, we have to
go.
Te guste o no, tenemos que irnos.
Yet. Sin embargo. She is the most intelligent, yet she didnt
win the contest.
Ella es la ms inteligente, sin embargo
no gan el concurso.
280
LOS VERBOS MODALES
Los verbos modales se llaman as al carecer de las mayora de las formas
verbales. Se usan para hacer suposiciones, sacar conclusiones, hablar de
posibilidades y establecer conjeturas. No tienen todos los tiempos verbales,
por ejemplo, must y ought to slo tienen presente. Can, may, dare y
need, tienen presente y pasado.
Can, could.
Poder.
May, might.
Poder.
Must.
Deber.
Ought to.
Deber.
Will, shall.
Auxiliares de
futuro.
Would.
Auxiliar del
condicional.
Dare.
Atreverse.
Need.
Necesitar.
Tienen una nica forma para todas las personas en presente:
I can.
He can.
No llevan -s en la tercera persona del singular.
Van seguidos de Infinitivo sin to.
I can ski.
He must study.
Hacen la negacin y la interrogacin como el verbo to be.
Can you ski?
No se construyen con to do, to have y to be.
Can she go?
No tienen imperativo, ni infinitivo, ni participio de presente ni de pasado
por lo tanto no forman tiempos continuos ni perfectos. Tampoco
aparecen en formas pasivas.
She can swim.
281
Ella sabe nadar.
He must study everyday.
l debe estudiar todos los das.
Usan otros verbos para suplir sus carencias temporales, ya que no tienen
forma para todos los tiempos. No tienen participio ni infinitivo.
He was able to go.
l pudo ir.
I had to go alone.
Yo tuve que ir solo.
I must not eat so much chocolate.
No debo comer tanto chocolate.
Can you tell me the time?
Me puede decir la hora?
Van seguidos de infinitivo sin to, a excepcin de ought to, have to y used
to.
I used to go to the disco.
Yo sola ir a la discoteca.
282
CAN
Slo se usa en el presente, para el resto de tiempos se utiliza to be able to.
En algunos casos puede ser sustituido por to know how to. Se puede
traducir por poder o saber.
I can swim.
S nadar.
I know how to swim.
S como nadar.
l'll be able to go tonight.
Podr ir esta noche.
Will he be able to come in time?
Podr venir a tiempo?
I have been able to finish it in time.
He podido acabar a tiempo.
Expresa conocimiento y capacidad
fsica e intelectual.
I can play the violin.
S tocar el violn.
I can read.
S leer.
Posibilidad. I can go with you.
Puedo ir contigo.
Tambien para dar y recibir permiso. Can I go with you?
Puedo ir contigo?
Puede indicar prohibicin en la forma
negativa.
You cant smoke here.
No puedes fumar aqu.
Deduccin negativa. They cant be at home.
No deben de estar en casa.
Habilidad. I can swim.
S nadar.
Ofrecimientos. Can I help you?
Puedo ayudarte?
283
Solamente se usa para el presente de
indicativo.
She can do it alone.
Lo puede hacer sola.
Could se usa para el pasado y el
condicional.
I could go yesterday.
Pude ir ayer.
I could go tomorrow.
Podr ir maana.
Sugerencias. You can come with us.
Puedes venir con nosotros.
El verbo to know how le puede sustituir
I know how to go.
S ir.
COULD
Indica habilidad en el pasado. I could translate Italian at the age of 9.
Saba traducir italiano a los 9 aos.
Peticiones formales. Could I go with you?
Podra ir contigo?
MAY
Posibilidad. It may rain during the weekend.
Puede llover durante la semana.
Permiso. May I come in ?
Puedo pasar?
Prohibiciones. You may not stay here.
No puedes estar aqu.
Especulaciones. He may be in Italy.
Puede que est en Italia.
284
Sugerencias. If I may say so I will buy it.
Si se me permite decirlo, yo lo
comprara.
MIGHT
Expresa una posibildad ms remota
que may.
It might snow in Benidorm but I doubt
it.
Podra nevar en Benidorm, pero lo
dudo.
Especulaciones. He might be working in a new book.
El podra estar trabajando en un
nuevo libro.
MUST
Obligacines morales. I must visit my friend, he is ill.
Debo ir a visitar a mi amigo que est
enfermo.
Consejos. You must visit the museum, it is one of
the best in Spain.
Debes visitar el museo, es uno de los
mejores de Espaa.
Deduccines. He must be out because nobody
answers the phone.
Debe de haber salido, pues nadie
contesta el telfono.
Prohibiciones. You must not come here again.
No debes volver a venir aqu.
HAVE TO
Obligacin normalmente impuesta. You have to drive with a helmet.
285
Debes conducir con casco.
Para indicar costumbres. I have to take an aspirin every night.
Me tengo que tomar una aspirina
cada noche.
En negativa, indica que algo no es
necesario.
You don't have to stay if you have
something to do.
No tienes que quedarte si tienes algo
que hacer.
SHOULD, OUGHT TO
Son prcticamente sinnimos.
Para dar consejos. You should go to the Yemo Cineplex
cinemas.
Debera ir a los cines Yelmo Cineplex.
You ought to spend more time with
them.
Deberas pasar ms tiempo con ellos.
WILL
Auxiliar del futuro simple. I will buy a sandwich when I finish this.
Me comprar un bocadillo cuando
acabe esto.
Predicciones sobre el futuro. It will be sunny.
Har sol.
Decisiones. I will buy a new car.
Me comprar un coche nuevo.
Ofrecimientos. I will do it.
Lo har.
Peticiones. Will you pass me the salt?
Me pasas la sal?
286
WOULD
Peticiones y ofrecimientos. Would you like to come with me?
Te gustara venir conmigo?
Hbitos y rutinas en el pasado. In 1998 I would walk a lot.
En 1998 yo paseaba mucho.
Como a
I would go out to the cinema with my friends in the summer nights when I was 6
Iba al cine con mis amigos en las noches de verano cuando tena seis aos.
SHALL
Es auxiliar de futuro, pero slo para las primeras personas del singular y del
plural I, we.
I shall go.
Ir.
Puede expresar cierta determinacin We shall never surrender.
Nunca nos rendiremos.
USED TO
Hbitos en el pasado. I used to sing in the shower.
Yo sola cantar en la ducha.
Los hbitos en el presente se pueden expresar con la estructura To be used
to +Ing.
287
I am used to reading.
Suelo leer.
NEED
Puede actuar como verbo modal o verbo ordinario.
Como modal no aade -s en la tercera persona del singular y no admite
ni auxiliares en la interrogativa y negativa.
He needs a lot of money to get married.
Necesita mucho dinero para casarse.
Needn't se usa para indicar que no hay obligacin.
You neednt come tomorrow.
No es necesario que vengas maana.
Need to indica necesidad.
I need to consult a good doctor.
Necesito consultar a un buen mdico.
He needs to have more money to buy this car.
Necesita tener ms dinero para comprar este coche.
Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones:
Need you buy so much?
Do you need to buy so much?
You needn't come with us.
No es necesario que venga con nosotros.
You don't need to come with us.
No es necesario que venga con nosotros.
Para el pasado slo hay una.
You didn't need to wait for them.
No era necesario que les esperases.
288
1) You ..........................study everyday.
a - Can
b - Must
c - Are
2) The Town Hall ...........................................a new street to Alberto Navarro.
a - Should dedicate
b - Shall dedicating
c - Should to dedicate
3) There's nothing in the fridge. They..............all.
a - Must have eaten
b - Must has ate
c - Must had eaten
4) You ............try everything.
a Can to
b - Must
c - Need
5) you ..........the receipt here please?
a Can
b - Musts
c - Shall
6) You ............cry, it's not worth.
a - Should not
b - Shaln't
c - Won't
7) I...........quit smoking.
a - Wills
b Haves to
c Have to
8) ..........I speak to Jorge?
a - Cans
b - Can
c - Was
9) He ..........be very rich, he is driving an expensive car.
a - Is
b - Must
c - Should
10) We ........ be united.
a - Ought
b - Must
c - Had
11) He wasn't .........to see the driver.
289
a - Can
b - Able
c - May
12) Will we...........buy a dictionary?
a - Must
b - Have to
c - Can
13) That ........be enough.
a - Should
b - Cans
c - Musts
14) I .........send him something for his new baby.
a - Must
b - Has to
c - Have
15) We .............................send the photograph to you.
a - Will
b - Do
c - Did
16) I ...........like a window-seat please.
a - Will
b - Would
c - Can
17) Yes, I guess we ...........buy them now.
a - Shall
b - Should
c - Would
18) There's Marcelo and that ...........be his father.
a - Must
b - Has
c - Mays
19) People of your age ............not drink beer.
a - Shall
b - Will
c - Should
20) Girls, you ......................say those things about your friends.
a - Haven't to
b - Mustn't
c - Mustn
21) I........................write to Gema I haven't written to her for ages.
a - Must
290
b - May
c - Had
22) I think my brother ..................to come next month.
a - Cans
b - Could
c - Will be able
23) I don't speak Valenciano ..................you speak Castellano ?
a - Would
b - Can't
c - Are able
24) You ..................have a passport to travel to Petrel.
a - Needn't
b - Must
c - Can
25) Felix, the Maths teacher ..................correcting the exams because he is not
here.
a - Must be
b - Must has
c - May have
26) Michael was dictating too fast, so I ...............copy what he said.
a - Were able
b - Couldn't
c - Won't be able
27) Jess you'd like to go to buy a new computer, .............you?
a - Would
b - Wouldn't
c - May
28) He ..............understand the problem if you explained it to him.
a - Would
b - Shall
c - Will
29) What ....................happen if we didn't go to work?
a - Will
b - Would
c - Must
30) The local Council ...........do something about those houses!
a - Must to
b - Have to
c - Must
31) When you come again, you .........visit The Plaza Mayor and the museums.
a Has to
291
b - May
c - Should
32) Come on, boys. We .........win them this time.
a - Must
b - Have to
c - Have
33) They didn't come to the meeting I suppose they ..........have gone to the
beach.
a - Must
b - Has
c - May
34) I didn't go to the concert I.............have gone.
a - Shall
b - Should
c - Must
35) This paella tastes very well. Lorenzo ...have made it.
a - Must
b - Had
c - Has
36) I haven't seen Mara Luisa since Christmas. She.................be in New York.
a - Must
b - Can
c - Shall
37) He........to find the restaurant after asking two or three times.
a - Was able
b - Couldn't
c - Could
38) This book ..........at home.
a - Must be read
b - Have to be raed
c - Has to bee read
39) It .......snow in "El Cid " but it is not very probable.
a - May
b - Might
c - May be
40) It........rain tomorrow.
a - May
b - Must
c - Can
41) We........some money to buy a new fridge. Can we borrow from you?
a - Need
292
b - Must
c - May
42) You .......speak like this to your parents.
a - Shalls
b - Shouldn't
c - Shall
43) I would........to have a better bike.
a - Like
b - To like
c - Liking
44) Elda Shoes, .......I help you?
a - Need
b - Can
c - Must
45) I .....................buy the bread if you don't give me the money.
a - Must
b - Can't
c - Can
46) You ........teach me how to prepare a paella.
a - Ought
b - Must
c - Need
47) Your aunt is ill. We ........visit her.
a - Can
b - Should to
c - Should
48) You ......go to bed. You look very tired.
a - Should
b - Should to
c - Ought
49) We ought not to visit her. She........study.
a - Has
b - Must
c - Have
50) Thou........not kill is one of the ten commandments that God gave us.
a - Will
b - Shall
c - Shan't
51) ........we go to Panoramis?
a - Able to
b - Sahll
293
c - Shall
52) I promise that you ........have a motorbike if you pass all your exams.
a - Shall
b - Would
c - Wont
53) Students .........not use mobile phones during the lessons.
a - Will
b - Shall
c - Wont
54) No smoking.........be allowed in all the premises.
a - Will
b - Shall
c - Is
55) He ...........to have gone to Menorca instead of Ibiza.
a - Ought
b - Ouhgt
c - Outhgt
56) You.........to visit your grandmother more often.
a - Shall
b - Should
c - Ought
57) ........you like to come with us to the cinema?
a - Will
b - Shall
c - Would
58) When my mother was young my grandmother ........look after her.
a - Used
b - Would
c - To
59) You........treat everybody with respect.
a - Has
b - Should
c - Will
60) If you.......see her tell her to phone me.
a - Should
b - Will
c - Would
61) You ........visit the dentist twice a year.
a - Would
b - Should
c - Shall
294
62) Why......you want to buy this? if it is of no use.
a - Shall
b - Will
c - Should
63) The man with the moustache and the golden watch........be his father.
a - Must
b - Can
c - Need
64) You ..................smoke in the classes, it is forbidden.
a - Must not
b - Must
c - Can
65) It .................rain tonight. It is very dark.
a - May
b - Mays
c - Mights
66) I .................................not go because I have not been invited.
a - May
b - Mei
c - Can
295
Soluciones
1. B 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. B 10.B
11.B 12.B 13.A 14.A 15.A 16.B 17.B 18.A 19.C 20.B
21.A 22.C 23.B 24.A 25.A 26.B 27.B 28.A 29.B 30.C
31.C 32.A 33.A 34.B 35.A 36.A 37.A 38.A 39.B 40.A
41.A 42.B 43.A 44.B 45.B 46.B 47.C 48.A 49.B 50.B
51.C 52.A 53.B 54.B 55.A 56.C 57.C 58.B 59.B 60.A
61.B 62.C 63.A 64.A 65.A 66.A
296
TABLA RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES
Can. Habilidades.
Peticin de permiso.
Imposibilidad.
I can swim.
Can I come in?
He cant go now.
Could. Habilidad en el
pasado.
Posibilidad.
Imposibilidad.
Sugerencias.
He could read Russian.
They could be in Tokyo.
I couldnt buy the car.
You could try next year.
May. Posibilidad.
Permiso.
Prohibicin
It may rain tomorrow.
May I come in?
You may not smoke here.
Might. Posibilidad remota. It might snow.
Will. Predicciones.
Decisiones.
They will come.
I will buy a Harley.
Would. Peticiones formales.
Acciones pasadas.
Preferencias.
Would you marry me?
I would play tennis when I was 10.
I would rather go to the cinema.
Shall. Peticiones formales.
Acciones futuras.
Shall I open the window?
I shall visit her.
Should
Ought to.
Consejos. You should buy her a diamond.
Must. Obligacin.
Prohibiciones.
I must study.
You must not go with that boy.
Have to. Obligaciones
impuestas.
You have to drive on the right.
Be able to. Habilidades. He is able to make a cake.
Must, cant have +
PP.
Deducciones. They must have bought a new
house.
They cant have come here this
morning.
May, might
Could,
+ Have + Participio
Pasado.
Deducciones donde
no tenemos mucha
seguridad.
They may have gone.
She could have seen her.
Need. Necesidad. You are going to need a lot of help.
Neednt. Ausencia de
necesidad.
You neednt come tomorrow.
QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS)
297
Son preguntas que sirven para confirmar una suposicin. Tienen dos
partes, si la primera es afirmativa, la segunda ser negativa. Si la primera
es negativa, la segunda ser afirmativa. Las frases con verbos auxiliares o
defectivos forman la coletilla con el mismo verbo.
You are from Petrel, aren't you?
T eres de Petrel, no es cierto?
You arent from Petrel, are you?
T no eres de Petrel, verdad?
She isnt from Sax, is she?
Ella no es de Sax, verdad?
He has a Harley, hasn't he?
El tiene una Harley, no es cierto?
You can swim, can't you?
T sabes nadar, verdad?
She couldn't run fast, could she?
Ella no poda correr deprisa, no es cierto?
Con los dems verbos se usan las partculas do, does, en presente.
You study every day, don't you?
T estudias todos los das, no?
She plays golf, doesn't she?
Ella juega al golf verdad?
You don't speak Chinese, do you?
T no sabes hablar chino verdad?
She doesn't write very well, does she?
Ella no escribe muy bien. verdad?
En pasado se usa did.
You went to Milan, didn't you?
Fuiste a Miln, no es verdad?
She prepared a paella, didn't she?
298
Ella hizo la paella, verdad?
En futuro se usa will y won't.
They will come tomorrow, won't they?
Vendrn maana, no es cierto?
They won't come tomorrow, will they?
No vendrn maana, verdad?
En condicional se usa would.
They would buy it if they could, wouldn't they?
Ellos lo compraran si pudieran, verdad?
She wouldn't buy it, would she?
Ella no lo comprara, verdad?
299
SAY Y TELL
Tienen el mismo siginificado, decir y contar. To tell debe ir acompaado de
un complemento indirecto, mientras que to say tan solo necesita un
complemento directo.
I told her your story
Le cont a ella tu historia.
I told your story to her.
Le cont tu historia a ella.
I said that I was going to move to Sax.
Dije que me iba a ir a vivir a Sax.
300
1) What did the teacher ........yesterday?
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Said
2) What did your mother .......to you?
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
3) Please ...............what happened?
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
4) I will never....................a lie.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Count
5) Will you please ................us all the truth?
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
6) He didn't ...................anything.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Count
7) Yesterday Mr Garca .......it was going to rain.
a - Say
b - Said
c - Tells
8) .........a joke.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Count
9) You've ........me that at least six times today.
a - Tell
b - Tollen
c - Told
10) She is always asking you to .........her words in Italian.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
11) My mother wants to see Sarah.................to come her at once.
301
a - Tell her
b - Let her
c - Let she
12) Did Pedro Civera ........anything about the exams?
a - Tell
b - Speak
c - Say
13) ........me what happened yesterday.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
14) Don't..........you don't like good wine.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
15) I........my mother I wanted to be an artist.
a - Said
b - Told
c - Spoke
16) What did she........?
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
17) He.........that he wants to go to Alicante.
a - Tells
b - Says
c - Speaks
18) Don't ........it to your friends.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Speak
19) I.........my daughter a story every night.
a - Speak
b - Say
c - Tell
20) She never..........lies.
a - Says
b - Tells
c - Speaks
21) We always...............the truth.
302
a - Tell
b - Speak
c - Say
22) I ...............them I was going to Australia.
a - Told
b - Tell
c Said
23) He........his wife he had had an affair with her best friend.
a - Said
b - Told
c - Spoke
24) .......me the truth please.
a - Say
b - Speak
c - Tell
25) They.......................that it was very cold in Disneyland Paris.
a - Said
b - Sayd
c - Told
26) He ...........to the waiter that the wine was not very good.
a - Told
b - Said
c - Sayd
27) He......so.
a - Said
b - Say
c - Told
28) She always......us the story of her childhood in Salinas.
a - Tell
b - Tells
c - Says
29) It is not easy to.........how it all began.
a - Say
b - Count
c - Speak
30) He ...........the secretary to send the faxes.
a - Told
b - Said
c - Order
31) My mother ....... "Let's visit the cousins "
303
a - Said
b - Told
c - Sayd
32) I know two twin sisters in the Plaza Mayor who are very difficult
to...................one from the other.
a - Tell
b - Say
c - Mutter
33) Life is not easy. You can never..........what is going to happen.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Knows
34) When I went to England, a friend .....................me my fortune.
a - Said
b - Told
c - Explaind
35) "It has been the best day of my life "......my sister.
a - Told
b - Said
c - Gueses
36) The teacher......to the class that they should work more.
a - Said
b - Told
c - Manded
37) It goes without........
a - Telling
b - Saying
c - Explainig
304
Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. B 8. B 9. C 10.B
11.A 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.B 16.A 17.B 18.B 19.C 20.B
21.A 22.A 23.B 24.C 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.B 29.A 30.A
31.A 32.A 33.B 34.B 35.B 36.A 37.B
305
MAKE Y DO
Estos dos verbos comparten el significado de hacer y para cuyo uso no
existen reglas aunque to make tiene el matiz de fabricar, construir y to do
se emplea con un sentido ms general. Por lo tanto se deben aprender
ciertas expresiones.
MAKE DO
Everybody makes mistakes.
Todo el mundo comete errores.
I always do the ironing.
Siempre plancho.
He is always making friends.
Siempre est haciendo amigos.
How do you do?
Cmo ests?
He makes a lot of noise.
Hace mucho ruido.
I do the cooking.
Cocino.
Im going to make you my last offer.
Te voy a hacer mi ltima oferta.
We do business with Japan.
Hacemos negocios con Japn.
I make many telephone calls.
Yo hago muchas llamadas.
His son is doing badly at university.
A su hijo le va mal en la universidad.
I make the beds in the morning.
Hago las camas por la maana.
He does well in his job.
Lo hace bien en su trabajo.
Make me a promise.
Promtemelo.
I do the dusting on Tuesday.
Quito el polvo los martes.
She is making coffee.
Est preparando caf
My sister does the washing up.
Mi hermana lava los platos.
She made a fortune in Cuba.
Hizo una fortuna en Cuba.
She did her hair yesterday.
Se arregl el pelo ayer.
These shoes are made in Elda.
Estos zapatos estn hechos en Elda.
She does the housework.
Ella hace las tareas del hogar.
They have made a lot of money.
Han hecho mucho dinero.
We do the shopping on Saturday.
Hacemos la compra el sbado.
They made a good choice.
Hicieron una buena eleccin.
They did me a favour.
Me hicieron un favor.
306
They made fun of the new pupil.
Se rieron del nuevo alumno.
This will do you good.
Esto te sentar bien.
They made us wait.
Nos hicieron esperar.
This pill wont do you any harm.
Esta pastilla no te har mal.
We made a complaint yesterday.
Nos quejamos ayer.
I will do the cleaning.
Har la limpieza.
We made sure everything was OK.
Nos aseguramos de que todo estaba
bien.
Everyday I do the washing.
Cada da hago la colada.
You have to make a decision.
Tienes que decidirte.
Englishmen do the gardening on
Sunday
Los ingleses arreglan el jardn los
domingos.
You will have to make an effort.
Tendrs que hacer un esfuerzo.
He doesnt do any exercise.
No hace nada de ejercicio.
Make arrangements, we are going to
Paris.
Haz los preparativos, nos vamos a
Paris.
She is doing up the house.
Est decorando la casa.
The Mayor made a good speech.
El alcalde hizo un buen discurso.
Make up your mind and buy the
house.
Decdete y cmprate el piso.
They made love.
Hicieron el amor.
They made war.
Hicieron la guerra.
307
1) What is she.....................in summer?
a - Making
b - Does
c - Doing
2) Is there anyhing to.....................here in this city?
a - Do
b - Make
c - Making
3) I hate ........................the housework.
a - Doing
b - Making
c - Do
4) I am .........................my exercises now.
a - Doing
b - Making
c - Does
5) I always.....................my bed.
a - Make
b - Do
c - Doing
6) They were....................a fire yesterday.
a Made
b - Making
c - Doing
7) If you want to................progress you have to study a lot.
a - Made
b - Make
c - Do
8) The first thing that you must.....................is your homework.
a - Do
b - Make
c - Does
9) I never..................coffee.
a - Do
b - Make
c - Does
10) I prefer...................the shopping.
a - Doing
b - Making
c - Diding
11) Elena always.....................the ironing.
308
a - Does
b - Makes
c - To make
12) You have to......................room for another desk.
a - Do
b - Make
c - Does
13) They always...................so much noise!!!
a - Make
b - Do
c - Does
14) He ............a very good speech in Novelda about Gaud.
a - Made
b - Did
c - Do
15) Why don't we.....................a cake?
a - Do
b - Make
c - Does
16) They..................friends very soon.
a - Do
b - Make
c - Does
17) Hippies said. "...............love not war "
a - Do
b - Make
c - Does
18) I was................the washing up when my boss phoned me.
a - Doing
b - Making
c - Diding
19) It will ............you good to go to the beach.
a - Do
b - Make
c - Does
20) You must .........it for us.
a - Make
b - Makes
c - Made
21) I'm ..............the Christmas cake.
a - Making
309
b - Doing
c - Madeing
22) .................sure you have everything you need.
a - Is
b - Make
c - Do
23) All right, but .........sure you put plenty of suncream on or you will get burnt.
a - Do
b - Are
c - Make
24) I'm going to ....................coffee.
a - Made
b - Do
c - Make
25) You should ......an effort now.
a - Make
b - Do
c - Made
26) People ...........a lot of money selling shoes to The USA in the 60s.
a - Made
b - Make
c - Did
27) ......sure everything is in order.
a - Make
b - Do
c - Is
28) I have................the decision of going back to teaching again.
a - Do
b - Done
c - Made
29) She is always........................friends.
a - Doing
b - Made
c - Making
30) My daughters..................so much noise!
a - Do
b - Make
c - Making
31) I............some cakes for my guests.
a - Did
310
b - Made
c - Maded
32) What are you..................? -Just reading the paper.
a - Making
b - Doing
c - Make
33) The doctor always .................wait a lot.
a - Does
b Makes
c - Making
311
Soluciones
1. C 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. B 10.A
11.A 12.B 13.A 14.A 15.B 16.B 17.B 18.A 19.A 20.A
21.A 22.B 23.C 24.C 25.A 26.A 27.A 28.C 29.C 30.B
31.B 32.B 33.B
312
EXCLAMACIONES
Las oraciones exclamativas pueden tener alguna de las siguientes
estructuras.
What a.
Se usa con sustantivos.
What a yacht.
Qu yate.
Tambin con adjetivos What a pretty girl.
Qu chica tan guapa.
What.
Se usa con plurales e incontables.
What pretty girls.
Qu chicas tan guapas.
What horribe films.
Qu pelculas ms malas.
What weather.
Qu tiempo.
How.
Se usa con adjetivos y adverbios.
How beautiful.
Qu guapa.
How fast.
Qu rpido.
Oraciones interrogativas negativas. Isnt he the perfect
football player?
No es l el perfecto
jugador de ftbol?
313
ORACIONES CONDICIONALES
Describen situaciones hipotticas. Podemos distinguir bsicamente tres
tipos de oraciones condicionales: el primer tipo plantea situciones reales. El
segundo, indica hiptesis, deseos difciles de conseguir pero posibles. El
tercer tipo, hace referencia a situaciones e hiptesis irreales e imposibles en
el pasado, imposibles de conseguir.
PRIMER TIPO SEGUNDO TIPO TERCER TIPO
Acciones probables que
se refieren al presente o
al futuro.
Acciones improbables y
situaciones hipotticas.
Acciones imposibles.
Si llueve me mojo. Si lloviera me mojara. Si hubiera llovido me
habra mojado.
No importa qu oracin se pone primero, pero s la condicin es la primera
se deben separar entre comas.
If you play tennis, buy good tennis shoes.
Si juegas al tenis, cmprate una buenas zapatillas.
Primer tipo: If + presente + presente.
Tambin podemos tener:
If + presente + futuro.
If I eat chocolate, I get fat.
Si como chocolate engordo.
If I eat chocolate, I will get fat.
Si como chocolate engordar.
Segundo tipo: If + pasado simple +
conditional simple.
If I ate chocolate, I would get fat.
Si comiera chocolate engordara.
Tercer tipo: If + pasado perfecto +
condicional perfecto.
If I had eaten chocolate, I would have
get fat.
Si hubiera comido chocolate habra
engordado.
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En el primer tipo se trata de una referencia al futuro donde cualquiera de
las dos acciones puede ir en primer lugar. Indica verdades universales y
consecuciones lgicas de acontecimietos. Son acciones que pueden
ocurrir.
If he doesnt pay, hell have to face the music.
Si no paga, tendr que afrontar las consecuencias.
Existen otras posibles combinaciones:
If + presente + modal. If I finish early I can go.
Si acabo pronto podr ir.
should + imperativo. Should you see her give her my
regards.
Si la ves, dale recuerdos.
Imperativo + conjunction + clause Stop shouting or I will get angry.
Para de gritar o me enfadar.
Unless se suele emplear en lugar de if
not.
We wont go out unless you pay.
No nos iremos a menos de que
pagues.
Con imperativo. If you are hungry, eat something !
Si tienes hambre, come.
Travel the world if you want to be wise.
Si quieres ser sabio, viaja.
Cualquiera de las dos oraciones puede ir colocada en primer lugar, pero si
la subordinada que empieza con if va la primera, debe ir seguida de
coma.
Las oraciones del segundo tipo expresan acciones que pueden ocurrir.
Expresan deseos y anhelos.
If el Fari came here, I would ask for an autograph.
Si el Fari viniera le pedira un autogrfo.
Tambin se usan para dar consejos.
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If I were you, I wouldnt go out with him.
Yo de t no ira con l.
Were se puede usar en lugar de was. No hay diferencia en el significado,
pero were es ms formal, y se usa para posibilidades remotas:
If I were rich, I would not buy a yacht.
Si fuera rico no me comprara un yate.
Tambin expresan esperanzas y deseos.
If I could, I would go to Mexico.
Si pudiera, ira a Mjico.
Este tipo suele referirse al presente.
Could y might se pueden usar en lugar de would.
Las oraciones del tercer tipo hacen referencia a acciones imposibles de
realizar, pues son hiptesis en el pasado, lamentos, etc.
If I had met her, I would have told you.
Si la hubiera visto, te lo habra dicho.
OTRAS FORMAS DE CONDICIONALES:
Suppose. Suppose you are rich, would you live
in a big house?
Suponiendo que fueras rico, Viviras
en una casa grande?
Suppose he comes, would you visit
him?
Supn que viene, le visitaras?
Supposing. Supposing you find a wallet with
money, what will you do?
Suponiendo que encuentras una
cartera con dinero, Qu haras?
As long as. You could go as long as you pay your
part.
Podrs ir mientras pagues tu parte.
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On the condition that. On the condition that you pay you can
be with us.
Con la condicin de que pagues
puedes estar con nosotros.
Provided. Provided you want it I will give it to you.
Si lo quieres te lo dar.
317
1) If you eat all these cakes you...............................................ill.
a - Are
b - Will be
c - Is
2) If I want to go with you I ...............................................you tonight.
a - Would telephone
b - Will telephone
c - Had telephoned
3) If you had read Mortadelo you.........a good time.
a - Would have had
b - Will have had
c - Will had have
4) If you clean my bike I .............................you to go to the cinema.
a - Invites
b - Invite
c - Invited
5) I .........................you my car if you pay the petrol.
a - Would lend
b - Will lending
c - Lend
6) If you say that again she...........................................crossed with you.
a - Is
b - Will be
c - Would be
7) Unless you study everyday you ....................................able to pass the exam.
a - Would not be
b - Will not be
c - Shall be not
8) If you put ice in the sun it..............................................to water.
a - Turn
b - Turns
c - Turning
9) If the house...........................................on fire call the firemen.
a - Go
b - Going
c - Goes
10) If you...........................................this one I'll bring you another.
a - Doesn't like
b - Didn't like
c - Don't like
11) British people .....................................to Alicante because of the climate.
318
a - Come
b - Comes
c Coming
12) If I had money I.........................................a new computer and a Harley.
a - Will buy
b - Would buy
c - Would bought
13) If he ...............................................eating chocolates he will get fat.
a - Don't stop
b - Doesn't stop
c - Didn't stop
14) If I ................................................studied I would get a better job.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Had
15) If it ............more we could grow more trees.
a - Rain
b - Rained
c - Raining
16) If I had known that you wanted to eat out I ......to book a table in a
restaurant.
a - Will has telephoned
b - Would have telephoned
c - Will have telephone
17) I.............................you something if I had known that you wanted a drink.
a - Would have brought
b - Had brought
c - Will bring
18) If I had known that you had a new house I..............................to visit you.
a - Will have gone
b - Would have gone
c - Would have went
19) If the boss had been a good one, this shop.................................
a - Wouldn't have closed
b - Would has closed
c - Will have close
20) If you had studied more you.......................................your degree last year.
a - Would have got
b - Would has got
c - Will had got
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21) If you...........................here this morning you would have seen my new car.
a - Had been
b - Had being
c - Had be
22) If I had bought lottery yesterday, today I..............................................rich.
a - Would have being
b - Will have been
c - Would have been
23) If they had offered him to be the President of the club he...............................
a - Would have accepted
b - Will have accepted
c - Had accepted
24) If I had known that they were in Elda l...............them to have lunch in La
Sirena.
a - Willl have invited
b - Would have invited
c - Had invited
25) If I had known that Penelope Cruz was invited to this party I
..........................earlier.
a - Would have come
b Have tohave came
c - Will had come
26) If I had know that Benidorm had so many discoes I.......................
a - Would has gone
b - Would have went
c - Would have gone
27) If you ........the bean, it means you are going to pay "the roscn ".
a - Find
b - Found
c - Had found
28) Well, you have to study a lot, if you ...........to get into a good university.
a - Want
b - Wanted
c - Wants
29) Don't ring ...........................there is anything you need.
a - Unless
b - Or
c - Both
30) If I could, I ......................go to Continente with you, darling.
a - Went
b - Must
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c - Would
31) What ....................if you won the lottery?
a - You do
b - Would you do
c - Had you done
32) If I were you, I .............work in that bank anymore.
a - Would
b - Wouldn't
c - Can
33) If I were you I ........buy the house today.
a - Will
b - Would
c - Must
34) If you study, you...............pass all the subjects with flying colours.
a - Will
b - Can
c - Would
35) If you ...............worried, tell your mother about it.
a - Were
b - Are
c - Had been
36) If you................earlier tonight, we could go to the cinema.
a - Come
b - Came
c - Comes
37) If I ............too much chocolate I get fat.
a - Eat
b - Ate
c - Would eat
38) ......he rich he would buy a Mercedes.
a - Was
b - Were
c - Is
39) ......you tell me the truth you will be punished.
a - As long as
b - Unless
c - In order to
40) I paid a lot of money......that you repaired my car.
a - On condition that
b - With the condition that
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c - At the condition of
41) ......you pay there is no problem.
a - As long as
b - So long
c - With as
42) .........Antonio had won the elections what would have happened?
a - Suppose
b - Supponing
c - Supposing
43) ........that Pepe were rich he would not be here.
a - Provides
b - Provided
c - Providind
44) ..........Manolo the Mayor, nothing of this kind would happen.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Were
Soluciones
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. B 8. B 9. C 10.C
11.A 12.B 13.B 14.C 15.B 16.B 17.A 18.B 19.A 20.A
21.A 22.C 23.A 24.B 25.A 26.C 27.A 28.A 29.B 30.C
31.B 32.B 33.B 34.A 35.B 36.B 37.A 38.B 39.B 40.A
41.A 42.C 43.B 44.C
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LA VOZ PASIVA
Se usa para resaltar ms la accin que el sujeto. Puede que
desconozcamos al autor de la accin o que no nos interese.
La voz pasiva en ingls se usa mucho ms que en castellano. Se forma con
el auxiliar to be en el mismo timepo que el verbo de la forma activa y el
participio pasado del verbo que se conjuga.
En la transformacin a pasiva se produce un cambio de sujeto, que
lgicamente, debemos hacer concordar con el verbo.
ACTIVA PASIVA
Presente Simple
I eat bread with olive oil. Bread with olive oil is eaten.
El pan con aceite es
comido.
Pasado Simple
I ate bread with olive oil. Bread with olive oil was
eaten.
El pan con aceite fue
comido.
Futuro Simple
I will buy a car. A car will be bought.
Un coche ser comprado.
Condicional Simple
I would eat a sandwich. A sandwich would be eaten.
Un bocadillo ser comido.
Presente Perfecto
I have made a photograph. A photograph has been
made.
Una fotografa ha sido
hecha.
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Pasado Perfecto
I had found a wallet. A wallet had been found.
Se haba encontrado una
cartera.
Futuro Perfecto
I will have seen the sea. The sea will have been seen.
El mar habr sido visto.
Condicional Perfecto
I would have bought a
Cadillac.
A Cadillac would have been bought.
Un Cadillac habr sido comprado.
Usamos la preposicin by para indicar el complemento agente
It was done by my mother.
Fue hecho por mi madre.
Los siguientes verbos llevan complemento directo e indirecto. Con estos
verbos se puede usar el complemento indirecto como sujeto al transformar
las oraciones a pasiva. Esto no ocurre en espaol.
Give.
Dar.
Lend.
Prestar.
Offer.
Ofrecer.
Pay.
Pagar.
Promise.
Prometer.
Refuse.
Negarse a.
Send.
Enviar.
Show.
Mostrar.
I gave Mary a kiss. Mary was given a kiss.
Le dieron un beso a Mara.
I showed my friend my house. My friend was shown my house.
A mi amiga le fue enseada la casa.
Si el complemento es un pronombre complemento. Him, them, her, etc., en
la oracin pasiva, ste complemento pasar a la forma de sujeto.
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He gave her a rose. She was given a rose.
Se le dio una rosa.
Tambin se suelen usar los siguientes verbos en estructuras pasivas:
To know.
Saber.
To believe.
Creer.
To think.
Pensar.
To consider.
Considerar.
To say.
Decir.
It is said that he is going to be promoted.
Se dice que le van a ascender.
1) The book ..........by Emilio Maestre.
a - Was write
b - Was written
c - Was to written
2) Those pictures .....................by my mother.
a - Were taken
b - Took
c - Tooks
3) The streets ...........decorated.
a - Are
b - Is
c - Will
4) Shoes are traditionally .............with leather.
a - Made
b - Makes
c - Mades
5) Ham in Spain is .......as a starter.
a - Eat
b - Eaten
c - Ate
6) I was........a very nice present in my last birthday.
a - Gave
b - Given
c - To give
7) The boy is .........Pepet and his sister Mara.
a - Calles
b - Called
c - Calling
8) "The Roscn " has things ..........in it.
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a - Hide
b - Hid
c - Hidden
9) It's very difficult to get ...............in a school like that.
a - Accept
b - Accepted
c - Accpeting
10) When we stay up late studying we phone and have one pizza ..........
a - Delivered
b - Deliveres
c - Delivering
11) My brother-in-law Jesus wrote this article. It ...................by him.
a - Is witten
b - Was wrlte
c - Was written
12) Plaza Mayor .......in 1996.
a - Was built
b - Will be built
c - Built
13) Barcelona scored seven goals yesterday. All ........by Ronaldo.
a - Were scored
b - Scored
c - Will be scored
14) She's .........to watch TV on Friday.
a - Allowed
b - Alloweed
c - Alowed
15) All the shoes were........during the shoe fair in Milan.
a - Sell
b - Sold
c - Selling
16) Many boxes are..........due to bad handling.
a - Damaged
b - Damage
c - Damaging
17) People from Elda are........to be very hardworking.
a - Say
b - Says
c - Said
18) The best shoes are......here in Elda.
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a - Make
b - Making
c - Made
19) The fire was......by an electrical fault.
a - Causing
b - Causes
c - Caused
20) The leathers were.........from Italy as usual.
a - Import
b - Importted
c - Imported
21) Hotels for the shoe fairs must be......well in advance.
a - Book
b - Booked
c - Boked
22) Someone has......................the book from the library.
a - Steal
b - Stole
c - Stolen
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Soluciones
1. B 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. B 7. B 8. C 9. B 10.A
11.C 12.A 13.A 14.A 15.B 16.A 17.C 18.C 19.C 20.C
21.B 22.C
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EL ESTILO INDIRECTO
Para contar lo que dijo alguien, podemos hacerlo de dos maneras,
repitiendo las palabras exactas, o usando el estilo indirecto.
Como se utiliza para contar lo que sucedi, los verbos suelen ir en pasado.
En estilo indirecto la frase suele empezar con un verbo como:
Say.
Decir
Tell.
Contar.
Ask.
Preguntar.
Inquire.
Solicitar.
Think.
Pensar.
Explain.
Explicar.
Complain.
Quejarse.
Warn.
Advertir.
Point out.
Sealar.
Remark.
Remarcar.
Declare.
Declarar.
State.
Afirmar.
Announce.
Anunciar.
Protest.
Protestar.
Claim.
Reclamar.
El tiempo de lo narrado da un salto hacia atrs y las preguntas dejan de
serlo. Tambin debemos de tener en cuenta una serie de cambios: en
expresiones temporales, en los tiempos verbales y en los pronombres.
Presente Simple. Pasado Simple.
I live in Elda. He said he lived in Elda.
Presente Continuo. Pasado Continuo.
I am reading a book. He said he was reading a book.
Presente Perfecto Simple. Pasado Perfecto Simple.
I have bought a car. He said he had bought a car.
Presente Perfecto Continuo. Pasado Perfecto Continuo.
I have been working with him. He said he had been working with
him.
Pasado Simple. Pasado Perfecto.
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I went to London. He said he had gone to London.
Pasado Continuo. Pasado Perfecto Continuo.
I was writing a letter. He said he had been writing a letter.
Pasado Perfecto. Pasado Perfecto.
I had been there. He said he had been there.
Pasado Perfecto Continuo. Pasado Perfecto Continuo.
I had been waiting for you. He said he had been waiting for him.
Futuro Simple. Condicional Simple.
I will live in Alicante. He said he would live in Alicante.
Futuro Continuo. Condicional Continuo.
I will be singing in a karaoke. He said he would be singing in a
karaoke.
Can. Could.
I can swim. He said he could swim.
Shall. Should.
I shall do it. He said he should do it.
May. Might.
It may rain today. He said it might rain that day.
Must. Have To. Had To.
I must study. He said he had to study.
Now. Then.
I am happy now. He said he was happy then.
330
Today. That day.
I am sad today. He said he was sad that day.
Yesterday. The day before, The previous day.
Yesterday I went to Madrid. He said he had gone to Madrid the
previous day.
Tomorrow. The next day.
The following day.
The day after.
I will go to Valencia tomorrow. He said he would go to Valencia the
day after.
Next week. The following week.
Next week I will be in Milan. He said he would be in Milan the
following week.
Last week. The previous week.
I cooked paella last week. He said he had cooked paella the
previous week.
A Week Ago. The Week Before.
A week ago I played tennis in Almeria. He said he had played tennis in
Almera the week before.
This. That.
I am going to buy this. He said he was going to buy that.
These. Those.
These are my friends. He said that those were his friends.
Here. There.
I live here. He said he lived there.
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Now. Then.
Now I want a coffee. He said that then he wanted a coffee.
Las ordenes tambien sufren modificaciones: Debemos cambiar el
imperativo por infinitivo
Go out. He told us to go out.
Nos dijo que nos fueramos.
Drink the mik. He ordered me to drink the milk.
Me orden que me bebiera la leche.
Go out. He invited me to go out.
Me invit a que saliera.
Las rdenes negativas generalmente se expresan con not + infinitive.
Dont smoke in the corridor. He ordered us not to smoke in the
corridor.
Nos orden que no fumaramos en el
pasillo.
Las sugerencias con lets se intoducen con el verbo suggest que puede
tener dos construcciones. Seguido de gerundio o con una oracin
subordinada introducida por that.
Lets take a taxi. He suggested taking a taxi.
l sugiri coger un taxi.
He suggested that we should take a
taxi.
Sugiri que deberamos coger un taxi.
En las preguntas, adems de cambiar los tiempos se omite el signo de
interrogacin y se usa el orden de la afirmativa.
What does she do? He asked what she did.
332
El pregunt qu haca.
When did you go to Petrel? He asked me when I had gone to
Petrel.
Me pregunt cundo haba ido yo a
Petrel.
Cuando en el estilo directo se hagan preguntas, en el indirecto debemos
utilizar inquire, wonder, want to know, etc.
Where's Mary? He asked where Mary was.
Me pregunt dnde estaba Mara.
How can I go to Elche? He asked me how he could go to
Elche?
Me pregunt cmo podra ir a Elche.
Why do you smoke? He wanted to know why I smoked.
El quera saber por qu fumaba yo.
Cuando no empleemos un pronombre interrogativo usaremos if o whether.
Is anyone interested in coming?
Est alguien interesado en venir?
He asked whether anyone was interested in going.
El pregunt si alguien estaba interesado en ir.
333
EL GERUNDIO
En ingls se puede usar como
Sujeto de una oracin. Swimming is very good.
La natacin es muy buena.
Complemento directo. I like reading the paper.
Me gusta leer el peridico.
Con ciertos verbos. I avoid going out at night alone.
Evito salir solo por la noche.
I keep on dancing on Saturday.
Sigo bailando el sbado.
En prohibiciones. No cycling.
Prohibido ir en bicicleta.
Detrs de las preposiciones. I gave up smoking in 1998.
Dej de fumar en 1998.
Detrs de after, before, since, when,
while.
Before eating I have a coke.
Antes de comer tomo una coca-cola.
After eating I sleep siesta.
Despus de comer duermo la siesta.
334
1) There's sure ................a long line for the concert.
a - To be
b - To have
c - There is
2) Wasn't it worth .................all those cars?
a - Washing
b - Wash
c - Washed
3) ...............in a pub or a pizzeria is good for me.
a - Work
b - Working
c - Works
4) It was difficult at first..........to live alone in England.
a - Have
b - Has
c - Having
5) I don't mind ............the same clothes everyday.
a - Wearing
b - Wear
c - Weared
6) I hate going ............on Saturday.
a - Shops
b - Shopping
c - Shopper
7) I will get ............to living in Alicante very soon.
a - Use
b - Used
c - Uses
8) I just love ..............all the people and listening to the music.
a - Watching
b - Watch
c - Watched
9) I will not get ...........to living in England in winter.
a - Use
b - Using
c - Used
10) Imagine .........to work in the Sahara.
a - Have
b - Having
c - Has
11) I've got ...........to it.
335
a - Used
b - Use
c - Using
12) I am going to get ............to getting up early willy nilly.
a - Used
b - Use
c - Using
13) I like........in the kitchen.
a - Help
b - Helping
c - To helping
14) My wife has never liked .........to the opera.
a - Gone
b - Going
c - Went
15) I like........
a - Read
b - To read
c - Reading
16) She hates.......
a - Wash
b - Washing
c - Washed
17) I prefer......
a - Swimming
b - Swim
c - Going swim
18) I went to England.............English.
a - To learn
b - Learn
c - Learning
19) My sister wants......a cottage.
a - To buy
b - Buy
c - Buying
20) They have nowhere........
a - To go
b - Go
c - Going
21) My sister is not easy .......
336
a - Convincing
b - To convince
c - Convince
22) May I.......
a - To go
b - Go
c - Went
23) Does she ......chocolate?
a - To like
b - Likeing
c - Like
24) Do........home now it's very late!
a - Go
b - To go
c - Goed
25) Paco Claros ........me laugh.
a - Makes
b - To make
c - To made
26) We'd rather.........home.
a - To stay
b - Stay
c - Staying
27) Why .......him about the accident?
a - To tell
b - Tell
c - Telling
28) My keys are ........found.
a - Be
b - To be
c - Beeing
29) There are many letters........written.
a - Be
b - To be
c - Being
30) I went to the disco.......
a - To dance
b - Dance
c - Dancing
31) My family couldn't...................to buy a car.
a - Afford
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b - To afford
c - Affording
32) I ...............................to buy the house for a cuartelillo.
a - Agree
b - To agree
c - Agreeing
33) You ..................to go tomorrow to the meeting.
a - Are
b - Be
c Was
34) I have decided .................a new bike.
a - Buying
b - Buy
c - To buy
35) They deserve.......................treated better.
a - Be
b - To be
c - Being
36) My brother happened .......................Paloma in the cinema.
a - Meet
b - To meet
c - Meeting
37) I have planned....................on holidays to Menorca In spring.
a - Go
b - To go
c - Going
38) She pretended not ........................them in the street.
a - To see
b - See
c - Seeing
39) I refused.............the bill because it was very expensive.
a - Paying
b - Pay
c - To pay
40) In court you must ........................the truth.
a - Swear
b - Swearing
c - To swear
41) Please remind me...................the new customers.
a - Call
338
b - Calling
c - To call
42) You had better...........................the car now. Next year the prices will go up.
a - To buy
b - Buy
c - Buying
43) She can ............better than last year.
a - Swim
b - To swim
c - Swimming
44) He must......................hard if he wants o pass the exams.
a - To study
b - Study
c - Studying
45) She would rather........................the night in Alicante than in London.
a - Spent
b - Spend
c - Soending
46) Yo must avoid........................to him.
a - Speaking
b - To speak
c - Speak
47) He admitted.......................the jewels.
a - Stealing
b - Steal
c - To steal
48) We can't help.....................chocolate after lunch.
a - Eat
b - To eat
c - Eating
49) My sister hates..........................to the beach.
a - To go
b - Go
c - Going
50) I finished................the novel last summer.
a - Writing
b - To write
c - Write
51) I don't mind..........................to wait.
a - To have
b - Having
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c - Have
52) She misses..........................to the mountains now that she is 89.
a - Go
b - Goes
c - Going
53) I suggest.............................to a good restaurant.
a - To go
b - Going
c - Go
54) I am used to............................at night.
a - Drive
b - Driving
c - To drive
55) They boast of.............................the best beaches in the province.
a - Have
b - To have
c - Having
56) It consists of.............................many problems.
a - Solve
b - Solving
c - To solve
57) She dreams of.................................an actress.
a - Becoming
b - Become
c - To become
58) I gave up......................last year.
a - Smoking
b - To smoke
c - Smoke
59) They ended by...........that the goal was scored when the match had
finished.
a - Say
b - Saying
c - To say
60) We are looking forward to........................to Madrid.
a - Going
b - To go
c - Go
61) Refrain from...........................
a - Smoke
b - Smoking
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c - To smoke
62) We are thinking of...........................a bigger flat.
a - Buy
b - To buy
c - Buying
63) I will never forget........................in London.
a - Walk
b - Walking
c - To walk
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Soluciones
1. A 2. A 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. C 10.B
11.A 12.A 13.B 14.B 15.C 16.B 17.A 18.A 19.A 20.A
21.B 22.B 23.C 24.A 25.A 26.B 27.B 28.B 29.B 30.A
31.A 32.A 33.A 34.C 35.B 36.B 37.B 38.A 39.C 40.C
41.C 42.B 43.A 44.B 45.B 46.A 47.A 48.C 49.C 50.A
51.B 52.C 53.B 54.B 55.C 56.B 57.A 58.A 59.B 60.A
61.B 62.C 63.B
342
EL INFINITIVO
Se emplea
Detrs de algunos verbos: afford
(permitirse), agree (estar de acuerdo),
learn (aprender), want (querer), wish
(desear), prepare (preparar).
I learnt to drive in 1977.
Aprend a conducir en 1977.
Detrs de adjetivos como: sad, ready,
easy.
It is difficult to translate Latin.
Es difcill traducir Latn.
It is sad to say
Es triste decirlo.
It is easy to memorize.
Es fcil de memorizar.
Detrs de enough. He has enough to live on his own.
Tiene suficiente para vivir por su
cuenta.
Con: order, invite, tell, etc They invited me to parade inVillena.
Me invitaron a desfilar en Villena.
Con los verbos modales. I can swim.
S nadar.
I must go.
Debo ir.
Como sujeto. To walk is good.
Andar es bueno.
VERBOS SEGUIDOS DE GERUNDIO O
INFINITIVO
Algunos verbos siempre van en gerundio y otros siempre van en infinitivo.
Otros como: advise (aconsejar), allow (permitir), permit (permitir), begin
(empezar), continue (continuar), intend (tener la intencin de), love
343
(amar), prefer (preferir), hate (odiar) etc, pueden ir seguidos de gerundio o
de infinitivo sin cambiar el significado.
I started smoking at 17.
Empec a fumar a los 17.
I started to smoke at 17.
Empec a fumar a los 17.
Otros, como: stop (parar), remember (recordar), forget (olvidar), regret
(lamentar), pueden ir seguidos tanto por un gerundio como por un
infinitivo, pero con sentidos diferentes.
Stop. I stopped to smoke.
Par para fumar.
I stopped smoking.
Dej de fumar.
Forget. I forgot to post the letter.
Olvid echar la carta.
I will never forget visiting my uncle.
Nunca olvidar visitar a mi to.
Regret. I regret doing this.
Lamento hacer esto.
I regret to tell you this.
Lamento tener que decirte esto.
Remember. I remember swimming in the lake.
Recuerdo cuando nadaba en el lago.
Remember to buy bread.
No te olvides de comprar el pan.
Try. I tried to buy it.
Intent comprarlo.
I tried working as a lawyer but I didnt
like it.
Intent trabajar de abogado pero no
me gustaba.
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VERBOS SEGUIDOS POR INFINITIVO
Afford.
Permitirse.
Arrange.
Preparar.
Care.
Cuidar.
Decide.
Decidir.
Forget.
Olvidar.
Agree.
Estar de
acuerdo.
Ask.
Pedir.
Claim.
Reclamar.
Deserve.
Merecer.
Hope.
Desear.
Appear.
Aparecer.
Beg.
Suplicar.
Consent.
Consentir.
Expect.
Esperar.
Manage.
Arreglarselas.
Mean.
Querer decir.
Offer.
Ofrecer.
Pretend.
Fingir.
Refuse.
Negar.
Remember.
Recordar.
Need.
Necesitar
Stop.
Parar.
Swear.
Jurar.
Wait.
Esperar.
Want.
Querer.
Seem.
Parecer.
Wish.
Desear.
VERBOS SEGUIDOS POR GERUNDIO
Admit.
Admitir.
Avoid.
Evitar.
Dislike.
Disgustar.
Enjoy.
Disfrutar.
Finish.
Acabar.
Advise.
Aconsejar.
Complete.
Completar.
Forget.
Olvidar.
Miss.
Echar de
menos.
Quit.
Abandonar.
Anticipate.
Anticiparse.
Delay.
Retrasar.
Regret.
Lamentar.
Resist.
Resistir.
Understand.
Comprender.
345
ESTRUCTURAS DE INTERES
WHAT IS LIKE?
Se utiliza para recabar informacin sobre el aspecto fsico de alguien pues
para saber cmo es alguien de carcter usamos how.
What is your girlfriend like?
Cmo es fsicamente tu chica?
She is very pretty.
Ella es muy guapa.
How is she?
Cmo est ella?
Very well, thank you.
Muy bien gracias.
Las siguientes estructuras nos sern de utilidad a la hora de formular
deseos, quejas etc.
Wish.
Expresa deseos, para su traduccin se
debe usar el subjuntivo.
I wish I had lived in America.
Ojal hubiera vivido en Amrica.
I wish you would be rich.
Ojal fueras rico.
I wish you were quiet.
Ojal te estuvieras quieto.
Would like. I would like to go to Paris.
Me gustara ir a Paris.
I would like you to come with me.
Me gustara que vinieras conmigo.
I would like a sandwich.
Me gustara comerme un bocadillo.
346
Would prefer. Id prefer a coffee.
Preferira un caf.
I would prefer to go with you.
Preferira ir contigo.
Prefer. I prefer tea to coffee.
Prefiero el t al caf.
I prefer swimming to running.
Prefiero nadar a correr.
I prefer to stay at home.
Prefiero quedarme en casa.
If only. If only she would stop complaining.
Con tan slo que dejara de quejarse.
If only he would do what he has to do.
Con tan slo que hiciera lo que tiene
que hacer.
Would rather. Id rather not go.
Preferira no ir.
Id rather not go now.
Preferira no ir ahora.
Had better. I had better go to have a drink.
Preferira ir a tomar una copa.
It's time. It's time to eat.
Es hora de comer.
It's time for us to eat.
Es hora de que comamos.
It's time we ate.
Es hora de que comamos.
It's about time. Its about time he came.
Ya es hora de que venga.
Used to. He used to drink quite a lot.
l sola beber mucho.
347
I used to wear glasses, but now I use
contact lenses.
Yo sola llevar gafas pero ahora uso
lentillas.
To be used to. I am used to reading the paper.
Estoy acostumbrado a leer el
peridico.
Enough. I have enough money.
Tengo suficiente dinero.
I am rich enough.
Soy lo suficientemente rico.
Too. She is too old to climb the mountain.
Es demasido vieja para subir las
montaas.
Fairly. He speaks English fairly well.
l habla ingls bastante bien.
Quite. He speaks English quite well.
l habla ingls muy bien.
Rather. He speaks English rather well.
l habla ingls muy bien.
Pretty. He speaks English pretty well.
l habla ingls muy bien.
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EL CAUSATIVO HAVE
Esta estructutura se usa para indicar que el que realiza la accin no es el
sujeto sino otra persona. Se usan los verbos causativos have y get . Indica
acciones como cortarse el pelo, hacerse un empaste donde lgicamente
el sujeto no se hace un empaste ni se corta el pelo, sino que contrata un
servicio.
I have my hair cut every month.
Me corto el pelo cada mes.
I have my car repaired when it breaks down.
Me reparan el coche cuando se estropea.
Esta estructura se puede usar en todos los tiempos.
En la interrogrativa y negativa utilizan los auxiliares, do, does, did.
Did you have your tooth fill?
Te hicieron un empaste?
Do you have your carpets cleaned every year?
Te limpian las alfombras cada ao?
349
VERBOS CON PREPOSICN
Muchos verbos ingleses van acompaados de preposiciones o adverbios. Si
observamos por ejemplo el verbo look y sus posibles combinaciones nos
daremos cuenta de que en muchos casos nos sera difcil averiguar el
significado.
I'm looking for a new job.
Estoy buscando empleo.
I am going to look up a word in the dictionary.
Voy a buscar una palabra en el diccionario.
We are looking forward to the festivities.
Estamos esperando con deseo que lleguen las fiestas.
Los verbos con preposicin se pueden dividir en: separables e inseparables.
Sern separables si podemos colocar los complementos entre el verbo y la
preposicin.
I am going to put my coat on.
Me voy a poner la chaqueta.
I am going to put on my coat.
Me voy a poner la chaqueta.
Algunos ejemplos con el verbo to come.
Come across. Come along. Come off. Come out.
Encontrarse. Venir. Desprenderse. Publicar.
Algunos ejemplos con to get .
Get on. Get up. Get over. Get into. Get at.
Llevarse bien. Levantarse. Recuperarse. Entrar. Llegar.
Look up. Look after. Look forward
to.
Look for. Look into.
350
Mirar el
significado de
una palabra
en el
diccionario.
Cuidar. Esperar con
deseo.
Buscar. Investigar.
351
VERBOS Y ADJETIVOS CON PREPOSICIONES
Muchos verbos y adjetivos van siempre seguidos por una preposicin:
About. He is always dreaming about being
rich.
Siempre suea con ser rico.
He is worried about the future.
Est preocupado por el futuro.
After. He is always looking after his daughter.
Siempre cuida a su hija.
At. He is good at Maths.
Es bueno en matemticas.
He is bad at History.
Es malo en historia.
Look at me please.
Mrame por favor.
Dont shout at me.
No me chilles.
For. I am ready for the party.
Estoy listo para la fiesta.
He is responsible for the damages.
Es responsable de los daos.
In. I believe in God.
Creo en Dios.
Of. He is fond of running.
Le gusta correr.
She is afraid of spiders.
Le asustan las araas.
She is proud of her daughter.
352
Est orgullosa de su hija.
This consists of three parts.
Tiene tres partes.
I will remind him of his duties.
Le recordar sus obligaciones.
On. That depends on you.
Eso depende de ti.
He insisted on going.
Insisti en ir.
To. He was married to Helen.
Estaba casado con Helen.
He was polite to the old man.
Fue educado con el viejo.
You must listen to me.
Debes escucharme.
With. He was angry with me.
Estaba enfadado conmigo.
I was satisfied with the work.
Estaba satisfecho con el trabajo.
I agree with you.
Estoy de acuerdo contigo.
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CONTRACCIONES
Normalmente se usan en el lenguaje hablado. Recuerda que -s puede
corresponder a to be o to have pero slo seguido de got o participio.
Hes a boy. He is a boy
l es un chico
Hes got a car. He has got a car.
l tiene un coche.
Del mismo modo -d puede ser la contraccin de had o would.
Id gone there. I had gone there.
Yo haba ido.
Id like to go. I would like to go.
Me gustara ir.
Im. I am.
Ive. I have.
Ill. I will.
Id. I had o I would.
Youre. You are.
Youve. You have.
Youll. You will.
Youd. You had o you would.
Hes. He is o he has.
Hell. He will.
Hed . He had o he would.
Shes. She is o she has.
354
Shell. She will.
Shed . She had o she would.
Its. It is o it has.
Itll. It will.
Itd. It had o it would.
Were. We are.
Weve. We have.
Well. We will.
Wed. We had o we would.
Theyre. They are.
Theyve They have.
Theyll. They will.
Theyd. They had o they would.
Lets. Let us.
Isnt. Is not.
Arent. Are not.
Wasnt. Was not.
Werent. Were not.
Dont. Do not.
Doesnt. Does not.
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Didnt. Did not.
Havent. Have not.
Hasnt. Has not.
Hadnt. Had not.
Cant. Can not.
Couldnt. Could not.
Wont. Will not.
Wouldnt. Would not.
Shant. Shall not.
Shouldnt. Should not.
Oughtnt. Ought not.
Mustnt. Must not.
Neednt. Need not.
Mightnt. Might not.
Darent. Dare not.
356
CAMBIOS ORTOGRFICOS
El plural de las palabras que terminan en -y se forma cambiando la "-y"
por "-ies" cuando va precedida de consonante.
Lady.
Seora.
Ladies.
City.
Ciudad.
Cities.
Si la -y va precedida de vocal no se producen cambios.
Boy.
Chico.
Boys.
Day.
Da
Days.
Lo mismo sucede a los verbos que acaban en -y al formar la tercera
persona del singular del presente de indicativo.
Carry.
Llevar.
He carries.
Study.
Estudiar.
She studies.
Play.
Jugar.
Mary plays.
Annoy.
Molestar.
John annoys.
Las palabras que terminan en -s, -ss, -zz, -sh, -x aaden -es para
formar el plural si son nombres o la tercera persona del singular si son
verbos.
NOMBRES
Bus. Buses.
357
Autobs.
Glass.
Vaso.
Glasses.
Dish.
Plato.
Dishes.
Church.
Iglesia.
Churches.
VERBOS
Pass.
Pasar.
Passes.
Buzz.
Zumbar.
Buzzes.
Wash.
Lavar.
Washes.
Fix.
Fijar.
Fixes.
Algunos nombres acabados en -o aaden -es para formar el plural.
Potato.
Patata.
Potatoes.
Tomato.
Tomate.
Tomatoes.
Piano.
Piano.
Pianos.
Biro.
Bolgrafo.
Biros.
El pasado y el Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares se froman
aadiendo -ed al infinitivo. Solo se aade -d si el verbo acaba en -e.
358
Answer.
Contestar.
Answered.
Listen.
Escuchar.
Listened.
Ask.
Pedir.
Asked.
Live.
Pedir.
Lived.
Practise.
Practicar.
Practised.
Love.
Amar.
Loved.
Si el verbo acaba en -y precedido de consonante se cambia por -ied.
Si acaba en vocal se aade -ed.
Carry.
Llevar.
Carried.
Study.
Estudiar.
Studied.
Play.
Jugar.
Played.
Die.
Morir
Died.
Dye.
Teir.
Dyed.
Al aadir -ing al infinitivo la -e desaparece excepto en dye.
Live.
Vivir.
Living.
Practise. Practising.
359
Practicar.
Dye.
Teir
Dyeing.
Cuando el verbo acaba en -ie la -i se convierte en -y.
Die.
Morir.
Dying.
Lie.
Mentir.
Lying.
Cuando los verbos acaban en -y se aade -ing.
Try.
Intentar.
Trying.
Study.
Estudiar.
Studying.
Play.
Jugar.
Playing.
Buy.
Comprar.
Buying.
Al aadir cualquier sufijo -ful, -ness, -er, -est, la -y se convierte en
-i.
Beauty.
Guapa.
Beatiful.
Steady.
Listo.
Steadily.
Happy.
Feliz.
Happiness.
Pretty. Prettier, Prettiest.
360
Guapa.
Sly.
Astuto.
Slyly.
Los adjetivos acabados en -al, doblan la -l al formar los adverbios.
Practical.
Prctico.
Practically.
Economical.
Econmico.
Economically.
Historical.
Histrico.
Historically.
Lo mismo sucede con los acabados en -ful.
Beautiful.
Bonito.
Beautifully.
Faithful.
Fiable.
Faithfully.
Las siguientes palabras pierden una -l al tomar un sufijo
Skill.
Destreza.
Skilful.
Well.
Bien.
Welcome.
Will.
Deseo.
Wilful.
La terminacin -re pertenece al ingls britnico y -er al americano
BRITNICO AMERICANO
Centre. Center.
361
Centro.
Theatre.
Teatro.
Theater.
La terminacin -our pertenece al ingls britnico y -or al americano
BRITNICO AMERICANO
Favour.
Sabor.
Favor.
Honour.
Honor.
Honor.
Colour.
Color.
Color.
Algunas palabras cambian.
Britnico Americano
Aerial.
Antena.
Antenna.
Angry.
Enfadado.
Mad.
Anywhere.
Cualquier parte.
Anyplace.
Autumn.
Otoo.
Fall.
Bill.
Cuenta del restaurante.
Check.
Car park.
Aparcamiento.
Parking lot.
Chemists.
Farmacia.
Drugstore.
362
Film.
Pelcula.
Movie.
Holiday.
Vacaciones.
Vacation.
Label.
Etiqueta.
Tag.
Lorry.
Camin.
Truck.
Mad.
Loco.
Crazy.
Motorway.
Autopista.
Freeway.
Nappy.
Paal.
Diaper.
Petrol.
Gasolina.
Gas.
Queue.
Cola.
Line.
Rubber.
Borrador.
Eraser.
Shop.
Tienda.
Store.
Single ticket.
Billete de ida.
One way ticket.
Sunglasses.
Gafas de sol.
Shades.
Sweets.
Caramelos.
Candy.
Taxi.
Taxi.
Cab.
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Tin.
Lata.
Can.
Trousers.
Pantalones.
Pants.
Underground.
Metro.
Subway.
Wire.
Telegrama.
Telegram.
Algunas palabras usan -c en el nombre y -s en el verbo
NOMBRE VERBO
Advice.
Consejo.
Advise.
Practice.
Practicar.
Practise.
Licence.
Permiso.
License.
Los monosilabos acabados en una sola consonante y precedidos de una
sola vocal, doblan la consonante final al aadir un sufijo.
Plan.
Planear.
Planning.
Dad.
Papa.
Daddy.
Let.
Permitir.
Letting.
Beg.
Suplicar.
Beggar.
Sit. Sitting.
364
Sentarse.
Put.
Poner.
Putting.
Fat.
Gordo.
Fatter.
Star.
Estrella.
Starring.
Stir.
Remover.
Stirring.
Fur.
Piel.
Furry.
365
VERBOS IRREGULARES
Infinitivo Pasado Participio Pasado Traduccin
Arise Arose Arisen Surgir, presentarse
Be Was Were, Been Ser, estar
Bear Bore Borne Llevar, soportar
Beat Beat Beaten Batir, golpear, latir
Become Became Become Llegar a, ser, hacerse
Begin Began Begun Empezar
Bend Bent Bent Doblar
Bet Bet Bet Apostar
Bid Bade Bidden Mandar, ordenar
Bind Bound Bound Atar, encuadernar
Bite Bit Bitten Morder
Bleed Bled Bled Sangrar
Blow Blew Blown Soplar
Break Broke Broken Romper
Bring Brought Brought Traer
Build Built Built Edificar
Burn Burnt Burnt Arder, quemar
Burst Burst Burst Estallar
Buy Bought Bought Comprar
Catch Caught Caught Atrapar
Choose Chose Chosen Escoger
Come Came Come Venir
Cost Cost Cost Costar
Creep Crept Crept Arrrastrarse
Cut Cut Cut Cortar
Deal Dealt Dealt Tratar
Dig Dug Dug Cavar
Do Did Done Hacer
Draw Drew Drawn Dibujar, sacar, tirar
Dream Dreamt Dreamt Soar
Drink Drank Drunk Beber
Drive Drove Driven Conducir
Eat Ate Eaten Comer
Fall Fell Fallen Caer
Feed Fed Fed Alimentar,
Feel Felt Felt Sentir, palpar, tocar
366
Fight Fought Fought Luchar
Find Found Found Encontrar
Fling Flung Flung Lanzar
Fly Flew Flown Volar
Forbid Forbade Forbidden Prohibir
Forget Forgot Forgotten Olvidar
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Perdonar
Freeze Froze Frozen Helar
Get Got Got Conseguir, obtener
Give Gave Given Dar
Go Went Gone Ir
Grow Grew Grown Crecer, cultivar
Hang Hung Hung Colgar
Have Had Had Haber, tener
Hear Heard Heard Oir
Hide Hid Hid Esconder
Hit Hit Hit Golpear
Hold Held Held Sostener, agarrar
Hurt Hurt Hurt Hacer dao, doler
Keep Kept Kept Guardar, conseguir
Kneel Knelt Knelt Arrodillarse
Know Knew Known Saber, conocer
Lay Laid Laid Poner
Lead Led Led Guiar
Leap Leapt Leapt Saltar
Learn Learnt Learnt Aprender
Leave Left Left Dejar, salir
Lend Lent Lent Prestar
Let Let Let Dejar, permitir
Lie Lay Lain Tumbarse
Light Lit Lit Iluminar
Lose Lost Lost Perder
Make Made Made Hacer
Mean Meant Meant Querer decir,
significar
Meet Met Met Encontrar
Mow Mowed Mown Segar
Pay Paid Paid Pagar
Put Put Put Poner
Quit Quit Quit Abandonar
367
Read Read Read Leer
Ride Rode Ridden Montar, cabalgar
Ring Rang Rung Sonar, tocar el timbre
Rise Rose Risen Levantarse
Run Ran Run Correr, dirigir un
negocio
Say Said Said Decir
See Saw Seen Ver
Sell Sold Sold Vender
Send Sent Sent Enviar
Set Set Set Poner, establecer
Sew Sewed Sewn Coser
Shake Shook Shaken Agitar
Shine Shone Shone Brillar
Shoot Shot Shot Disparar
Show Showed Shown Mostrar
Shrink Shrank Shrunk Encogerse
Shut Shut Shut Cerrar
Sing Sang Sung Cantar
Sink Sank Sunk Hundir, sumergirse
Sit Sat Sat Sentarse
Sleep Slept Slept Dormir
Sling Slung Slunk Lanzar, tirar
Smell Smelt Smelt Oler
Speak Spoke Spoken Hablar
Spell Spelt Spelt Deletrear, hechizar
Spend Spent Spent Pasar el tiempo,
gastar
Spill Spilt Spilt Derramar
Spoil Spoilt Spoilt Estropear
Spread Spread Spread Extender
Stand Stood Stood Ponerse de pie
Steal Stole Stolen Robar
Stick Stuck Stuck Pegar
Sting Stung Stung Picar
Strike Struck Struck Golpear
Swear Swore Sworn Jurar
Swim Swam Swum Nadar
Take Took Taken Tomar, llevar
Teach Taught Taught Ensear
368
Tear Tore Torn Rasgar
Tell Told Told Decir, contar
Think Thought Thought Pensar, creer
Throw Threw Thrown Arrojar
Understand Understood Understood Comprender
Wake Woke Woken Despertar
Wear Wore Worn Llevar puesto, usar
Win Won Won Ganar un premio
Wind Wound Wound Dar cuerda al reloj
Write Wrote Written Escribir
369
CONECTORES
A la hora de redactar un texto necesitars usar palabras o expresiones
que te permitan unir ideas en forma de frases y organizar el texto.
Primero debes tener claro qu te piden y haz un esquema donde
aparezcan las ideas que quieres desarrollar. Usa un papel y antalo todo.
Luego tacha las ideas que no te gusten y ordenalas y clasifcalas.
Recuerda que puede ser una buena idea que la composicin tenga tres
partes diferenciadas: introduccin, desarrollo y conclusin.
A continuacin encontrars algunas expresiones que te pueden servir
para organizar tus ideas.
Para introducir.
In the first place. En primer lugar.
To begin. Para empezar.
First of all. Lo primero de todo.
It is obvious. Es bvio que.
It is certain that. Es cierto que.
It is a commonly held belief among
people that.
Es una creencia bastante extendida
entre la gente que.
It goes without saying that. Ni que decir tiene que.
A controversial question facing our
society is.
Un asunto controvertido que afecta
a nuestra sociedad es.
Whether we like it or not. Nos guste o no.
As regards. Por lo que respecta.
370
Expresar opinin.
In my opinion. En mi opinion.
In my view. Tal y como yo lo veo.
Personally. Personalmente.
As far as Im concerned. Por lo que a m respecta.
From my point of view. Desde mi punto de vista.
I would like to point out a couple of
things.
Me gustara puntuaalizar un par de
aspectos.
I believe/consider/think. Creo que.
I feel very strongly that. Estoy convencido de.
Im absolutely convinced that. Estoy absolutamente convencido de.
Im inclined to believe that. Tiendo a pensar que.
I am totally opposed to. Estoy totalmente en desacuerdo con.
I am in favour of. Estoy a favor de.
I strongly disagree with. No estoy nada de acuerdo con.
It seems/ appears to me that. Me parece que.
There is no doubt that. No hay duda de que.
One thing that is sure is. Algo que es seguro es.
It is true that. Es cierto que.
I very much doubt that. Dudo mucho de que.
We should all have to take into
account that.
Deberamos tener en cuenta que.
Every now and then. De vez en cuando.
371
A favor y en contra.
One of the strongest arguments in
favour of... Is that.
Uno de los argumentos mas slidos a
favor de ...
On the other hand. Por otra parte.
There are several arguments against... Hay varios argumentos en contra de...
Yet there is another side to the picture. Aunque hay otros aspectos que se
deben tener en cuenta.
There is bitter controversy over. Existe gran controversia por lo que
respecta a.
On the one hand. Por una parte.
On the other hand. Por otra parte.
While there are many supporters of the
idea, there are also people who have
reservations about it.
Mientras que hay mucha gente que
apoya esta idea, hay otros que tienen
ciertas reservas.
There are valid arguments for... Hay argumentos muy validos a favor
de.
There are also other good reasons
against.
Aunque tambin existen buenas
razones en contra de.
...has both advantages and
disadvantages.
...tiene tanto ventajas como
desventajas.
Para expresar la opinin de otros.
An increasing number of people
believe that.
Un gran nmero de personas cree
que.
Today many people are worried
about.
Hoy en da mucha gente est
preocupada con.
372
Half the population are in favour/
against of...
La mitad de la poblacin est a
favor/en contra de...
These people firmly believe that... Estas personas creen firmemente en...
Para continuar.
In the second place. En segundo lugar.
Secondly. En segundo lugar.
Next. Despus.
Besides. Adems.
In addition. Adems.
Apart from that. Adems de.
Moreover. Y adems.
What is more. Adems.
Futhermore. Adems.
Another aspect to be considered can
be.
Otro aspecto para tener en cuanta
es.
Para expresar contraste.
On the one hand. Por una parte.
On the other. Por otra parte.
While. Mientras que.
Whereas. Mientras.
373
In spite of the fact that. A pesar de.
Although. Aunque.
In spite of. A pesar de.
However. Sin embargo.
Given the differences between. Teniendo en cuenta las diferencias
entre.
At the same time Al mismo tiempo
Para comparar.
At the same time. Al mismo tiempo.
Similarly. Del mismo modo.
Likewise. Del mismo modo.
Para expresar causa.
Because. Porque.
Because of. A causa de.
The main purpose of...is... El propsito principal es.
The reason is very simple. La razn es bien sencilla.
For this reason. Por esta razn.
Para expresar resultado.
Therefore. Por lo tanto.
374
As a result. Como resultado.
Consequently. Como consecuencia.
In consequence. En consecuencia.
Thus. Por lo tanto.
So. As.
Para ejemplificar.
A good ilustration of this is. Un buen ejemplo de esto es.
Nothing could better demostrate this
that.
Nada podra demostra esto mejor.
We have an obvious proof of this in... Tenemos una prueba clara de esto
en.
This is best exemplified by. Esto est muy bien explicado con.
This is best shown in the following
example.
Esto se puede apreciar mucho mejor
con el siguiente ejemplo.
In other words. En otras palabras.
That is to say. Es decir.
For instance. Por ejemplo.
For example. Por ejemplo.
Para incluir datos y estadsticas.
Recent studies have found that. Estudios recientes han demostrado
que.
Researches claim that. Los investigadores afirman que.
According to recent studies. Segn estudios recientes
375
Para narrar.
When. Cuando.
While. Mientras que.
Before. Antes.
After. Despus.
By the time. Por esas fechas.
During. Durante.
It all began when. Todo empez cuando.
It all happened. Todo ocurri.
Once upon a time. rase una vez.
Suddenly. De repente
All of a sudden. De repente.
First. Al principio.
At first. Al principio.
Later. Ms tarde.
Afterwards. Depus de todo.
Meanwhile. Mientras tanto.
In the meantime. Mientras.
Finally. Finalmente.
In the end. Al final.
Para concluir.
The conclusion to be drawn from this is
that.
La conclusin que podemos sacar es.
376
We can conclude by saying that. Podemos concluir afirmando que.
To sum up. Para resumir.
Summing up. Resumiendo.
In brief. En breve.
In conclusion. Como conclusin.
In short. En breve.
Finally. Finalmente.
All this suggests that. Todo esto nos sugiere que.
We should all work elbow to elbow in
this respect.
Creo que todos deberamos trabajar
de forma conjunta en la misma
direccin.
In conclusion. Como conclusin.
Although there are two sides to a
picture I believe that.
Aunque hay dos caras de la moneda
yo tiendo a creer que.
All things considered, I am in favour
of/against...
Teniendo en cuenta todos los
aspectos, estoy a favor/en contra de.
Lastly. Por ltimo.
As was previously stated. Como ya se ha dicho.
377
FALSOS AMIGOS
Son palabras que pueden fcilmente inducir a error. Muchas son de origen
latino y han cambiado el significado. Un buen consejo es no dejarse llevar por
las apariencias y comprobar siempre el significado en el diccionario. Pues en la
lengua inglesa las apariencias engaan.
Abuse. Insultar.
Actually. En realidad.
Advertise. Anunciar.
To advise. Aconsejar.
Agenda. Orden del da.
Anxious. Nervioso. Deseoso.
Apology. Disculpa.
Apparent. Evidente.
Application. Solicitud.
Argument. Discusin.
To assist. Ayudar.
To assume. Asumir.
Avocado. Aguacate.
Cabinet. Gabinete de ministros, vitrina.
Career. Carrera.
Carpet. Alfombra.
Cartoon. Dibujos animados.
Casual. Informal.
Casualty. Baja militar.
378
Character. Personaje.
Collar. Cuello.
Collector. Coleccionista.
Complexion. Color de la piel.
Conductor. Cobrador de autobs. Director de
orquesta.
Conference. Congreso.
Conservatory. Invernadero.
Constipated. Estreido.
Disgust. Asco.
Embarrassed. Avergonzado.
Eventually. Finalmente.
Exit. Salida.
Fabric. Tejido.
Firm. Empresa.
Idiom. Expresin idiomtica.
Insane. Loco
Intoxicated. Borracho.
Large. Grande.
Parents. Padres.
Physician. Mdico
Policy. Poltica
To presume. Suponer.
To pretend. Fingir.
Quiet. Callado.
379
Rare. Poco frecuente.
To remove. Quitar.
Sensible. Sensato.
Signature. Firma.
Spectacles. Gafas.
Suburb. Barrio residencial.
Success. xito.
Sympathy. Compasin.
To pretend. Fingir.
Tramp. Vagabundo.
Vicious. Malvado.
380
EXPRESIONES PARA LA COMUNICACIN ORAL
Saludos y Felicitaciones.
How do you do?
Cmo ests?
How are you?
Cmo ests?
Very well thank you.
Muy bien gracias.
Fine thanks, and you?
Bien y t?
Good morning.
Buenos das.
Hi.
Hola.
Good afternoon.
Buenas tardes.
Congratulations.
Enhorabuena.
Good evening.
Buenas tardes- noches.
So long.
Hasta luego.
Good night.
Buenas noches.
See you.
Nos vemos.
Hello.
Hola.
Happy birthday.
Feliz cumpleaos.
Good bye.
Adis.
Happy Christmas.
Feliz Navidad.
How are things?
Cmo te van las cosas?
Well.
Bien.
See you tomorrow.
Hasta maana.
So long.
Hasta luego.
Happy anniversary.
Feliz aniversario.
How is it going?
Cmo te va?
Up and down.
As as.
381
Para dirigirse a un desconocido.
Excuse me.
Disculpe.
I beg your pardon.
Disculpe.
Presentaciones
Peter, this is Mary.
Pedro esta es Mara.
Mary, do you know Michael?
Mara, conoces a Miguel?
Let me introduce my friend Paul.
Permteme que te presente a mi
amigo Pablo.
Cuando no entendemos algo bien
Can you repeat it please?
Puede repetirlo por favor?
Can you speak more slowly?
Puede hablar ms despacio?
Im sorry I dont understand
Lo siento, pero no lo entiendo.
Para preguntar la hora
Would you mind telling me the time?
Me dice la hora por favor?
Whats the time please?
Qu hora lleva?
Hablando por telfono
Hello, could I speak to Manuel?
Hola, podra hablar con Manuel?
Para agradecer algo
Thank you. Thank you very much.
382
Gracias. Muchas gracias.
Thats very kind of you.
Es muy amable por su parte.
Thanks.
Gracias.
Youre welcome.
De nada.
Dont mention it.
No hay de qu.
Expresiones de cortesa
Excuse me.
Disculpe.
Sorry
Lo siento
I beg your pardon.
Perdn.
383
DAS DE LA SEMANA
A diferencia de en espaol en ingls se escriben en maysculas.
Monday.
Lunes.
Tuesday.
Martes.
Wednesday.
Mircoles.
Thursday.
Jueves.
Friday.
Viernes.
Saturday.
Sbado.
Sunday.
Domingo.
Da de la
luna.
Tiw era un
dios de la
guerra.
Da de
Odn.
Da de
Thor.
Frig era la
esposa de
Odn.
Da de
Saturno.
Da del sol.
DAS DE FIESTA
Easter.
Pascua.
Whitsun.
Pentecostes.
Halloween. Christmas day.
Da de navidad.
Boxing day.
26 de diciembre.
New years day.
Da de ao nuevo.
New years eve.
Nochevieja.
Midsummers eve.
Noche de san
Juan.
MESES DEL AO
Al igual que los das tambin se escriben en maysculas.
January.
Enero.
February.
Febrero.
March.
Marzo.
April.
Abril.
May.
Mayo.
June.
Junio.
July.
Julio.
August.
Agosto.
September.
Septiembre.
October.
Octubre.
November.
Noviembre.
December.
Diciembre.
ESTACIONES
Spring. Summer. Autumm. Fall (USA) Winter
384
Primavera. Verano. Otoo. Invierno.
PUNTOS CARDINALES
North.
Norte.
South.
Sur.
East.
Este.
West.
Oeste.
LOS COLORES
White.
Blanco.
Black.
Negro.
Pink.
Rosa.
Green
Verde.
Orange.
Naranja.
Purple.
Morado.
Yellow.
Amarillo.
Red.
Rojo.
Brown.
Marrn.
Blue.
Azul.
Navy blue.
Azul marino.
Beige.
Beige.
Chestnut.
Castao.
Colored.
Coloreado.
Grey.
Gris.
Lilac.
Lila.
Blond.
Rubio.
Dark.
Oscuro.
385
ADJETIVOS
Big.
Grande.
Cheap.
Barato.
Clean.
Lmpio.
Easy.
Fcil.
Good.
Bueno.
Long.
Largo.
Nice.
Agradable.
Fair.
Justo.
Fat.
Gordo.
Hot.
Caliente.
Cold.
Frio.
Short.
Corto.
Angry.
Enfadado.
Happy.
Feliz.
Ill.
Enfermo.
Thirsty.
Sediento.
SIGNOS DEL ZODIACO
Aquarius.
Acuario.
Pisces.
Piscis.
Aries.
Aries.
Taurus.
Tauro.
Gemini.
Geminis.
Cancer.
Cancer.
Leo.
Leo.
Virgo.
Virgo.
Libra.
Libra.
Scorpio.
Escorpio.
Sagittarius.
Sagitario.
Capricorn.
Capricornio.
386
LA HORA
Usamos el verbo to be para indicar las horas junto a las siguientes estructuras:
Para preguntar la hora usamos
Whats the time?
What time is it?
Could you tell me the time please?
Oclock. En punto. Proviene de la
expresin of the clock.
It is 8 oclock.
Half past. Y media. It is half past 9.
A quarter to. Menos cuarto. It is a quarter to 6.
A quarter past. Y cuarto It is a quarter past 7.
To. Menos It is twenty to 4.
Past. Y It is twenty past 4.
Usamos a.m y p.m para indicar antes del medioda y despus del medioda.
Tambin podemos usar
In the morning.
In the afternoon.
At night.
Midday= 12.00 am
Midnight= 24.00
Los horarios de los medios de transporte se rigen por el sistema de 24 horas.
I took the 18.30 plane to London.
387
NMEROS CARDINALES
One.
Uno.
Eleven.
Once.
Two.
Dos.
Twelve.
Doce.
Three.
Tres.
Thirteen.
Trece.
Four.
Cuatro.
Fourteen.
Catorce.
Five.
Cinco.
Fifteen.
Quince.
Six.
Seis.
Sixteen.
Diecisis.
Seven.
Siete.
Seventeen.
Diecisiete.
Eight.
Ocho.
Eighteen.
Dieciocho.
Nine.
Nueve.
Nineteen.
Diecinueve.
Ten.
Diez.
Twenty.
Veinte.
Thirty.
Treinta.
Eighty.
Ochenta.
Forty.
Cuarenta.
Ninety.
Noventa.
Fifty.
Cincuenta.
A hundred.
Cien.
Sixty.
Sesenta.
A thousand.
Mil.
388
Seventy.
Setenta.
A milion.
Un milln.
Se usa un guin entre los nmeros comprendidos entre el 21 y 99. A partir
del 100 se usar and.
Twenty-one.
Veintiuno.
One hundred and three.
Ciento tres.
En Estados Unidos 1 billn equivale a 1,000,000,000.
En Europa 1 billn equivale a 1,000,000,000,000.
Hundred, thousand, million y billion como son adjetivos no aaden -s
I paid three million pesetas in 2001 for a car.
Pagu tres millones de pesetas en el ao 2001 por un coche.
Las fechas se indican de dos en dos
I was born in 1962.
Nac en en el ao 1962.
My grandmother Berta was born in 1900.
Mi abuela Berta naci en (nineteen hundred). El 00 es hundred.
Los nmeros de telfono de uno en uno
My phone number is 965436789.
Mi nmero de telfono es...
Se usa coma con los nmeros: 1,000.
Se usa el punto con los decimales: 4.5.
En las horas se pueden usar uno o dos puntos: 3.45 o 3:45.
El 0 se pronncia /ou/
389
LOS NMEROS ORDINALES
Con la excepcin de first , second y third, los nmeros ordinales se forman
aadiendo -th a los ordinales.
Existen algunos que s que se ven modificados:
5th 8th 9th 12th 20th
Fifth. Eighth. Ninth. Twelfth. Twentieth.
First.
Primero.
Eleventh.
Undcimo.
Second.
Segundo.
Twelfth.
Duodcimo.
Third.
Tercero.
Thirteenth.
Decimotercero.
Fourth.
Cuarto.
Fourteenth.
Decimocuarto.
Fifth.
Quinto.
Fiftteenth.
Decimoquinto
Sixth.
Sexto.
Sixteenth.
Decimosexto.
Seventh.
Sptimo.
Seventeenth.
Decimosptimo.
Eighth.
Octavo.
Eighteenth.
Decimoctavo.
Ninth.
Noveno.
Nineteenth.
Decimonoveno.
Tenth.
Dcimo.
Twentieth.
Vigsimo.
390
En las decenas y cambia por -ie. Hundred, thousand y million aaden
-th
Twenty. Thirty. Forty. Fifty. Sixty. Seventy.
Twentieth. Thirtieth. Fortieth. Fiftieth. Sixtieth. Seventieth.
USOS
En fechas. November 30th.
Captulos. Chapter III.
Monarcas. Juan Carlos I. ( The first)
EQUIVALENCIA DE PESOS Y MEDIDAS
1 ounce. 28,35 gramos.
1 pound. 454 gramos.
1 inch. 2,45 centmetros.
1 foot. 30 centmetros.
1 mile. 1.610 metros. Milla terrestre.
1 mile. 1.852 metros. Milla marina.
1 pint. 0,57 litros.
1 gallon. 4,54 litros.
1 stone 6356 kilos.
12 inches = 1 foot. 30,48 centimetros.
3 feet = 1 yard. 91,44 centimetros.
391
1760 yards= 1 mile=. 1,61 kilometres.
16 ounces= 1 pound 0,454 kilos.
PAISES Y NACIONALIDADES
Brazil.
Brasil.
Brazilian.
Britain.
Gran Bretaa.
British.
Canada.
Canad.
Canadian.
China.
China.
Chinese.
Denmark.
Dinamarca.
Danish.
Egypt.
Egipto.
Egyptian.
Europe.
Europa.
European.
Finland.
Finlandia.
Finnish.
France.
Francia.
French.
Germany.
Alemania.
German.
Greece.
Grecia.
Greek.
392
Holland.
Holanda.
Dutch.
Ireland.
Irlanda.
Irish.
Italy.
Italia.
Italian.
Japan.
Japn.
Japanese.
Mexico.
Mjico.
Mexican.
Norway.
Noruega.
Norwegian.
Poland.
Polonia.
Polish.
Scotland.
Escocia.
Scottish.
Spain.
Espaa.
Spanish
Spaniard.
Portugal.
Portugal.
Portuguese.
Sweden.
Suecia.
Swedish.
Switzerland.
Suiza.
Swiss.
Turkey.
Turqua.
Turkish.
Wales.
Gales.
Welsh.
393
LA FAMILIA
Ancestor.
Antepasado.
Grandfather.
Abuelo.
Grandmother.
Abuela.
Relative.
Pariente.
Father.
Padre
Mother.
Madre.
Twin.
Gemelo.
Son.
Hijo.
Daughter.
Hija.
Mum.
Mam.
Brother.
Hermano.
Sister.
Hermana.
Dad.
Pap.
Husband.
Esposo
Wife.
Esposa.
Cousin.
Primo.
Uncle.
Tio.
Aunt.
Tia.
Nephew.
Sobrino.
Grandson.
Nieto.
Granddaughter.
Nieta.
Niece.
Sobrina.
Brother-in-law.
Cuado.
Sister-in-law.
Cuada.
Widow.
Viuda.
Father-in-law.
Suegro.
Mother-in-law.
Suegra.
Widower.
Viudo.
Son-in-law.
Yerno.
Daughter-in-law.
Nuera.
394
PROFESIONES
Lawyer.
Abogado.
Teacher.
Profesor.
Actor.
Actor.
Farmer.
Agricultor.
Bricklayer.
Albail.
Mayor.
Alcalde.
Artist.
Artista.
Housewife.
Ama de casa.
Barber.
Barbero.
Librarian.
Bibliotecario.
Waiter.
Camarero.
Singer.
Cantante.
Butcher.
Carnicero.
Carpenter.
Carpintero.
Surgeon.
Cirujano.
Conductor.
Cobrador de
autobus.
Driver.
Conductor.
Janitor.
Conserje.
Accountant.
Contable.
Priest.
Sacerdote.
Headmaster.
Director de un
colegio.
Economist.
Economista.
Nurse.
Enfermera.
Chemist.
Farmacutico.
Manager.
Gerente.
Blacksmith.
Herrero.
Researcher.
Investigador.
Jeweller.
Joyero.
Judge.
Juez.
Cleaner.
Limpiador.
Sailor.
Marinero.
Typist.
Mecangrafo.
Dressmaker.
Modista.
Baker.
Panadero.
Hairdresser.
Peluquero.
Painter.
Pintor.
Secretary.
Secretario.
Soldier.
Militar.
Grocer.
Tendero.
Shoemaker.
Zapatero.
Salesman.
Vendedor.
395
LA CASA
Bedroom.
Dormitorio.
Hall.
Entrada.
Door.
Puerta.
Bathroom.
Cuarto de bao.
Kitchen.
Cocina.
Corridor.
Pasillo.
Air conditioning.
Aire
acondicionado.
Lift.
Ascensor.
Central heating.
Calefaccin
central.
Water heater.
Calentador de
agua.
Diningroom.
Comedor.
Garage.
Garaje.
Curtains.
Cortinas.
Study.
Despacho.
Loft.
Desvn
Attic.
tico.
Stairs.
Escaleras.
Doorbell.
Timbre.
Letterbox.
Buzn.
Aerial.
Antena.
Garden.
Jardn.
Roof.
Tejado.
Window.
Ventana.
Chair.
Silla.
Shelf.
Estantera.
Wall.
Pared.
Light.
Luz.
Toilet.
Aseo.
Heating.
Calefaccin.
Corridor.
Pasillo.
Basement.
Stano.
Ceiling.
Techo.
396
LA COCINA
Tin opener.
Abrelatas.
Refrigerator.
Nevera.
Microwave oven.
Horno
microondas.
Sink.
Fregadero.
Spoon.
Cuchara.
Knife.
Cuchillo.
Fork.
Tenedor.
Toaster.
Tostadora.
Saucepan.
Cacerola.
Freezer.
Congelador.
Pantry.
Despensa.
Broom
Escoba.
Oven.
Horno.
Tap.
Grifo.
Washing
machine.
Lavadora.
Washing up
liquid.
Liquido para
fregar los platos.
Dishwasher.
Fregaplatos.
Iron.
Plancha.
Saucer.
Platillo.
Corkscrew.
Sacacorchos.
Ironing board.
Tabla de
planchar.
Cup.
Taza.
Mug.
Tazn.
Telephone.
Telfono.
Teapot.
Tetera.
Cloth.
Trapo.
Glass.
Vaso.
Dishes.
Platos.
Litter.
Basura.
Coffe pot.
Cafetera.
Pan.
Sartn.
397
EL CUARTO DE BAO
Toilet.
Taza del WC.
Towel.
Toalla.
Mirror.
Espejo.
Washbasin.
Lavabo.
Bath.
Baera.
Bidet.
Bid.
Shower.
Ducha.
Plug.
Enchufe.
Soap.
Jabn
Towel.
Toalla.
Toothbrush.
Cepillo de
dientes.
Razor.
Maquinilla de
afeitar.
Toothpaste.
Pasta dentfrica.
Comb.
Peine.
Shower.
Ducha.
Emergency kit.
Botiqun.
Brush.
Cepillo.
Shampoo.
Champ.
Hairspray.
Laca.
Comb.
Peine.
Dryer.
Secador.
Cologne.
Colonia.
Compresses.
Compresas.
Makeup.
Maquillaje.
Sponge.
Esponja.
Lipstick.
Lapiz de labios.
Tissue.
Papel higinico.
Nail polish.
Laca de uas.
Eyeliner.
Rmmel.
Eyeshadow.
Sombra de ojos.
Comb.
Peine.
Eye-shadow.
Sombra de ojos.
Lipstick.
Barra de labios.
Mirror.
Espejo.
Nail varnish.
Esmalte de uas.
Perfume.
Perfume.
Aftershave.
Locin.
Hairbrush.
Cepillo.
Deodorant.
Desodorante.
To shave.
Afeitarse.
To have a bath.
Baarse.
To have a shower.
Ducharse.
To dry.
Secar.
Showergel.
Gel.
398
Sanitary towel.
Compresa.
El DORMITORIO
Alarm clock.
Despertador.
Bed.
Cama.
Duvet.
Edredn.
Bedclothes.
Ropa de cama.
Sheet.
Sbana.
Dressing table.
Tocador.
Alarm clock.
Despertador.
EL SALON
Television.
Television.
Telephone.
Telfono.
Lamp.
Lampara
Sofa.
Sofa.
Bokcase.
Librera.
Window.
Ventana.
Ashtray.
Cenicero.
Fireplace.
Chimenea.
Cushion
Cojn.
Picture.
Cuadro
Rocking chair.
Mecedora.
Table.
Mesa
Carpet.
Alfombra.
Wallpaper.
Papel pintado.
Lampshade.
Pantalla.
Clock.
Reloj.
Chair.
Silla.
Sofa.
Sof.
MUEBLES
Wardrobe.
Armario.
Sideboard.
Aparador.
Chest of drawers.
Cmoda.
Bed.
Cama.
Table.
Mesa.
399
LA CIUDAD
Airport.
Aeropuerto.
Bus station.
Estacin de
autobuses.
Car park.
Parking.
Cinema.
Cine.
Hospital.
Hospital.
Hotel.
Hotel.
Market.
Mercado.
Police station.
Comisara.
Post office.
Oficina de
Correos.
Toilets.
Aseos.
Restaurant.
Restaurant.
Station.
Estacin
Bank.
Banco.
Beach.
Playa.
Book shop.
Libreria.
Library.
Biblioteca.
Chemist.
Farmacia.
Church.
Iglesia.
Petrol station.
Gasolinera.
Phone box.
Cabina de
telfono.
Sea.
Mar.
River.
Ro.
Supermarket.
Supermercado.
Street.
Calle.
Cathedral
Catedral.
Cementery.
Cementerio.
Building.
Edificio.
School.
Escuela.
Sculpture.
Escultura.
Stadium.
Estadio
Statue.
Estatua.
Fair.
Feria.
Art gallery
Galera de arte.
Hospital.
Hospital.
Garden.
Jardn.
Monastery.
Monasterio.
Museum.
Museo.
Pavilion.
Pabelln.
Palace.
Palacio.
Park.
Parque.
400
Square.
Plaza.
Bridge.
Puente.
River.
Ro.
Ruins.
Ruinas.
Theater.
Teatro.
Zoo.
Zoolgico.
Cinema.
Cine.
Baker.
Panadera.
Butcher.
Carnicera.
Drugstore.
Droguera.
Delicatessen. Fishmonger.
Pescadera.
Greengrocer.
Verdulera.
Grocer.
Ultramarinos.
Hardware store.
Ferretera.
Newsagent.
Prensa.
Off-licence.
Bodega.
Post office.
Oficina postal.
TIENDAS
401
PARTES DEL CUERPO
Eye.
Ojo.
Mouth.
Boca.
Nose.
Nariz
Hair.
Pelo.
Chest.
Pecho.
Leg.
Pierna.
Elbow.
Codo.
Knee.
Rodilla.
Stomach.
Estmago.
Head.
Cabeza.
Ear.
Oreja.
Chin.
Barbilla.
Foot.
Pie.
Arm.
Brazo.
Hand.
Mano.
Throat.
Garganta.
Fist.
Puo.
Thumb.
Dedo pulgar.
Finger.
Dedo.
Mouth.
Boca.
Moustache.
Bigote.
Tongue.
Lengua.
Brain.
Cerebro.
Heart.
Corazn.
Lung.
Pulmn.
Kidney.
Rion.
Muscle.
Msculo.
Neck.
Cuello.
COMIDA
Biscuits.
Galletas.
Cakes.
Pasteles.
Chewing gum.
Chicle.
Sweets.
Golosinas.
Fruit juice.
Zumo.
Milk.
Leche.
Sugar.
Azcar.
Tea.
T.
Eggs.
Huevos.
Butter.
Mantequilla.
Bread.
Pan.
Cheese.
Queso.
Rice.
Arroz.
Spaghetti.
Espaguetis.
Chips.
Patatas fritas.
Meat.
Carne.
Fish.
Pescado.
Chicken.
Pollo.
Sandwich.
Bocadillo.
Meatballs.
Albndigas.
Lambchops. Fillet. Hamburguer.
402
Chuletas de
cordero.
Filete. Hamburguesa.
EN LA MESA
Sugar caddy.
Azucarero.
Bottle.
Botella.
Cafetera.
Coffepot.
Glass.
Vaso.
Tablecloth.
Mantel.
Bread.
Pan.
Salt.
Sal.
Napkin.
Servilleta.
Cup.
Taza.
Fork.
Tenedor.
Teapot.
Tetera.
Vinager.
Vinagre.
Oil.
Aceite.
Garlic.
Ajo.
Cinnamon.
Canela.
Hot pepper.
Guindilla.
Butter.
Mantequilla.
Mustard.
Mostaza
Parsley.
Perejil.
Pepper.
Pimienta.
Salt.
Sal.
Vinegar.
Vinagre.
Smoked.
Ahumado.
Grilled.
Asado.
Breaded.
Empanado.
Fried.
Frito.
Boiled.
Hervido.
Rare.
Poco hecho.
Well done.
Bien pasado.
Medium.
Al punto.
Baked.
Cocinado.
Roasted.
Asado.
SABORES
Acid.
cido.
Bitter.
Amargo.
Hot.
Caliente.
Sweet.
Dulce.
Fresh.
Fresco.
Cold.
Fro.
Tasty.
Sabroso.
Spicy.
Picante.
403
BEBIDAS
Water.
Agua.
Tap water.
Agua del grifo
Mineral water.
Agua mineral.
Sparkling water.
Agua con gas.
Tonic water.
Tnica.
Black coffee.
Caf solo.
Short coffee.
Cortado.
Decaffeinated
coffee.
Descafeinado.
Espresso.
Caf exprs.
Long coffee.
Caf largo.
Coffee with milk.
Caf con leche.
Tea.
T.
Beer.
Cerveza.
White wine.
Vino blanco.
Rose wine.
Vino rosado.
Red wine.
Vino tinto.
Orange juice.
Zumo de naranja.
Hot chocolate.
Chocolate.
Soda.
Gaseosa.
Gin.
Ginebra.
Whisky.
Whisky.
Rum.
Ron.
Draft beer.
Caa.
Soft drink.
Refresco.
Coke.
Coca cola.
Juice.
Zumo.
FRUTAS Y VERDURAS
Apple.
Manzana.
Musrhroom.
Champin.
Broccoli.
Brcol.
Asparagus.
Esprragos.
Tomato.
Tomate.
Artichokes.
Alcachofas.
Escarole.
Escarola.
Cucumber.
Pepino.
Cabbage.
Repollo.
Endives.
Endivias.
Lettuce.
Lechuga.
Avocado.
Aguacate.
Brussels sprouts.
Coles de Bruselas.
Peas.
Guisante.
Carrot.
Zanahoria.
Apricots.
Albaricoques.
Spinachs.
Espinaca.
Radishes.
Rbanos.
Potato.
Patata.
Plums.
Ciruelas.
404
Leeks.
Puerros.
Onion.
Cebolla.
Banana.
Pltano.
Coconut.
Coco.
Carrot.
Zanahoria.
Orange.
Naranja.
Zucchinni.
Calabacn.
Date.
Dtil.
Raspberries.
Frambuesas.
Strawberries.
Fresas.
Lemon.
Limn.
Mandarin.
Mandarina.
Mango.
Mango.
Peaches.
Melocotones.
Quince.
Membrillo.
Orange.
Naranja.
Pear.
Pera.
Pineapple.
Pia.
Watermelon.
Sanda.
Melon.
Meln.
Raisin.
Pasa.
Aubergine.
Berengena.
Celery.
Apio.
POSTRES
Pudding
Pudin.
Icecream
Helado.
Custard.
Natillas
Marmalade.
Mermelada.
Honey.
Miel.
Honey.
Miel.
Cake.
Tarta
Yogurt.
Yogur.
Chocolate.
Chocolate.
Cookies.
Galletas.
PESCADOS
Anchovy.
Anchoa.
Elver.
Angula.
Octopus.
Pulpo.
Shrimps.
Gambas.
Angler.
Rape.
Hake.
Merluza.
Oysters.
Ostras.
Sole.
Lenguado.
Clams. Herring. Prawn. Squids.
405
Almejas. Arenque. Langostino. Calamares.
Cockle.
Berberecho.
Lobster.
Langosta.
Razor clam.
Navajas.
Sword fish.
Pez espada.
Cod.
Bacalao.
Mackerel.
Caballa.
Salmon.
Salmn.
Turbot.
Rodaballo.
Crab.
Cangrejo.
Mussels.
Mejillones.
Sardine.
Sardina.
Cuttlefish.
Sepia.
Norway lobster.
Cigala.
Sea bream.
Besugo.
CARNES
Bacon.
Tocino.
Deer.
Ciervo.
Hen.
Gallina.
Partridge.
Codorniz.
Chicken.
Pollo.
Goose.
Ganso.
Lamb.
Cordero.
Pork.
Cerdo.
Cow.
Vaca.
Hare.
Liebre.
Ox.
Buey.
Rabbit.
Conejo.
Turkey.
Pavo.
FRUTOS SECOS
Almonds.
Almendras.
Hazelnuts.
Avellanas.
Chestnuts.
Castaas.
Pinenuts.
Piones.
Sunflowerseeds.
Pipas.
Pistachios.
Pistachos.
406
MEDIOS DE TRANSPORTE
Car.
Coche.
Bus.
Autobs.
Taxi.
Taxi.
Ship.
Barco.
On foot.
A pie.
Plane.
Avin.
ACTIVIDADES DIARIAS
Wake up.
Despertarse.
Get up.
Levantarse.
Have a shower.
Ducharse.
Get dressed.
Vestirse.
Have breakfast.
Desayunar.
Go to work.
Ir al trabajo.
Have lunch.
Comer.
Watch TV.
Ver la TV.
Buy the
newspaper.
Comprar el
peridico.
Go for a walk.
Dar un paseo.
Have dinner.
Cenar.
Go to bed.
Irse a la cama.
ACTIVIDADES DE TIEMPO LIBRE
Meet friends.
Reunirse con
amigos.
Go to the cinema.
Ir al cine.
Go to the
mountains.
Ir al campo.
Go shopping.
Ir de compras.
Go to the pub.
Ir al pub.
Go to the disco.
Ir a la discoteca.
ROPA
Coat. Cap. Pocket. Skirt.
407
Abrigo. Gorra. Bolsillo Falda.
Belt.
Cinturn
Clogs.
Zuecos.
Purse.
Monedero.
Sleeve.
Manga
Bikini.
Bikini.
Dress.
Vestido
Pyjamas.
Pijama.
Stockings.
Medias.
Blouse.
Blusa.
Dressing gown.
Bata.
Ring.
Swimming trunks.
Tie.
Corbata.
Boots.
Botas.
Handbag.
Bolso.
Sandals.
Sandalias.
Trainers.
Zapatillas de
deporte.
Bow.
Lazo.
Hat.
Sombrero.
Shirt.
Camisa.
Trousers.
Pantalones.
Bra.
Sujetador.
Jacket.
Chaqueta
Shoes.
Zapatos.
T-shirt.
Camiseta
Bracelet.
Pulsera
Jeans.
Vaquero.
Shorts.
Pantaln corto.
Umbrella.
Paraguas.
Braces.
Tirantes.
Knickers.
Bragas.
Size.
Talla.
Underpants.
Calzoncillos.
Vest.
Camiseta.
Slippers.
Zapatillas de ir
por casa.
Jacket.
Chaqueta.
Wellingtons.
Botas de agua.
Socks.
Calcetines.
Cap.
Gorra.
Raincoat.
Gabardina.
Zipper.
Cremallera.
Scarf.
Bufanda.
Glasses.
Gafas.
Gloves.
Guantes.
Watch.
Reloj de pulsera.
Ear-rings.
Pendientes.
Bracelet.
Pulsera.
Necklace.
Collar.
Handkerchief.
Pauelo.
Jacket.
Chaqueta.
Scarf.
Bufanda.
Socks.
Calcetines.
Vest.
Chaleco.
408
Belt.
Cinturn.
Zipper.
Cremallera.
Slip.
Enagua.
Gloves.
Guantes.
COMPLEMENTOS Y JOYERIA
Bracelet.
Pulsera.
Brooch.
Broche.
Earring.
Pendiente.
Necklace.
Collar.
Watch.
Reloj.
Ring.
Sortija.
Chain.
Cadena.
Pendant.
Colgante.
TEJIDOS Y MATERIALES
Acrylic.
Acrlico.
Cotton.
Algodn.
Leather.
Piel.
Knitted.
De punto.
Wool.
Lana.
Corduroy.
Pana.
Silk.
Seda.
Velvet.
Terciopelo.
Cloth.
Tela.
Fur.
Piel.
Glass.
Cristal.
Leather.
Cuero.
Oil.
Aceite.
Silver.
Plata.
Stone.
Piedra.
Wire.
Alambre.
Bronze.
Bronce.
Canvas.
Lona.
China.
Porcelana.
Corduroy.
Pana.
Iron.
Hierro.
Linen.
Lino.
Porcelain.
Porcelana.
Steel.
Acero.
Vervet.
Terciopelo.
Aluminium.
Aluminio.
Brass.
Latn.
Clay.
Arcilla.
Clay.
Arcilla.
Denim.
Tela vaquera.
Marble.
Mrmol.
Plaster.
Yeso.
409
Suede.
Ante.
Tinfoil.
Papel de
aluminio.
Wax.
Cera.
410
ADJECTIVOS PARA LA DESCRIPCION
FIGURE FACE NOSE HAIR EYES SKIN CHARACTER
Tall.
Alto.
Round.
Redonda.
Long.
Larga.
Straight.
Liso.
Bright.
Brillantes.
Pale.
Plido.
Humble.
Humilde.
Short.
Bajo.
Oval.
Ovalada.
Flat.
Chata.
Wavy.
Rizado.
Large.
Grandes.
Tanned.
Bronceado
.
Proud.
Orgulloso.
Stout.
Robusto.
Long.
Larga.
Prominent
.
Prominente
Tangled.
Enredado
Small.
Pequeos
.
Flecked.
Con
pecas
Greedy.
Avaricioso.
Thin.
Delgado.
Small.
Pequea.
Brown.
Marrn
Blue.
Azules.
Selfish.
Egoista.
Athletic.
Atltico.
Wrinkled.
Arrugada.
Auburn.
Castao.
Grey.
Grises.
Miserable.
Triste.
Muscular.
Musculoso.
Golden.
Rubio.
Merry.
Alegres.
Honest.
Honrado.
Silky.
Sedoso.
Mean.
Tacao.
Blonde.
Rubio.
Stubborn.
Cabezota.
Enthusiastic.
Entusiasta.
411
ADJETIVOS PARA DESCRIBIR EL CARACTER
Boring.
Aburrido.
Pleasant.
Agradable.
Cheerful.
Alegre.
Ambitious.
Ambicioso.
Adventurous.
Audaz.
Greedy.
Avaricioso.
Bright.
Brillante.
Loving.
Carioso.
Gossipy.
Chismoso.
Sympathetic.
Compasivo.
Polite.
Corts.
Careful.
Cuidadoso.
Determined.
Decidido.
Amusing.
Divertido.
Boastful.
Fanfarrn
Childish.
Infantil.
Clever.
Listo
Crazy.
Loco.
Proud.
Orgulloso.
Vain.
Presumido.
Wise.
Sabio.
Stubborn.
Testarudo.
412
LA ESCUELA
Book.
Libro.
Desk.
Pupitre.
Blackboard.
Pizarra.
Paper.
Papel.
Teacher.
Profesor.
Bulletin board.
Tabln de
anuncios.
School.
Colegio.
University.
Universidad.
Pen.
Bolgrafo.
Notepad.
Bloc de notas.
Notebook.
Cuaderno.
Sheet of paper.
Hoja de papel.
Pencil.
Lapicero.
Eraser.
Borrador.
Paste.
Pegamento.
Ruler.
Regla.
Sharpener.
Sacapuntas.
Chalk.
Tiza.
College.
Universidad.
Essay.
Trabajo.
Exam.
Examen.
Fountain pen.
Pluma
estilogrfica.
Holidays.
Vacaciones.
Lecture.
Conferencia.
Homework.
Deberes.
Lesson.
Leccin.
Map.
Mapa.
Mistake.
Error.
Question.
Pregunta.
Reading.
Lectura.
Rubber.
Borrador.
Schoolbag.
Cartera.
Timetable.
Horario.
Break
Recreo.
Dictation
Dictado.
Janitor.
Conserje.
To pass.
Aprobar.
To fail.
Suspender.
Term.
Trimestre.
Blot.
Borrn.
Canteen
Cantina.
Calculator.
Calculadora.
Spelling.
Ortografa.
Nursery school.
Parvulario.
Primary school.
Escuela primaria.
Infants school.
Escuela (5-7 aos)
Junior school.
(7-11 aos)
High school.
Instituto.
Grammar school.
Instituto de
bach.
Secondary
modern school.
Formacin prof.
University.
Universidad.
Polythecnic.
Universidad
politcnica.
413
Playground.
Patio.
Geography.
Geografa.
Chemistry.
Qumica.
Mathematics.
Matemticas.
Physics.
Fsica.
Exam.
Examen.
Degree.
Licenciatura.
Teacher.
Profesor.
Principal.
Director.
To revise.
Repasar.
Subject.
Asignatura.
LA OFICINA
Letter.
Carta.
Envelope.
Sobre.
Computer.
Ordenador.
Label.
Etiqueta.
Printer.
Impresora.
Keyboard.
Teclado.
INSTRUMENTOS
DEPORTES
Tennis.
Tenis.
Football.
Ftbol.
Handball.
Balonmano.
Basketball.
Baloncesto
Swimming.
Natacin.
Ice hockey.
Jockey sobre
hielo.
Billiards.
Billar.
DOLENCIAS
Headache.
Dolor de cabeza.
Toothache.
Dolor de muelas
Backache.
Dolor de espalda.
Sore throat.
Dolor de
414
garganta.
Break a leg.
Romperse una
pierna.
Temperature.
Fiebre.
Stomachache.
Dolor de barriga.
Measles.
Sarampin.
TAREAS DOMESTICAS
To do the
washing.
Lavar la ropa.
To do the washing
up.
Lavar los platos.
To do the ironing.
Planchar.
To do the
cleaning.
Limpiar.
To make the
beds.
Hacer las camas.
To do the dusting.
Quitar el polvo.
To do the
gardening.
Arreglar el jardn.
To tidy.
Ordenar.
TIEMPO ATMOSFERICO
Fine.
Bueno.
Sunny.
Soleado.
Hot.
Caluroso.
Wet.
Humedo
Warm.
Templado.
Windy.
Ventoso.
Swony.
Nevado.
Frosty.
Helado.
Freezing.
Mucho frio.
Centigrades.
Centgrados.
Sunny.
Soleado.
Degree.
Grados
Foggy.
Con niebla.
Hot.
Caluroso.
Cold.
Frio.
Cloudy.
Nublado.
Rainy.
Lluvioso.
Windy
Ventoso.
EL DOCTOR
415
ANIMALES
Cow.
Vaca.
Calf.
Ternero.
Horse.
Caballo.
Duck.
Pato
Bull.
Toro.
Pig.
Cerdo.
Goat.
Cabra.
Chicken.
Pollo.
Dog.
Perro.
Bitch.
Perra.
Hen.
Gallina.
Tortoise.
Tortuga.
Goldfish.
Pez de colores.
Pelican.
Pelcano
Swan.
Cisne.
Seagull.
Gaviota.
Cod.
Bacalao.
Herring.
Arenque.
Shark.
Tiburn.
Sole.
Lenguado.
Trout.
Trucha.
Hake.
Merluza.
Crab.
Cangrejo.
Mussel.
Mejilln.
Prawn.
Gamba.
Squid.
Calamar.
MEDIOS DE TRANSPORTE
ARBOLES, FLORES Y PLANTAS
Daisy.
Margarita.
Tulip.
Tulipn.
Carnation
Clavel.
Thistle.
Cardo.
Oak.
Roble.
Elm.
Olmo.
Ash.
Fresno.
Pine.
Pino.
Palm.
Palmera.
Cedar.
Cedro.
Geranium.
Geranio.
Jasmine.
Jazmn.
Orchid. Rose. Violet.
416
Orqudea. Rosa. Violeta.
HERRAMIENTAS
POLITICA
Prime minister.
Primer ministro.
MP.
Diputado.
Parliament.
Parlamaento.
Cabinet.
Gobierno.
House of
commons.
Cmara de los
comunes.
House of lords.
Cmara de los
lores.
President.
Presidente.
Governor.
Gobernador.
Congress.
Congreso.
Senate.
Senado.
Mayor.
Alcalde.
Council.
Ayuntamiento.
Councillor.
Concejal.
To vote.
Votar.
Conservative
party.
Partido
conservador.
Liberal.
Liberal.
Democracy.
Democracia.
RELIGION
Faith.
Fe.
God.
Dios.
Virgin Mary.
Virgen Mara.
Angel.
ngel.
Devil.
Demonio.
Saint.
Santo.
Priest.
Sacerdote.
Vicar.
Vicario.
Bishop.
Obispo.
Monk.
Monje.
Nun.
Monja.
Heaven.
Cielo.
417
Abbey.
Abada.
Cathedral.
Catedral.
Monastery.
Monasterio.
Church.
Iglesia.
Temple.
Templo.
Synagogue.
sinagoga
Mosque.
Mezquita.
To pray.
Rezar.
Prayer.
Oracin.
Holy.
Sagrado.
BANCO
Bank.
Banco.
Account.
Cuenta.
Withdraw.
Reintegro.
Savings.
Ahorros.
Cash.
Dinero en
metlico.
Profit.
Beneficio.
Loss.
Perdida.
Loan.
Prstamo.
418
SIMILES
As agile as a monkey. Muy gil.
As bitter as gall. Ms amargo que la retama.
As black as coal. Ms negro que el carbn.
As blind as a bat. Ms ciego que un topo.
As brave as a lion. Ms valiente que un len.
As brown as a berry. Muy moreno.
As busy as a bee. Ocupadsimo.
As clean as a new pin. Ms limpio que el jaspe.
As clear as crystal. Ms claro que el agua.
As cool as a cucumber. Ms fresco que una lechuga.
As cunning as a fox. Ms astuto que una zorra.
As dead as a doornail. Completamente muerto.
As deaf as a doorpost. Ms sordo que una tapia.
As different as chalk to cheese. Diferente como de la noche al da.
As dry as a bone. Ms seco que la mojama.
As easy as ABC. Muy fcil.
As fit as a fiddle. En forma.
As flat as a pancake. Liso como una tabla.
As fresh as a daisy. Ms fresco que una lechuga.
As good as gold. Muy bueno.
As green as grass. Verde como la hierba.
As happy as a king. Ms alegre que unas Pascuas.
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As hot as fire. Muy caliente.
As light as a feather. Ligero como una pluma.
As like as two peas. Como dos gotas de agua.
As mad as a hatter. Ms loco que una cabra.
As old as the hills. Ms viejo que Matusaln.
As pale as death. Ms blanco que la pared.
As patient as Job. Ms paciente que el santo Job.
As poor as a church mouse. Ms pobre que una rata.
As proud as a peacock. Ms orgulloso que un pavo real.
As quiet as a mouse. Ms callado que nunca.
As red as betroot. Ms rojo que un pimiento.
As right as rain. Ms derecho que una vela.
As round as a barrel. Ms gordo que un barril.
As sharp as a razor. Muy ingenioso.
As silent as the grave. Ms callado que una tumba.
As slippery as an eel. Escurridizo como una anguila.
As slow as a tortoise. Ms lento que una tortuga.
As smooth as velvet. Ms suave que un guante.
As sweet as honey. Ms dulce que la miel.
As thin as a rake. Ms delgado que un palo.
As timid as a mouse. Ms tmido que nadie.
As white as snow. Ms blanco que la nieve.
As wise as an owl. Muy sabio.
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REFRANES
A bird in the hand is worth two in the
bush.
Ms vale pjaro en mano que ciento
volando.
A cat may look at a king. Nada es imposible.
A friend in need is a friend indeed. Un amigo en la necesidad es un
amigo de verdad.
A man is known by his friends. Dime con quin andas y te dir quin
eres.
A stich in time saves nine. Quien no arregla la gotera, arregla la
casa entera.
Actions speak louder than words. Obras son amores y no buenas
razones.
All roads lead to Rome. Todos los caminos conducen a Roma.
All that glitters is not gold. No es oro todo lo que reluce.
All work and no play makes Jack a
dull boy.
Debe de haber tiempo para todo.
Among the blind the one-eyed is king. En el pas de los ciegos el tuerto es el
rey.
An apple a day keeps the doctor
away.
Una manzana al da, mantiene al
doctor en la lejana.
Barking dogs seldom bite. Perro ladrador, poco mordedor.
Better be alone than in ill company. Ms vale solo que mal acompaado.
Better late than never. Ms vale tarde que nunca.
Birds of a feather flock together. Dios los cra y ellos se juntan.
Blood is thicker than water. La familia es lo que ms tira.
Constant dripping wears the stone. La constancia lo puede todo.
Courtesy cost nothing. La amabiliad no cuesta nada.
Cut your coat according to your cloth. Amldate a tu presupuesto.
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Dont count your chickens until they
are hatched.
No hagas como en el cuento de la
lechera.
Early to bed, early to rise makes a man
healthy, wealthy and wise.
Acostarse pronto y levantarse
temprano hacen al hombre sano, rico
y sabio.
Example is better than precept. El ejemplo es el mejor precepto.
God helps those who help themselves. Dios ayuda a los que se ayudan a s
mismos.
He who laughs last laughs longer. El que re el ltimo, re mejor.
He who pays the piper calls the tune. El que paga manda.
Its no use crying over spilt milk. Agua pasada no mueve molino.
Look after the pence and the pounds
will look after themselves.
Cuida de los peniques y las libras se
cuidarn solas.
Make hay while the sun shines. Disfruta mientras puedas.
Never look a gift horse in the mouth. A caballo regalado no le mires el
diente.
One good turn deserves another. Un buen favor se paga con otro.
Out of sight, out of mind. Ojos que no ven, corazn que no
siente.
Practice makes perfect. La prctica hace maestros.
Such a father, such a son. De tal palo, tal astilla.
The early bird catches the worm. A quien madruga Dios le ayuda.
Too many cooks spoil the broth. Demasiados cocineros echan a
perder el caldo.
Two heads are better than one. Cuatro ojos ven ms que dos.
Whats worth doing is worth doing well. Lo que vale la pena hacer, vale la
pena hacerlo bien.
When the cat is away the mice will
play.
Cuando el gato est ausente, los
ratones se divierten.
Where there is a will, there is a way. Querer es poder.
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You can not have your cake and
have it.
No puedes tenerlo todo.
EXPRESIONES IDIOMATICAS
A close shave. Por los pelos.
A crying shame. Una vergenza.
A day off. Un da libre.
A dish. Estar como un tren.
A slip of the tongue. Un lapsus.
All alone. Ms solo que la una.
All in all. En resumidas cuentas.
All over the world. Por todo el mundo.
All the same. A pesar de todo.
April fool. Inocente.
As a matter of fact. De hecho.
As good as done. Dar algo por hecho.
Be in a hurry. Tener prisa.
Be in the red. Estar en nmeros rojos.
Be moody. Estar de mal humor.
Be the talk of the town. Ser la comidilla del pueblo.
Be your age. No seas nio. Comprtate.
Brand new Nuevo.
By heart. De memoria.
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By the way. A propsito.
Call a spade a spade. Al pan pan y al vino vino.
Crack a joke. Contar un chiste.
Every now and then. De vez en cuando.
Feel homesick. Sentir morria.
First things first. Lo primero es lo primero.
Follow suit. Seguir el ejemplo.
Get rid of. Librarse de.
Give someone a cold shoulder. Dar de lado a alguien.
Give someone the sack. Despedir a alguien del trabajo.
Go out on a spree. Irse de marcha.
Go to hell. Irse a la porra.
Goodness. Cielos.
Have a good time. Pasarlo bien.
Have a sweet tooth. Ser goloso.
Have forty winks. Dar una cabezadita.
Have fun. Pasarlo bien.
Have the knack of. Tener habilidad para algo.
Hit the jackpot. Tocarle a uno el gordo.
I dont give a damn. Me importa un bledo.
If the cap fits wear it. Si te pica, te aguantas.
In black and white. Por escrito.
In the twinkling of an eye. En un abrir y cerrar de ojos.
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In time. A tiempo.
Inside out. Al revs.
It goes without saying. Ni que decir tiene.
Its up to you. Depende de ti.
Jump to conclusions. Sacar conclusiones.
Keep ones fingers crossed. Tocar madera.
Last but no least. El ltimo pero no por eso menos
importante.
Love at first sight. Amor a primera vista.
Many happy returns of the day. Que cumplas muchos ms.
Mind your own business. Mtete en tus asuntos.
Off the beaten track. Fuera de lo comn.
On leave. De permiso.
On second thoughts. Pensndolo mejor.
On time. Puntual.
Once and for all. De una vez por todas.
Once in a blue moon. De uvas a peras.
Once upon a time. rase una vez.
Ones cup of tea. Santo de devocin.
Out of the blue. De repente.
Over and over again. Una y otra vez.
Owe someone a grudge. Tenrsela jurada a alguien.
Play host. Hacer los honores.
Rack ones brains. Devanarse los sesos.
Ring a bell. Ser familiar.
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Show off. Presumir, ostentar.
Sleep on it. Consultarlo con la almohada.
Talk shop. Hablar del trabajo fuera de horas.
The coast is clear. No hay moros en la costa.
The last but one. El penltimo.
Theres no accounting for taste. Sobre gustos no hay nada escrito.
Third time lucky. A la tercera va la vencida.
Time is money. El tiempo es oro.
Time is up. Ser la hora.
To be like a bull in a china shop. Ser un desmaado.
Turn over a new leaf. Borrn y cuenta nueva.
Two heads are better than one. Cuatro ojos ven ms que dos.
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TRABALENGUAS
She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore, and the shells she sells are sea-shells,
Im sure.
What kind of noise annoys an oyster?. A noisy noise annoys an oyster most.
When a doctor gets sick, and another doctor doctors him, does the
doctor doing the doctoring have to doctor the doctor the way the
doctor being doctored wants to be doctored, or does the doctor doing
the doctoring of the doctor, doctor as he wants to doctor?
Work while you work, play while you play. That is the way to be cheerful
and gay
Whether the weather is cold, or whether the weather is hot, we have to
put up with the weather, wether we like it or not
CITAS
Even God can not change the past. Agathon.
Eureka. Archimedes.
Man is by nature a political animal. Aristotle.
The price of wisdom is above rubies. The Bible.
A living dog is better than a dead lion. The Bible.
There is no new thing under the sun. The Bible.
When thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy
right hand doeth.
The Bible.
Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. The Bible.
Veni, vidi, vici. Julius Caesar.
Cogito, ergo sum. Descartes.
It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Sir Arthur Conan
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Doyle.
Good fences make good neighbours. Robert Frost.
It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees. La Pasionaria.
When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in
London all that life can afford.
Samuel Johnson.
One should eat to live, and not live to eat. Moliere.
All animals are equal but some are more equal than others. George Orwell.
Brevity is the soul of wit. Shakespeare.
Neither a borrower or a lender be. Shakespeare.
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ABREVIATURAS
a.m. Before noon.
A/c. Account.
AD. Anno Domini.
B.A. Bachelor of Arts.
B.C. Before Christ.
B/E. Bill of exchange.
B.B.C. British Broadcasting Corporation.
Bros. Brothers.
c.a.d. Cash againts documents.
C.O.D. Cash on delivery.
C.W.O. Cash with order.
Cfm. Confirm.
CIA. Central Intelligence Agency.
Co. Company.
Dept. Department.
e.g. For example.
FBI. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
G.M.T. Greenwich Mean Time.
GCE. General Certificate of Education.
H.M. Her Majesty.
H.R.H. His or Her Royal Highness.
I.O.U. I owe you.
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IBM. International Business Machine.
IRA. Irish Republican Army.
ISBN. International Standard Book Number.
K. A thousand.
K.O. Knock-out.
L/C. Letter of credit.
Ltd. Limited.
m.p.h. Miles per hour.
MP. Member of Parliament.
NASA. National Astronautic and Space
Administration.
NATO. North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
NHS. National Health Service.
o.n.o. Or nearest offer.
P. Pence.
p.a. Per annum.
P.T.O. Please turn over.
Pls. Please.
POB. Post Office Box.
R&D. Research and development.
R.S.V.P. Rpondez sil vous pliat.
Rgds. Regards.
SOS. Save our souls.
Thx. Thanks.
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U.N.O. United Nations Organization.
U.S.A. United States of America.
U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
UFO. Unidentified Flying Object.
V.A.T. Value Added Tax.
V.I.P. Very Important Person.
Y.M.C.A. Young Mens Christian Association.
431
ORACIONES y VILLANCICOS
EL PADRE NUESTRO
Our father, who art in Heaven
Hallowed be thy name
Thy kingdom come
Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven
Give us this day our daily bread
And forgive us our trespasses
As we forgive those who trepass againts us
And lead us not into tempation
But deliver us from evil
AVE MARA
Hail. Mary, full of grace
The Lord is with Thee
Blessed art thou among women
And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary. Mother of God
Pray for us sinners
Now and at the hour of our death. Amen
HAPPY BIRTHDAY
Happy birthday to you
Happy birthday to you
Happy birthday, dear.
Happy birthday to you
For hes a jolly good fellow
For hes a jolly good fellow
For hes a jolly good fellow
And so say all of us
And so say all of us
And so say all of us
For hes a jolly good fellow
And so say all of us
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HOLY NIGHT
Silent night, holy night
All is calm, all is bright
Round you Virgin mother and child
Holy infant so tender and mild
Sleep in heavenly peace
Sleep in heavenly peace
Silent night, holy night
Son of God, oh how bright
Love is smiling from thy face
Peals for us the our of grace
Christ ous Saviour is born
Christ ous Saviour is born
JINGLE BELLS
Jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh what fun is to ride
In a one-horse open sleigh
Dashing through the snow
In a one-horse open sleigh
Over the fields we go
Laughing all the way
Bells on bob-tail ring
Making spirits bright
What fun it is to ride and sing
A sleighing song tonight. Oh
Jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh what fun is to ride
In a one-horse open sleigh
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434
1) Mary.........a German boyfriend.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Are
2) We .....................a nice park near Sagasta Sqaure.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Is
3) Yesterday Mr Garca .......it was going to rain.
a - Say
b - Said
c - Tells
4) They were....................a fire yesterday.
a - Made
b - Making
c - Doing
5) My grandmother was always.................home.
a - At
b - In
c - On
6) Monforte is .................the road to Alicante.
a - On
b - In
c - At
7) He is very good .............music.
a - In
b - On
c - At
8) He is always ......a bad mood.
a - In
b - On
c - At
9) ......the moment things are very different.
a - In
b - At
c - On
10) He was ........the Navy.
a - In
b - On
c - At
11) She drives ........full speed
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a - At
b - In
c - On
12) I am .............working there but I will change very soon.
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
13) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Three
b - Sheep
c - Ship
14) El verbo "to be " significa .......
a - Tener
b - Ser o estar
c - Parecer
15) Si hablamos de un perro usaremos el pronombre........
a - It
b - He
c - She
16) A qu categora gramatical pertenece: " My, your, his, her, its, our, your y
their "?
a - Pronombres personales
b - Pronombres posesivos
c - Adjetivos posesivos
17) Qu preposicin debemos usar cuando hablamos de los dias de la
semana?
a - On
b - In
c - At
18) El verbo to have se usa para formar los tiempos.........
a - Simples
b - Continuos
c - Perfectos
19) How.............you do?
a - Do
b - Am
c - Is
20) Let me introduce..........
a - Me
b - Myself
c - Mine
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21) I hope you enjoy..........stay.
a - You
b - Your
c - Yourself
22) Here you..........
a - Are
b - Is
c - Am
23) He.........a boy.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
24) Isabel...............a chocolate cake.
a - Is eating
b - Is eat
c - Is ate
25) You..................too much.
a - Are work
b - Are working
c - Are worked
26) Mara Teresa................a new book.
a - Are writing
b - Is writeing
c - Is writing
27) My sister is ..........doctor.
a - An
b - A
c - Something
28) Is Salinas............big city?
a - A
b - An
c - These
29) I went to the swimming pool.......hour ago.
a - An
b - A
c - The
30) He has ........cat.
a - An
b - A
c - Many
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31) I don't work............Sunday.
a - In
b - On
c - At
32) I wake up.........8.00.
a - At
b - In
c - On
33) I look at the stars..................night.
a - At
b - In
c - On
34) I ......................like liver.
a - Does
b - Doing
c - Do not
35) Where...........you from?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
36) What........your brother do?
a - Do
b - Does
c - Is
37) How old ........you?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
38) What languages ........you speak?
a - Does
b - Are
c - Do
39) ........were you born?
a - Where
b - Which
c - What
40) He............to the University.
a - Goes
b - Go
c - Is go
41) My wife.............at a High School.
438
a - Teaches
b - Teach
c - Is tiching
42) In summer, my daughter ...........her friend Marta.
a - Miss
b - Misses
c - Is missed
43) He............the best player in Elda.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
44) I ..................................a shower.
a - Am having
b - Has
c - Has having
45) I ................................at the moment.
a - Am smoking
b - Smokeing
c - Smoking
46) He .....................................fat.
a - Get
b - Is getting
c - Gets
47) My sister ............................................a chocolate cake for my birthday.
a - Has been making
b - Has be made
c - Has been makeing
48) They are.....................playing football.
a - Yet
b - Still
c - Already
49) He has.....................come back from school.
a - Already
b - Yet
c - Still
50) She ..................................with us next April in Cazorla.
a - Will fish
b - Would fishing
c - Would been fishing
51) They ................................her at the airport tomorrow morning.
a - Meet
439
b - Are meeting
c - Meets
52) I ...................................a Harley in November.
a - Am driving
b - Is driving
c - Driving
53) I ..............................him a Mara Callas CD for his birthday.
a - Give
b - Giving
c - Am giving
54) The new teacher.................................at seven.
a - Come
b - Is comeing
c - Is coming
55) We ...........................some money to charities.
a - Gives
b - Are giveing
c - Are giving
56) They ...........................to Majorca with all their friends.
a - Are going
b - Goes
c - Are go
57) He ...............smoking next year.
a - Give
b - Is giveing up
c - Is giving up
58) I ..........................her a new Polo for her birthday.
a - Buys
b - Am buying
c - Buy
59) The sun ...............................................this afternoon.
a - Shine
b - Is shineing
c - Is shining
60) The waiter ..............................................a bottle of Rioja wine.
a - Bring
b - Bringed
c - Is bringing
61) Barcelona............against Manchester United in June
a - Will be playing
b - Will play be
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c - Will be played
62) Alejandro Sanz ...............................................a new album in March.
a - Release
b - Is releaseing
c - Is releasing
63) What .................................................for a living?
a - Does you do
b - Do you do
c - Do you does
64) I ...............................that this President will win again.
a - Does not think
b - Do not thinks
c - Do not think
65) He .............most of the homework with his mother.
a - Does
b - Doing
c - Do
66) I have ..................................................paella every Saturday for years.
a - Ate
b - Eat
c - Eaten
67) They have just ............................................around Spain.
a - Travel
b - Traveled
c - Travelled
68) Flavio has ............................................his girlfriend.
a - Forgave
b - Forgive
c - Forgiven
69) Toni has ...............................................fireworks for the summer party.
a - Buyed
b - Bought
c - Boughting
70) Cayetano has ..........................................a new house for his family.
a - Build
b - Built
c - Boughts
71) Mario has ........................................................the beers in the bar.
a - Paid
b - Payed
c - Paying
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72) My mother............her new portrait next week.
a - Will have paint
b - Will be paint
c - Will have painted
73) We ............................in this house since 1997.
a - Lived
b - Have being living
c - Have been living
74) He ......................a book for a long time.
a - Writes
b - Is wrote
c - Has been writing
75) ........these books interesting?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
76) The baby.......eating the food.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
77) Cats.........black or white.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
78) Pepita ........three daughtres.
a - Has
b - Haave
c - Having
79) Carlos is in Elche. .............works there in a shoe factory.
a - Him
b - He
c - His
80) ..................says that Isabel is her best friend.
a - She
b - Her
c - Hers
81) I haven't ......................................money.
a - Some
b - Any
c - Something
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82) Would you like .........................chocolates?
a - Any
b - Will
c - Some
83) Have you seen ................love film lately?
a - Some
b - Any
c - No
84) There are.....................................boys playing football outside.
a - These
b - Some
c - Any
85) Is there.........................................cinema in town?
a - Any
b - Some
c - Six
86) I've got ....................................books on computers.
a - Any
b - Some
c - Me
87) ..........................there a bus from Alicante at 7.00?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
88) There...........two trains to Madrid every day.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
89) ................there a supermarket near here?
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
90) There.................a parade next Saturday.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
91) There...............many restaurants in Benidorm.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
92) There.............a concert next June in Santa Pola.
443
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
93) Pepi..............................swim very fast..
a - Do
b - Does not
c - Do
94) .........................you like football?
a - Does
b - Do
c - Are
95) ...................Pepe read the paper?
a - Do
b - Does
c - Is
96) I ............................eat meat.
a - Do not
b - Does not
c - Will do
97) I want two ......................of Fanta.
a - Glass
b - Glassves
c - Glasses
98) This tree has many ..................................................
a - Leafs
b - Leaves
c - Leafss
99) In the zoo I saw four .....
a - Sheep
b - Sheeps
c - Sheppes
100) She has many .............................
a - Worries
b - Worrys
c - Worryes
101) There are ........schools in Salinas. Only two.
a - Little
b - Few
c - Much
102) I have .........................money left.
a - Little
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b - Few
c - Many
103) We have to study.........................books.
a - Much
b - Many
c - Any
104) Not ...................people smoke in this University.
a - Manys
b - Many
c - Fews
105) They pay Zidane .......................money.
a - Much
b - Many
c - Few
106) There aren't ..............................towns in Teruel.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Little
107) They asked me ...........................questions.
a - Many
b - Little
c - Much
108) I don't have ................................time.
a - Much
b - Many
c - Little
109) Everybody says that Jorge is ..............................than his brother.
a - More clever
b - The more clever
c - The most clever
110) I am .............................teacher here.
a - The oldest
b - Older
c - Olderest
111) This exercise is .......................................than the previous one.
a - Easier
b - Easyer
c - Easiest
112) When I was young Agustina was the .......................................swimmer in Elda.
a - Fastest
b - Fatesr
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c - The ffasterest
113) This is ........................................book I have ever read.
a - The goodest
b - The bester
c - The best
114) You should eat ....................................chocolate.
a - Littler
b - Less
c - Littlest
115) The picture is .......................the wall.
a - At
b - In
c - On
116) We go to church ......................Sundays.
a - At
b - In
c - On
117) The milk's .......................................the fridge.
a - In
b - At
c - On
118) They sat ...........................the wall.
a - On
b - At
c - In
119) They made the film ....................Petrel.
a - In
b - At
c - On
120) Mary's not here - she's....................the office.
a - On
b - In
c - At
121) The ham is...................................the shelf in the kitchen.
a - On
b - In
c - At
122) They are all......................................the garden.
a - At
b - In
c - On
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123) The papers are................................my desk.
a - In
b - At
c - On
124) He's not..........................................work today.
a - On
b - In
c - At
125) I'll see you ........................................Monday.
a - In
b - At
c - On
126) They came to visit us ....................my birthday.
a - In
b - At
c - On
127) Did you have a good time ......................Christmas?
a - In
b - At
c - On
128) School finishes ..................................three o'clock.
a - On
b - In
c - At
129) I'll meet you............................the station.
a - At
b - In
c - On
130) He's still..........................................school.
a - At
b - In
c - On
131) That picture....................the wall was painted by Vladi Monz.
a - In
b - At
c - On
132) We're meeting...............................7.00 on Tuesday.
a - At
b - On
c - In
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133) I ............................to the swimming pool every day at 5.00.
a - Going
b - Goes
c - Go
134) ............................what he's saying?
a - Do you understand
b - Does you understand
c - Did you understand
135) Horatio ..........................................a shower at the moment.
a - Is has
b - Is having
c - Has
136) Somebody...............................to us.
a - Is listens
b - Listens
c - Is listening
137) She..........................to go home now.
a - Is wants
b - Is wanted
c - Wants
138) How often ........................................a magazine?
a - Do you read
b - Does you read
c - Did you reads
139) The Town Hall ...........................................a new street to Alberto Navarro.
a - Should dedicate
b - Shall dedicating
c - Should to dedicate
140) I .......................................................in Aspe tomorrow.
a - Will be
b - Will is
c - Will am
141) I .........................................my cousin in Madrid next week.
a - Visited
b - Will visit
c - Visit
142) They ...........................a new road in 2007.
a - Build
b - Will build
c - Builded
143) I ........................................to the Yelmo Cineplex cinemas tomorrow.
448
a - Went
b - Go
c - Will go
144) They ...........................in La Sirena next Saturday.
a - Will be having dinner
b - Will dinner have
c - Will be dinner
145) I..........to Berln in August.
a - Will flying
b - Will flying be
c - Will be flying
146) They .............................a lot with that teacher.
a - Will learnt have
b - Will have learnt
c - Will have learn
147) He ...............................many countries in April.
a - Will have seen
b - Will seen
c - Will be seen
148) I .............................everything before 12:00.
a - Will eaten
b - Will have eaten
c - Will be ate
149) Next summer he ............................................a new car.
a - Will bought
b - Will buying
c - Will have been driving
150) In May he .......................................with a new team in France.
a - Will played
b - Will have been playing
c - Will playing be
151) We.........................................many good films but this is the best.
a - Has see
b - Has seen
c - Have seen
152) He ...............................some shoes to his brother.
a - Has bought
b - Has buy
c - Have bought
153) The food ............................................horrible.
a - Am
449
b - Was
c - Are
154) The French ...........................Spanish very bad in the past.
a - Speaks
b - Spoke
c - Speaking
155) Inmita .......to a swimming pool in the evenings when she was 3 years old.
a - Went
b - Go
c - Went
156) When we lived in Alicante my wife ....................her mother every night.
a - Phone
b - Phoned
c - Phones will
157) My aunt ............................gazpachos in the Culebrn.
a - Ate
b - Eat
c - Will eats
158) We.....................................a lot in England last summer.
a - Enjoying
b - Enjoys
c - Enjoyed
159) Lady Hernndez...............................her old boyfriend in a restaurant.
a - Met
b - Meeting
c - Meets
160) I ...............................more than ever last summer.
a - Swim
b - Swimming
c - Swam
161) They .................................to Alicante when they were young.
a - Will go
b - Goes
c - Went
162) The doctor .......................us hat it was nothing important.
a - Tolds
b - Telling
c - Told
163) The bus ...........................................in every city.
a - Stopped
450
b - Stopping
c - Stop
164) It ..........................................during the festivies.
a - Rained
b - Raining
c - Raineing
165) The alarm clock...............................................but I couldn't stop it.
a - Ringing
b - Rings
c - Was ringing
166) He has............................................on weight since he got married.
a - Puts
b - Put
c - Putting
167) Pepe has...................................a new apartment in Santa Pola.
a - Buying
b - Boughted
c - Bought
168) My brother-in-law has...................................football in Alicante.
a - Plays
b - Played
c - Playeding
169) Manuela ..........................................................aspirins for a long time.
a - Is takes
b - Is took
c - Has been taking
170) Alberto Navarro ...........................his last book for over fifteen years.
a - Has been writing
b - Has be writing
c - Has being writing
171) There's nothing in the fridge. They..............all.
a - Must have eaten
b - Must has ate
c - Must had eaten
172) My parents .............................me some money when I got married.
a - Giving
b - Gaven
c - Gave
173) I ............................................that she had won the lottery.
a - Have knew
b - Have known
451
c - Has know
174) Last summer they .......................................siesta before six.
a - Was sleeping
b - Sleep
c - Were sleeping
175) I .........................................................how to get to Alicante.
a - Am explaining
b - Explains
c - Does explain
176) I' ve worked in Elche ...................six years.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
177) I've lived in Elda ...................I was a child.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
178) We have not been in Rome ...........we were married.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
179) I've known them ................years.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
180) She has been working here ...................she left school.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
181) He has been in prison..................nine years.
a - Ago
b - Since
c - For
182) Pepica has lived in Salinas.............................she was ten years old.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
183) He has been ill .........a long time.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
452
184) Pili is in her office. She's been there ..............7 o'clock.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
185) The bus is late. We've been waiting .........................20 minutes.
a - Since
b - For
c - Ago
186) Laura is studying Medicine ............................1987.
a - Ago
b - For
c - Since
187) I've been learning English.............................January.
a - For
b - Ago
c - Since
188) I've only been cycling to work......................two months.
a - For
b - Since
c - Ago
189) If you put ice in the sun it..............................................to water.
a - Turn
b - Turns
c - Turning
190) If you...........................................this one I'll bring you another.
a - Doesn't like
b - Didn't like
c - Don't like
191) If I ................................................studied I would get a better job.
a - Has
b - Have
c - Had
192) If it ............more we could grow more trees.
a - Rain
b - Rained
c - Raining
193) If I had bought lottery yesterday, today I..............................................rich.
a - Would have being
b - Will have been
c - Would have been
453
194) If I had known that they were in Elda l............................................ them to
have lunch in La Sirena.
a - Willl have invited
b - Would have invited
c - Had invited
195) Indicativo, Subjuntivo e Imperativo son:
a - Modos verbales
b - Formas del adjetivo
c - Tipos de adverbios
196) Qu nombre reciben los siguientes verbos: "to be, to have y to do "?.
a - Auxiliares
b - Modales
c - Ordinarios
197) My wife is........the kitchen.
a - In
b - On
c - At
198) I was .......the station.
a - In
b - On
c - At
199) The water is..........the fridge.
a - On
b - In
c - At
200) The book is ..........the table.
a - In
b - On
c - At
201) My mother is.........home.
a - On
b - In
c - At
202) My house is..............the road to Sax.
a - In
b - On
c - At
203) The football match ................................at 6:00.
a - Starts
b - Are starting
c - Is starting
454
204) We ....................................some books to the Public Library.
a - Are giving
b - Gives
c - Giving
205) He................................................smoking next year.
a - Is give up
b - Is giveing up
c - Is giving up
206) They ............................... "the cuartelillo ".
a - Are clean
b - Are cleanig
c - Are cleaned
207) I like ..........................................fresh air in the mountains.
a - Breathes
b - Breathing
c - Breathed
208) Pleased to meet ............
a - Yours
b - Us
c - You
209) I'll try .............English tea.
a - Some
b - Many
c - Any
210) Don't ...............to him.
a - Listened
b - Listen
c - Listening
211) You must .........it for us.
a - Make
b - Makes
c - Made
212) How long have you ....................learning English?
a - Be
b - Being
c - Been
213) That's .............
a - Enough
b - Enougher
c - Enoughing
214) Teresa's ...........the phone.
455
a - In
b - On
c - At
215) Please hurry .............
a - Down
b - In
c - Up
216) How ..............shirts are you going to buy?
a - Many
b - Much
c - Often
217) .........cash.
a - In
b - On
c - At
218) ..............credit card.
a - By
b - With
c - In
219) Shut up and mind your ........business.
a - Our
b - Ours
c - Own
220) The streets ...........decorated.
a - Are
b - Is
c - Will
221) Come ..............about ten o'clock.
a - At
b - In
c - On
222) Let's ..............a good restaurant, I am very hungry.
a - Finding
b - Found
c - Find
223) There has ........a car crash in Juan Carlos I.
a - Be
b - Was
c - Been
224) What ................happened to him, he is very sad.
a - Is
456
b - Has
c - Have
225) A little boy called Jaime ......been knocked off by a bike.
a - Is
b - Have
c - Has
226) That ........be enough.
a - Should
b - Can
c - Must
227) Thank ......very much.
a - You
b - Yours
c - Youm
228) You'll need it when it gets ..........
a - Coldest
b - Colder
c - Colding
229) I ..........hope you've got everything now, Pepe.
a - Did
b - Do
c - Does
230) I'm really looking ...............to the concert!
a - For
b - Forward
c - Up
231) Wasn't it worth .................all those cars?
a - Washing
b - Wash
c - Washed
232) I intend to get a job ........weekends.
a - In
b - On
c - At
233) I don't mind, .......................the hours are reasonable and the pay is good.
a - Long so
b - So long as
c - As long as
234) It was difficult at first..........to live alone in England.
a - Have
b - Has
457
c - Having
235) ............all cars here are automatic.
a - Nearly
b - Near
c - Close
236) This is celebrated ......the fourth Thursday of November.
a - On
b - In
c - At
237) Give.............regards to your family.
a - Me
b - My
c - I
238) Everyone ...........paella and ham in Spain.
a - Loves
b - Love
c - Loving
239) It says .......diving!
a - Not
b - No
c - Any
240) I don't mind ............the same clothes everyday.
a - Wearing
b - Wear
c - Weared
241) I'll bring you a present ........the journey.
a - In
b - Up
c - On
242) I suppose .......
a - As
b - So
c - So as so
243) That is the ............compliment you can pay to a girl like her.
a - Great
b - Greater
c - Greatest
244) Jos Luis says you are a very good .........
a - Cooker
b - Cooking
c - Cook
245) 5.900 ...............insurance and unlimited mileage.
a - Including
b - Includes
c - Include
246) ...............interesting!
a - What
b - What an
c - How
247) I was .................sorry that I felt ashamed.
a - So
b - As
c - So as
248) You can ..............a taxi and go sightseeing.
a - Spend
b - Hire
c - Look up for
249) Can I .........a bike?
a - Hire
b - Spend
c - Renting
250) Imagine .........to work in the Sahara.
a - Have
b - Having
c - Has
251) People of your age ............not drink beer.
a - Shall
b - Will
c - Should
252) The place I enjoyed .............was the museum of Moder Art.
a - Most
b - More
c - Little
253) At what time did you .......................to the cinema last night?
a - Go
b - Went
c - Going
254) I play football with.........
a - He
b - Him
c - His
459
255) She is ..................secretary.
a - Me
b - My
c - Mine
256) My wife eats ..................oranges.
a - Many
b - Little
c - So
257) The umbrella is..........
a - He
b - Her
c - Hers
258) If I could, I ......................go to the cinema with you, darling.
a - Went
b - Must
c - Would
259) Girls, you ......................say those things about your friends.
a - Haven't to
b - Mustn't
c - Mustn
260) Have another chocolate. No, thank you very much indeed, ....................too
much.
a - I've eaten
b - I eaten
c - I ate
261) I think my brother ..................to come next month.
a - Cans
b - Could
c - Will be able
262) Mr. Martnez ......................for a loan, but then, he won the lottery.
a - Was asking
b - Asking
c - Askeing
263) That girl is ............................pretty.
a - As
b - So many
c - So
264) How .......................you go to Sax tomorrow?
a - Does
b - Shall
c - Will
265) My daughter hasn't ....................from school yet.
a - Comed
b - Coming
c - Come
266) Haven't you done it ....................?
a - Ago
b - Yet
c - For
267) Manolo, .................go to the disco tonight.
a - Let us
b - We let's
c - We let
268) You have to be much .....................when you use this.
a - More careful
b - Carefuler
c - Carefulest
269) It was nice to see him again. I .........him for ages.
a - Haven't seen
b - Haven t see
c - Saw
270) Those are the ones .................came yesterday.
a - Who
b - Whom
c - Whose
271) It ...........for ages in Almeria. Said the weather forecast yesterday.
a - Doesn't rain
b - Did rain
c - Hasn't rained
272) I was going to write but the computer ...............down.
a - Break
b - Breaks
c - Broke
273) Oscar always ...................tennis
a - Play
b - Plays
c - Is play
274) ......you born in Elda ?
a - Had
b - Are
c - Were
275) Jess you'd like to go to buy a new computer, .............you?
461
a - Would
b - Wouldn't
c - May
276) My grandmother died at the .......of 89.
a Age
b - Years
c - Years of
277) Hey...........a look, Rocio Jurado is there with her husband.
a - Have
b - Take
c - Put
278) Plaza Mayor .......in 1996.
a - Was built
b - Will be built
c - Built
279) What ....................happen if we didn't go to work?
a - Will
b - Would
c - Must
280) The local Council ...........do something about those houses!
a - Must to
b - Have to
c - Must
281) All these children are nice, but ours are ................
a - Niecerest
b - Nicer
c - Nicest
282) The shop was open this morning. It ...at 4:45.
a - Open
b - Was open
c - Opened
283) It ..............a lot in winter in Bocairente.
a - Snows
b - Is snowed
c - Is snowing
284) We haven't seen the new Harry Potter film ...
a - Yet
b - Already
c - Still
285) It's late and Juan is ...........in bed.
a - Already
462
b - Still
c - Yet
286) I think that "The Pillars of the Earth " is .........book I have read in my life.
a - The best
b - Best than
c - The better
287) If I were you, I .............work in that bank anymore.
a - Would
b - Wouldn't
c - Can
288) Come on, boys. We .........win them this time.
a - Must
b - Have to
c - Have
289) She is very pretty but my girlfriend is ........
a - Prettier
b - Prettiest
c - The pretty
290) I was listening to the news ...........TV when the baby began to scream.
a - On
b - In
c - At
291) This is the boy........father is the President of "The Moros Musulmanes ".
a - Whose
b - What
c - Which
292) I ..........to London since 1993.
a - Haven't been
b - Haven't gone
c - Haven't go
293) She doesn't live in Novelda, ...she?
a - Do
b - Does
c - Doesn't
294) It........rain tomorrow.
a - May
b - Must
c - Can
295) I am .............tall as Paco Cabrera.
a - As
b - So
463
c - So as
296) This is the restaurant.........we celebrate our anniversary every year.
a - Where
b - Which
c - What
297) We........some money to buy a new fridge. Can we borrow from you?
a - Need
b - Must
c - May
298) What's your new girlfriend like ?
a - Very nice
b - Very pretty
c - Demanding
299) It's very late and your brother is......
a - Still in bed
b - Still in the bed
c - Already in bed
300) There is......milk in the fridge.
a - No
b - Some
c - Many
301) .........very nice car is a Mercedes.
a - What a
b - How
c - How a
302) I want you to .................to my party.
a - Came
b - Coming
c - Come
303) She gave him four .........of bread.
a - Loafs
b - Loaves
c - Loavings
304) She had .......money that she didn't know what to do.
a - So much
b - So many
c - So
305) He got married on the ...........of May.
a - 3rd
b - 3nd
c - 3st
464
306) My uncle has never been to Jamaica.
a - Neither has mine
b - Neither has me
c - Neither has I
307) I never listen to...radio at night.
a - A
b - The
c - -
308) Why don't you eat..........breakfast?
a - A
b - The
c - -
309) Before......lunch we played ATAJOS.
a - The
b - -
c - A
310) ...........Vinalop is the only river we have.
a - -
b - The
c - A
311) .......wine is good if you drink properly.
a - -
b - The
c - A
312) ........wine from Rioja is my favourite.
a - -
b - The
c - A
313) I went to.......hospital to visit my friend Enrique who had a heart attack.
a - The
b - -
c - A
314) Sarah goes to......church every Sunday with my wife.
a - -
b - The
c - A
315) There is .......which is not very clear in this.
a - Something
b - Anything
c - Nothing
465
316) The indians had many.......
a - Chiefs
b - Chieves
c - Cifs
317) My favourite.........were a ball and the Scalextrix.
a - Toys
b - Toyes
c - Tois
318) A famous English king had six........
a - Wifes
b - Wives
c - Wivess
319) The plural of goose is...
a - Gooses
b - Geese
c - Gees
320) .........live in Elda.
a - Us
b - We
c - Our
321) La casa de Manoli.
a - House's Manoli
b - Manoli's house
c - The manoli's house
322) El coche de mi amigo.
a - The my friend's car
b - My friend's car
c - Car's my friend
323) La casa de los Torres.
a - The Torres' house
b - Torres'ss house
c - The house of Torres'
324) We were.......the theatre last night.
a - In
b - On
c - At
325) I studied ........don Emilio's school from 1968 to 1975.
a - In
b - On
c - At
326) I met her ..........a lecture.
466
a - On
b - In
c - At
327) She studied........Oxford.
a - On
b - At
c - Of
328) She lives.....Oxford.
a - In
b - On
c - At
329) Elda is ......the road to Albacete.
a - In
b - On
c - At
330) I live ......the second floor.
a - In
b - At
c - On
331) I was born......Elda.
a - On
b - In
c - At
332) We have a house......the coast.
a - In
b - On
c - At
333) I met her..........the croosroads.
a - At
b - In
c - On
334) We arrived .......France in 1990.
a - At
b - In
c - On
335) We arrived ........Paris in 1991.
a - At
b - On
c - In
336) ......lunch time we drink coke.
a - In
467
b - On
c - At
337) ......the beginning of the book I didn't like very much.
a - In
b - On
c - At
338) ........first sight I fell in love with her.
a - At
b - In
c - On
339) We became friends.......last.
a - In
b - On
c - At
340) ........Christmas day my family come home.
a - In
b - On
c - At
341) You must be ......time for the plane.
a - In
b - On
c - At
342) Holidays in Spain are.......July to September.
a - For
b - From
c - At
343) All the trains come......Alicante.
a - From
b - For
c - Up
344) We are going .................the cinema tonight.
a - At
b - To
c - In
345) The safest way to travel is.......road.
a - On
b - In
c - By
346) We got.......the bus at 8.00.
a - In
b - On
468
c - By
347) I go to work........foot.
a - In
b - On
c - By
348) Qu forma verbal expresa intencin?
a - Going to
b - Must
c - Need
349) Let.................come.
a - Her
b - She
c - Hers
350) Los advervios de frecuencia se colocan .......del verbo to be.
a - Detrs
b - Delante
c - Cerca
351) The thief........he had robbed all the jewels.
a - Adnited
b - Admitted
c - Admitedd
352) I ................to London in 1987.
a - Go
b - Went
c - Gone
353) She hates.......
a - Wash
b - Washing
c - Washed
354) She never..........lies.
a - Says
b - Tells
c - Speaks
355) ........long have you been studying English?
a - Where
b - How
c - What
356) Novelda is.......than Monvar.
a - Far
b - Further
469
c - Furthest
357) Pepe is .......rich as Manolo.
a - So
b - As
c - Than
358) ..........does she want?
a - Where
b - What
c - Who
359) .......is this old car?
a - Whose
b - Who
c - Whom
360) .........was that pretty girl who was with you in the Plaza Mayor?
a - Who
b - Whose
c - Whom
361) She play tennis.
a - So do she
b - So does she
c - Does she so
362) Are they.........waiting for the doctor?
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
363) I haven't read the book about Garzon......
a - Yet
b - Still
c - Already
364) I haven't written my Christmas cards......
a - Still
b - Yet
c - Already
365) How much is two + three?
a - Five
b - Six
c - Seven
366) We have.................magazines and books about Elda.
a - A lot
b - A lot of
c - Lots
470
367) Good.......
a - Ivining
b - Evening
c - Evenning
368) Thank you very much indeed. -You're.......
a - Welcome
b - Welcomed
c - Welcame
369) .......Christmas Eve we have dinner together.
a - In
b - At
c - On
370) .........way, how is your family?
a - In
b - By
c - Upon
371) You never know........he is happy or sad.
a - Whenever
b - Wheather
c - Whether
372) My factory passed ........the hands of my uncle.
a - In
b - Into
c - To
373) If you ...............worried, tell your mother about it.
a - Were
b - Are
c - Had been
374) If you................earlier tonight, we could go to the cinema.
a - Come
b - Came
c - Comes
375) We never understood......he wanted to say.
a - Who
b - Which
c - What
376) ......mind, I have another one. I will repair it.
a - Never
b - All
c - Both
471
377) If you work for......you will not have to suffer a boss.
a - You
b - Yours
c - Yourself
378) Many people nowadays live by.......
a - Them
b - Themselves
c - Their
379) We enjoyed ..........in our honeymoon.
a - Us
b - Ours
c - Ourselves
380) My friend Toms is a .........driver.
a - Carefully
b - Care
c - Careful
381) He is always very......and sends me a Jabugo ham on November the 30th.
a - Kindly
b - Kaind
c - Kind
382) We never speak..........about our friends.
a - Badder
b - Badly
c - Worse
383) ......Lent people many people don't eat meat.
a - At
b - On
c - In
384) In the middle ....................August we organise many BBQs.
a - From
b - Of
c - On
385) People .......the beach should drink water all the time.
a - In
b - On
c - At
386) We ought not to visit her. She........study.
a - Has
b - Must
c - Have
387) I went for a walk........Castelar Square.
472
a - About
b - Afloat
c - Around
388) ......your mouth close all the time, only answer if the teacher asks you.
a - Keep
b - To keep
c - Keeps
389) My father-in-law arrived...........Alicante airport from Italy yesterday. He
went to Lineapelle.
a - In
b - At
c - On
390) I haven't finished........
a - Yet
b - Already
c - Still
391) If you can't water the plants, I ........do it for you.
a - Would
b - Will
c - Won't
392) All the shoes were........during the shoe fair in Milan.
a - Sell
b - Sold
c - Selling
393) Hallowen is......
a - October 31st
b - October 1rd
c - October 1nd
394) ........faithfully.
a - Your
b - Yours
c - Yourself
395) Everybody..........to make the beds.
a - Has
b - Have
c - To have
396) There are.......good and bad methods of learning a language.
a - All
b - Neither
c - Both
397) No smoking.........be allowed in all the premises.
473
a - Will
b - Shall
c - Is to
398) When my mother was young my grandmother ........look after her.
a - Used
b - Would
c - To
399) Why......you want to buy this? if it is of no use.
a - Shall
b - Will
c - Should
400) He........his wife he had had an affair with her best friend.
a - Said
b - Told
c - Spoke
401) He ...........to the waiter that the wine was not very good.
a - Told
b - Said
c - Sayd
402) Life is not easy. You can never..........what is going to happen.
a - Say
b - Tell
c - Knows
403) "It has been the best day of my life "......my sister.
a - Told
b - Said
c - Gueses
404) It goes without........
a - Telling
b - Saying
c - Explainig
405) ........stupid of him!
a - What
b - How
c - What a
406) I like swimming. -.......too.
a - I
b - My
c - Me
407) ........that Pepe were rich he would not be here.
a - Provides
474
b - Provided
c - Providing
408) It was.............understood by all the students.
a - Easy
b - Easily
c - Easier that
409) The party was.........planned.
a - Wonderfully
b - Wonder
c - Wonderful
410) I don't think so......
a - Personally
b - Personal
c - Personaly
411) The man with the moustache and the golden watch........be his father.
a - Must
b - Can
c - Need
412) Do........home now it's very late!
a - Go
b - To go
c - Goed
413) Why .......him about the accident?
a - To tell
b - Tell
c - Telling
414) I went to the disco.......
a - To dance
b - Dance
c - Dancing
415) Is Real Madrid going to win the league?- I think.......
a - Such
b - So
c - Some
416) .......to speak.
a - So
b - Such
c - As
417) She lives ........
a - The fifth floor
b - On the fifth floor
475
c - On the fivefth floor
418) English people celebrate ..........................twelve days after Christmas' day.
a - Twelfth's night
b - Twelve night
c - Twelves nights
419) He ...................arrive late yesterday.
a - Do
b - Does
c - Did
420) He has...................away because he was a little bit tired.
a - Go
b - Went
c - Gone
421) Before my daughters were born I visited many....................with my wife.
a - Countries
b - Countryes
c - Cauntries
422) Please.......................on the lights.
a - To switch
b - Switch
c - Switching
423) Don't forget ...............the letters.
a - Posted
b - To post
c - Posts
424) The park is......................the hospital.
a - Next
b - Next to
c - Next about
425) Someone has......................the book from the library.
a - Steal
b - Stole
c - Stolen
426) She is always........................friends.
a - Doing
b - Made
c - Making
427) My daughters..................so much noise!
a - Do
b - Make
c - Making
476
428) What are you..................? -Just reading the paper.
a - Making
b - Doing
c - Make
429) I have finished the book.- He said .................finished the book.
a - He has
b - He had
c - He having
430) We always arrive...............
a - Early
b - Earliest
c - The earlier
431) My parents work..............
a - Hard
b - Harder than
c - The hard
432) It .................rain tonight. It is very dark.
a - May
b - Mays
c - Mights
433) At 9.00 am you must say good...................
a - Night
b - Afternoon
c - Morning
434) American people often say..................instead of bye
a - So long
b - So long as
c - As by
435) We eat ...............fish.
a - Many
b - Much
c - Few
436) I smoke..........................cigarettes than before.
a - Few
b - Fewerst
c - Fewer
437) ....................wife's name is Inma.
a - I
b - Me
c - My
477
438) They said he was a ...................teacher.
a - Bored
b - Boring
c - Borerst
439) I was .....................because the film was boring.
a - Boring
b - Borest
c - Bored
440) In a couple of hours the factory was.........
a - Ablaze
b - Ablase
c - Ablasing
441) He always says that ll the Chinese look..................
a - Like
b - Alike
c - Likes
442) His .....................brother works in Per.
a - Elder
b - Old
c - Older
443) Sometimes she drives me.............
a - Madder
b - Mad
c - Madest
444) Many peole are....................during the Moors and Christians Festivities.
a - Drink
b - Drank
c - Drunk
445) The....................age of pop was the 60s.
a - Gold
b - Golgind
c - Golden
446) I have decided .................a new bike.
a - Buying
b - Buy
c - To buy
447) They deserve.......................treated better.
a - Be
b - To be
c - Being
448) You had better...........................the car now. Next year the prices will go up.
478
a - To buy
b - Buy
c - Buying
449) Yo must avoid........................to him.
a - Speaking
b - To speak
c - Speak
450) I don't mind..........................to wait.
a - To have
b - Having
c - Have
451) Qu clase de conjuncin es "so "?
a - Consecutiva
b - Copulativa
c - Adversativa
452) Qu clase de conjuncines son "if, unless, as long as, provided that "?
a - Condicionales
b - Causales
c - Finales
453) Cmo se llaman las palabrass que llevan acento?
a - tonas
b - Tnicas
c - Agudas
454) Cmo se llaman las palabras que no llevan acento?
a - tonas
b - Llanas
c - Esdrjulas
455) Cmo se llaman las palabras que llevan el acento en la ltima silaba?
a - Agda
b - Llana
c - Esdrjula
456) Cmo se denominan a los verbos ser y estar?
a - Transitivos
b - Copulativos
c - Modales
457) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Paul
b - John
c - Four
458) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
479
a - Had
b - Head
c - Said
459) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Pen
b - Bed
c - Pan
460) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - At
b - Art
c - Hat
461) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Pat
b - Match
c - Part
462) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Shop
b - Sport
c - Fox
463) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Full
b - Fool
c - Pull
464) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Bat
b - But
c - Cup
465) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Run
b - Rung
c - Sank
466) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Heard
b - Turn
c - Debt
467) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Place
b - Plays
c - Prize
468) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Bus
480
b - Once
c - Buzz
469) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Seat
b - Sell
c - Shell
470) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Thin
b - Sin
c - Thing
471) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Ham
b - Hum
c - Bun
472) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Was
b - Wash
c - Ship
473) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Swan
b - Bald
c - Ball
474) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Want
b - Wallet
c - Salt
475) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Scar
b - Party
c - Dollar
476) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Daughter
b - Fault
c - Because
477) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Beans
b - Bread
c - Dead
478) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Dry
b - Big
481
c - City
479) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
a - Bore
b - Canoe
c - Shoe
480) Yes, they........interesting books.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
481) I...........a teacher.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
482) You.........the limit.
a - Are
b - Is
c - Am
483) I ....................tall.
a - Is
b - Am
c - Are
484) Horacio ......in Elche.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
485) I.........in the classroom.
a - Am
b - Is
c - Are
486) You.....................tall.
a - Is
b - Are
c - Am
487) Tres.
a - Zrui
b - Tree
c - Three
488) Cinco.
a - Faif
b - Five
c - Fife
482
489) Diez.
a - Tenn
b - Tent
c - Ten
490) Trece.
a - Thirten
b - Therteen
c - Thirteen
491) Diecisis.
a - Sixten
b - Sisteen
c - Sixteen
492) Diecisiete.
a - Seventeen
b - Seventen
c - Seveteen
493) Madre.
a - Sister
b - Daugher
c - Mother
494) Abuelo.
a - Father in law
b - Grandfather
c - Granparentes
495) Abuela.
a - Motherold
b - Grandmother
c - Mother inlaw
496) Hija.
a - Daughter
b - Sister
c - Mother
497) Pariente.
a - Relative
b - Parent
c - Parenting
498) Chaleco.
a - Coat
b - Waistcoat
c - Tie
483
499) Vaqueros.
a - Jins
b - Jeans
c - Troussers
500) Macarena lives........Ronda.
a - In
b - On
c - At
484
Soluciones
1. A 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. A 6. A 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. A 11. A 12. A 13. C
14. B 15. A 16. C 17. A 18. C 19. A 20. B 21. B 22. A 23. B 24. A 25. B 26. C
27. B 28. A 29. A 30. B 31. B 32. B 33. A 34. C 35. B 36. B 37. B 38. C 39. A
40. A 41. A 42. B 43. A 44. A 45. A 46. B 47. A 48. B 49. A 50. A 51. B 52. A
53. C 54. C 55. C 56. A 57. C 58. B 59. C 60. A 61. A 62. C 63. B 64. C 65. A
66. C 67. C 68. C 69. B 70. B 71. B 72. C 73. C 74. C 75. B 76. B 77. B 78. A
79. B 80. A 81. B 82. A 83. B 84. B 85. A 86. B 87. A 88. B 89. A 90. A 91. B
92. A 93. B 94. B 95. B 96. A 97. C 98. B 99. A 100. A 101. B 102. A 103. B 104. B
105. A 106. A 107. A 108. A 109. A 110. A 111. A 112. A 113. A 114. B 115. C 116. C 117. A
118. A 119. A 120. C 121. B 122. B 123. C 124. C 125. C 126. C 127. B 128. C 129. A 130. B
131. C 132. A 133. C 134. A 135. B 136. C 137. C 138. A 139. A 140. A 141. B 142. B 143. C
144. A 145. C 146. B 147. A 148. B 149. C 150. B 151. C 152. A 153. B 154. B 155. A 156. B
157. A 158. C 159. A 160. C 161. C 162. C 163. A 164. A 165. C 166. B 167. C 168. B 169. C
170. A 171. A 172. C 173. B 174. C 175. A 176. B 177. A 178. B 179. B 180. B 181. C 182. B
183. A 184. C 185. B 186. C 187. C 188. A 189. B 190. C 191. C 192. B 193. C 194. B 195. A
196. A 197. A 198. C 199. B 200. B 201. C 202. B 203. A 204. A 205. C 206. B 207. B 208. C
209. A 210. B 211. A 212. C 213. A 214. B 215. C 216. A 217. A 218. A 219. C 220. A 221. A
222. C 223. C 224. B 225. C 226. A 227. A 228. B 229. B 230. B 231. A 232. B 233. B 234. C
235. A 236. A 237. B 238. A 239. B 240. A 241. C 242. B 243. C 244. C 245. A 246. C 247. A
248. B 249. A 250. B 251. C 252. A 253. A 254. B 255. B 256. A 257. C 258. C 259. B 260. A
261. C 262. A 263. C 264. C 265. C 266. B 267. A 268. A 269. A 270. A 271. C 272. C 273. B
274. C 275. B 276. A 277. A 278. A 279. B 280. C 281. B 282. C 283. A 284. A 285. B 286. A
287. B 288. A 289. A 290. A 291. A 292. A 293. B 294. A 295. A 296. A 297. A 298. B 299. A
300. A 301. A 302. C 303. A 304. A 305. A 306. A 307. B 308. C 309. B 310. B 311. A 312. B
313. A 314. A 315. A 316. A 317. A 318. B 319. B 320. B 321. B 322. B 323. A 324. C 325. C
326. C 327. B 328. A 329. B 330. C 331. B 332. B 333. A 334. B 335. C 336. C 337. C 338. A
339. C 340. B 341. A 342. B 343. A 344. B 345. C 346. B 347. B 348. A 349. A 350. A 351. B
352. B 353. B 354. B 355. B 356. B 357. B 358. B 359. A 360. A 361. B 362. A 363. A 364. B
365. A 366. B 367. B 368. A 369. C 370. B 371. C 372. B 373. B 374. B 375. C 376. A 377. C
378. B 379. C 380. C 381. C 382. B 383. A 384. B 385. B 386. B 387. C 388. A 389. B 390. A
391. B 392. B 393. A 394. B 395. A 396. C 397. B 398. B 399. C 400. B 401. B 402. B 403. B
404. B 405. B 406. C 407. B 408. B 409. A 410. A 411. A 412. A 413. B 414. A 415. B 416. A
417. B 418. A 419. C 420. C 421. A 422. B 423. B 424. B 425. C 426. C 427. B 428. B 429. B
430. A 431. A 432. A 433. C 434. A 435. B 436. C 437. C 438. B 439. C 440. A 441. B 442. A
443. B 444. C 445. C 446. C 447. B 448. B 449. A 450. B 451. A 452. A 453. B 454. 455. A
456. B 457. B 458. A 459. C 460. B 461. C 462. B 463. B 464. A 465. C 466. C 467. A 468. C
469. C 470. C 471. A 472. A 473. A 474. C 475. C 476. C 477. A 478. A 479. A 480. B 481. B
482. A 483. B 484. B 485. A 486. B 487. C 488. B 489. C 490. C 491. C 492. A 493. C 494. B
495. B 496. A 497. A 498. B 499. B 500. A