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CASE 1: Reengineering at IBM Corporation

IBM Credit Corporation provides financial services to IBM Computers, software and services.
The process was designed to handle difficult applications and required four highly trained
specialists and a series of hand offs, assuming that every application was unique and difficult to
process. The actual work took only 1 to 5 hours; the rest of the time was spent in transit or delay.
Most of the time the process took about 7 hours.
CASE 2: Reengineering at insurance company
When the customer called the home office about an insurance problem, the call was taken by the
incoming calls department. The problem was entered into the computer and passed electronically
to one of the several departments: accounting, policy service, loans and etc. The problem was
waited in line, often for several days until a clerk had time to check it out. In some cases, the
customers problem had been routed to the wrong department and had to be routed to another
department again taking several days in the queue. If the problem required more than one
department to answer the question, the process of waiting was repeated .Finally someone in the
customer service would get back to the customer after several weeks. In many cases, the original
question was not completely answered or answered wrongly.
CASE 3: Reengineering at Pepsi Cola
Certain routes experienced stock-outs of as much as 25 percent of the products by the end of the
day. Many other routes would return with overstock increasing the handling costs.
CASE 4: Reengineering at Ford Motor
Ford Motor Company is the worlds second largest manufacturer of cars and trucks with
products sold in more than 200 markets. The company employs nearly 400,000 people
worldwide, and has grown to offer consumers eight of the worlds most recognizable automotive
brands. In the early 1980s, when the American automotive industry was in a depression, Fords
top management put accounts payable- along with many other departments- under the
microscope in search of ways to cut costs. Accounts payable in North America alone employed
more than 500 people.
Ford was enthusiastic about its plan to tighten accounts payable- until it looked at Mazda. While
Ford was aspiring to a 400-person department, Mazdas accounts payable organization consisted
of a total of 5 people. The difference in absolute numbers was astounding, and even after
adjusting for Mazdas smaller size, Ford figured that its accounts payable organization was five
times the size it should be.
The existing system in Fords purchasing department wrote a purchasers order, it sent a copy of
the receiving document to accounts payable. Meanwhile, the vendor sent an invoice to accounts
payable. It was up to accounts payable, then, to match the purchase order against the receiving
document and the invoice. If they matched, the department issued payment. The department
spent most of its time on mismatches, instances where the purchase order, receiving document,
and invoice disagreed. In these cases, an accounts payable clerk would investigate the
discrepancy, hold up payment.
IBM Credit corporation was able to replace the specialist by a single individual supported
by a user friendly computer system that provided access to all the data and tools
This process was reengineered by completely reorganizing the entire insurance operation
around customer services representatives who would handle the customers request on
the phone, using detailed computer protocols.
The customer service representative checked with other specialists and got back to the
customer within 3 to 4 days.
This greatly improved the speed and accuracy of the service while saving millions of
It also provided a single point of contact and less hassle for the customer.
By redesigning the system to computers, the customer representatives could confirm and
deliver that days order and also take a future order for the next delivery to that customer.
Rationalizing processes and installing new computer systems, it could reduce the head
To prevent the mismatches, Ford instituted invoice less processing.
When the purchasing department initiates an order, it enters the information into an on-
line database. It doesnt send a copy of the purchase order to anyone. When the goods
arrive at the receiving dock, the receiving clerk checks the database to see if they
correspond to an outstanding purchase order.
If so, he or she accepts them and enters the transaction into the computer system. (If
receiving cant find a database entry for the received goods, it simply returns the order.)
Under the old procedures, the accounting department had to match 14 data items between
the receipt record, the purchase order, and the invoice before it could issue payment to
the vendor.
The new approach requires matching only three items- part number, unit of measure, and
supplier code- between the purchase order and the receipt record.
The matching is done automatically, and the computer prepares the check, which
accounts payable sends to the vendor.
The new process cuts head count in accounts payable by 75%, eliminates invoices and
improves accuracy. Matching is computerized

General Example
GEMA Global Engineering Manufacturing Alliance.
Completed automated. 275 employees in place of 600-2000.
Cultureanyone can do any work ,anytime ,anywhere.
Electronic screens alerts on replacing spare parts.
MBO managers ,TL ,Engineers ,same uniform ,shop floor .SELF