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Sprinting
The sprints include the following track events: 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres, 4 x 100 metre relay and the 4
x 400 metre relay. Although the sprints are events in themselves, the ability to sprint is an important weapon in an
athlete's armoury for many track and field events and many sports.
Sprint Technique
Guidance on the sprint technique takes the form of a checklist, for each phase of the sprint, of points for the coach
to monitor. The information provided here is for athletes using starting blocks. For details of standing or crouch
starts see the sprints start page.
Pre race start
Blocks correctly positioned in the lane (200 metres/400 metres at a tangent to the
curve)
Correct distances from the start line to the front and rear blocks
Foot blocks at the correct angles
Blocks firmly located in the track
Athlete relaxed and focused on the race
On your marks
Feet correctly located in the blocks
Fingers behind the line
Fingers form a high bridge
Hands evenly positioned slightly wider than shoulder width
Shoulders back and vertically above or slightly forward of the
hands
Arms straight but not locked at the elbows
Head and neck in line with the spine
Eyes focused on the track (1 to 2 metres ahead)
Gentle breathing
Face and neck muscles relaxed
Set
Hold the breath
Hips rise slowly to a position above the shoulders
Head and neck in line with the spine
Eyes focused on the track one or two metres ahead
Shoulders vertically above or slightly forward of the hands
Front leg knee angle approx. 90 degrees
Rear leg knee angle approx. 120 degrees
Feet pushed hard back into the blocks
B of the Bang
Exhale
Drive the arms hard
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Extend the whole body so there is a straight line through the head, spine and
extended rear leg - body approx. 45 degree angle to the ground
Eyes Focused on the track 2 to 3 metres
Run out of the blocks - do not step or jump out of the blocks
Drive Phase (0-30m)
Drive the back leg forward keeping the heel low until the
shin is approx 45 to the ground and then drive the foot
down (see picture to the right) hitting the ground just
behind the body's centre of mass
Over the next 7-8 strides (approx. 10 metres) the angle of
shin of the front leg, before it is driven down, will increase
by 6-7/stride so that by the 7-8 stride the shin is vertical
Over the first 7-8 strides the whole body angle will increase
from 45 to approx. 30 degrees - approx. 2/step
After the first 7-8 strides you will be at approx.70% of your max velocity
Eyes focused on the track to keep low to allow the build up of speed
Forward lean of the whole body with a straight line through the head, spine and
extended rear leg
Face and neck muscles relaxed (no tension)
Shoulders held back and relaxed, square in the lane at all times
Arms move with a smooth forward backward action - not across the body - drive
back with elbows - hands move from approx. shoulder height to hips
Elbows maintained at 90 degrees (angle between upper and lower arm)
Hands Relaxed - fingers loosely curled - thumb uppermost
Legs - fully extended rear leg pushing off the track with the toes - drive the leg
forward with a high knee action with the knee pointing forward and with the heel
striking under the backside (not the back of the backside as the knee is low and
pointing down to the ground) - extend lower leg forward of knee (rear leg drive will
propel the foot forward of the knee) with toes turned up - drive the foot down in a
claw action with a ball of foot/toe strike on the track vertically below the knee - pull
the ground under you into a full rear leg extension - (elbow drive assisting the whole
action)
On the ball of foot/toes at all times - feet pointing forward straight down the lane
Elbow drive commences just before rear leg drive
Fast leg action, good stride length allowing continual acceleration
Appearance of being smooth and relaxed but driving hard with elbows and legs
The drive is maintained for first 20-30 metres (approx.16-17 strides) at the end of
which the body is tall with a slight forward lean
At the end of this phase you will be at approx. 90% of your max velocity
Stride Phase (30-60m)
Smooth transitions from drive phase to stride phase
Eyes focused at the end of the lane - tunnel vision
Head in line with the spine - held high and square
Face relaxed - jelly jaw - no tension - mouth relaxed
Chin down, not out
Shoulders held down (long neck), back (not hunched), relaxed and square in the
lane at all times
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Smooth forward backward action of the arms- not across the body - drive back with
elbows - brush vest with elbows - hands move from shoulder height to hips for men
and from bust height to hips for the ladies
Elbows held at 90 degrees at all times (angle between upper arm and lower arm)
Hands relaxed - fingers loosely curled - thumb uppermost
Hips tucked under - slight forward rotation of the hip with forward leg drive to help
extend the stride
Legs - fully extended rear leg pushing off the track with the toes - drive the leg
forward with a high knee action with the knee pointing forward and with the heel
striking under the backside (not the back of the backside as the knee is low and
pointing down to the ground) - extend lower leg forward of knee (rear leg drive will
propel the foot forward of the knee) with toes turned up, stepping over the knee of
the lead leg - drive the foot down in a claw action with a ball of foot/toe strike on the
track just behind the body's centre of mass - pull the ground under you into a full
rear leg extension - (elbow drive assisting the whole action)
On the ball of foot/toes with the feet pointing forward straight down the lane
No signs of straining or tension in the face, neck and shoulders
Appearance of being Tall, Relaxed and Smooth with maximum Drive
See the sprint technique photo sequence
At or close to the end of this phase you will have reached your max velocity
Lift Phase (60m+)
Around 50-60 metres we will have reached max velocity and now we start to slow down. Technique as the Stride
Phase but with emphasis on:
High knee action (prancing)
Leg action fast and light as if running on hot surface
Fast arms - more urgency
Hands slightly higher at the front
Coaching Notes
As you monitor the athlete's technique look for:
a Tall action
o This means erect, running on the ball of foot/toes (not heels) with full
extension of the back, hips and legs as opposed to 'sitting down' when
running
a Relaxed action
o This means move easily, as opposed to tensing and 'working hard' to move.
Let the movements of running flow. Keep the hands relaxed, the shoulders
low and the arm swing rhythmically by the sides.
a Smooth action
o This means float across the top of the ground. All motion should be forward,
not up and down. Leg action should be efficient and rhythmic. The legs should
move easily under the body like a wheel rolling smoothly along.
Drive
o This means push from an extended rear leg, rear elbow drive with a high
forward knee drive followed by a strike and claw foot action just behind the
body's centre of gravity.
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Sprint Starts
Canadian researchers, Sleivert and Taingahue (2004)
[1]
, investigated the relationship between sprint
start performance and selected conditioning training. When a sprinter leaves the blocks, the drive against the
blocks and the first few steps rely on concentric muscular strength. A concentric muscle contraction occurs when a
muscle shortens as it contracts.
A squat jump is an example of concentric muscle contraction which simulates the sprint start. 4 sets of 3
repetitions with a loading of 30-70% of 1RM can be used to develop maximal concentric force.
Lower into the squat position, hold for 1 to 2 seconds so as switch off the stretch/reflex, stretch/shortening cycle
and to allow for a more powerful contraction. Developing concentric muscle contraction will help the athlete's sprint
start and acceleration over the first 4 or 5 strides.
Right foot forward or left?
A question often asked with regards starting blocks is "which foot should be in the rear block?" A team of
researchers, Eikenberry et al. (2008)
[2]
, discovered that when the:
left foot was in the rear block, reaction time was better
right foot was in the rear block movement and total response time was better - time
from stimulus (gun) until the end of the movement
The results suggest that the right foot in the rear block will produce a more powerful drive from the blocks.
Perhaps a way forward would be to evaluate the athlete's times over the first ten metres, for both start positions,
to determine which produces the best acceleration phase for the athlete.
Stride Length
The initial foot strike out of the blocks should be around 50-60cm from the start line. The stride length should then
progressively increase on each stride by 10-15cm until they reach their optimal stride length of around 2.30
metres.
If the athlete lands at 50cm from the start line and increases their stride length by 10cm/stride then they will reach
their optimal stride length around their 19th stride - approx 26m from the start line. If they were able to maintain
their 2.30m stride length then they would cross the finish line on their 51st stride.
If the athlete lands at 60cm from the start line and increases their stride length by 15cm/stride then they will reach
their optimal stride length around their 13th stride - approx. 20m from the start line. If they were able to maintain
their 2.30m stride length then they would cross the finish line on their 49th stride.
Rehearsal of this acceleration phase should be conducted regularly. Markers can be placed at the side of the track
to assist the athlete to get the feel of the increasing stride length and acceleration. The marker settings for an
athlete who lands at 60cm from the start line and then increases their stride length by 15cm/stride are as follows:
0.60m, 1.35m, 2.25m, 3.30m, 4.50m, 5.85m, 7.35m, 9.00m, 10.80m, 12.75m, 14.85m, 17.10m. (Saunders
2004)
[3]
.
Acceleration Training
Zafeiridis et al. (2005)
[4]
looked at weighted sledge training and their effect on sprint acceleration and they
concluded that training with a weighted sledge will help improve the athlete's acceleration phase. The session used
in the research was 4 x 20m and 4 x 50m maximal effort runs.
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Lockie et al. (2003)
[5]
> investigated the effects of various loadings and concluded that when using a sledge a light
weight of approx. 10-15% of body weight should be used so that the dynamics of the acceleration technique are
not negatively effected.
Starts over 10-20 metres performed on a slight incline of around five degrees have an important conditioning effect
on the calf, thigh and hip muscles (they have to work harder because of the incline to produce movement) that will
improve sprint acceleration.
Sprinting Speed
Downhill sprinting is a method of developing sprinting speed following the acceleration phase. A hill with a
maximum of a 15 decline is most suitable. Use 40 metres to 60 metres to build up to full speed and then maintain
the speed for a further 30 metres. A session could comprise of 2 to 3 sets of 3 to 6 repetitions. The difficulty with
this method is to find a suitable hill with a safe surface.
Over speed work could be carried out on the track when there are prevailing strong winds - run with the wind
behind you.
Research by Mero et al. (1998)
[6]
indicates that an elite sprint athlete's foot contact time with the track is 0.08 to
0.1 seconds so it is important with plyometric training that each ground contact (approx. 1/10 of a second) is made
as dynamically as possible. Bounding, hopping and depth jumps from low heights (30cm) can play a role in
speeding up ground contact times, triggering the appropriate neural pathways and recruiting fast twitch muscle
fibres. Example sessions for a mature athlete are:
4 x 10 bounds with a 20m run out
4 x 10 speed hops
Depth jumps off 40cm box:
4 x 4 step off, land and jump for height
4 x 4 step off, land and jump for distance
Repetitions, sets and recovery should be adjusted so as to focus on the quality of execution not quantity of
executions.
Training Programs
A training program has to be developed to meet the individual needs of the athlete and take into consideration
many factors: gender, age, strengths, weaknesses, objectives, training facilities etc. As all athletes have different
needs a single program suitable for all athletes is not possible.
Athletes in the Event Group stage
The following is a basic annual training program suitable for athletes in the Event Group development stages for
the sprint and hurdle events.
Sprint and hurdle training program
Athletes in the Event stage
The following are event specific annual training programs suitable for athletes in the Event development stage:
100 metres
200 metres
300 metres
400 metres
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Training Methods
The various forms of training include:
Speed
Speed endurance
Specific endurance - consists of intervals at your goal pace, but not so long as to
replicate the entire race
Special endurance - the aim is to develop the capacity for maintaining maximal or
near maximal velocity
Intensive tempo - runs completed at 75-95% effort with the aim of overloading the
lactic energy system
Extensive tempo - slower version of intensive tempo where we try to avoid the build
up of lactic
Resisted sprints - uphill running, running with a sledge or tyre, running into a
headwind
Assisted sprints - downhill running, running with the wind
Developing the Energy Systems
The following table, Rogers (2000)
[7]
, indicates the types of training exercises that can be used to develop the
sprinter's energy systems and can be used to guide you in the preparation of training programs.
Energy System Type of training Distance Speed Recovery Total distance
Aerobic Power Extensive Tempo >100m 60-70% 30-90 sec 1400-3000m
Aerobic Capacity Extensive Tempo >200m 70-80% 30-90 sec 1400-2000m
Aerobic & Anaerobic Intensive Tempo >80m 80-90% 30-120 sec 800-1800m
Anaerobic Speed 20-80m 90-95% 3-5 min 300-800m
Alactic Speed 20-80m 95-100% 3-5 min 300-500m
Anaerobic Speed Endurance 30-80m 90-95% 1-2 min 300-800m
Alactic Speed Endurance 30-80m 95-100% 2-3 min 300-800m
Anaerobic Speed Endurance 80-150m 90-95% 5-6 min 300-900m
Glycolytic Speed Endurance 80-150m 95-100% 6-10 min 300-600m
Anaerobic Special Endurance 150-300m 90-95% 10-12 min 600-1200m
Glycolytic Special Endurance 150-300m 95-100% 12-15 min 300-900m
Lactic acid tolerance Special Endurance 300-600m 90-95% 15-20 min 600-900m
Weight Training
The following is an example weight training program for a sprinter.
Phase Loading Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
General 3 sets 12 RM
Squats
Step Ups
Bench Press
Dumbbell Arm
Lunges
Single leg squats
Bench Press
Power Cleans
Squats
Step Ups
Bench
Press
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swings Snatch
Specific
Power Cleans & Snatch
3 sets 10RM

Other exercises
3 sets of 5 reps at
10RM
Power Cleans
Bench Press
Step Ups
Dumbbell Arm
swings
Snatch
Bench Press
Single leg squats
Lunges with
dumbbells
Dumbbell Arm
swings
Squats
Bench
Press
Competition 3 sets of 5 reps at 8RM
Power Cleans
Bench Press
Step Ups
Dumbbell Arm
swings
Snatch
Bench Press
Single leg squats
Lunges with
dumbbells
Dumbbell Arm
swings
Rest


100 metres Training
A training program has to be developed to meet the individual needs of the athlete and take into consideration
many factors: gender, age, strengths, weaknesses, objectives, training facilities etc. As all athletes have different
needs, a single program suitable for all athletes is not possible. The program supplied here is just an example and
will require updates to meet your specific aims and objectives.
Prior to starting any training, it is recommended you have a medical examination to ensure it is safe for you to do
so.
Overview of a Training Program
The seasons training plan is based on six phases where each phase comprises of a repeated four week program.
The workload in the first three weeks of the four week program increase each week (easy, medium, hard) and the
fourth week comprises of active recovery and tests to monitor training progress. The aim of the four week cycles is
to:
Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks)
Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
Build you up to higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
Build you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
and so on
Remember a training program is athlete specific and the results of the tests in the fourth week can be used to
adjust the training in the next four week cycle to address any limitations.
The content and quantity of training in each week and phase will depend on many factors. The page
on Planning provides an insight into the process of data gathering and preparing training programs.
Developing the Energy Systems (100m)
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The following table, Winkler & Gambetta (1987)
[1]
, indicates the types of training volumes that can be used to
develop the 100 meter sprinter'senergy systems and can be used to guide you in the preparation of training
programs.
Type of Training Component Distance % PB
Recovery
Rep/Set
Total Distance
Extensive Tempo Aerobic capacity >200m <70% <45"/<2' 1400-3000
Extensive Tempo Aerobic power >100m 70-80% 30-90"/2-3' 1400-1800
Intensive Tempo Lactic capacity >80m 80-90% 30"-5'/3'-10' 800-1800
Speed Anaerobic power 20-80m 90-95% 3-5'/6-8' 300-800
Speed Alactic power 20-80m 95-100% 3-5'/6-8' 300-500
Speed Anaerobic capacity 30-80m 90-95% 1-2'/5-7' 300-800
Speed Alactic power 30-80m 95-100% 2-3'/7-19' 300-800
Speed Endurance Glycolytic capacity <80m 90-95% 1'/3-4' 300-800
Speed Endurance Glycolytic power <80m 95-100% 1'/4' 300-800
Speed Endurance Anaerobic capacity 80-150m 90-95% 5'-6' 300-900
Speed Endurance Lactic power 80-150m 95-100% 6'-10' 300-600
Special Endurance I Anaerobic capacity 150-300m 90-95% 10'-12' 600-900
Special Endurance I Anaerobic power 150-300m 95-100% 12'-15' 300-900
Special Endurance II Lactic capacity 300-600m 90-95% 15'-20' 600-900
Special Endurance II Lactic power 300-600m 95-100% 15'-20' 300-600
Example Training Plan & Programs
The objective of each phase, with links to examples of a season's training plan and four week training programs for
phases 1, 2 and 3, are as follows:
Training Plan - General overview of the season by phases
Phase 1 - General development of strength, mobility, endurance and basic technique
Phase 2 - Development of specific fitness and advanced technical skills
Phase 3 - Competition experience - achievement of qualification times for main
competition
Phase 4 - Adjustment of technical model, preparation for the main competition
Phase 5 - Competition experience and achievement of outdoor objectives
Phase 6 - Active recovery - planning preparation for next season
The content of the four week programs in phases four and five depends very much on the athletes progress and
competition races. Your aim in these phases is to address any limitations the athlete may have in order to bring
him/her to a peak of performance for the major competition in phase five.
Training Activities
The following are links to the appropriate page for the activities identified on the training programs.
Circuit Training
Conditioning Leg
Conditioning Lower leg
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Conditioning Upper Body
Evaluation and performance tests
Plyometrics
Stretching Exercises
Warm up and cool down
Weight Training
Training Pace
The times for both the male and female athletes in the final of the 1992 Olympics 100 metres indicates that the
first 20 metres of the race took approx. 30% of their race time and that the remaining time was evenly spread
over the remaining 80 metres.
As 20 metres equals 30% (0.3) so the remaining 80 metres equals 70% (0.7) of the race time. As 80 metres
equals 0.7 so one metre equals 0.7 80 which is 0.00875 of the race time/metre. Based on this information the
time for a distance, between 20 and 100 metres, can be determined using the following algorithm:
Time=(0.00875tpb x (distance-20) ) + 0.3tpb
In the example 100 metre training program the effort the athlete is to apply to each session is indicated in terms of
a percentage of the athlete's target personal best (tpb). e.g. 6 x 60 metres at 80% of 100 metres tpb. If the
athlete's 100 metre tpb is 10.7 seconds then what time should he/she run the 60 metres sessions?
100% pace time = 0.00875 x 10.7 x (60-20) + 0.3 x 10.7
100% pace time = 6.96 seconds
80% pace time = 6.96 x 100 80 = 8.7 seconds
Each of the 60 metre runs should be completed in 8.7 seconds

Sprint Technique Drills
There is no doubt that time spent on warming up and cooling down will improve an athlete's level of performance
and accelerate the recovery process needed before training or competing again. An element of the warm up
program should include event specific drills to stimulate the appropriate neuromuscular action for the range of
movement and correct posture.
Drills should be conducted wearing trainers and not spikes. In all the drills, the coach/athlete should ensure a tall
and relaxed posture with a correct range of movement of the arms. Check for
Eyes focused at the end of the lane - tunnel vision
Head in line with the spine - held high and square
Face relaxed - jelly jaw - no tension - mouth relaxed
Chin down, not out
Shoulders down (long neck) relaxed and square in the lane at all times
Back straight (not hunched)
Abdominals braced (not tummy pulled in)
Smooth forward backward action of the arms - not across the body - drive back with
elbows - brush vest with elbows - hands move from shoulder height to hips for men
and from bust height to hips for the ladies
Elbows held at 90 degrees at all times (angle between upper arm and lower arm)
Hands relaxed - fingers loosely curled - thumb uppermost
10

Hips remain stable during execution of drills
General sprint drills
The following are an example of general sprint drills.
Walking on Toes
Aims - develop balance and strengthen the lower leg muscles (reduce shin splints)
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - walking on the balls of the feet - free leg to be lifted so that the thigh is
parallel with the ground, lower leg vertical and the toes dorsi flexed (this end
position can be held for a second or two to develop balance and a feel of the free leg
position)
Walking on Heels
Aims - develop balance and strengthen the lower leg muscles (reduce shin splints)
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - walking on the heels of the feet - free leg to be lifted so that the thigh is
parallel with the ground, lower leg vertical and the toes dorsi flexed (this end
position can be held for a second or two to develop balance and a feel of the free leg
position)
Sprint Arm Action
Aims - develop shoulder muscle power and endurance
Amount - 10 to 20 seconds
Action - assume the lunge position, brace abdominals, maintain a straight back, fast
sprint arm action
Leg Cycling
Aims - develop correct leg sprint action and strengthen hamstring muscles
Amount - 10 to 20 seconds on each leg
Action - stand next to a wall or rail that you can hold to maintain balance, stand tall,
brace the abdominals, stand on the leg nearest the wall, lift the thigh of the other leg
so it is parallel with the ground, the lower leg vertical and toes dorsiflexed, sweep
the leg down and under your body, pull the heel up into the buttocks, cycle the leg
though to the front, pull toes up, bring upper thigh through to be parallel with the
ground, extend the lower leg and commence the next cycle
Leg drives
Aims - develop hip flexor strength and speed
Amount - 10 to 20 seconds for each leg
Action - stand facing a wall with your hands on the wall at chest height, position your
feet so that the body is straight and at 45 degrees to the wall, keep you neck in line
with your spine (head up), bring one leg up so the thigh is parallel with the ground,
lower leg vertical and toes dorsiflexed (starting position), drive the foot down
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towards the ground, as the toes make contact with the ground, quickly pull the foot
up and return the leg to its starting position
Butt Kicks
Aims - develop correct leg sprint action in the mid section following the drive off the
rear leg
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - fast leg movement on the balls of the feet - drive the knee up and bring the
heel to the underside of the backside and the thigh parallel with the ground
Skips
Aims - to develop correct leg and foot action in preparation for the foot strike
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - skipping on the balls of the feet - free leg to be lifted so that the thigh is
parallel with the ground, lower leg vertical and the toes dorsi flexed
Side strides crossover
Aims - to increase flexibility and range of hip movement
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - steady jog sideways on the balls of the feet - right leg across the front of left
leg, left leg across the back of the right leg, right leg across the back of the left leg,
left leg across the front of right leg and repeat this sequence.
Skip and clap
Aims - to increase flexibility and range of horizontal leg movement
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - skip on the balls of the feet - bring the whole leg up so it is horizontal with
the ground, toes dorsi flexed and at the same time clap the hands together under
the leg. The arms then come back up to the side to form a crucifix.
Skip Claw
Aims - to develop the claw action of the leading leg
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - skip on the balls of the feet - bring the whole leg up so it is horizontal with
the ground, toes dorsi flexed and then pull the lower leg down so that the ball of the
foot claws the ground pulling you forward
Skip for height
Aims - to develop rear leg drive
Amount - two repetitions over 20 to 30 metres
Action - skipping on the balls of the feet - emphasis is on the rear leg drive and drive
back of the elbow - free leg to be lifted so that the thigh is parallel with the ground,
lower leg vertical and the toes dorsi flexed
12

Plyometric work
Leg Plyometric drills can be include as appropriate e.g. single leg hopping, bounding, bunny hops, tuck jumps - one
set of 5 to 10 repetitions (aim for quality not quantity)
Chest pass
Aims - develop shoulder and chest strength and speed
Amount - 10 to 20 seconds
Action - stand approximately 2 metres away and facing a wall, hold a light medicine
ball (2-5kg) in your hands on its sides, knees relaxed, brace abdominals, keep back
straight, push the ball powerfully away against the wall, meet the rebound with bent
arms and hands ready to immediately push the ball back (do not catch then push
back)
Speed Hops
Aims - develop reactive ability of your leg muscles
Amount - 10 to 20 seconds on each leg
Action - brace abdominals, keep back straight, look forward (not down), hop on the
spot keeping the legs relatively straight (knees not locked), as the ball of the foot
lands push explosively back up, minimise knee bend on landing
Speed Hops Leg Cycling
Aims - develop fast sprint leg cycling action - see Leg Cycling exercise above
Amount - 5 to hops on each leg
Action - brace abdominals, keep back straight, look forward (not down), hop forward
on one leg, pull the heel up into the buttocks, cycle the leg though to the front, pull
toes up, bring upper thigh through to be parallel with the ground, extend the lower
leg and land on the ball of the foot, immediately explode back up and commence the
next cycle
Run outs
Aims - to develop a tall, relaxed and smooth sprint action
Amount - six repetitions over 40 metres
Action - tip start and gradually build up of speed over the 40 metres - first two reps
focus on a tall action, next two on tall and relaxed and the last two on tall, relaxed
and smooth
Aims - to develop the elbow drive
Amount - three repetitions over 100 metres (60 metres effort + 40 metres run out)
Action - tip start and over the first 30 metres gradually build up the speed and a tall,
relaxed and smooth action - at 30 metres gradually add elbow drive to reach full
sprint speed at 50 metres - maintain the tall, relaxed, smooth and drive action to 60
metres - sprinting through the 60 metres point is essential - gradually slow down
over the next 40 metres