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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon


EEE2314 TRANSMISSION LINES [TIE AND EEE]

Lecturer: Kipyegon Edwin

Transmission line parameters: analysis of distributed line constants. Phase and group
velocities. Dispersive and non-dispersive circuits.
Concept of position angle.
Analysis of current and voltage distribution along a transmission line, reflection coefficient
and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) Lossless line equations.
Lossy short-circuit line.
Measurement of reflection coefficient.
Smith Chart: impedance matching using a stub.
Resonant and anti-resonant lines.
The quality factor of resonant and anti-resonant lines.

Prescribed Text Books
1. David K. Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company(), 2
nd
Edition.
2. William H. Hayt, Jr. & John A. Buck Engineering Electromagnetics, McGraw-Hill
International Edition (2006), 7
th
Edition.

References
1. Grant I.S. & Phillips W.R., Electromagnetism, John Wiley & Sons Ltd (1976).
2. Joseph A. Edminister, Schaums Outline Series of Theory and Problems of
Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd (1993),2
nd
Edition.
3. Ashutosh Pramanik, Electromagnetism Theory and Applications, PHI Learning Private
Ltd (2008), 2nd Edition.



















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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
INTRODUCTION
- A transmission line consists of two or more parallel conductors used to transmit electric
energy and signals from one point to another, specifically from a source to a load e.g.
1. The connection between a transmitter and an antenna
2. Connection between computers in a network
3. Connections between a hydroelectric generating plant and substation several hundred
miles away.
4. Interconnection between components of a stereo system
5. Connections between devices on a circuit board designed to operate at a high frequency
- In the transmission line, electromagnetic waves have both the E and H transverse to the
direction of propagation, and are generally referred to as Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM)
waves.
- Most common types of transmission line which support TEM waves are:-
a) Parallel-plate transmission line- it consists of two parallel conducting plates separated
by a dielectric slab of a uniform thickness as shown in Fig.1.1. At microwaves
frequencies, they can be fabricated on a dielectric substrate using printed-circuit
technology and are normally called striplines.


Fig. 1.1 Parallel-plate transmission line

b) Two-wire transmission line -consists of a pair of parallel conducting wires separated by
a uniform distance as shown in Fig. 1.3 e.g. overhead power and telephone line.


Fig. 1.2 Two-line transmission line

c) Coaxial transmission line consists of an inner conductor and a coaxial outer
conducting sheath separated by a dielectric medium as shown in Fig. 1.3a. This structure
has the advantage of confining the electric and magnetic fields entirely within the
dielectric region
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon

Fig. 1.3 Coaxial transmission lines

d) Microstrip line mainly used in integrated circuits where metallic strips connecting
elements are deposited on dielectric substrates. An example is as shown in Fig. 1.3b.

Fig. 1.3b Microstrip line


Transmission line problems are usually solved using EM field theory and electric circuit
theory. Because of simplicity, circuit theory will be used in here.


1. Transverse Electromagnetic Waves along a Parallel-Plate Transmission Line
Consider a y-polarized TEM wave propagating in the +z-direction along uniform
parallel-plate transmission line as shown in Fig. 1.4.


Fig. 1.4 Parallel-plate transmission line
y
x
z
d
w
O

For time-harmonic fields sourceless media, the equation to satisfy is the Helmholtzs
equation
0 E E
2 2
= V [1]
Solution to equ. [1a] for a wave propagating in the z-direction is
z
a a E

= = e E E
0 y y
[2a]
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
As shown the wave is polarized in the y-direction.
The associated H field is obtained as follows
From the equation relating the E and H field i.e.
( ) ( )
z z
a
1
a a
1
E a
1
H

q q q

= = = e E e E
0 x 0 y z n
[2b]
where and are the propagation constants and the intrinsic impedance respectively.
Assuming a perfect conductor and a lossless dielectric, then
c

q = [3]
And
c e | j j = = [4]
The boundary conditions to be satisfied at the dielectric/perfect conductor interfaced are
as follows:
At both 0 y = and d y = :
0 E
t
= [5]
0 H
n
= [6]
which are satisfied because 0 E E
Z x
= = and 0 H
y
=
At 0 y = (lower plate)
y n
a a = :
S
D a = -
y
or
z j
0 y S
|
c c

= = e E E

[7a]
S
J a H =
y
or H a J
y S
=



z j 0
z x z x x y
a a a a
|
q

= = = e
E
H H [8a]
At d y = (upper plate)
y n
a a = :
Su
D a = -
y
or
z j
0 y Su
|
c c

= = e E E [7b]
S
J a H =
y
or H a J
y S
=



z j 0
z x z x x y
a a a a
|
q

= = = e
E
H H [8b]
Equ. (7) and (8) shows that the surface charges and surface currents on the conducting
planes vary sinusoidally with z, as does
y
E and
x
H . This illustrated in Fig. 1.5.
Field phasors E and H in equ. [2a] and [2b] satisfy the two Maxwells curl equations:

H E e j = V [9]
and
E H ec j = V [10]
But since E and H are given by equations [2a] and [2b], then equ. [9] and [10] becomes
x
H j
dz
dE
y
e = [11]
and
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
y
E j
dz
dH
x
ec = [12]

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
+ + + +
+ + + + + + + +
+

y
z
0
s
J
s

Fig. 1.5 Field, charge, and current distribution along a parallel-plate


transmission line
E
H


Integrating equ. [11] over y from 0 to d, have

dy H j dy E
dz
d
x
} }
=
d
0
d
0
y
e
or
| | LI(z) j (z)w J
w
d
j (z)d J j
dz
dV(z)
su su
e e e = |
.
|

\
|
= = [13]
where
(z)d E dy E - V(z)
y
d
0
y
= =
}

is the potential or voltage between the upper and lower plates.

(z)w -J I(z)
su
=
is the total current flowing in the +z direction in the upper plate ( width plate w = ) and

w
d
L = (H/m) [14]
is the inductance per unit length of the parallel-plate transmission line.

Similarly, integrating equ. [12] over x from 0 to w, have
dx E j dx H
dz
d
y
} }
=
w
0
w
0
x
ec
or
| | CV(z) j (z)d E -
d
w
j (z)w E j
dz
dI(z)
y y
e c e ec = |
.
|

\
|
= = [15]
where
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon

d
w
C c = (F/m) [16]
is the capacitance per unit length of the parallel-plate transmission line.
Equations [13] and [15] constitute a pair of time-harmonic transmission-line equations for
phasors V(z) and I(z) .They can be combined to result in a second-order differential
equations for V(z) and for I(z) :
LI(z) j
dz
dV(z)
e =
Differentiating both side with respect to z, have,
dz
dI(z)
L j
dz
V(z) d
2
2
e =
Substituting for CV(z) j
dz
dI(z)
e = from equ. [15],have
LCV(z)
dz
V(z) d
2
2
2
e = [17a]
Similarly,
( ) LCI(z) LI(z) j C j
dz
dV(z)
C j
dz
I(z) d
2
2
2
e e e e = = = [17b]
The solutions of equ. [17a] and [17b] are:

z -j
0
e V V(z)
|
= [18a]

and

z -j
0
e I I(z)
|
= [18b]
where
c e | = = LC (rad/m) [19]
The impedance of the parallel-plate can be obtained as follows:
C
L
I
V
e I
e V
I(z)
V(z)
Z
0
0
z j -
0
z -j
0
= = = =
|
|
0
[20]
Equ. [20] can be shown using equ {13] or [15].
q
c

w
d
w
d
d
w

w
d

C
L
Z = = = =
0
() [21]
Equ. [21] is the characteristic impedance of the line
Velocity of propagation along the line is

LC
1

1
)
u = = = =
c e
e
|
e
p
[22]

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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Lossy Parallel-Plate Transmission Line
Above evaluation was for a lossless line but in actual situations, loss occur and in this
case it could be due to two causes:-
a) The dielectric medium may have a nonvanishingly loss tangent
b) The plate may not be perfectly conducting
The two effects are characterised by defining two parameters:
Conductance , G, per unit length of the two plates
Resistance, R, per unit length of the two plate conductors
C G
c
o
= [23]
where
- G conductance between the conductors
- c permittivity of dielectric medium between the two conductors
- o conductivity of the dielectric medium
- C capacitance between the two conductors
For conductors with finite conductivity (
c
o ), power is dissipated on the plates. This is
represented by a nonvashining axial electric field
z
a E
z
at plate surfaces. Thus average
power dissipated in each of the conducting plates is
( )
*
x z y
H E RE
2
1
p P
x z av
a a a = =
o
[24]
Due to the imperfect conductors being used, a surface impedance
s
Z is usually defined
which given by the ratio of the tangential electric field to the surface current density at
the surface of the conductor.

s
t
s
J
E
Z = ( O) [25]
For the upper plate with surface current
x su
H J = ,
s
Z is

c
q = = =
x
z
su
z
s
H
E
J
E
Z [26a]
where
c
q is intrinsic impedance of the plate conductor.
But
( )
c
f
o
t
j 1 jX R Z
s s s
+ = + = ( O) [26b]
Substituting equ. [26a] in equ. [24], have
( ) ( )
s
2
su y su x s su z y
Z J RE
2
1
J Z J RE
2
1
p P a a a a
av
= = =
o
or
( )
s
2
su s
2
su
R J
2
1
Z J RE
2
1
p = = (
2
W/m ) [27]
Thus, the ohmic power dissipated in a unit length of a plate having a width w is

wp .
Hence
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
w
R
I
2
1
w R J
2
1
wp P
s 2
s
2
su
( W/m) [28]
Since
su
wJ I = - total surface current.
Equation [28] gives the power dissipated when a sinusoidal current of amplitude I flows
through a resistance of
w
R
s
.
Hence, the effective series resistance per unit length for both plates of a parallel-plate
transmission line of width w is

c
c
f
w o
t 2
w
R
2 R
s
= |
.
|

\
|
= [29]
In summary, the formula for the distributed parameters per unit length of a parallel-plate
transmission line of width w and separation d is as shown in table 1.

Table 1
Parameter Formula Unit
R
c
c
f
w o
t 2

/m O
L
w
d

/m H
G
d
w

/m S
C
d
w
c
/m F

MICROSTRIP LINE
Microstrip line is a practical example of a parallel-plate transmission as shown in Fig.1.6.

Metal strip
Grounded conducting
plane
Dielectric substrate
Fig. 1.6: Mircrostrip line

The analysis done earlier assumed that the two conduction plates on each side of the
substrate are of the same size as the substrate, therefore, the results obtained cannot
exactly apply to the Microstrip. The approximation is closer if the width of the metal strip
is much greater than the substrate thickness.
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
When the substrate has high dielectric constant, a TEM approximation is found to be
reasonably satisfactory. But the exact analytical solutions complex and beyond the scope
of this study.

Example 1
Neglecting losses and fringe effects and assuming the substrate of a stripline to have a
thickness of 0.4mm and a dielectric constant 2.25.
a) Determine the required width w of the metal strip in order for the stripline to have a
characteristic resistance of 50.
b) Determine L and C of the line and
c) Determine
p
along the line
d) Repeat parts (a), (b), and (c) for a characteristic resistance of 75.

Solution
a) From equ. [21], have that

c

w
d
Z =
0
or mm 2 or m 10 2
2.25 50
377 10 0.4
50
10 0.4
Z
d
w
3
3 3

= =
r
c
q
c

0
0

b) H/m 10 2.51
mm 2
mm 0.4
10 4
w
d
L
7 7
= = =
F/m 10 99.5
mm 0.4
mm 2
2.25
36
10
d
w
d
w
C
12
9

= = = =
r
c c c
0


c) m/s 10 2
10 99.5 10 2.51
1
LC
1

1
u
8
12 7 -
=

= = =

p

d) mm 1.33 or m 10 1.33
2.25 75
377 10 0.4
75
10 0.4
Z
d
w
3
3 3

= =
r
c
q
c

0
0

H/m 10 3.77
mm 1.33
mm 0.4
10 4
w
d
L
7 7
= = =
F/m 10 66.2
mm 0.4
mm 1.33
2.25
36
10
d
w
d
w
C
12
9

= = = =
r
c c c
0

m/s 10 2
10 66.2 10 3.77
1
LC
1

1
u
8
12 7 -
p
=

= = =












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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
2. General Transmission-Line Equation
These are equations that govern a general two-conductor uniform transmission lines.
Transmission lines differ from ordinary electric networks in that its physical dimensions
are a fraction of the operating wavelength or even much longer as compared with the
electric networks which are very much smaller than the wavelength.
Therefore, its convenient to describe a distributed-parameter network and must be
describe by a circuit parameters that are distributed throughout its length.
A differential length transmission z A of transmission line is described by the following
four parameters:-
a) Its resistance per unit length, R
b) Its inductance per unit length, L
c) Its conductance per unit length, G and
d) Its capacitance per unit length, C
NB: R and L are series elements and G and C are shunt elements.
An equivalent electric circuit for as an element is as shown in Fig. 2.1


) , ( t z v
) , ( t z i
z R A z L A
z G A
z C A
) , ( t z z i A +
) , ( t z z v A +
z A
lines on transmissi conductor - two a of length al differenti a of circuit Equivalent 2.1 Fig. z A
N

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law, have

0 ) , (
) , (
z ) , ( z R ) , ( = A +
c
c
A A t z z v
t
t z i
L t z i t z v [30]
Rearranging equ. [30], have

t
t z i
L t z i
t z v t z z v
c
c
+ =
A
A +

) , (
) , ( R
z
) , ( ) , (
[31]
As the limit 0 Az , equ. [31] becomes


t
t z i
L t z i
z
t z v
c
c
+ =
c
c

) , (
) , ( R
) , (
[32]
Similar. applying Kirchhoffs current law to node N of Fig. 2.1, have
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
0 ) , (
) , (
z C ) , ( z G ) , ( = A +
c
A + c
A A + A t z z i
t
t z z v
t z z v t z i [33]
On and rearranging, equ. [33] becomes
t
t z z v
t z z v
t z i t z z i
c
A + c
+ A + =
A
A +

) , (
C ) , ( G
z
) , ( ) , (
[34]

As the limit 0 Az , equ. [34] becomes

t
t z v
t z i
z
t z i
c
c
+ =
c
c

) , (
C ) , ( G
) , (
[35]
Equations [32] and [35] are the general transmission-line equations or telegraphists
equations
The most important case for practical problem is when ) , ( t z v and ) , ( t z i varies
sinusoidally with time. Thus we can write them as:
] ) ( V Re[ ) , (
t je
e z t z v = [36a]
] ) ( I Re[ ) , (
t je
e z t z i = [36b]
where ) (z V and ) (z I are complex amplitudes of the voltage and current along the line
respectively.
Substituting equ. [36a] and [36b] in equ.[32] and [35], they become
For equ. [32], have
( ) ( )
t j t j t j
t
L
z
e e e
I(z)e I(z)e R V(z)e
c
c
+ =
c
c

( ) LI(z)e j I(z)e R V(z) e
t j t j t j
z
e e e
e + =
c
c
or
( )I(z) L j R
dz
dV(z)
e + = [37a]
For equ. [35]
( ) ( )
t j t j t j
t
C
z
e e e
V(z)e V(z)e G I(z)e
c
c
+ =
c
c

( ) LI(z)e j I(z)e R V(z) e
t j t j t j
z
e e e
e + =
c
c

( )V(z) C j G
dz
dI(z)
e + = [37b]

Equ. [37a] and [37b] are time-harmonic transmission-line equations.

a) Wave Characteristics on an Infinite Transmission Line
The above time-harmonic transmission-line equations can be combined to solve for
V(z) and I(z) i.e.
Differentiating equ. [37a] with respect to z, have
( )
dz
dI(z)
L j R
dz
V(z) d
2
2
e + = (i)
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Substituting for
dz
dI(z)
from equ. [37b] have
( )( )V(z) C j G L j R
dz
V(z) d
2
2
e e + + = or
( )( )V(z) C j G L j R
dz
V(z) d
2
2
e e + + = or
V(z)
dz
V(z) d
2
2
2
= [38a]
Similarly for equ. [37b], have,

( )
dz
dV(z)
C j G
dz
I(z) d
2
2
e + = (ii)
Substituting for
dz
dV(z)
from equ. [37a] have,
( )( )I(z) C j G L j R
dz
I(z) d
2
2
e e + + = or
( )( )I(z) C j G L j R
dz
I(z) d
2
2
e e + + = or

I(z)
dz
I(z) d
2
2
2
= [38b]
With is the propagation constant define by
( )( ) C j G L j R j e e | o + + = + = (
1
m

) [39]
with o and | being the attenuation constant ( m Np ) and phase constant ( m rad ) of the
line respectively.
The solutions to equ. [38a] and [38b] are as follows:
First equ. [38a],

V(z)
dz
V(z) d
2
2
2
= , denoting the differentiation operator, D
dz
d
= , then equations becomes
( ) 0 V(z) D =
2
(a)
Let the solution of (a) be
mz
e V(z) = , then equ. (a) becomes
0 e m
2
=
mz mz
e
2
or 0 m =
2 2
or
= m
Thus,
z
e V(z) = or
z
= e V(z)
Hence, the general solution of equation [38a] is of the form:
(z) V (z) V V(z)
+
+ =

z z
e V e V
-
0 0
+ =
+
[40a]
Similarly for equ. [38b]
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
I(z)
dz
I(z) d
2
2
2
= or ( ) 0 I(z) D =
2
(b)
with the general solution of equ. (b) being
(z) I (z) I I(z)
+
+ =

z z
e I e I
-
0 0
+ =
+
[40b]
where the plus and minus superscripts denote waves travelling in the +z and z
directions, respectively.
The amplitudes ( )
+ +
0 0
I , V and ( )

0 0
I , V are related by equs. [37a] and [37b] as follows:
For the +z direction,

z

+
= e V
dz
dV(z)
0
(c)
Substituting equ.[37a] in (c), have that
( )
z
L

e
+
= + e V I(z) j R
0
or ( )
z z
e
+ +
= + e V e I L j R
0 0
or
( )
+ +
= +
0 0
V I L j R e or

eL j R
I
V
0
0
+
=
+
+
(41a)
Similarly,

eL j R
I
V
0
0
+
=

(41b)
For an infinite line, the terms with
z
e must vanish i.e. there are no reflections on the
transmission line. Then,
z +
= e V V(z)
0
and (42a)
z +
= e I I(z)
0
(42b)
The ratio of voltage to current at any z on the infinite line is called the characteristic
impedance of the line given by
C j G
L j R
C j G
L j R
I
V
I(z)
V(z)
Z
0
0
0
e
e
e

e
+
+
=
+
=
+
= = =
+
+
() [43]
Equs.[39] and [43] are the general expressions for the propagation constant and
characteristic impedance. For three special cases of transmission lines, the expressions
changes as follows:
1. Lossless line ( 0 G 0, R = = ),
a) Propagation constant:
LC j j e | o = + = [44]
0 = o , [45]
LC e | = [46]
b) Phase velocity:
LC
1
u
p
= =
|
e
[47]
c) Characteristic impedance:
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
C
L
C j
L j
jX R Z
0 0 0
= = + =
e
e
[48]
C
L
R
0
= [49]
0 X
0
= [50]
2. Low-Loss Line ( C G L, R e e << << )
This conditions are usually satisfied at very high frequencies.

a) Propagation constant:
( )( ) C j G L j R j e e | o + + = + =


|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
C j
G
1 C j
L j
R
1 L j
e
e
e
e

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
C j
G
1
L j
R
1 LC j
2
e e
e
2


2 1 2 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
C j
G
1
L j
R
1 LC j
e e
e

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
C 2j
G
1
L 2j
R
1 LC j
e e
e [51]

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ~
LC 4
RG
-
C 2j
G
L 2j
R
1 LC j
2
e e e
e

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ~
C 2j
G
L 2j
R
1 LC j
e e
e since 0
LC 4
RG
~
2
e


|
|
.
|

\
|
(

+ + ~
C
G
L
R
2j
1
1 LC j
e
e
Hence,

(

+ ~
C
L
G
L
C
R
2
1
o [52]
LC e | ~ [53]
b) Phase velocity:

LC
1
u
p
~ =
|
e
[54]
c) Characteristic impedance:

(

+
+
=
+
+
= + =
C j G 1
L j R 1
C
L
C j G
L j R
jX R Z
0 0 0
e
e
e
e

15
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon

2 1 2 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
C j
G
1
L j
R
1
C
L
e e


|
|
.
|

\
|
(

+ ~
C
G
L
R
2j
1
1
C
L
e
[55]

C
L
R
0
~ [56]
0
C
G
L
R
2
1
C
L
X
0
~
(

~
e
[57]
3. Distortionless Line ( C G L R = )
a) Propagation constant:
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = + = C j
L
RC
L j R j e e | o
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = C j
L
RC
L j R e e
( ) ( ) L j R
L
C
L j R e e + + =
( ) L j R
L
C
e + =
Hence,

L
C
R = o [58]
LC e | = [59]

b) Phase velocity:
LC
1
u
p
= =
|
e
[60]
c) Characteristic impedance:
( ) C
L
C j L RC
L j R
jX R Z
0 0 0
=
+
+
= + =
e
e
[61]

C
L
R
0
= [62]
0 X
0
= [63]
From the above analysis, the characteristics of a distortionless line are the same those
of a lossless line except for the attenuation constant. The phase velocity is constant
because of linear dependence of the phase constant | on e. Thus, since the signal
normally consist s of a band of frequencies, then its important that the different
frequencies travel along the transmission line at the velocity to avoid distortion. This
is achieved in lossless line and is approximated in the low-loss line. In lossy line,
16
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
different frequency components attenuate differently even if they travel at the same
velocity. But with condition that C G L R = , both o and
p
u are made constant, hence
the distortionless phase.
In general, o is not linearly dependent on eleading to
p
u which depends of
frequency. Thus, as different frequencies propagate along the line with different
velocities, the signal suffers dispersion. Therefore, generally, lossy transmission line
is dispersive.

Example 2
It is found that the attenuation on a 50 distortionless transmission line is
dB/m. 0.01 The line has a capacitance of nF/m. 0.1
a) Find the resistance, inductance, and conductance per meter of the line
b) Find the velocity of wave propagation
c) Determine the percentage to which the amplitude of a voltage travelling wave
decreases in 1km and in 5km.
Solution
a) For a distortionless line
C
G
L
R
=
But given that
50
C
L
R
0
= = and
Np/m 10 1.15 Np/m
8.69
0.01
0.01dB
L
C
R
3 -
= = = = o
Hence,
m 10 57.5 50 10 1.15 R
C
L
C L 1
L C R
3 - 3 -
0
O = = = = = = o
o
o
m H 10 2.5 50 10 0.1 CR L
7 2 9 2
0

= = =
m S 10 2.3
10 2.5
10 57.5 10 0.1
L
CR
G
5
7
-3 9


= =

b) The velocity is given by
m/s 10 2
10 0.1 10 2.5
1
LC
1
u
8
9 7
p
=

= =



c) The ratio of two voltages a distance z apart along the line is

z
z
o
o

+
+
= = e
V
e V
V
V
0
0
1
2

Thus, after 1km, 31.7% or 0.317, e e e
V
V
.
1
2
= = = =


3
10 15 1 1000 1000o oz

17
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
after 1km, 0.318% or 0.00318, e e e
V
V
.
1
2
= = = =


3
10 15 1 5000 5000o oz

Example 3
A lossless transmission line is 80 cm long and operates at a frequency of 600 MHz. The
line parameters are H/m 0.25 L = and pF/m. 100 C = Find the characteristic impedance,
the phase constant, and the phase velocity.

Solution
For a lossless line, the characteristic impedance is given by
O =

= = 50
10 100
10 0.25
C
L
Z
12 -
-6
0


The phase constant is given by
rad/m 18.85 10 100 10 0.25 ) 10 2(60 LC
-12 -6 6
= = = = e |

The phase velocity is given by
m/s 10 2
18.85
) 10 (600 2
u
8
6
p
=

= =
t
|
e


Exercise
1) The parameters of a certain transmission line operating at rad/s 10 6
8
are
H/m, 0.4 L = pF/m, 40 C = S/m, 80 G = and /m. 20 R O =
a) Find Z and , ,
0
|
b) If a voltage wave travels 20 m down the line, what percentage of the original
wave amplitude remain, and by how many degrees is its phase shifted?
2) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of coaxial cables and two-wire
transmission lines.
3) Compare the velocity of TEM-wave propagation along a parallel-plate transmission
line with that in an unbounded medium.
4) Is a distortionless line lossless? Is a lossy transmission line dispersive? Explain.
5) Consider a transmission line made of two parallel brass strips, S/m 10 1.6
7
c
= o of
width 20 mm and separated by a lossy dielectric slab,
0
= , , 3 =
r
c S/m 10
-3
= o ,
of thickness 2.5 mm. The operating frequency is 500 MHz.
a) Calculate the R,L,G and C per unit length
b) How compare the magnitudes of the axial and transverse components of the
electric field
c) Find Z and
0






18
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
TRANSMISSION-LINE PARAMETERS
The electrical properties of a transmission line at a given frequency are completely
characterized by its four distributed parameters R,L,G and C.
For parallel-plate transmission line, these parameters have been obtained above. The other
types of transmission lines are considered next.

a) Two-wire transmission line
Consider a line charge
l
located at a distance d from the axis of a parallel, conducting,
circular cylinder of radius a. We assume that both the conducting cylinder and the line
charge are infinitely long. The cross-section is as shown in Fig. 2.2
To obtain a solution which satisfy the condition that at the surface of the cylinder the
potential is same using method of images, the following condition must be noted
(i) The image must be a parallel line charge inside the cylinder in order to make the cylinder
surface at a r = an equipotential surface. Let this image line charge be
i
.
(ii) Because of symmetry with respect to the line OP, the image line charge must lie
somewhere along OP (at point
i
P ) which is a distance
i
d from the axis as shown in Fig.
2.3



-
l

a
P
Fig. 2.2 Line charge and parallel conducting cylinder
d
O



-
-
l

a
i
r
i
d
r
M
P
i
P
Fig. 2.3 Line charge and its image
d
O

From the method of images, the electrical potential at a point M on the cylindrical surface,
a distance r from a line charge of density
l
is given by
r
r
2
V
i
ln
0
tc

l
M
= [64]
If the equipotential surface is to coincide with the cylindrical surface, then from image Fig.
2.3, the following ratio must be satisfied
19
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
constant
d
a
a
d
r
r
i i
= = = or [65]
d
a
d
2
=
i
[66]
And thus the line charge
i l
= , together with
l
will make the dashed cylindrical surface
of Fig. 2.3 equipotential. As the point M changes its location on the dashes circle, both
i
r and
r will change; but their ratio remains a constant that equals d a . Point
i
P is called the inverse
point of P with respect to a circle of radius a .
Therefore, the image charge
l
can then replace the cylindrical conducting surface, and V
and E at any point outside the surface can be determined from the line charges
i l
= ,
and
l
.
Applying above principle of method of images to the two-wire transmission line with the
cross-section as shown in Fig. 2.4, the equipotential surfaces of the two wires can be
considered to have been generated by a pair of line charges
l
and
l
separated by a
distance
i i
d d 2d D = . The potential difference between the two wires is that between
any two points on the respective wires.


d
a
Fig. 2.4 Cross-section of a parallel wire transmission line
and equivalent line charges
- -
D
a
i
d
i
d
l
+
l

2 1

Thus, applying equ. [64] and [65] to Fig. 2.4, we have that
d
a
2
V ln
0
2
tc

l
= and

d
a
2
V ln
0
1
tc

l
=
NB:
1
V is a positive quantity while
2
V is negative because d a < .
The capacitance per unit length is given by


( ) d a V V
C
2 1
ln
0
tc
=

=
l
[67]
20
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
where
d
a
- D d - D d
2
i
= =
from which we get
d
a
- D d - D d
2
i
= = or
D
d
a
- d
2
= or Dd a - d
2 2
= or
0 a - Dd - d
2 2
=
With the solution being
( )
2 2
4a D D
2
1
d + = or [68]
( )
2 2
4a D D
2
1
d =
( )
2 2
4a D D
2
1
d = is discarded because both D and d are usually much larger than a.
Substituting equ. [68] in [67], we have

( ) ( )
(

+
==
1 2a D 2a D
C
2
ln
0
tc
( ) m F [69]

Since | | x 1 x x
1 2
= + cosh ln

Then for 1 x > , equ. [69] becomes
( ) 2a D
C
1
==
cosh
tc
( ) m F [70]
Equ. [70] applies to any medium in which the wires are.
From equ. [22],
c = LC [71]
And hence

( )
|
.
|

\
|
= = =

2a
D
2a D
C
L
1
1
cosh
cosh
t

tc
c c
( ) m H [72]
And for an homogeneous medium,
o
c
= =
G
C
RC [73]
Hence
( )
( ) 2a D
2a D C
G
1
1

= = =
cosh
cosh to
o c
tc
o c
( ) m S [74]
21
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
To determine R, we use equ. [28] and express the ohmic power dissipated per unit length of
both wires in terms of
o
p . Assuming the current
s
J ( ) m A is flowing in very thin surface
layer, the current in each wire is
s
aJ 2 I t = and
|
.
|

\
|
= =
a 2
R
I
2
1
ap 2 P
s 2

t
t ( ) m W [75]
Hence the series resistance per unit length for both wires is
c
c
o
t
t t
f
a
1
a 2
R
2 R
s
= |
.
|

\
|
= ( ) m O [76]

b) Coaxial transmission line
A cross-section of a coaxial cable is as shown in Fig. 2.5.


Fig. 2.5 Coaxial transmission line geometry
b
a

Assuming a current I flows in the inner conductor and returns through the outer conductor in
the other direction, the due symmetry, magnetic flux density, B, has only a | component
with different expressions in the two regions:
(i) Inside the inner conductor
(ii) Between the inner and outer conductors
Also assume that the current I is distributed over the cross section of the inner conductor.
Then
(i) Inside the inner conductor

From Amperes circuital law which states that the circulation of the magnetic flux density in
free space around any closed path is equal to
0
times the total current flowing through the
surface bounded by the path i.e.
I dl
0
}
=
C
B . [77]
Thus inside the conductor,
1 1 | |
B a B = , |
|
rd a dl =
1
I rB 2 rd B dl
0 1
2
0
1
1
t |
|
t
|
= = =
} }
C
B.
The current through the cross-sectional area of the inner conductor is
22
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
I
a
r
I
a
r
I
2
2
2
2
1
= =
t
t

Thus from Amperes circuital law,
2
a 2
rI
B
t

| | |
0
1 1
a a B = = [78]
Thus in any region within the inner conductor, the magnetic flux density is
2
a 2
rI
B
t

| | |
0
1 1
a a B = = , a r 0 s s [79]

(ii) Between the inner and outer conductors

2 2 | |
B a B = , |
|
rd a dl =
I rB 2 rd B dl
0 2
2
0
2 2
2
t |
|
t
|
= = =
} }
C
B .
The circumference of the outer conductor encloses the total current I. Hence,

r 2
I
B
t

| | |
0
2 2
a a B = = b r a s s [80]
Consider an annular ring in the inner conductor between the radii r and dr r + . The current
in a unit length of this annular ring is link by the flux that can be obtained by integrating
equs. [79] and [80] i.e.

dr dr d
} }
+ = u
b
a
a
r
B B
2 1 | |


} }
+ =
b
a
a
r
r
dr
2
I
dr r
a 2
I
2
t

0 0
[81]
( )
a
b
2
I
r a
a 4
I
2 2
2
ln
t

0 0
+ =
But the current in the annular ring is only a fraction of the total current I i.e.

Fig. 2.6 Annular ring in the inner conductor
dr r +
r

Area of ring = ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
r dr 2rdr r r dr r t t t t + + = +
2 2

( ) rdr 2 r dr rdr 2 r
2 2
t t t t t = + + =
2
(Since ( ) 0 dr
2
~ t )
23
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Hence ratio of current flowing in the annular ring is a fraction of the total current flowing in
the inner conductor i.e.


2 2
a
2rdr
a
rdr 2
=
t
t

Therefore, the flux linkage for this annular ring is
u = A' d
a
2rdr
d
2
[82]
The total flux linkage per unit length is


}
=
=
A' = A'
a r
r 0
d

}
=
=
u =
a r
r 0
d
a
2rdr
2

( )
}
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
a r
r 0
0 0
a
b
2
I
r a
a 4
I
a
2rdr
2 2
2 2
ln
t


( )
} }
+ =
a a
0 0
0 0
rdr
a
b
a
I
rdr r a
a 2
I
2
2 2
2
ln
t



|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
a
a
b
a
I
4
a
2
a
a 2
I
2
2
4 4
2
ln
t

0 0


a
b I
8
I
ln
t

0 0
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
a
b
4
1
2
I
ln
t

0

The inductance of a unit length of the coaxial transmission line is thus,

a
b
2 8 I
ln L
t

0 0
+ =
A'
= ' [83]
The first term
t

8
0
arises from the flux linkage internal to the solid inner conductor; known
as the internal inductance per unit length of the inner conductor. The second term comes the
linkage of the flux that exists between the inner and outer conductors; its known as the
external inductance per unit length of the coaxial line.
In high frequency, the current in a good conductor shift to the surface of the conductor (due
to skin effect), resulting in an uneven current distribution in the inner conductor and thereby
changing the value of the internal inductances. In some cases the current may essentially
concentrate in the skin of the inner conductor as a surface current, and the internal self-
inductance is reduced to zero.
Thus, since most transmission involves high frequencies, the internal inductance is assumed
to be zero and hence the inductance of the coaxial transmission line is assumed to due to
external inductance only i.e.


a
b
2
L ln
t

0
= ( ) m H [84]
24
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Using equ. [71],


( ) a b
2
a
b
2
L
C
ln
ln
tc
t

c c
= = = ( ) m F [85]
And from equ. [73], have

( )
( ) a b
2 a b
2
C
G
ln
ln to
c
tc
o
c
o
= = = ( ) m S [86]
where o is the equivalent conductivity of the lossy dielectric i.e.
c e o ' ' =
To obtain R, we use equ.[27], where the
si
J on the surface of the centre conductor is
different from
so
J on the inner surface of the outer conductor. But

so si
bJ 2 aJ 2 I t t = = [87]
Thus, the power dissipated in a unit length of the centre conductor and outer conductors are
respectively,
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
a 2
R
I
2
1
R J
2
1
ap 2 P
s 2
s i i
t
t
2
si
[88]
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
b 2
R
I
2
1
R J
2
1
bp 2 P
s 2
s o o
t
t
2
so
[89]
From equs. [88] and [89], the resistance per unit length is:

|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
b
1
a
1 f
2
1
b
1
a
1
2
R
b 2
R
a 2
R
R
c
s s s
o
t
t t t t
c
( ) m O [90]

Example 1
The dimension\s of a coaxial transmission line are mm 4 a = , mm 17.5 b = , and mm 20 c = .The
conductivity of the inner and outer conductors is S/m 10 2
7
, and the dielectric properties are
1 =
R
, 3 = '
R
c , and 0.025 = ' c e o / . Assume that the loss tangent is constant with frequency.
Determine:
a) L, C, R, G and Z
0
at 150 MHz
b) L and R at 60 Hz


WAVE CHARACTERISTICS ON FINITE TRANSMISSION LINE
The general solutions for the time-harmonic one-dimension Helmholtz equaitions are

z z
e V e V V(z)
-
0 0
+ =
+
[91a]
z z
e I e I I(z)
-
0 0
+ =
+
[91b]
where
25
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
0
0
0
Z
I
V
I(z)
V(z)
= =
+
+
[92]
As mention above, the reflected component is zero for infinite lines. For a finite the same can
be achieved if the lines are matched i.e. if the line is terminated in characteristic impedance.
Thus in transmission lines, a line is matched when the load impedance is equal to the
characteristic impedance (not the complex conjugate of the characteristic impedance as in
circuit theory) of the line.
Thus, consider a finite transmission line having characteristic impedance
0
Z terminated in
arbitrary load impedance of length of the line to be l as shown in Fig.2.7.
A sinusoidal voltage source
0
g
0 V Z with internal impedance
g
Z is connected to the line at
0 z = . Thus,
g
Z
L
Z
g
V
L
V
L
I
i
Z
z
i
I
0 z =
l z = ' 0 z =
l z = '
z - l z = '
i
V
+
+
+


( )
O
Z ,
Fig. 2.7 Finite Transmission line terminated with load impedance
L
Z


L
L
L
Z
I
V
I
V
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=l z
[93]
which can only be satisfied by equ. [91a] and [91b] with their reflection components since
the transmission line is not matched.
At l z = , equs. [91a] and [91b] becomes
l -
0
l
0 L
e V e V V

+ =
+
[94a]
l
0
-
0 l
0
0
L
e
Z
V
e
Z
V
I

=

+
[94b]
Solving equ. [94a] and [94b] for
+
0
V and

0
V , have that

( )
l
L L 0
e Z I V
2
1
V

0
+ =
+
[95a]

( )
l
L L 0
e Z I V
2
1
V

=
0
[95b]
Substituting equs. [93] in equs. [95a] and [95b] and the results in equs. [91a] and [91b], we
obtain
26
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
( ) ( )
l
L L L
l
L L 0
e Z I Z I
2
1
e Z I V
2
1
V

0 0
+ = + =
+

( ) ( )
l
L L
l
L L 0
e Z I ZL I
2
1
e Z I V
2
1
V

= =
0 0

Thus,

( )
( )
( )
( )
| |
z - l
L
z - l
L
L
e Z Z e Z Z
2
I
V(z)

+ + =
0 0
[96a]
( )
( )
( )
( )
| |
z - l
L
z - l
L
L
e Z Z e Z Z
Z 2
I
I(z)

+ =
0 0
0
[96b]
Let z z = ' , which is the distance measured backward from the load. Hence, equs. [96a]
and [96b], becomes
( ) ( ) | |
z
L
z
L
L
e Z Z e Z Z
2
I
) z V(
' '
+ + = '

0 0
[97a]
( ) ( ) | |
z
L
z
L
L
e Z Z e Z Z
Z 2
I
) z I(
' '
+ = '

0 0
0
[97b]
Since

z cosh e e
z z
' = +
' '


2 aand z sinh e e
z z
' =
' '


2 , then
( ) z sinh Z z cosh Z I ) z V(
L L
' + ' = '
0
[98a]
( ) z cosh Z z sinh Z
Z
I
) z I(
L
L
' + ' = '
0
0
[98b]
which can be used to find the voltage and current at any point along a transmission line terms
of
L
I ,
L
Z , and
0
Z .
Now,
( )
( )
=
'
'
z I
z V
is the impedance looking toward the load end of the line at a distance z' from the
load can be written as:-
( )
( )
( ) z cosh Z z sinh Z
z sinh Z z cosh Z
Z
z I
z V
z Z
L
L
' + '
' + '
=
'
'
= '


0
0
0
[100]
Or
( )
z tanh Z Z
z tanh Z Z
Z z Z
L
L
' +
' +
= '

0
0
0
[101]
At source end of the line, = ' z , the generator looking into the line sees an input impedance
i
Z .
( )

tanh Z Z
tanh Z Z
Z Z Z Z
L
L
z
z i
+
+
= = =
= '
=
0
0
0 0
[102]
Hence, as far as the conditions aat the generator are concerned, the terminated finite
transmission line can be replaced by
i
Z as shown in Fig. 2.8.

27
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
g
V i
V
g
Z
i
Z
i
I
Fig. 2.8 Equivalent circuit for finite transmission
line of Fig. 2.7 at generator end.

With the input voltage
i
V and input current
i
I being obtained as
g
i g
i
i
V
Z Z
Z
V
+
= [103a]
i g
g
i
Z Z
V
I
+
= [103b]
The power delivered by the generator to the input terminal of the line is
( ) | |
= ' =
=
z , z
*
i i i av
I V Re
2
1
P
0
[104]
The average power delivered to the load is
( ) | |
0 = ' =
=
z , z
*
L L L av
I V Re
2
1
P

[105]
If
0
Z Z
L
= (i.e. the line is terminated with its characteristic impedance), then from equ
[102],
0
Z Z
i
= or the impedance of the line looking toward the load at any distance
z' from the load is
( )
0
Z z Z = ' [106]
And equs. [97a] and [97b], reduces to
( ) ( )
z
i
z
L
e V e e Z I z V

= =

0
[107a]
( ) ( )
z
i
z
L
e I e e I z I

= =

[107b]
Now, equs. [107a] and [107b] are similar to equs. [42a] and [42b] - representing waves
travelling in +z direction, and thus no reflected waves. Hence, when a finite transmission
line is terminated with its own characteristic impedance (when a finite transmission line
is matched), the voltage and current distribution on the line are exactly the same as
though the line has been extended to infinity.

Example: A signal generator having an internal resistance 1 and an open-circuit
voltage ( ) V t 21 cos 0.3 t V
8
g
= is connected to a 50 lossless transmission line. The
lne is 4 m long, and the velocity of the wave propagation on the line is s / m 10 2.5
8
. For
a matched load, find
a) Instantaneous expression for the voltage and current at an arbitrary location on the
line
b) The instantaneous expressions for the voltage and current at the load, and
28
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
c) The average power transmitted to the load

Solution:
a) To get the voltage and current at an arbitrary location on the line, its necessary to first
obtained those at the input end = ' = z 0, z . Thus, given
V 0 0.3 V
0
g
Z = , a phasors with a cosine reference
1 R Z
g g
= =
50 R Z
0 0
= =
rad/s 10 2
8
= e
m/s 10 2.5 u
8
p
=
m 4 =
Since the line is terminated with a matched load, 50 Z Z
i
= =
0
, then the input voltage
and current can be evaluated from the equivalent circuit of Fig. 2.8. Thus, from [103a]
and [103a], have

V 0 0.294 0 0.3
50 1
50
V
Z Z
Z
V
0 0
g
i g
i
i
Z = Z
+
=
+
=

A 0 0.0059
50 1
0 0.3
Z Z
V
I
0
0
i g
g
i
Z =
+
Z
=
+
=
Since only forward waves exist in a matched line, we use the equations,

( )
( )z j
0
e V z V
| o+
=
( )
( )z j 0
e
Z
V
z I
| o+
=
0

Now, for the given line, , 0 = o and
rad/m 0.8
10 2.5
10 2
u
8
8
p
=

= =
e
|
Hence,
( ) V 0.94e z V
z . j t 8 0
=
( ) A 0.0059e z I
z . j t 8 0
=
These are phasors. The corresponding instantaneous expressions are,
( )
( )
( )
z . j
0.294e Re t z, v
t t 8 0 10 2
8

=
( ) V z . 0.294cos t t 8 0 10 2
8
=
( )
( )
( )
z . j
0.0059e Re t z, i
t t 8 0 10 2
8

=
( )A 0.8. 10 2 0.0059cos
8
=
b) At the load , m 4 z 0, z = = ' = ,
( ) ( ) V 3.2 10 2 0.294cos t , 4 v
8
=
29
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
( ) ( )A 2 . 3 10 2 0.0059cos t 4, i
8
=
c) The average power transmitted to the load on a lossless line is eqeal to that at the
input terminal
.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | z I z V Re
2
1
P P
*
L L i av L av
= =
( ) W 10 8.7 0.0059 0.294
2
1
4
= =

TRANSMISSION LINES AS CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Transmission lines at ultrahigh frequencies (frequencies from 300 MHz to 3 GHz),
wavelength from 1 m t0 0.1 m, they serve as circuit elements. At these frequencies, ordinary
lumped-circuit elements are difficult to make, and stray fields become important. Thus,
sections of transmission lines can be designed to give an inductive or capacitive impedance
and are use to match an arbitrary load to the internal impedance of a generator for maximum
power transfer.
At higher than 3GHz frequency, they become physically small and normally waveguides
components are used.
In most cases, transmission-line segments can be considered lossless: , R Z , j
0 0
= = | and
( ) ( ) | | tan j j tanh j tanh = = . Thus, equ.[102], for the input impedance
i
Z of the lossless
line of length terminated in
L
Z becomes


tanh jZ R
tanh jR Z
R Z
L
L
i

|
|
+
+
=
0
0
0
[108]
The special cases of the transmission line include:
1) Open-circuit termination( )
L
Z . Equ. [108] becomes:

|
|
cot jR
tan
jR
jX Z
io i 0
0
= = = [109]
Equ. [109] shows that the input impedance of an open-circuited lossless line is purely
reactive. It can either be capacitive or inductive depending on the value of ( ) t | 2 = .
Fig. 2.9, shows a plot verse cot R X
io
|
0
= .
When 1 << | , the capacitive reactance can be obtained by noting that | | ~ tan .
Hence from equ. [109],

C
1
j
LC
C L
j
R
j jX Z
io i
e
e
|
= = ~ =
0
[110]
which is the impedance of a capacitance of C farads.

2) Short-circuit termination( ) 0 Z
L
= .
Here, equ. [108] reduces to

|
|
tan jR
R
tan jR
R jX Z
is i 0
0
0
0
= = = [111]
30
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Since | tan can range from to + , the input impedance of a short-circuited lossless
line can also be either purely inductive or capacitive, depending on the value of | . A
graph of verse X
is
is as shown in Fig.3.0.

|
c
o
t
R
X
i
o
0

=
0
Fig. 2.9 Input reactance of open-circuited transmission line
4

4
3
4
5

(Capacitive)
(Inductive)


|
t
a
n
R
X
i
s
0
=
0
Fig. 3.0 Input reactance of short-circuited transmission line
4

4
3
4
5

(Capacitive)
(Inductive)

Comparing Fig. 2.9 and 3.0, have that in the range where
io
X is capacitive X
is
is inductive
and vice versa.
For short-circuited line, if 1 l << | , then equ. [111] becomes
jL l LC
C
L
j l jR
R
l jR
R jX Z
0
0
0
0 is i
= = = = = [112]
which is the impedance of an inductance of l L henries.

31
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
3) Quarter-wave section( ) 2 l 4, l t | = = .
When the length of the line is an odd multiple of 4 i.e. ( ) 4 1 2n l = , 1,2,3,... n = ,
then
( ) ( )
2

1 2n
4

1 2n

2
= = | and
( )
(

=
2

1 2n tan tan |
Thus, equ. [108] becomes
L
L
L
L
L
i
Z
R
jZ
tanh
R
jR
tanh
Z
R
tanh jZ R
tanh jR Z
R Z
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
=
+
+
=
+
+
=

|
|
|
|
[113]
Hence, a quarter-wave lossless line transforms the load impedance to the input
terminals as its inverse multiplied by the square of the characteristic resistance.
It acts as an impedance inverter and is often called a quarter-wave transformer.
Thus, an open-circuited, quarter-wave line appears as a short circuit at the input terminals
and vice versa.

4) Half -wave section ( ) t | = = 2, .
When the length of the line is an integral multiple of 2 n , 2 = , 1,2,3,... n = , then
, n
2
n

2
t | = |
.
|

\
|
=
0 tan = |
and equ. [108] reduces to

L
L
L
L
i
Z
R
Z
R
tanh jZ R
tanh jR Z
R Z = =
+
+
=
0
0
0
0
0

|
|
[114]
Thus, a half-wave lossless line transfers the load impedance to the input terminals
without change.
By measuring the input impedance of a line section under open- and short-circuit
conditions, the characteristic impedance and the propagation constant of the line can be
determined. Now from equ. [102], have that
Open-circuited line, : Z
L
coth
0 io
Z Z = [115]
Short-circuited line, : 0 Z
L
= tanh Z Z
is 0
= [116]
Therefore from the two equations,

O = Z Z Z
is io 0
[117]
And

1 -
io
is
m
Z
Z
tanh
1
1
=

[118]
32
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Example
The open-circuti and short-circuit impedances measured at the input terminals of a
lossless transmission line of length 1.5m, which is less than a quarter wavelength, are
O j54.6 and O j103 , respectively.
a) Find
0
Z and of the line
b) Without changing the operating frequency, find the input impedance of a short-
circuited line that is twice the given length
c) How should the short-circuited line be in order for it to appear as an open circuit at
the input terminal?
Solution:
Given j54.6 =
0 i
Z , j103 =
is
Z , 1.5m l = , then
a) ( )( ) O = = = 75 j103 j54.6 Z Z Z
is io 0

rad/m j0.628 373 1
1.5
j
j54.6 -
j103
1.5
1
Z
Z
l
1
io
is
= = = =

. tan tanh tan
1 1 1

b) For a short-circuited line twice as long , m 3 l = ,
rad j1.883 3 j0.628 l = =
Thus, the input impedance is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) O = = = = = j231 3.08 - j75 108 j75tan j1.883 75tanh tanh Z Z
0
0 is

c) In order for a short circuited line to appear as an open circuit at the input terminals, it
should be an odd multiple of a quarter-wavelength long:
m 10
0.628
2 2
= = =
|
t

Hence the required line length is
( )
4
1 2n l

=
( ) 1,2,3,... n 1 n 2.5 = = ,
Above consideration having that of a lossless transmission line, but if the line is a lossy,
then, when the line length is a multiple of 2 with a short-circuit termination, equ.
[116], becomes
( )
( )l j
l j
| o
| o

+
+
= =
cosh
sinh
tanh
0 0 is
Z Z Z

l j l l j l
l j l l j l
Z
| o | o
| o | o
sinh sinh cosh cosh
sinh cosh cosh sinh
+
+
=
0


l l j l l
l l j l l
Z
| o | o
| o | o
sin sinh cos cosh
sin cosh cos sinh
+
+
=
0
[119]
For, n l 2, l = = | and 0 l = | sin , hence equ. [119] becomes
l Z
l
l
Z
l l
l l
Z Z o
o
o
| o
| o
tanh
cosh
sinh
cos cosh
cos sinh
0 0 0 is
= = =
Assuming a low-loss line i.e. 1 l << o and thus, l l o o ~ tanh and
( ) l Z Z o
0 is
= [120]
33
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
which gives a small value of
is
Z but not zero as in the previous analysis. At 2 n l =
in this case is a condition of a series resonance.
If 4 n l = ,( odd n = ), 2 n l t | = and 0 l = | cos and equ. [119] becomes
l
Z
l
Z
l
l
Z
l l j
l l j
Z Z
is
o o o
o
| o
| o
0 0
0 0
~ = = =
tanh sinh
cosh
sin sinh
sin cosh
[121]
which is large but not infinite. This is a condition for a parallel-resonance.
From above analysis, behaves as a frequency-selective circuit with a quality factor, Q,
which can be determined by first obtaining the half-power bandwidth.
A bandwidth of a parallel-resonant circuit is the frequency at range
1 2
f f f = A around
the resonant frequency
0
f , where f f f
0 2
A + = and f f f
0 1
A = are half-power
frequencies at which the voltage across the parallel circuit is 2 1 or % .7 70 of the its
maximum value at
0
f .
Let f f f
0
c + = , - f c small frequency shift from the resonant frequency. Then,
( )
l
u
f f 2
l
u
f 2
l
p
0
p
c +
= =

|


( ) ( )
p
0
p
0
u
f f
2
n
4
n
u
f f 2 c +
=
c +
=



( )
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
c +
=
0 p
0
p
0
f
f
1
2u
f n
u
f f
2
n
but
t
|
2 u
f
p
0
=


|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
0 0
f
f
1
4
n
f
f
1
2 2
n |
t
|
, but

t
|
2
=

|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
0 0 0
f
f
1
2
n
f
f
1
2
4
n
f
f
1
2 2
n t

t |
t
|


|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
0
f
f
2
n
2
n
, odd n = [122]

|
|
.
|

\
| c
~
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
0 0 0
f
f
2
n
f
f
2
n
f
f
2
n
2
n
l

sin cos cos| [123]
1

~
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
0 0
f
f
2
n
f
f
2
n
2
n
l cos sin sin| [124]
where it has assumed that 1
f
f
2
n
0
<<
|
|
.
|

\
| c

Substituting equs. [122], [123], and [124] in [119], noting that 1 l << o , and retaining
only small terms of the first order, we get
34
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+
=
0
0
f
f
2
n
j l
Z

Z
is
o
[125]
and
( )
2
2
2
2
is

Z
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+
=
0
0
f
f
2
n
l
Z
o
[126]
At 0 f f f
0
= c = , ,
2
is
Z is a maximum and
( )
2
2
0
2
is
Z
Z
l o
=
max
. Thus,
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+
=
0
2
max
is
2
is
f
f
l 2
n
1
1
Z
Z
o
[127]
When 2 f f A = c ,that is the half-power frequencies at which the ratio of equ. [127] is
2
1
or
1

=
|
|
.
|

\
| A
=
|
|
.
|

\
| A
0 0
f
f
2 2f
f
l 2
n
o
|
o
, odd n = [128]
Therefore, the Q of a parallel-resonant circuit (a shorted lossy line having a length equal
to an odd multiple of 4 ) is
o
|
2 f
f
Q
0
= = [129]
But from equs. [52] and [53] for a low-loss line, have

(

+ ~
C
L
G
L
C
R
2
1
o
LC e | ~
Hence,

( ) ( ) C G L R
1
C GL R
L
C
L
G
L
C
R
2
1
2
LC
2
Q
e e
e e
o
|
+
=
+
=
(

+
= = [130]

For a well insulated line R C GL << ,
R
L
Q
e
= [131]
Example
The measured attenuation of an air-dielectric coaxial transmission line at 400 MHz is dB/m 0.01 .
Determine the Q and the half-power bandwidth of a quarter-wavelength section of the line with a
short-circuit termination.
35
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Solution:
Given Hz 10 4 f
8
= ,
m 0.75
10 4
10 3
f
c
8
8
=

= =
rad/m 8.38 or rad/m
3
8
0.75
2 2
t
t

t
| = = =
Np/m
8.69
0.01
dB/m 0.01 = = o
Therefore,
3640
0.01
8.69 8.38
2
Q =

= =
o
|

The half-power bandwidth
KHz 109.89
3640
10 4
Q
f
f
8
0
=

= =


LINES WITH RESISTIVE TERMINATION
When a line is terminated in a load impedance
0
Z Z
L
= , both an incident wave and reflected
wave exist. Equ. [96a] gives the phasors expression for the voltage at any distance
z - l z = ' from the load end.
NB: the term
z
e
'
represents the incident voltage wave and the term with
z
e
'
represents the
reflected voltage wave.
Thus,
( ) ( ) | |
z
0 L
z
0 L
L
e Z Z e Z Z
2
I
) z V(
' '
+ + = '

( )
(

+ + =
' ' z
0 L
0 L z
0 L
L
e
Z Z
Z Z
1 e Z Z
2
I
2
[132a]

( ) | |
z z
0 L
L
e 1 e Z Z
2
I
' '
I + + =
2

where
I
I =
+

= I
u j
e
Z Z
Z Z
0 L
0 L
[133]
I is called the voltage reflection coefficient of the load impedance
L
Z . Its generally a
complex quantity with a magnitude 1 s I .
The current equation corresponding to ) z V( ' from equ. [97b] is
( ) ( ) | |
z z
0 L
0
L
e 1 e Z Z
2Z
I
z I
' '
I + = '
2
[132b]
For a lossless line, | j = , thus equ. [132a] and [132b] becomes
36
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
( ) | |
z z
0 L
L
e 1 e R Z
2
I
) z V(
' '
I + + = '
| | 2 j j

( )
( )
| |
z z
0 L
L
e 1 e R Z
2
I
' '
I
I + + =
| u | 2 j j
[134a]
and

( ) ( )
( )
| |
z z
0 L
0
L
e 1 e R Z
2Z
I
z I
' '
I
I + = '
| u 2 j
[134b]
But from equ. [98a] and [98b], the voltage and current phasors can be written as


z sin R jI z cos V ) z V(
0 L L
' + ' = ' [135b]
z sin
R
V
j z cos I ) z I(
0
L
L
' + ' = ' [135b]
If the termination is purely resistive,
L L
R I V and R Z
L L L
= = , the voltage and current
magnitudes are given by


( ) z sin R R z cos V ) z V(
2 2
L 0
2
L
' + ' = ' [136a]
( ) z sin R R z cos I ) z I(
2 2
0 L
2
L
' + ' = ' [136b]
Plots of ) z V( ' and ) z I( ' as functions of z' are standing waves with their maxima and minima
occurring at fixed locations along the line. Thus, a ratio of the maximum to minimum
voltages along the line can be defined called the standing-wave ratio (SWR), S:
1
1
V
V
S
min
max

+
= = [137]
or
1 S
1 S
+

= I [138]
Hence, from equs. [137] and [138], for a lossless transmission line have that
0 = I , 1 S = when
0 L
Z Z = (matched load)
-1 = I , S when 0 Z
L
= (short circuit)
1 + = I , S when
L
Z (open circuit)
NB: A high standing wave ratio is on a line is undesirable because it results in a large power
loss.
From equs. [134a] and [134b], the
max
V and
min
I occur together when
, , 2n z 2
M
= '
I
u 0,1,2 n = [139]
and for the
min
V and
max
I , they occur together when
( ) , , 1 2n z 2
M
+ = '
I
u 0,1,2 n = [140]
For a resistive termination on a lossless line,
0 0 L L
R Z , R Z = = and equ. [133],
37
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
0 L
0 L
R R
R R
+

= I [141]
The voltage reflection coefficient is therefore purely real. Two cases are possible.

(i)
0 L
R R > : In this case I is ve + and 0 =
I
u . At termination, 0 z = ' and condition in equ.
[139] is satisfied (for 0 n = ) . This means
max
V (or
min
I ) will occur at the termination
resistance. Other
max
V (or
min
I ) occur at 1,2,...) (n 2 n z = = ' from the load.
(ii) :
0 L
R R < equ. [141] shows that I is negative real and t u - =
I
. At termination, 0 z = ' and
condition [140] is satisfied (for 0 n = ) This means
min
V (or
max
I ) will occur at the
termination resistance. Other
max
V (or
min
I ) occur at 1,2,...) (n 2 n z = = ' from the load.
This is illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

4 2 4 3 0
z'
( )
0 L
R R for z V > '
( )
0 L
R R for z I < '
( )
0 L
R R for z I > '
( )
0 L
R R for z V < '
Fig. 3.1 Voltage and current standing waves on resistance-terminated lossless lines

Open circuit line
Standing wave is similar to a resistance terminated line with
0 L
R R > , except that ) z V( ' and
) z I( ' curves are magnitudes of sinusoidal functions of the distance z' from the load. This can
be verified by letting
L
R in equ. [136a] and [136b]. i.e. 0 I
L
and =
L
V . Thus,
z cos V ) z V(
L
' = ' [142a]
z sin
R
V
) z I(
0
L
' = ' [142b]

1
R R 1
R R 1
R R
R R
L 0
L 0
0 L
0 L
=
+

=
+

= I and
=

+
=

+
=
1 1
1 1
1
1
S


38
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Short-circuited line
The standing-waves are similar to those on a resistance-terminated line with
0 L
R R < . Here,
0 R
L
= , 0 V
L
= and
L
I is finite. Hence, equ. [136a] and [136b] reduces to
z sin R I ) z V(
0 L
' = ' [143a]
z cos I ) z I(
L
' = ' [143b]
Typical standing waves for open- and short-circuited lines are shown in Fig. 3.2.
4 2 4 3 0
( ) line circuited - open for z V '
( ) line circuited - short for z I '
( ) line circuited - open for z I '
( ) line circuited - short for z V '
Fig. 3.2 Voltage and current standing waves
on open- and short-circuited lossless lines
z'




LINES WITH ARBITRARY TERMINATION
Let the terminating impedance be
L L L
jX R Z + = . Assume the voltage standing wave on the
line to be as shown Fig. 3.2.















39
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Thus, nether a
max
V nor
min
V appear at 0 z = ' .
min
V will occur at an extra distance
m
l i.e.
min
V is where its suppose to be if the original terminating impedance
L
Z is replaced by a
line section of length
m
l terminated by a pure resistance.
Since any complex impedance can be obtained as the input impedance of a section of a
lossless line terminated in a resistive load as shown in equ. [108], then using
m
R for
L
Z and
m
l for l , we get

l
l
R jX R
0 i i

jR R
jR R
m m 0
m 0 m
tan
tan
+
+
= + [144]
And thus, we can solve for
m
R and
m
l


L
Z can be obtained can be determined if S and
m
z' in the figure above know. [note that
2 l z
m m
= + ' ] . The procedure is:-
(i) Find I from S. Use
1 S
1 S
+

= I
(ii) Find
I
u from
m
z' . Use t | u ' =
I m
z 2 for 0 n =
(iii)Find
L
Z i.e.
R jX R Z
0 L L L

e 1
e 1
j
j
I
I
I
I +
= + =
u
u
[144]
Example: The standing-wave ratio on a lossless 50 transmission line terminated in an
unknown load impedance is found to be 3.0. The distance between successive voltage minima is
20 cm, and the first minimum is located at 5 cm from the load. Determine
(i) The reflection coefficient I
(ii) The load impedance
L
Z
(iii)In addition, find the equivalent length and terminating resistance of a line such that the input
impedance is equal to
L
Z ..
Solution:
(i) The distance between successive voltage minima is half a wavelength. Hence,
m 0.4 0.2 2 = = and
rad/m 5
0.4
2 2
t
t

t
| = = =
Step 1: 0.5
1 3
1 3
1 S
1 S
=
+

=
+

= I
Step 2: rad 0.5 0.05 5 2 z 2
m
t t t t | u = = ' =
I

j0.5 0.5e e
j0.5
= = I = I

I
u j

(ii) The load impedance
L
Z
( ) O = =
+

= j40 30 j0.8 - 0.06 50


j0.5 1
j0.5 1
50 Z
L

(iii)
m
m

l jR 50
l j50 R
50 j40 30
m
m
tan
tan
+
+
= or
40
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
2 l z
m m
= + ' or m 0.15 0.05 0.2 z 2 l
m m
= = ' =
O = = = 16.7
3
50
S
R
R
0
m



THE SMITH CHART
- Transmission-line calculations such as the determination of input impedance, reflection
coefficient and load impedance often involve tedious manipulations of complex numbers.
This can be eliminated using graphical method. One of the most widely used graphical
chart is the Smith chart.
- A Smith chart is a graphical plot of normalized resistance and reactance functions in the
reflection-coefficient plane.
- Consider a lossless transmission line with reflection coefficient being given by
I
I =
+

= I
u j
e
R Z
R Z
0 L
0 L
[145]
- Normalizing the load impedance with respect to characteristic impedance of the line,
have
jx r
R
X
j
R
Z
z
0
L
0
L
L
+ = + = [146]
- Thus
1 z
1 z
j
L
L
+

= I + I = I
i r
[147]
- Rearranging equ. [147], have that

I
I
I
I +
=
I
+ I
=
u
u
j
j
e 1
e 1
1
1
z
L
[148]
or

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
i r i r
i r i r
i r
i r
I + I I I
I + I I + I +
=
I I
I + I +
= +
j 1 j 1
j 1 j 1
j 1
j 1
jx r


( )
2
i
2
r
i
2
i
2
r
I + I
I + I I
=
1
j2 1

- Hence
( )
2
i
2
r
2
i
2
r
I + I
I I
=
1
1
r and [149]
( )
2
i
2
r
i
I + I
I
=
1
2
x [150]
- Rearranging equ. [149], have
41
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
2
2
i
2
r
|
.
|

\
|
+
= I +
|
.
|

\
|
+
I
r 1
1
r 1
r
[151]
which is an equation of a circle having a radius
r 1
r
+
and centred at
r 1
r
+
= I
r
and 0 = I
i

- Different values of r yields circles of different radii with centres at different positions on
axis I
r
.
i
I
r
I
0

- Thus, the properties of the r-circles are:-
(i) The centres of all r-circles lie on the axis I
i
.
(ii) The 0 r = circle, having a unity radius and centred at the origin, is the largest.
(iii)The r-circles become progressively smaller as r increases from 0 to, ending at the
( ) 0 1 = I = I
r r
, point for open circuit.
42
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
(iv) All r-circles pass through the ( ) 0 1 = I = I
r r
, point

- Similarly, equ. [150] can be written as
( )
2 2
i
2
r
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
I + I
x
1
x
1
1 [152]
which is an equation of circle having a radius
x
1
and centered at 1 = I
r
and
x
1
= I
i
.
- Different valued of x yields circles of different radii with centres at different positions on the
1 = I
r
line. The properties of these x -circles are:-
(i) The centres of all x -circles lie on the 1 = I
r
; those for 0 x > (inductive reactance) lie
above the axis I
r
and those for 0 x < (capacitive reactance) lie below the axis I
r
.
(ii) The 0 x = circle becomes the axis I
r
.
(iii)The x -circles becomes progressively smaller x increases from 0 to, ending at the
( ) 0 1 = I = I
r r
, point for open circuit.
(iv) All x -circles pass through the ( ) 0 1 = I = I
r r
, point.
- The Smith chart above marked with
r
I and
i
I uses rectangular coordinates. The same chart
can be marked with polar coordinates, such that every point in the I plane is specified by a
magnitude I and a phase angel
I
u as shown below.
- These I circles are not normally shown on the chart but can be drawn once the point
representing a certain jx r z
L
+ = is located by simply drawing a circle centred at origin
through the point.
- The fractional distance from the centre to the the point (compared to with the unit radius to
the edge of the chart) is equal to the magnitude I of the load reflection coefficient; and the
angle that the line makes with the real axis is
I
u .
- Since 0 x = along the real axis,
M
P and
m
P both represents situation with a purely resistive
load
L L
R Z = . Thus,
0 L
R R > at
M
P , where 1 r > ; and
0 L
R R < at
m
P , where 1 r < .
Therefore, since r R R S
0 L
= = for
0 L
R R > , then the value of the r -circles passing through
the point
M
P is numerically equal to the standing-wave ratio while the value passing through
m
P on the negative- real axis is numerically equal to S 1 .
- If the input impedance looking towards the load at distance z' from the load is used, then for
a lossless line, [from equs. [132a] and [132b]], have
( )
( )
( )
(

I
I +
=
'
'
= '
'
'
z 2 j
z 2 j
0 i
|
|
e 1
e 1
Z
z I
z V
z Z [153]
- The normalized input impedance is

|
|
|
|
j
j
z 2 j
z 2 j
i
i
e 1
e 1
e 1
e 1
Z
Z
z
0
I
I +
=
I
I +
= =
'
'
[154]
where
43
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
z 2 ' =
I
| u | [155]
- Equ. [154] is exactly the same form as equ. [148]. Therefore I and hence S are not changed
by the additional line length z' . Thus, on Smith chart we find I and
I
u for a given
L
z at the
load and keeping I constant, we subtract (rotate in the clockwise direction) from
I
u an
angle equal to t | z 4 z 2 ' = ' . This will locate the point
| j
e I which determines
i
z .



i
I
r
I
0



44
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Example 1: Use the Smith chart to find the input impedance of a section of a O 50 lossless
transmission line that is 0.1 wavelength long and is terminated in a short-circuit.
Solution:
0 z
L
=
O = 50 R
0

0.1 z = '
(i) Enter the smith chart at the intersection of 0 r = and 0 x = (point
sc
P )
(ii) Move along the perimeter of the chart ( 1 = I ) by 0.1 wavelengths toward generator in
a clockwise direction to
1
P .
(iii)At
1
P , read 0 r = and 0.725 x = or j0.725 z =
i
. Thus the input impedance is
O = = = j36.25 j0.725 50 z R Z
i 0 i
(which is purely inductive)
This can be verified using equ.[111] i.e.
( ) O = = |
.
|

\
|
= == = j36.33 0.2 j50 0.1
2
j50 l jR jX Z
0 is
t

t
| tan tan tan
i

Example 2: A lossless transmission line of length 0.434 and characteristic impedance
O 100 is terminated in an impedance O + j180 260 . Find
a) The voltage reflection coefficient
b) The standing-wave ratio
c) The input impedance, and
d) The location of a voltage maximum on the line.

Solution:
Given
O + = j180 260 Z
L

O = 100 R
0

0.434 z = '

a) The voltage reflection coefficient is obtained using the following steps:
1. Enter the Smith chart at j1.8 2.6
100
j180 260
R Z z
0 L L
+ =
+
= = [point
2
P ].
2. With the centre at the origin, draw a circle of radius 0.60 OP2 = I = .(The radius of
the chart 1 = sc OP ).
I.e. on measuring, 4.7cm OP2 = and 7.7cm OPsc = ,hence,
0.61
7.7cm
4.7cm
OP
OP
sc
2
= =
3. Draw a straight line
2
OP and extend it to
2
P' on the periphery. Read 0.220 on
wavelengths toward generator scale. The phase angle
( )
0
21 or rad 0.12 4 0.22 0.25 t u = =
I
.[we multiply the change in wavelength by
4 because angles on the Smith chart are measured in | z 4 or z 2 ' ' . A half-
wavelength change in line length corresponds to complete revolution on the Smith
chart.] The answer then is
45
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
. 21 0.61 e
0
Z = I = I
I
u j

b) The standing-wave ratio
The 0.61 = I circle intersects with the positive-real axis
oc
OP at
M
P i.e. 4 S r = = .
Hence, the voltage standing-wave ratio is 4.

c) The input impedance
1. Move
2
P' at0.22 by a total of 0.434 wavelengths toward the generator first to 0.500
(same as 0.000) and then further to 0.154 [ ( ) 0.434 0.154 0.220 0.500 = + ] to
3
P' .
2. Join O to
3
P' by a straight line which intersects the 0.61 = I circle at
3
P .
3. Read 0.69 r = and 2 . 1 x = . Hence,
( ) j120 69 j1.2 0.69 100 z R Z
i 0
+ = = =
i

d) The location of a voltage maximum on the line.
In going from
2
P to
3
P , the 0.61 = I circle intersects the positive-real axis
oc
OP at
M
P where the voltage is a maximum. Thus, a voltage maximum appears at
( ) 0.03 0.220 0.250 = from the load.

Example 3: The standing-wave ratio on a lossless 50 transmission line terminated in an
unknown load impedance is found to be 3.0. The distance between successive voltage minima is
20 cm, and the first minimum is located at 5 cm from the load. Determine
(i) The reflection coefficient I
(ii) The load impedance
L
Z
(iii)In addition, find the equivalent length and terminating resistance of a line such that the input
impedance is equal to
L
Z ..
Solution:
Given
O = 100 R
0

3.0 S =
0.4m 0.2 2 = =
First voltage minimum at 0.05m z
m
= '
a) The reflection coefficient I
On the positive-real axis
oc
OP , locate the point
M
P at which 3.0 S r = = . Then
0.5 OP
M
= I = i.e. 0.5
7.7cm
3.9cm
OP
OP
sc
M
= =
We cannot find
I
u until we have located the point that represents the normalized load
impedance.
b) The load impedance
L
Z
1. Draw a circle centred at the origin with radius
M
OP , which intersects with the negative-
real axis
sc
OP at
m
P where there will be a voltage minimum.
2. Since 0.125 0.4 0.05 z
m
= = ' , move from
sc
P wavelength toward load in the
counterclockwise direction to
L
P' .
46
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
3. Join O to
L
P by a straight line , intersecting the 0.5 = I circle at
L
P . This is the point
representing the normalized load impedance.
4. Read the angle rad 2 90 P O P
0
L oc
t = = ' Z i.e. ( ) rad 2 0.125 0.25 4 P O P
L oc
t = = ' Z .
Hence,
rad 2 - =
I
u or
. j0.5 90 - 0.5
0
= Z = I
5. Read at
L
P , j0.8 0.6 z
L
= , thus,
( ) O = = j40 30 j0.8 0.6 50 Z
L


c) In addition, find the equivalent length and terminating resistance of a line such that the input
impedance is equal to
L
Z ..
m 0.15 0.05 0.2. z
2
l
m m
= = ' =


O = = = 16.7
3
50
S
R
R
0
m


SMITH CHART CALCULATIONS FOR LOSSY LINES
- Above analysis have been based on lossless transmission-lines but practically low-loss line
are normally used.
- For a lossy line of length l , equ. [154] is modified such that
| o
| o
| o
| o
j z 2
j z 2
z 2 j z 2
z 2 j z 2
i
e e 1
e e 1
e e 1
e e 1
z
'
'
' '
' '
I
I +
=
I
I +
= [156]
where z 2

' =
- Hence, to find
i
z and
L
z , we cannot simply move along the I -circle; auxiliary calculations
are necessary to account for the
z 2 ' o
e factor.

Example 4: The input impedance of a short-circuited lossy transmission line of length 2 m and
characteristic impedance O 5 7 (approximately real) is O + j225 45 .
a) Find o and | of the line
b) Determine the input impedance if the short-circuit is replaced by a load impedance
j45 67.5 Z
L
= .

Solution:
a) The short-circuit load is represented by
sc
P on the Smith chart.
1. Enter j3.0 0.6
75
j225 45
z
i1
+ =
+
= in the chart as
1
P .
2. Draw a straight line from the origin O through
1
P to
1
P' .
3. Measure
z 2 '
= = =
'
o
e 0.89
7.75cm
6.9cm
P O
OP
1
1
. Hence,
47
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
Np/m 0.029 ln1.124
4
1
0.89
1
2l
1
= = |
.
|

\
|
= ln o
4. Record that the arc
L sc
P P ' is 0.20 wavelength toward the generator. Thus, 0.20 l = and
0.8 0.20 4 l 4 l 2 = = = . Hence,
rad/m 0.2
4
0.8
2l
0.8
0.20 4 l 4 = = = = =
b) To find the input impedance for j45 67.5 Z
L
=
1. Enter j0.6 0.9
75
j45 6
Z Z z
0 L L
=

= =
5 7.
on the Smith chart as
2
P .
2. Draw a straight line from O through
2
P to
2
P' where the wavelengths toward the
generator reading is 0.364.
3. Draw a I - circle centred at O with radius 2 OP .
4. Move
2
P' along the perimeter by 0.20 wavelength towards generator to
3
P' at
0.564 0.2 0.364 = + or 0.064.
5. Join
3
P' and O by a straight line, intersecting the I - circle at
3
P .
6. Mark on the line
3
OP a point
i
P such that 0.89 e OP OP
l
= =
2
3 i i.e.
2.1cm 2.4cm 0.89 OP 0.89 OP = = = 3 i
7. At
i
P read j0.27 0.64 z
i
= . Hence,
( ) j20.25 48 j0.27 0.64 75 Z
i
+ = + =

TRANSMISSION-LINE IMPEDANCE MATCHING

a) Impedance Matching by Quarter-wave Transformer
- A simple method for matching a resistive load
L
R to a lossless transmission line of
characteristic impedance
0
R is to insert a quarter-wave transformer with a characteristic
impedance
0
R' such that
L 0 0
R R R = ' [157]
- Since the length of the quarter-wave line depends on wavelength, this matching is frequency-
sensitive.

Example 5:A signal generator is a to feed equal power through a lossless air transmission
line with a characteristic impedance O 50 to two separate resistive loads, O 4 6 and O 5 2 .
Quarter-wave transformers are used to match the loads to the O 50 line, as shown below.
a) Determine the required characteristic impedance of the quarter-wave lines
b) Find the standing-wave ratios on the matching line sections.

Solution:
a) To feed equal power to the two loads, the input resistance at the junction with the main
line looking towards each load must be equal to
0
2R i.e. 100 2R R R
0 i2 i1
= = = .[such
that the equivalent resistance at the junction is equal to
0
R ]:
48
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
80 64 100 R R R
L1 i1 01
= = = '
50 25 100 R R R
L2 i2 02
= = = '
4
4
64 R
L1
=
25 R
L2
=
50 R
0
=
02
R'
01
R'

b) Under matched conditions there are no standing waves on the main transmission line
( 1 S = ). The standing-wave ratios on the two matching line sections are as follows:

Matching section 1:
0.11
80 64
80 64
R R
R R
01 L1
01 L1
=
+

=
' +
'
= I
1


1.25
0.11 1
0.11 1
1
1
S
1
1
1
=

+
=

+
=

Matching section 2:
0.33
80 25
80 25
R R
R R
02 L2
02 L2
=
+

=
' +
'
= I
2

1.99
0.33 1
0.33 1
1
1
S
2
2
2
=

+
=

+
=

- Above have analysis has been for lossless lines but for lossy lines, quarter-wave cannot be
used. Instead a method for matching an arbitrary load impedance to a line by using single-
open or short-circuited line section (a single stub)in parallel with the main line and an
appropriate distance from the load is used.
- In this case, on the Smith chart, admittance is normally used. Let
L
L
Z
1
Y = denote the load
impedance. The normalized load impedance is
49
EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
L L 0 0
L
L
y
1
Y R
1
R
Z
z = = = [158]
Where
jb g Y R
Y
Y
y
L 0
0
L
L
+ = = = [159]
is the normalized load admittance have normalized conductance g and normalized
susceptance b.
- Equation [158] implies that a quarter-wave line with a unity normalized characteristic
impedance will transform
L
z to
L
y , and vice versa. On the Smith chart we only move the
point representing
L
z along the I -circle by a quarter-wavelength to locate the point
representing
L
y .
- Since a 4 -change in the line length |
.
|

\
|
= ' A
4
1
z corresponds to a change of t radians
|
.
|

\
|
= = ' A
4

2
2 z 2| on the Smith chart, the points representing
L
z and
L
y are then
diametrically opposite each other on the I -circle.

Example 6: Given O + = j20 95 Z
L
, find
L
Y
Solution:
Choosing 50 R
0
=
j0.4 1.9
50
j20 95
R
Z
z
0
L
L
+ =
+
= =
On the Smith enter
L
z as point
1
P . The point
2
P on the other side of the line joining
1
P and O
represents
L
y :
j0.1 0.5 y
L
=
Hence,
( ) mS j2 10 j0.1 0.5
50
1
y
R
1
Y
L
0
L
= + = =

Example 7: Find the input admittance of an open-circuited line of characteristic impedance
O 300 and length 0.04 .
Solution:
1. Starting from the
oc
P , move along the perimeter of the chart by 0.04 wavelengths
toward generator to point
1
P i.e. 0.29 0.04 0.25 = + .
2. Draw a straight line from
1
P through O, intersecting at
1
P' on the opposite side.
3. Read at
1
P'
j0.26 0 y
i
+ =
Hence,
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
( ) mS j0.87 j0.26 0
300
1
y
R
1
Y
L
0
i
= + = =

SINGLE-STUB MATCHING
- This is matching load impedance
L
Z to a lossless line that has characteristic
impedance
0
R by placing a single short-circuited stub in parallel with the line and
shown below.
i
y
l
L
Z 0
R
d
0
R
B
y
S
y
L
y
B
B'

- The length of the stub l and the distance from the load, d needs to be determined,
such that the impedance of the parallel combination to the right of the points
B - B ' equals
0
R .
- A short-circuited stub is are usually used in preference to the open-circuited stubs
because an infinite terminating impedance is more difficult to realize than a zero
terminating impedance for reasons of radiation from an open end and coupling effects
with neighbouring objects.
- Since
L
Z and the stub are in parallel, its more appropriate to analyse the matching
requirements in terms of admittances. The basic requirement is

s B i
Y Y Y + = [160]

0
0
R
1
Y = =
- In terms of normalized admittances, equ. [160] becomes
s B
y y 1 + = [161]
where
B 0 B
Y R y = -for load section

s 0 s
Y R y = - for short-circuited stub.
- Since the input admittance of a short-circuited stub is purely susceptive,
s
y is purely
imaginary. Thus, equ. [161] become can only be satisfied if
B B
jb 1 y + = [162]
and
B s
jb y = [163]
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
- Therefore, its our objective to find the length d such that the admittance,
B
y , of the
load section looking to the right of terminals B - B ' has a unity real part and to find
the length
B
l of the stub required to cancel the imaginary part.
- Using the Smith chart as an admittance chart, the following steps are followed:

1. Enter the point representing the normalized load admittance
L
y .
2. Draw the I -circle for
L
y , which will intersect the 1 g = circle at two points. At
these points,
B1 B1
jb 1 y + = and
B2 B2
jb 1 y + = . Both are possible solutions.
3. Determine load-section lengths
1
d and
2
d from the angles between the point
representing
L
y and the points representing
B1
y and
B2
y .
4. Determine stub lengths
B1
l and
B2
l from the angles between the short-circuit point
on the extreme right of the chart to the points representing
B1
jb - and
B2
jb - respectively.

Example 7: A O 50 transmission line is connected to a load impedance
O = j47.5 35 Z
L
. Find the position and length of a short-circuited stub required to
match the line.

Solution:
Given:
O = 50 R
0

O = j47.5 35 Z
L

j0.95 0.70
50
j47.5 35
R Z z
0 L L
=

= =
1. Enter
L
z on the Smith chart as
1
P
2. Draw a I -circle centred at O with radius
1
OP
3. Draw a straight line from
1
P through O to point
2
P' on the perimeter, intersecting the
I -circle at
2
P , which represents
L
y . Note 0.109 at
2
P' on the wavelengths towards
generatorscale.
4. Note the two points of intersection of the I -circle with the 1 g = -circle.
At
3
P :
B1 B1
jb 1 j1.2 1 y + = + = ;
At
4
P :
B2 B2
jb 1 j1.2 1 y + = = ;
5. Solutions for the positions of the stub:
For
3
P (from
2
P' to
3
P' ): ( ) 0.059 0.109 0.168 d
1
= =
For
4
P (from
4
P' to
3
P' ): ( ) 0.223 0.109 0.332 d
2
= =
6. Solutions for the length of short-circuited stub to provide
B s
jb y = .
For
3
P (from
sc
P on the extreme right of chart to
3
P' ' , which represents
j1.2 jb
B1
= )
( ) 0.111 0.250 0.361 l
B1
= = .
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EEE 2314 TRANSMISSION LINES JKUAT-Kipyegon
For
4
P (from
sc
P to
4
P' ' , which represents j1.2 jb
B2
= )
( ) 0.389 0.250 0.139 l
B2
= + = .
In general, the solution with the shorter lengths is preferred unless there are other
practical constraints.