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Lexington and Concord

Battle of Lexington
8 Patriots are killed in the fighting and shot gets fired and heard around the world
G.B plan to suppress rebellion before revolution starts (with a March)
- by seizing colonists weapons, and grab rebel leaders promoting revolution
Battle of Concord (First violent conflict in Am-Rev)
March reaches to Concord and 100s of minutemen (farmers with guns) waiting and attack GB
troops and force British Redcoats to retreat back to Boston
April 1775 GB General Thomas Gage sent british troops in Boston to seize colonial military
supplies in Concord (town)
Paul Revere and William Daves warned the minutemen of the British March
Minutemen vs British (British lost at 250)
Battle of BunkerHill
June 1775 Colonist seized BunkerHill slaughtered redcoats
**Not everyone in favor of the Revolution**mixed opinions of Am-Rev
Was not only a war of independence but a civil war as well
Split into two factions
- Loyalist (Tories)
consisted 1/3 of pop. who remained loyal to the King. Some joined British arm to fight
against colos. (mostly New York, Carolinas, Georgia); most were wealthy and were govt
officials, Native Ams joined side to limit colonial settlements in the West
- Patriots
consisted of 2/3 of pop. (N.E and Virginia); fearlessly independent and hated the
I. British Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths (compared to colos)
Population, more money, bigger navy, more professional army, loyalists supported them
Enemies everywhere(werent in home front) France payback, Ireland in rebellion
Supply problems (far away to transport at supplies)
Far, long communication; Distance issue; lacked efficient war plan
II. American Strengths and Weaknesses
Leaderships: George Washington, Benjamin F, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson
European general reruit: Marquis de Lafayette, Baron von Steuben
Defensive war was just to survive G.B attacks; willing allies (STRONGEST: FRANCE)
Lack unit amongst the states (13 countryies trying to gain independence)
Sectional jealousy; lack of united vision; lack of supplies and technology; little army and
lacked professional training (relied on European allies); no military knowledge

Continental Congress (during bunkerhill battle)
May 1775 in Philly where Congress attempts to redress grievences with England
Delegates raise money to create an army and navy (Continental Army)
led by George Washington (Commanding General)
sent Olive Branch Petition: colonists still wanted peace and negotiations; some ppl not ready for
independence; peace overture made to England; King rejects it
voted to attack British in Canada; DoI was written (Committee of 5: Benj F, John Adams,
Thomas Jefferson)
N.E faction wanted colonial independence
Middle Colo faction wanted to negotiate new relationship with G.B
Thomas Paines Common Sense
- argued against British monarchy and to break all ties; it was common sense for a large
continent to not pledge allegiance to a corrupt govt and king and whose laws were
I. Military Actions

General Washington (1776-1777)
not necessarily a good general but was good at keeping the army together
Fought Battle of Long Island (1776)
Winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778)
Turning Point of Am-Rev War
Battle of Saratoga (1777)
o French-American Alliance: French govt to declare war on Brits and openly aid America
o French military aid and assistance played a key role in enabling America to win Am-Rev
o French aided us b/c they wanted to weaken G.B empire
- Americans won at Saratoga and victory persuaded France to join war
- Spain and Holland allies as well
Benjamin Franklin and American Diplomacy
American diplomats had been sent to Europe to gain alliance (Military assistance, loans)
Model Treaty
Benjamin Franklin master diplomat
Battle of Yorktown (1781)
- Americans were not in good shape (Were running out of supplies and inflation was a
major problem)
- British General Cornwallis retreats to Yorktown on the Chesapeake and gets
surrounded by French fleet and armies of French and America and surrenders
***Leads to G.B surrender and formation of Peace Treaty of Treaty of
Paris! (1783) (John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin)
1. British recognize American independence
2. granted U.S generous boundaries (to Mississippi river was western boundary of the
3. Restore property to Loyalists; stop persecution of Loyalists
4. Pay back debts owed to British debtors

Organization of New Governments
- tried creating 13 independent governed states
- Philly Congress tried to define the powers of the new central govt
State govt/Constitutions
- list of rights, separation of powers, voting,