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Kinds of Idiom

Below the researcher would like to differentiate three kinds of idiom:



Lexemic idiom
The meaning of lexemic idiom is idiom which collate with the familiar part of speech (Boatnar and
Gate, 1975: v). Lexemic idiom is form of idiom which indicated a specific class of grammatical word,
and an idiom can be nominal, adjective, verb or adverb.

Based on the classification of grammatical word class, lexemic idioms are distinguished based on
Boather and Gate theory. There are 3 kinds of lexemic idioms, they are: Verbal idiom, Nominal idiom
and Adjectival idiom.


1. Verbal Idiom
Verbal idioms are kind of idioms which have class of verb as in sentence.
Id tie on my backhand look at the cloud passing by.
The meaning of look at in the sentence above is to turn your eyes toward something, the other italic
which is passing by means to move pass or go pass for a person, person, thing etc.
Dont let your imagination, run away with you.
The sentence above consist a verbal idiom which marked by the italic words, it means to control.
We could longer agree, I had to break with her.
The sentence break above doesnt mean to break or crack or destroy something or somebody, but
the underlined break means to end a connection or relationship with.

2. Nominal Idioms
The second kind of verbal idioms is nominal idiom. Based on its definition, nominal idiom is the
idioms which have a nominal word class (noun) and usually appeared as nominal phrase which forms
idiomatic meaning. Later, it could be explained below:
My father is a man with a few words. He doesnt really want to state his opinion.
The explanation of italic words above is a man who does not talk very much.
The witness has been received a sum of harsh money for his no talk in the assembly.
Italic words above is a nominal idiom, it can be translated as money paid to prevent some shameful
fact which can be known in the public.
The employees have done some dirty work to make a benefit for their selves.
Some dirty work can be interpreted as dishonest or unfaithful work even can be said done a
corruption.

3. Adjectival Idioms
A word or sentence can be said as adjectival idiom if it has adjectival class. Furthermore, the
explanation of this idiom can be showed in the sentence as follows:
I can stand myself to wear these clothes anymore; this dress trend is out of date.
The out of date mean is no longer fashionable or exist.
The girl is so surprise and directly glance up the coming sound whose call her name.
The underlined words which are glance up means look quickly.
Minoz is an all around athlete, he talents soccer, badminton, and the others kinds of sports.
All around is an idiom which means doing good in many different things, especially at many different
sports.

Phrase Logical Idioms
This idiom type is idioms that do not readily correlate with a given grammatical part of speech and
required a paraphrase longer than a word. Often they are in entire clause in length (Boather and
Gate, 1975: V1)
From the plain explanation above, it can be conclude that phrase logic idiom is idiom which connects
to the grammatical word class indirectly a need paraphrase. It often consist one clause. Moreover, it
would be explained below:
I was on my mind when the bells blew my brains out.
Italic sentence which written blew my brains out above means to kill myself by shooting in the head.
After having a brilliant position in office, Danny finally able to keep his head above water.
Words in italic which is keep his head above water means that to earn enough money to remain out
of debt.
The new raising actor has a talent to make a noise in the world.
The sentence make a noise in the world refer to its closest meaning, and it can be mean o become
famous.

Saying and Proverb
These saying and proverb are the last kind of idiom. Nevertheless, it has to be explained clearly, and
below are some of the examples of it.
Because of his lack of knowledge, the building staff quarrelers his tools.
From the sentence above, the researcher would like to give a bit description about the using of
saying and proverb idiom. The italic sentence means that building staff tries to excuse his lack of
knowledge or his stupidity by blaming the tools for poor workmanship.
Tommy is one of my relative whom came from village. He is a country cousin.
The italic words above means that Tommy was a simple and average person.

Moreover Boather and Gates theory is strengthened by the theory of Denoun which famous by his
article entitle kind of idioms (1976). For clear information in www.wikipedia.com, he classifies
idioms into five kinds. The explanations follow:
Lexemic Idioms
In the first explanation of this research, the researcher can simply say that there is an interesting fact
about idioms that they are can be easily to identify, especially when we are analysis it in the part of
speech. Idioms can sometimes be seen in verbal nature such as get up, look out, watch out, turn off,
hold on etc. Later, it also can be found in nominal nature like hot dog (Frankfurter originally food)
which serves as a noun. Last, it can also provide as adjectives and also adverbial.
Idiomatic pairs
There are many kinds of pairs in English, it can be followed by word of and. In the next explanation,
idiomatic pairs can be found in the adverb forms, noun forms, identical/prepositional forms,
adjectives forms, verb forms.
Some common noun pairs and adverb pairs are peace and quite, body and soul, life and limb, grin
and bear. The example of adverbial pairs and adjectival pairs are here and there, short and sweet,
sick and tired. And the instance for identical/prepositional pairs is on and on, around up, little by
little, all in all.
Proverbial Idioms
In his theory, Denoun also include proverbial as one of many idiom kinds. I wish to get up earlier so I
can begin my day with a flying star. And then I know its said barking dogs seldom bite but a man
cant be too careful.
One-Word Idioms
It can be said as one-word idioms when we find a word with an extreme different meaning from the
original meaning of the selected word. Such as (apple) he has an apple laptop. Idiom can be meant in
general because the meaning of idiom can not be understood just each individual word.
Posted by Yemi Yunita