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Spiruline : bibliographie
scientifique (19662006)





tablie loccasion du 40me anniversaire de lavnement de
la spiruline moderne




J acques Falquet
et
J ean-Pierre Hurni





Antenna Technologies Suisse juin 2007
2
Avant-propos


Cette bibliographie ne comporte que des articles de nature scientifique (cest--dire publis dans des
revues avec comits de lectures ou dans des ouvrages de niveau scientifique comparable : actes de
confrences, monographies de spcialistes, etc.) concernant la cyanobactrie Arthrospira platensis,
encore plus connue sous son ancien nom Spirulina platensis.


Par spiruline moderne , nous entendons la spiruline dont les proprits dittiques, mtaboliques
ou commerciales ont t scientifiquement tudies.


La prsente bibliographie est ne des besoins des chercheurs dAntenna Technologies Suisse de
disposer dune bibliographie aussi exhaustive que possible darticles scientifiques pour la mise jour
des textes destins son lectorat : producteurs de spirulines, ONG proccupes par la malnutrition,
sponsors partageant ces mmes proccupations, etc.

Les autres sortes de documents sur les savoirs ou sur les savoir-faire en rapport avec la spiruline,
recenss sans la moindre prtention lexhaustivit, sont mentionns dans la Bibliographie
gnrale spirulinienne dont la prsente Bibliographie doit tre considre comme une Annexe.

Le choix a t fait de rassembler lensemble des donnes pertinentes sur un unique fichier texte
de sorte en limiter la taille.

Nous remercions tout particulirement Antenna Technologies France pour avoir mis notre
disposition les donnes recueillies dans lintention dtablir une bibliographie similaire celle-ci.



J acques Falquet
J ean-Pierre Hurni


1) Note historique


Le 8 janvier 1966 la revue Nature publiait un bref compte-rendu des rsultats scientifiques recueillis
par une expdition transsaharienne effectue lhiver prcdent. Une quipe de scientifiques dcouvrit
cette occasion quune algue comestible rcolte sur les bords du lac Tchad tait vendue, sche,
dans les marchs de Fort-Lamy sous forme de galettes. Lanalyse rvla que cette algue tait
presque exclusivement compose de lorganisme Spirulina platensis, et que ce dernier tait
remarquablement riche en protines.
Le 23 juillet de cette mme anne, et dans la mme revue, paraissait un article caractre historique
rapportant de multiples tmoignages des conquistadores selon lesquels les Aztques avaient fait une
grande consommation dune algue bleue, non identifie, rcolte dans le lac de Texcoco et prpare
selon des modalits qui voquaient passablement la dcouverte tchadienne .
Le lac de Texcoco tant alors presque compltement assch depuis longtemps, lidentification de
cette dernire algue semblait ne prsenter quun intrt acadmique. Quelques annes aprs, une
usine construite prcisment dans le but dexploiter le sel des dernires poches deau sale de ce lac
se retrouva encrasse de faon inattendue par un microorganisme verdtre : la Spirulina maxima des
Aztques, comme on put ltablir alors, avait survcu contre toute attente. Le miracle suivant fut que la
direction de lusine en question, qui et probablement connaissance des articles de Nature, dcida
dexploiter la spiruline au lieu de la saumure : une ide remarquable due Hubert Durand-Chastel. A
cette poque il tait beaucoup question de la recherche de nouvelles sources de protines pour faire
face laccroissement de la population mondiale.
Ainsi, il y a 40 ans, lre de la spiruline moderne, rve comme gnreuse pourvoyeuse de protines,
de micro nutriments, de colorants et autres merveilles, prenait son essor. Il faudra prs dune trentaine
dannes pour se faire une ide plus prcise de la ralit; mais au final, il ny a gure de raisons dtre
3
du par Spirulina platensis qui sest rvle, tout le moins, tre un remarquable complment
alimentaire, porteur de nombreuses promesses dans le domaine de la Sant.

Lironie est que lanalyse gntique a dernirement montr tout la fois que les Spirulina platensis,
Spirulina maxima, Spirulina fusiformis ainsi que dautres organismes classs dans les genres
Spirulina et Arthrospira ne semblent pas tre des espces diffrentes mais de simples variantes dun
mme organisme. De plus, tout bien considr, notre spiruline nappartient pas au genre Spirulina
( petite spirale ) mais bien au genre Arthrospira ( spirale articule).

Donc, souhaitons longue vie Arthrospira platensis, sous toutes ses formes ; et ne la confondons pas
avec la Spirulina subsalsa et dautres espces qui demeurent dans le genre Spirulina.


2) Au sujet des notices associes aux articles scientifiques


Les notices des articles scientifiques recenss ci-aprs contiennent si possible :

Un numro didentification PMID qui est celui mentionn par la rubrique Pub Med lorsque larticle a t
recens par la base de donne MEDLINE. Dans le cas contraire, on indique alors un pas la
place du nombre attendu.

Comme nous gardons toujours lespoir dacqurir tt ou tard sous un format PDF les documents
retenus comme scientifiquement intressants mais qui ne sont pas encore en notre possession, nous
leurs rservons dj, sous la rubrique pdf : , un nom de fichier fait du nom du premier auteur
complt de la premire initiale de son prnom suivie de lanne de parution du document. Si le nom
de fichier qui rsulte de cette procdure est dj attribu, on ajoute un a directement aprs
lanne, puis un b si ncessaire, etc. Tant que nous ne disposons pas du document en question,
on ajoute un PAS la suite du nom de fichier rserv.
Si par la suite nous venons disposer dune copie en papier du document, nous supprimons
videmment le PAS et remplaons lextension .pdf par .papier .

Les mots-cls de la rubrique mots-cls article : sont ceux fournis par les auteurs mmes du
document, lorsquil y en a. Le symbole $ signale le dbut du mot-cl, ou le dbut de la chane de mots
que les auteurs on retenu comme dfinissant un mot-cl plus spcifique.

Les mots-cls de la rubrique mots-cls Antenna : sont choisis par les collaborateurs dAntenna
Technologies. Les symbole ou ** jouent ici le rle que $ joue dans le paragraphe prcdent.

Sous la rubrique rsum : , on y trouve en gnral un rsum, quil soit fourni par MEDLINE, ou
alors du rsum extrait du document lui-mme lorsquil y en a un. La place disponible sous
rsum sert galement faire figurer toute indication pertinente comme la langue originale de
larticle ou toute autre considration qui a paru opportune.

Au final, une notice se prsente typiquement sous laspect suivant :

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428: Korsunskii OF, Smolygina LD, Laurinavichene TV, Gogotov IN.
[Low potential c-type cytochrome of Thiocapsa roseopersicina].
Biokhimiia. 1982 Mar;47(3):355-60.
PMID: 6280782
pdf: Korsunskii O 1982.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima.
rsum: article en russe

The low potential c-type cytochrome from the phototrophic purple sulphur bacterium
Thiocapsa roseopersicina, strain BBS was isolated in electrophoretically homogeneous state.
The bulk of the cytochrome (approximately 90%) after disruption of the cells remained in the
4
membrane fraction. The absorption spectrum of the cytochrome was characterized by the
maxima at 420, 523 and 552 nm in the reduced state and at 408 nm in the oxidized one. The
cytochrome interacted with CO in the reduced state. The molecular weight of the cytochrome
is 50 000. The cytochrome contains great amounts of phenylalanine, leucine, valine, aspartic
and glutamic acids and can be reduced by dithionite but not by cysteine, sulfide or ascorbate.
Besides, the cytochrome can also be reduced by NAD(P)H in the presence of NAD(P)-
reductases of T. roseopersicina, when ferredoxin of Spirulina platensis or benzyl viologen are
added to the reaction mixture. The cytochrome can act as an electron donor (acceptor) for T.
roseopersicina hydrogenase.



3) Bibliographie alphabtique


1: Abd El-Baky HH, El Baz FK, El-Baroty GS.
Production of antioxidant by the green alga Dunaliella salina.
Int J Agr Biol 6, No 1 (2004).
PMID: pas
pdf: Abd El-Baky H 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Dulinaliella-salina; $Nitrogen; $Salt-stress; $Carotenoids; $Tocopherols; $UV-B-
radiation; $Antioxidant-enzyme.
mots-cls Antenna: , f.
rsum:

The variation of the lipophilic (carotenoids anda-tocopherol) and hydrophilic (glutathione and ascorbic
acid) antioxidant contents, and the activities of antioxidant enzyme such superoxide dismutase (SOD),
catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), as well as cellular malonaldehyde and stable radicals of D.
salina in response to ultraviolet B (UV-B radiation 290-320 nm) and secondary carotenoid induction
conditions (nitrogen starvation and high NaCl concentration) were examined. The results indicate that
nitrogen deficiency combined with NaCl stress and UV-B irradiated is potential increase of both
lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant contents. Also, HPLC analysis of carotenoids extracts showed
that D. salina accumulated significant quantities of betacarotene and secondary carotenoids, mainly
astaxanthin and zeaxanthin. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD and POD
showed a positive significant correlation with the antioxidant content and with the exposured UV-B
irradiance. Cellular malondialhyde content and quantities of alkyl radical-PER signal indicators of lipid
peroxidation were much higher in irradiant cells compared to unirradiant cells. These result revealed
that D. salina had high resistance to environmental conditions. These qualities therefore make D.
salina good candidates for successful culture in open ponds to production of useful materials, such as
betacarotene, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol. Also, it could be used to
provide a rich source of such antioxidant for health foods.

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2: Abd El-Baky HH, El Baz FK, El-Baroty GS.
Spirulina species as a source of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol and its anticarcinoma factors.
Biotechnology 2, No 3 (2003) 222-240.
PMID: pas
pdf: Abd El-Baky H 2003b.pdf
mots-cls article: $spirulina; $Nitrogen-and-salt-stress; $carotenoids; $tocopherols; $antitumor;
$viability-and-blue-green-algae.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima, f, B.
rsum:

In the present study blue-green alga Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima were grown in batch
culture at different nitrogen and NaCl concentrations, respectively. Both species were found to
respond to nitrogen deficiency and high NaCl level by accumulation of large amounts of commercially
important chemicals such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The higher carotenoids and a-tocopherol
contents was obtained when Spirulina sp grown at low nitrogen level (51 ppm N), with values ranged
from 19.82 to 24.1 mg g^-1 and from 533.2 to 978.5 microg Kg^-1 (dry weight, d.w.), respectively.
5
Whilst, these values in cells grown in free nitrogen medium were ranged from 30.15 to 31.13 mg g^-1
and from 960.4 to 1325.7 microg Kg^-1 (d.w), respectively. The high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) elution patter of total caroteniods extracted from S. platensis and S. maxima
culture contained a-carotene (49.6 to 319.5 microg g^-1 lutein (0.06 to 17.21 microg g^-1, astaxanthin
(6.61 to 160.27 microg g^-1, zeaxanthin (1.25 to 18.55 microg g^-1) and cryptoxanthin (1.41 to 20.13
microg g^-1). S. maxima accumulated a large amount of cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin than that found
in S. platensis. The effect of Spirulina species extracts containing various carotenoid compounds and
tocopherols on the viability of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EACC) were evaluated. All algae
extracts at different concentration of 200 and 400 ppm significant reduced the cell viability ranged from
89.11 to 5.25%. These extracts did not induce any significant changes in DNA fragmentation of
treated EACC compared with untreated cells. But lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione-S-
transferase (GST) enzyme activities and glutathione level in treated EACC were significantly higher
than that in untreated cells. These finding suggest that algae extracts may be reduce cell viability by
other mechanism such as membrane lyases instead of apoptosis. Thus, Spirulina extract rich in
carotenoids and tocopherols could be used as chemopreventive agents since they are relative non-
toxic.

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3: Abd El-Baky HH.
Over production of phycocayanin pigment in blue green alga Spirulina sp and its inhibitory effect on
growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells.
J Med Sci 3, No 4 (2003) 314324.
PMID: pas
pdf: Abd El-Baky H 2003.pdf (HTML transform en PDF)
mots-cls article: $Spirulina, $phycocyanin, $antitumor, $viability-and-blue-green-algae.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima, f.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **phycocyanin, **Carcinoma-Cells, **IV.
rsum:

Two species of blue green algae Spirulina-platensis and Spirulina-maima were grown in nutrient
medium containing different nitrogen and salt levels. In both species increasing nitrogen levels led to
increase in phycocyanin pigments from 12.08 to 22.3% and soluble protein content from 29.7 to 86.1
mg gG . Also, Spirulina has great variety in composition of phycocyanin pigments ranging from C-
phycocyanin (C-PC) from 1.65 to 4.02%, allophycocyanin (A-PC) from 2.53 to 6.11% and R-
phycocyanin (R-PC) from 5.75 to 12.35% as a results, of changing nitrogen contents and salt stress.
Spirulina platensis at high nitrogen level gave highest percentage of total phycocyanin 9.94% and R-
CP 5.75% was the predominate among phycocyanin pigments. The increasing in NaCl levels in
nutrient medium led to production significant in phycocyanin contents and soluble protein in Spirulina
platensis and Spirulina maxima cells. The composition of phycocyanin pigment was changed markedly
as results of increasing in NaCl level. Both algal species grown under combined stress (nitrogen
deficient and high NaCl level) produced higher amount of phycocyanin than control. The anti-
carcinoma activity of Spirulina towered Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells (EACC) was evaluated by cell
viability, DNA fragmentation and enzymes assay. Phycocyanin significantly inhibited the growth of
EACC in a dose-dependent manner. Phycocyanin did not induce DNA fragmentation in EACC, (no
ladder of DNA fragments). However, glutathione (GST), the activity of glutathione S- transferase
(GST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased over the control level. These
findings indicate that phycocyanin may be able to inhibit the growth of EACC by membrane destructor,
which led to increase the leakage of cell constituent and increase LDH and GST enzyme activities.
Therefore, algal phycocyanin may have antitumor activity and could be used as a chemoprventive
agent.

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4: Abdin el Sherif SA, Clement G.
L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Dcouverte de lacs naturels Wadi el Natroun en Rpublique Arabe
d'Egypte.
Oil & Gas - Science and technology (Revue de l'Institut franais du ptrole) 37, No 1 (1982) 123-130.
PMID : pas
pdf: Abdin el Sherif S 1982.pdf PAS
6
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ATF.
rsum:

Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dpression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais
t prospecte autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs,
cherchant savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels Spirulines en Rpublique Arabe d'gypte,
dcouvrirent dans la dpression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra
o croissaient spontanment les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des
eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont t tudis afin d'estimer la productivit du site en vue
d'une ventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le
site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance trs riche en protine pour l'alimentation
humaine dont tant besoin la Rpublique Arabe d'gypte.

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5: Abdulqader G; Barsanti L; Tredici MR.
Harvest of Arthrospira platensis from Lake Kossorom (Chad) and its household usage among the
Kanembu.
J . Appl. Phycology 12 (2000) 493-498.
PMID: pas
pdf: Abdulqader G 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira; $Chad; $dih; $Kanembu; $Lake-Kossorom; $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S, B.
rsum:

In 1997 a survey was conducted among the Kanembu who harvest Arthrospira (Spirulina) from Lake
Kossorom in the Prefecture of Lac (Chad). Information on the amount of Arthrospira harvested and the
preparation and use of dih was obtained by interviewing the women who daily gather around the lake
for the harvesting. Dih is obtained by filtering and sun drying the algal biomass on the sandy shores
of the lake. The semi-dried dih is then cut into small squares and taken to the villages, where the
drying is completed on mats in the sun. Dih is mainly used to prepare la souce, a kind of fish or meat
and vegetable broth. Part of the harvest is sold to local consumers or to wholesalers, who trade the
product in the markets of Massakori, Massaquet and N'Djamena and also across the border of the
country. The local trading value of the dih annually harvested from Lake Kossorom (about 40 t)
amounts to more than US $100,000, which represents an important contribution to the economy of the
area.

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6: Acien Fernandez FG, Fernandez Sevilla J M, Sanchez Perez J A, Molina Grima E, Chisti Y.
Airlift-driven external-loop tubular photobioreactors for outdoor production of microalgae: assessment
of design and performance.
Chemical Engineering Science 56 (2001) 2721-2732.
PMID: pas
pdf: Acien Fernandez F 2001.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , f, B.
rsum:

A methodology is presented for designing photobioreactors with tubular loop solar receivers in which
the fluid is circulated by an airlift device. The design method e!ectively combines the relevant aspects
of external irradiance-dependent cell growth, oxygen accumulation in the solar loop, oxygen removal
in the airlift device, and hydrodynamics of the airlift system that determine the flow velocity through the
solar receiver. The design approach developed was used to model and build a 0.2 m^3 outdoor
photobioreactor. A compact degasser in the airlift section eliminated dead zones and dark zones,
while achieving complete separation of gas and liquid. The measured gas}liquid hydrodynamics, mass
transfer, and culture productivity were consistent with the model predictions. The reactor was tested
with continuous culture of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum at various liquid velocities through
the tubular solar receiver. A biomass productivity of 1.20 g l^-1 d^-1 (or 20 g m^-2 d^-1) was obtained
7
at a dilution rate of 0.050 h^-1. Solar receiver linear liquid velocities of 0.50 and 0.35 m s^-1 gave
similar biomass productivities, but the culture collapsed at lower velocities. An adverse e!ect of high
dissolved oxygen concentration on productivity was observed. Oxygen accumulation could be reduced
by increasing the liquid velocity and this enhanced the biomass yield.

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7: Adams DG.
How do cyanobacteria glide.
Microbol Today 28 (2003) 131-133.
PMID: pas
pdf: Adams D 2003.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; m; B.
rsum :

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8: Adounke R.
UPS: Unit de production de spiruline du CREDESA Pahou (Bnin).
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 164-166.
PMID: pas
pdf: Adounke R 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

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9: Adrian J .
Evolution de la lysine des algues Spirulines soumises des traitements thermiques varis
[Changes in the lysine of spiruline algae samples after various heat treatments].
Ann Nutr Aliment. 1975;29(6):603-13.
PMID: 825002
pdf: Adrian J 1975.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en franais

The spirulina algae are microorganisms which are cultivated on Mexican lakes for feeding use. After
drying, they contain about 52 per cent of proteins, with 4 per cent of lysine and 1, 7 per cent of
methionine. In the studied samples, pH is 6, 2; they are partially autolysed and contain 4 to 18 per
cent of free lysine and methionine and 6, 5 per cent of soluble carbohydrates. During heating
treatments, the spiurlina lysine reacts as the same as oilcak meal lysine; it resists rather well to
autoclaving but less to roasting. The yeast lysine is more stable than the spirulina lysine. The thermic
stability of spirulina lysine is caused first by the small amount of free reducing carbohydrates, and for a
minor part by the natural acicity of these products. The lysine destruction is proportional to the
autolysis stage of the samples, that is to say the presence of free aminoacids. All the behavior
differences between the various spirulina samples disappear when are heated with xylose, which
induces a strong Maillard reaction.

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10: Adzamli IK, Petrou A, Sykes AG, Rao KK, Hall DO.
Kinetic studies on reactions of iron-sulphur proteins. Oxidation of the reduced form of Spirulina
platensis [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin with inorganic complexes.
Biochem J . 1983 Apr 1;211(1):219-26.
PMID: 6409090
pdf: Adzamli I 1983.pdf
mots-cls article:
8
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; iron-sulphur-
proteins.
rsum:

Kinetic results are presented for the reaction of reduced [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from the blue-green alga
Spirulina platensis with Co(NH3)6(3+), Co(edta)- and Co(acac)3 as oxidants at pH 8.0 at I0.10 (NaCl).
The aim is to compare results obtained with those previously reported for the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from
parsley, where the two ferredoxins under consideration are in evolutionary terms widely divergent
(35% amino acid variations). The three oxidants chosen have different ligand sets and different
charges, and are the complexes that in previous studies have given greatest diversity in behaviour.
With Co(NH3)6(3+) first-order rate constants (oxidant in large excess) tend to a limiting value with
increasing concentration of oxidant. With Co(edta)- and Co(acac)3 there is no similar tendency to
limiting behaviour and a first-order dependence on oxidant is observed. The temperature-dependence
of the Co(NH3)6(3+) reaction was investigated, and values were obtained for delta H0 [19.8kJ X mol-1
(4.7kcal X mol-1)] and delta S0 [129.3J X K-1 X mol-1 (30.9 cal X K-1 X mol-1)] for the association
step that occurs before electron transfer. Whereas redox-inactive Cr(NH3)6(3+) displays competitive
inhibition in the reaction of Co(NH3)6(3+), it accelerates the reaction of Co(edta)-, and only partially
blocks the reaction with Co(acac)3. Results obtained are similar to those previously reported for
parsley (and spinach) ferredoxin. It is concluded that electrostatics play a dominant role and that a
negatively charged functional site on the protein common to all three ferredoxins is influential.
Conserved negative patches at positions 67-69 and 94-96 within 1.0 nm (10A) of an Fe atom of the
active site, as well as the exposed S atoms of cysteine residues 41 and 46, which are a part of the
Fe2S*2(SR)4(3-) cluster, are the most likely possibilities. The various effects of Cr(NH3)6(3+) provide
a means of testing for utilization of the same site in reactions of the ferredoxins with physiological
partners.

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11: Ako H, Tamaru CS, Asano L, Yuen B, Yamamoto M.
Achieving natural coloration in fish under culture.
UJ NR Technical Report No. 28, 4pp.
PMID: pas
pdf: Ako H 1999.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S.
rsum:

Fish that are colored in nature often acquire faded coloration under intensive culture conditions.
Experiments adding top-coated algae to the diets of ornamental fish have resulted in color
enhancement. Freshwater red velvet swordtails Xiphophorus helleri, rainbowfish Pseudomugil
furcatus, and topaz cichlids Cichlasoma myrnae became significantly more intensely colored when fed
a diet containing 1.5-2.0% of a carotenoid-rich strain of Spirulina platensis and 1.0% of a specially
grown Haematococcus pluvialis for 3 wk. Though color enhancement was apparent after only a wk,
when the fish consumed these doses of algae, lower doses (0.5% and 0.4%, respectively) were not
significantly different for kissing gouramis Helostoma temmincki, 24 K mollies Pachouli latipinna, and
rosy barbs Barbus chunkiness, were examined after the 3-wk feeding period. Both treatments were
significantly more effective than control treatments with no added carotenoid, and better than
treatments with traditional carotenoid sources. Color enhancement appeared to occur via natural
carotenoid receptors. Thus, color intensity diminished when fish were stressed, coloration appeared
only in males in species where only the males are normally colored, and between rosy barbs and
topaz cichlids color enhancement was environment-sensitive. Topaz cichlid color developed only after
the aquaria were divided into territories and rosy barb color intensified when floating substrate was
present. It is concluded that ornamental fishes are good models for color enhancement through diet
and that this enhancement may be achieved using products made by marine biotechnology
companies.

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12: Al'bitskaia ON, Zaitseva GN, Rogozhin SV, Pakhomova MV, Oshanina NP.
[Comparative evaluation of methods for isolating total protein from the biomass of Spirulina platensis].
9
Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 1979 J ul-Aug;15(4):612-7.
PMID: 42047
pdf: Al'bitskaia O 1979.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The methods of extracting total protein from the biomass of Spirulina platensis are discussed. The
results of studying different procedures of cell wall disruption, soluble protein extraction and
precipitation are presented. The best results can be obtained using mechanical disintegration of
Spirulina cells for 20 min (at a temperature not higher than 25 degrees C), soluble protein extraction
with 0.4% NaOH, and its subsequent precipitation at the isoelectric point with 5% HCl.

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13: Al'bitskaia ON, Zaitseva GN, Pakhomova MV, Goronkova OI, Silakova GS.
[Physiological and biochemical characteristics of Spirulina platensis cultures].
Mikrobiologiia. 1974 J ul-Aug;43(4):649-53.
PMID: 4217878
pdf: Al'bitskaia O 1974.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

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14: Al-Batshan HA, Al-Mufarrej SI, Al-Homaidan AA, Qureshi MA.
Enhancement of chicken macrophage phagocytic function and nitrite production by dietary Spirulina
platensis.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2001 May;23(2):281-9.
PMID: 11417854
pdf: Al-Batshan H 2001.pdf PAS (login)
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis, $Macrophages, $Phagocytosis, $Nitric-oxide, $synthase-
activity, $Chicken.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on chicken macrophage phagocytic function and nitrite
production were examined. Day old broiler (meat-type) chicks were randomly assigned to various
pens of electrically heated wire batteries. Dietary treatment groups included a basal diet with no
dietary Spirulina added, and three additional groups with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% dietary Spirulina. Feed and
water were provided for ad libitum consumption from one day of age. Sephadex-elicited macrophages
were harvested at 14, 35 and 42 days of age. Phagocytosis assay was performed by co-incubating
sheep red blood cells (SRBC) with the adherent macrophage monolayers. For nitrite quantification,
macrophage cultures from various dietary treatment groups were stimulated in the presence or
absence of 1 microg/mL of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. These culture supernatant fractions
were then tested for nitrite levels using the Greiss reagent technique. All Spirulina dietary group
macrophages exhibited an enhanced phagocytic activity in terms of overall phagocytic percentage
(range =28 to 39% versus 24 to 25% in the basal group) and the average number of SRBC per
phagocytic macrophage (range =2.2 to 3.6 versus 1.8 to 2.5 in the basal group). This increase was
linear with each incremental increase of dietary Spirulina. While LPS-induced nitrite levels in
macrophages from basal diet group ranged from 60 to 278 microM over the three developmental
ages, these levels in all Spirulina dietary groups were significantly higher (0.5% group range =198 to
457 microM; 1.0% group range =161 to 359 microM and 2.0% group range =204 to 420 microM.
These data clearly show that Spirulina platensis feeding upregulates macrophage phagocytic as well
as metabolic pathways leading to increased nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings therefore
imply that Spirulina platensis may enhance the functions of mononuclear phagocytic system thereby
increasing the disease resistance potential in chickens.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
10

15: Almirall Diaz I, Fernandez Cardenas T, Gonzalez San Miguel HM, Diaz Gonzalez M.
Diseo de una crema para masajes con extracto de spirulina cubana.
Rev Cubana Farm, sep.-dic. 2005, vol.39, no.3, p.0-0.
PMID: pas
pdf: Almirall Diaz I 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulin; $cosmetics; $massage-cream.
mots-cls Antenna: , S.
rsum:

Spirulin constitutes the most used microalga in Cuba and one of the most important worldwide
because of its high protein content and excellent combination of vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative
agents that protect the body against harmful action of free radicals. For these reasons, the
manufacture of cosmetic products for the skin care using the bioactive principle of the hydroalcoholic
extract of this microalga has been undertaken. The design of a massage cream was technologically,
microbiologically and toxicologically evaluated in three different product batches for 18 months. The
formulation was stable during the testing period and the toxicological study showed that the cosmetic
did not cause skin or eye irritation. The acceptance of the product by 130 consumers was analyzed on
the basis of a sensorial test where it was found that the cream was satisfactorily accepted.


La spirulina constituye la microalga de mayor uso en Cuba y una de las ms importantes en el mbito
mundial por su alto contenido proteico y poseer una excelente mezcla de vitaminas, minerales y
agentes antioxidantes que protegen al organismo contra la accin nociva de los radicales libres. Por
estas razones se ha incursionado en la elaboracin de productos cosmticos destinados al cuidado
de la piel con la utilizacin del principio bioactivo del extracto hidroalcohlico de esta microalga. Se
realiz el diseo de una crema para masajes y se evaluaron 3 lotes del producto hasta los 18 meses
desde un punto de vista tecnolgico, microbiolgico y toxicolgico. La formulacin result ser estable
durante el tiempo de ensayo y el estudio toxicolgico desarrollado demostr la no irritabilidad drmica
ni oftlmica del cosmtico. Se analiz la aceptacin del producto por parte de 130 consumidores
mediante la aplicacin de una prueba sensorial afectiva y se encontr que este es aceptado con
agrado.

--------------------------------------------------------

16: Amao Y, Komori T.
Bio-photovoltaic conversion device using chlorine-e6 derived from chlorophyll from Spirulina adsorbed
on a nanocrystalline TiO2 film electrode.
Biosens Bioelectron. 2004 Mar 15;19(8):843-7.
PMID: 15128103
pdf: Amao Y 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; biochimie; chlorophille.
rsum:

A bio-photovoltaic conversion device based on dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) using the visible light
sensitisation of chlorine-e6 (Chl-e6) derived from chlorophyll from Spirulina adsorbed on a
nanocrystalline TiO2 film was developed. Form fluorescence spectrum of Chl-e6 adsorbed on a
nanocrystalline TiO2 film, the emission of Chl-e6 was effectively quenched by TiO2 nanocrystalline
indicating that the effective electron injection from the excited singlet state of Chl-e6 into the
conduction band of TiO2 particles occurred. The short-circuit photocurrent density (Isc). the open-
circuit photovoltage (Voc). and the fill factor (FF) of solar cell using Chl-e6 adsorbed on a
nanocrystalline TiO2 film electrode were estimated to be 0.305 +/- 0.012 mA cm(-2), 426 +/- 10 mV,
and 45.0%, respectively. IPCE values were reached a maximum around the wavelength of absorption
maximum (7.40% at 400 nm; 1.44% at 514 nm and 2.91% at 670 nm), indicating that the DSSC using
visible light sensitisation of nanocrystalline TiO2 film by Chl-e6 was developed.

Publication Types: Evaluation Studies
* Validation Studies

11
--------------------------------------------------------------------

17: Ancel P.
Spiruline humanitaire dans les PVD : penser au lendemain.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 151-156.
PMID: pas
pdf: Ancel P 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

18: Andrade MR, Radmann EM, Cerqueira VS, Arruda AS, Burkert J FM, Costa J AV.
Mixotrophic cultivation of Spirulina platensis in different photobioreactor configurations.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 72-73.
PMID: pas
pdf: Andrade M 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

19: Andrich G, Zinnai A, Nesti U, Venturi F, Fiorentini R.
Supercritical fluid of oil from microalga spirulina (arthrospira) platensis
Acta Alimentaria 35, No 2 (2006) 195-203.
PMID: pas
pdf: Andrich G 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $microalgae, $Spirulina-(Arthrospira)-platensis, $bioactive-lipids, $gamma-linolenic-
acid, $supercritical-fluids, $extraction-kinetics.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

For the extraction of oil from microalgae, which are recognised as an important renewable source of
bioactive lipids, supercritical CO2 is regarded with interest being safer than hexane and offering a
negligible environmental impact, short extraction time and petroleum-free final product. A
mathematical model, able to describe the kinetics of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process, was
applied to the recovery of oil from the cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis, characterised
by a particularly high content in -linolenic acid (C18:3 -6). In this paper, we examine the kinetics of
the SFE and the effect of operating conditions on extraction yield and fatty acid composition of lipid
extracts.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

20: Annapurna VV, Deosthale YG, Bamji MS.
Spirulina as a source of vitamin A.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1991 Apr;41(2):125-34.
PMID: 1906616
pdf: Annapurna V 1991.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis.
rsum:

Experiments were carried out to assess spirulina fusiformis-a blue green algae as a source of vitamin
A in rats. In one experiment, the control rats were fed synthetic vitamin A and the experimental rats
spirulina as the sole source of vitamin A. The liver vitamin A concentration of spirulina-fed rats of both
sexes was found to be significantly higher than that of the control rats. In another experiment the
absorption of carotenes from the solvent extract of spirulina and their availability (vitamin A value) as
judged by the levels of vitamin A and carotene in plasma and liver were compared with those of
12
synthetic beta-carotene or vitamin A in male rats. The absorption of beta-carotene from spirulina
extract tended to be lower than that of crystalline beta-carotene at doses of 550 and 1100 micrograms
of beta-carotene. The difference became insignificant at lower beta-carotene dose of 275 micrograms.
Spirulina carotene-fed rats did not show a strict dose related increase in the liver or serum vitamin A
concentration. The liver vitamin A storage and plasma levels of vitamin A of spirulina carotene-fed rats
was much higher than expected. The results of the two studies reported suggest that the algae
spirulina can be a valuable source of vitamin A.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

21: Antonian AA, Abakumova IA, Meleshko GI, Vlasova TF.
[Possibilities of using proteins from unicellular algae in biological life support systems].
Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1985 J an-Feb;19(1):65-9.
PMID: 2857798
pdf: Antonian A 1985.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en russe

--------------------------------------------------------------------

22: Anusuya DM, Venkataraman LV.
Functional properties of protein products of mass cultivated blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.
J ournal of Food Science 49 (1984) 2427.
PMID: pas
pdf: Anusuya D 1984.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , D.
rsum:

Water and fat absorption capacity, Emulsification Capacity (EC), Foaming Capacity (FC) and Foaming
Stability (FS) of flour and protein concentrate of Spirulina cells were compared with those of soybean
meal both as a function of pH and NaCl concentration. Water and fat absorption capacities of Spirulina
flour were 220g and 190g/100g of sample respectively; those of soybean meal were 230g and
120g/100g of sample. Protein concentrate had a lower water absorption capacity, higher fat absorption
capacity than its flour. It had higher EC and similar FC. Spirulina flour had similar EC and FC to that of
soybean meal. The FS of flour (18%) and protein concentrate (27%) was poor when compared to
soybean meal (55%).

--------------------------------------------------------

23: Aoyama K, Uemura I, Miyake J , Asada Y.
Fermentative metabolism to produce hydrogen gas and organic compounds in a cyanobacterium,
Spirulina platensis.
J Fermentation Technol 83 (1997) 17-20.
PMID: pas
pdf: Aoyama K 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina, $hydrogen, $organic-acid, $ethanol.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, spirulina-platensis; m.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **hydrogen.
rsum :

The non nitrogen-fixing and 6lamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis NIES-46 produced
hydrogen gas, ethanol, and low molecular organic acids auto-fermentatively under dark and anaerobic
conditions. The fermentative productivity was enhanced by incubating the cyanobacterium under
nitrogen-starved conditions. Cell-free extracts of the cyanobacterium catalyzed hydrogen production
by the addition of acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate. Pyruvate-degrading and acetaldehyde
dehydrogenase activities were observed in the cell-free extracts. These results suggest that the
fermentation was dependent on the anaerobic degradation of endogenous glycogen via pyruvate.

13
--------------------------------------------------------------------

24: Apiradee H, Kalyanee P, Pongsathon P, Patcharaporn D, Matura S, Sanjukta S, Supapon C,
Morakot T.
The expression of three desaturase genes of Spirulina platensis in Escherichia coli DH5alpha.
Heterologous expression of Spirulina-desaturase genes.
Mol Biol Rep. 2004 Sep;31(3):177-89.
PMID: 15560373
pdf: Apiradee H 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $desaturase; $fatty-acid-desaturation; $gene-regulation; $heterologous-expression;
$Spirulina-platensis; $temperature-stress.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, .
rsum:

The genes from a cyanobacterium--Spirulina platensis strain C1--that encode the acyl-lipid
desaturases (desC, desA and desD) involved in gamma-linolenic (GLA) synthesis have been
successfully expressed for the first time in Escherichia coli by employing a pTrcHisA expression
system. In this report, the authors describe the expression of the three Spirulina N-terminal 6xHis-
desaturases as well as the functional analysis of these recombinant proteins. The gene products of
desC, desA and desD have approximate molecular masses of 37, 45, and 47 kDa, respectively.
Enzymatic activity measurement of these products was carried out in vivo to demonstrate that (i) the
expressed proteins are in functional form, and (ii) the cofactors of the host system can complement
the system of Spirulina platensis. The study demonstrated that the gene products of desC and desA
catalyzed the reactions in vivo where the enzyme substrates were provided in appropriate
concentration. This indicates that the delta9 and delta12 desaturases were expressed in the
heterologous host in their active form, and that these two reactions can be carried out in an E. coli
host cell using its cofactors system. In contrast, delta6 desaturase activity can be detected only in vitro
where electron carriers are provided. This suggests that while this enzyme is expressed in the
heterologous host in its active form, its function in vivo is suppressed, as the electron carriers of the
host system cannot complement the system of Spirulina platensis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

25: Arai S, Yamashita M, Fujimaki M.
Enzymatic modification for improving nutritional qualities and acceptability of proteins extracted from
photosynthetic microorganisms Spirulina maxima and Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1976;22(6):447-56.
PMID: 828668
pdf: Arai S 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

The present study attempts to improve the proteins from a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima and a
non-sulfur purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus through their peptic hydrolysis followed
by plastein synthesis with papain. The former enzymatic process was effective in removing some
photosynthetic pigments and flavors originating in the raw materials. The latter process was
successful in incorporating limited amounts of methionine, lysine, and tryptophan, and thus to
synthesize plasteins whose essential amino acid patterns resemble the FAO/WHO suggested pattern
(1973). These plasteins had no colors and no flavors.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

26: Ashby MK, Houmard J , Mullineaux CW.
The ycf27 genes from cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae: distribution and implications for chloroplast
evolution.
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002 Aug 27;214(1):25-30.
PMID: 12204368
pdf: Ashby M 2002.pdf
14
mots-cls article: $rpaA; $rpaB; $Phycobiliprotein; $Two-component-system; $Excitation-energy-
coupling.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; photosystems.
rsum:

The two ycf27 genes from the filamentous cyanobacterium Tolypothrix PCC 7601 have been cloned
and sequenced. These two genes, previously designated rpaA and rpaB, encode putative
transcriptional regulators of the 'OmpR' family. In Synechocystis PCC 6803, homologous genes have
been linked to the regulation of transfer of excitation energy from the phycobilisome to photosystem
(PS) I and PSII respectively. Partial clones from Spirulina platensis, Dactylococcopsis salina and
Synechococcus PCC 7002 have also been sequenced. A table of identity between the proteins
confirms that RpaB belongs in the same family as the algal ycf27 proteins. However, RpaA is a rather
different protein and should lose the designation ycf27. The loss of rpaB from the plastid genomes of
eukaryotic algae is associated with the loss of phycobiliproteins, so it is likely that this gene performs a
similar role in algae to that in cyanobacteria. The implications for chloroplast evolution are discussed
along with the possible identity of the cognate histidine kinase gene in the plastid genomes.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

27: Association SVP.
Spiruline humanitaire au Togo.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 170-171.
PMID: pas
pdf: Association S 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

28: Ayala A, Manetti G, Burgos R, Ayala F.
Industrial and semi-industrial production of spirulina, Third world potential (modular systems).
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 77-81.
PMID: pas
pdf: Ayala A 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

29: Ayala J imenez FA, Bravo Benavente R.
An improved cheap culture medium for the blue-green microalga spirulina.
Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 15, No 3 (1982) 198-199.
PMID : pas
pdf: Ayala J imenez F 1982.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, ATF.
BL: **Technology, **Spirulina, **nitrogen.
rsum:

The possibility of using crude seasalt, and saltpeter as the basis of a culture medium for the blue-
green alga Spirulina maxima, was investigated. Saltpeter appears to be an excellent nitrogen and
micronutrient-source and is very cheap. The effect of the nutrient level on algal growth, and nitrogen
conversion efficiency, was studied. The results suggest the possibility of using this medium in a large-
scale algal culture.

--------------------------------------------------------

30: Ayehunie S, Belay A, Baba TW, Ruprecht RM.
15
Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis).
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 May 1;18(1):7-12.
PMID: 9593452
pdf: Ayehunie S 1998.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **water-extract, **antiviral, **IV.
rsum:

An aqueous extract of the blue-green filamentous algae Arthrospira platensis (previously called
Spirulina platensis) inhibited HIV-1 replication in human T-cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear
cells (PBMC), and Langerhans cells (LC). Extract concentrations ranging between 0.3 and 1.2
microg/ml reduced viral production by approximately 50% (50% effective concentration [EC50]) in
PBMCs. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of extract for PBMC growth ranged between 0.8 and
3.1 mg/ml. Depending on the cell type used, therapeutic indices ranged between 200 and 6000. The
extract inactivated HIV-1 infectivity directly when preincubated with virus before addition to human T-
cell lines. Fractionation of the extract revealed antiviral activity in the polysaccharide fraction and also
in a fraction depleted of polysaccharides and tannins. We conclude that aqueous A platensis extracts
contain antiretroviral activity that may be of potential clinical interest.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

31: Babu TS, Kumar A, Varma AK.
Effect of light quality on phycobilisome components of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
Plant Physiol. 1991 Feb;95(2):492-497.
PMID: 16668011
pdf: Babu T 1991.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, A.
rsum:

Phycobilisomes from the nonchromatic adapting cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis are composed of
a central core containing allophycocyanin and rods with phycocyanin and linker polypeptides in a
regular array. Room temperature absorption spectra of phycobilisomes from this organism indicated
the presence of phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. However, low temperature absorption spectra
showed the association of a phycobiliviolin type of chromophore within phycobilisomes. This
chromophore had an absorption maximum at 590 nanometers when phycobilisomes were suspended
in 0.75 molar K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Purified phycocyanin from this cyanobacterium was found
to consist of three subparticles and the phycobiliviolin type of chromophore was associated with the
lowest density subparticle. Circular dichroism spectra of phycocyanin subparticles also indicated the
association of this chromophore with the lowest density subparticle. Absorption spectral analysis of
alpha and beta subunits of phycocyanin showed that phycobiliviolin type of chromophore was attached
to the alpha subunit, but not the beta subunit. Effect of light quality showed that green light enhanced
the synthesis of this chromophore as analyzed from the room temperature absorption spectra of
phycocyanin subparticles and subunits, while red or white light did not have any effect. Low
temperature absorption spectra of phycobilisomes isolated from green, red, and white light conditions
also indicated the enhancement of phycobiliviolin type of chromophore under green light.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

32: Bacelo L, Costa J AV, Rocha LAO, Stanescu G.
Numerical optimization of biomass concentration of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in an open
system using Mangueira lagoon water as culture medium.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 52-53.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bacelo L 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

16
----------------------------------------------------------

33: Baianova IuI, Trubachev IN.
[Comparative evaluation of the vitamin composition of unicellular algae and higher plants grown under
artificial conditions].
Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 1981 May-J un;17(3):400-7.
PMID: 6801639
pdf: Baianova I 1981.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The vitamin composition of representatives of green (Chlorella vulgaris, Platimonas viridis), blue-green
(Synechococcus elongatus, Coccopedia, Spirulina platensis, Cyanidium caldarium), red (Porphyridium
cruentum) unicellular algae and higher plants (wheat, chufa, beet, carrot, turnip, radish, cucumber, dill,
Welsh onion, potato) grown under artificial conditions was examined. The content of B complex
vitamins (thiamine, riboflavine, nicotinic and folic acids), ascorbic acid and carotene was measured.
Among the algae studied Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis showed the highest vitamin activity.
The red alga Porphyridium cruentum contained the lowest quantity of thiamine, riboflavine and
carotene and larger amounts of nicotinic acid. Comparison of the content of vitamins C, B1, B2, PP,
folic acid and carotene in unicellular algae and higher plants, that are natural and traditional sources of
the vitamins, demonstrated that the above green and blue-green algae contain greater than higher
plants amounts of thiamine, riboflavine, folic acid and carotene, when calculated per g dry matter. All
algae, except for Platimonas viridis and Cyanidium caldarium, are superior to beet and carrot in their
content of ascorbic acid and inferior to green vegetables (radish, cabbage, dill and Welsh onion) in
that parameter.

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34: Baicus C, Tanasescu C.
Chronic viral hepatitis, the treatment with spiruline for one month has no effect on the
aminotransferases.
Rom J Intern Med. 2002;40(1-4):89-94.
PMID: 15526544
pdf: Baicus C 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; foie; systme-hpatique.
rsum:

CONTEXT: Spirulina platensis is extracted from an alga and theoretically has many good effects on
the majority of the organs. There is not any published clinical trial on humans.
OBJ ECTIVE: The evaluation of the efficacy of spiruline in chronic viral liver disease. DESIGN: Double
blind, randomised clinical trial.
SETTING: Secondary care university hospital.
PATIENTS: 24 patients with chronic viral liver disease, treated with spiruline or placebo for one month.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Aminotransferases diminution and the modification of a general state
score self-evaluated by the patient on an analogic visual scale.
RESULTS: A modification of the aminotransferases level in the detriment of the spiruline treated group
has been found (p =0.036 for ALAT, p =0.017 for ASAT), and not at the level of the general state
score (p =0.30).
CONCLUSION: Despite the little number of patients, significant results not favouring spiruline have
been found.

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35: Bakels RH, van Walraven HS, Krab K, Scholts MJ , Kraayenhof R.
On the activation mechanism of the H(+)-ATP synthase and unusual thermodynamic properties in the
alkalophilic cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
Eur J Biochem. 1993 May 1;213(3):957-64.
PMID: 8504834
17
pdf: Bakels R 1993.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The activation requirements and thermodynamic characteristics of ATP synthase from the alkalophilic
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied in coupled membrane vesicles. Activation by
methanol increased the Vmax, while the Km for MgATP was unaffected (0.7 mM). We propose that in
Sp. platensis, as in chloroplasts, the activating effect of methanol is based on perturbation of the
gamma-epsilon subunit interaction. Light-driven ATP synthesis by membrane vesicles of Sp. platensis
was stimulated by dithiothreitol. The characteristics of the activation of the ATP synthase by the proton
electrochemical potential difference (delta mu H+) were analyzed on the basis of the uncoupled rates
of ATP hydrolysis as a function of a previously applied proton gradient. Two values of delta mu H+, at
which 50% of the enzyme is active, were found; 13-14 kJ .mol-1 for untreated membrane vesicles, and
4-8 kJ .mol-1 for light-treated and dithiothreitol-treated membrane vesicles. These values are lower
than the corresponding values for the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively, of the chloroplast
enzyme. Although no bulk proton gradient could be observed, membrane vesicles of Sp. platensis
were able to maintain an equilibrium phosphate potential (delta Gp) of 40-43.5 kJ .mol-1, comparable
to values found for Synechococcus 6716 and Anabaena 7120 membrane vesicles. Acid/base-
transition experiments showed that the thermodynamic threshold, delta mu H+, for ATP synthesis,
catalyzed by light-treated and dithiothreitol-treated Spirulina membrane vesicles, was less than 5
kJ .mol-1. The activation characteristics and the low thermodynamic threshold allow ATP synthesis to
occur at low delta mu H+values. The findings are discussed, both with respect to differences and
similarities with the enzymes from chloroplasts and other cyanobacteria, and with respect to the
alkalophilic properties of Sp. platensis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

36: Bakulin IG, Novozhenov VG, Orlov AM, Gmoshinskii IV, Mazo VK.
[Correction of selenium deficiency in patients with pneumonia].
Vopr Pitan. 2004;73(3):12-4.
PMID: 15335021
pdf: Bakulin I 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en russe

--------------------------------------------------------------------

37: Balachandran P, Pugh ND, Ma G, Pasco DS.
Toll-like receptor 2-dependent activation of monocytes by Spirulina polysaccharide and its immune
enhancing action in mice.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Dec 5;6(12):1808-14.
PMID: 17052671
pdf: Balachandran P 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spriulina-extract; $Immulina; $Toll-like-receptor; $Mucosal-immune; $Systemic-
immune.
mots-cls Antenna: , ATF.
rsum:

We reported previously that a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction (Immulina) from Spirulina
was a potent activator of NF-kappa B and induced both IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha mRNAs in THP-1
human monocytes. In the present study, we show that NF-kappa B activation by Immulina is
suppressed by antibodies to CD14 and TLR2 but not by antibodies to TLR4. Similarly, NF-kappa B
directed luciferase expression was enhanced by Immulina treatment when cells were co-transfected
with vectors expressing proteins supporting TLR2- (CD14 and TLR2) but not TLR4-(CD14, TLR4, and
MD-2) dependent activation. Mice that consumed a chemically defined chow mixed with an extract
containing Immulina exhibited changes in several immune parameters. The ex vivo production of IgA
and IL-6 from Peyer's patch cells was enhanced 2-fold and interferon-gamma production from spleen
cells was increased 4-fold in Immulina-treated mice. The enhanced production of these factors was
18
most notable with mice that had consumed this extract for 4 or 5 days. These studies shed light on
how Immulina activates cells of the innate immune system and suggests that oral consumption of this
polysaccharide can enhance components within both the mucosal and systemic immune systems.

--------------------------------------------------------

38: Balasubramanya NN, Sampath SR.
Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of algae Spirulina
Indian J Nutr Diet 21 (1984) 165-167.
PMID : pas
pdf : Balasubramanya N 1984.pdf PAS

-------------------------------------------------------

39: Ballot A, Krienitz L, Kotut K, Wiegand C, Metcalf J S, Codd GA, Pflugmacher S.
Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in three alkaline Rift Valley lakes of Kenya Lakes Bogoria,
Nakuru and Elmenteita.
J Plankton Res (2004) 26:925-935.
PMID : pas
pdf: Ballot A 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis, j.
rsum:

For decades frequent mass mortalities of Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor Geoffroy) have
been observed at alkaline-saline Kenyan Rift Valley lakes. To estimate the potential influence of toxic
cyanobacteria on these mass deaths, the phytoplankton communities were investigated in Lakes
Bogoria, Nakuru, and Elmenteita. Cyanobacterial toxins were analyzed both in the phytoplankton from
the three lakes and in isolated monocyanobacterial strains of Arthrospira fusiformis, Anabaenopsis
abijatae, Spirulina subsalsa and Phormidium terebriformis. Lake Bogoria was dominated by the
cyanobacterium A. fusiformis. In L. Nakuru and L. Elmenteita the phytoplankton mainly consisted of A.
fusiformis, Anabaenopsis abijatae and A. arnoldii, and in L. Nakuru an unknown Anabaena sp. was
also found. Furthermore, this is the first time A. abijatae and the unknown Anabaena sp. have been
found in Kenyan lakes. Phytoplankton wet weight biomass was found to be high, reaching 777 mg L-1
in L. Bogoria, 104 mg L-1 in L. Nakuru and 202 mg L-1 in L. Elmenteita. Using HPLC, the
cyanobacterial hepatotoxins microcystin-LR, -RR -YR, -LF and -LA and the neurotoxin anatoxin-a
were detected in phytoplankton samples from L. Bogoria and L. Nakuru. Total microcystin
concentrations amounted to 155 microg microcystin-LR equivalents g-1 DW in L. Bogoria, and 4593
microg microcystin-LR equivalents g-1 DW in L. Nakuru, with anatoxin-a concentrations at 9 microg g-
1 DW in L. Bogoria and 223 microg g-1 DW in L. Nakuru. In L. Elmenteita phytoplankton, no
cyanobacterial toxins were found. A. fusiformis was identified as one source of the toxins. The isolated
strain of A. fusiformis from L Bogoria was found to produce both microcystin-YR (15.0 microg g-1 DW)
and anatoxin-a (10.4 microg g-1 DW), whilst the A. fusiformis strain from L. Nakuru was found to
produce anatoxin-a (0.14 microg g-1 DW). Since A. fusiformis mass developments are characteristic
of alkaline-saline lakes, health risks to wildlife, especially the Arthrospira-consuming Lesser Flamingo,
may be expected.

-------------------------------------------------------

40: Baranowsky J D, Dominguez CA, Magarelli PC..
Effects of drying on selected qualities of Spirulina platensis protein.
J Agric Food Chem 32 (1984) 1385-1387.
PMID : pas
pdf: Baranowsky J 1984.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, ATF, B.
rsum:

19
Spirulina platensis was collected after culture and dried in four ways: freeze, drum, cabinet, and solar.
Available protein lysine was increased in the treatments involving drying at elevated temperatures,
and in vitro enzymatic protein digestibility was increased in all samples over that of an undried control.

-------------------------------------------------------

41: Barriga A, Gmez P, Montoya R, Gonzlez M, Montoya R.
Analyses of ribosomal sequences and biotechnological potential as sources of C-phycocyanin in one
Chilean strain of Spirulina and two foreign strains of Arthrospira (Cyanophyceae).
Cryptogamie Algologie 27, No 2 (2006) 185-189.
PMID: pas
pdf: Barriga A 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $RDRA; $Arthrospira; $C-Phycocyanin; $Phylogenetic-analysis; $Ribosomal-
sequences; $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: Arthrospira-platensis, Arthrospira-maxima; ; n.
rsum:

Analyses des squences ribosomales et du potentiel biologique comme sources de phycocyanine-C
d'une ligne chilienne de Spirulina et de deux lignes trangres d'Arthrospira (Cyanophyceae). Une
ligne chilienne de Spirulina (S. subsalsa CONC-050) et deux lignes trangres d'Arthrospira (A.
maxima CONC-040 et A. platensis M2) ont t caractrises l'aide de la technique ARDRA
(Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis), leurs squences ont t analyses. En outre, leur
potentiel comme source de phycocyanine-C (C-PC) a t valu. Les profils des fragments de
restriction des espaceurs ribosomaux internes transcrits (ITS) de l'Arthrospira maxima CONC-040,
s'apparentent ceux de l'Arthrospira clade (clade II) de Scheldeman et al. (1999). Les squences ITS
de la Spirulina ont t interrompues par le gne ARNtIle tandis que les rgions ITS de l'Arthrospira ont
t interrompues par les gnes ARNtIle et ARNtAla. L'analyse phylognique, incluant les squences
ITS chez d'autres lignes prsentes dans GenBank, a montr que la rgion ITS du S. subsalsa
CONC-050 est presque identique celle du S. subsalsa FACHB351, dj dcrite. Au sein des
Arthrospira, l'A. maxima CONC-040 a t re-confirm comme un membre du cluster II, tandis que l'A.
platensis M2 se montre trs divergent, en ne se regroupant pas avec une autre ligne d'Arthrospira.
Le contenu de C-PC a t significativement lev dans le S. subsalsa CONC-050. La capacit anti-
oxydante a t value partir d'extraits aqueux contenant la mme quantit de C-PC. L'extrait le
plus protecteur a t celui provenant de l'A. maxima CONC-040, qui a t la ligne moins productive
en termes de C-PC par volume de culture.
We used Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and sequencing to genetically
characterize one Chilean strain of Spirulina (S. subsalsa CONC-050) and two foreign strains of
Arthrospira (A. maxima CONC-040 and A. platensis M2). The potential of the strains as a source of
the pigment C-phycocyanin (C-PC) was also evaluated. Restriction fragment profiles of the ribosomal
internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from A. maxima CONC-040 matched those of the one previously well
characterized Arthrospira clade (clade II) of Scheldeman et al. (1999). The ITS sequence of Spirulina
was interrupted by the tRNAIle gene while the ITS regions of Arthrospira were interrupted by both
tRNAIle and tRNAAla genes. Phylogenetic analysis, including ITS sequences from other strains
deposited in GenBank, showed that the ITS region of S. subsalsa CONC-050 is almost identical to the
previously sequenced S. subsalsa FACHB351. In relation to the Arthrospira group, A. maxima CONC-
040 was reconfirmed as a member of cluster II, while A. platensis M2 was the most divergent and did
not group with any other Arthrospira strain. C-PC content was significantly higher in S. subsalsa
CONC-050. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated in aqueous extracts containing the same quantity of
C-PC. The most protective extract was the one from A. maxima CONC-040, which was the strain that
was less productive in terms of C-PC per culture volume.

----------------------------------------------------------------

42: Baurain D, Renquin L, Grubisic S, Scheldeman P, Belay A, Wilmotte A.
Remarkable conservation of internally transcribed spacer sequences of Arthrospira ("Spirulina")
(Cyanophyceae, cyanobacteria) strains from four continents and of recent and 30-year-old dried
samples from Africa.
J ournal of Phycology 38, no 2 (2002) 384-393.
PMID: pas
pdf: Baurain D 2002.pdf
20
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: Arthrospira-platensis, Arthrospira-maxima, Arthrospira-fusiformis,
Arthrospira-indica; N.
rsum:

The internally transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 21 Arthrospira clonal strains from four continents
and assigned to four different species (A. platensis, A. maxima, A. fusiformis, A. indica) in the culture
collections were determined. Two main clusters, I and II, were differentiated by 49 positions out of 475
nt or 477 nt, respectively. Each cluster was further subdivided into two subclusters. Subclusters I.A
and I.B were separated by two substitutions, whereas subclusters II.A and II.B were distinguished by
four substitutions. After direct sequencing of the PCR products, three dried samples from Chad aged
between 3 months and 35 years yielded a sequence belonging to subcluster I.A, as did a recent
commercial product. The strains grown in production plants belonged to the same (sub)clusters as
strains from culture collections, mainly I.A and II. PCR primers specific for each cluster and subcluster
were designed and tested with crude cell lysates of Arthrospira strains. One dried sample ("dih" 1)
and a herbarium sample from Lake Sonachi (Kenya) only contained I.A sequences, whereas the
commercial product was a mixture of the four genotypes and the other two dried samples contained
minor polymorphisms characteristic of different clusters. Five clonal Arthrospira strains, thought to be
duplicates, showed the simultaneous presence of the two forms of the four diagnostic positions that
distinguish subclusters genotype II.A and genotype II.B. This is likely to be caused by multiple copies
of the rDNA operon, in a intermediate stage of homogenization between subcluster II.A and subcluster
II.B. The high conservation of ITS sequences is in contrast with the assignment to four different
species, the great morphological variability of the strains, and their wide geographic distribution.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

43: Becker EW.
Development of spirulina research in a developing country - India.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 141-155.
PMID: pas
pdf: Becker E 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
remarques: planches en couleur page 213-215.
rsum:

Probably internationally not so well-known, applied research on microalgae in India has a long history,
focussed on two main objectives, i.e.: 1) selection and utilization of different strains of cyanobacteria
as biofertilizer, 2) efforts to mass-culture algae for human nutrition and animal feeding. These
activities, mainly on the latter aspects, were intensified through international cooperations, which in
1976 induced the Indian Government to implement a multi-institutional
All India Coordinated Project on Algae in order to develop and coordinate algal research in India with
the view to harness this biological resource as feed, food and fuel, both on the industrial and the rural
level. Under this program, the technologies for cultivation, harvesting and processing of Spirulina were
optimized. Simultaneously, all necessary nutritional and toxicological tests were carried out to ensure
the nutritional value and toxicological safety of the algal product.
As a result of these investigations, the construction of two commercial Spirulina production plants
emerged at Mysore and at Madras, whereby the second one is also engaged in the propagation of
Spirulina at the rural level. Encouraged by the results achieved so far, the Indian Government decided
to initiate large-scale nutritional studies in 1991 and to launch a second All India Coordinated Project
on Algae.
In order to support all these projects and to demonstrate the national interest, official specifications for
food-grade Spirulina were issued the Indian Ministry of Health at the same time, a unique step so far
among the algae producing nations.

----------------------------------------------------------

44: Belay A.
La spiruline (Arthrospira) peut-elle aider dans le combat contre le SIDA/HIV?
21
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 118-119.
PMID: pas
pdf: Belay A 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

45: Belay A.
The potential application of Spirulina (Arthrospira) as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in
health management.
J AMA 5, No 2 (2002) 27-48.
PMID: pas
pdf Belay A 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima, arthrospira, j.
B : **Medcine, **Spirulina, **review.
rsum:
article de revue

--------------------------------------------------------

46: Belay A, McCalmont M, Kitto GB.
Development of an immunoassay to detect insect contamination of microalgal products.
J Appl Phycol 9, No 5 (1997) 431-436.
PMID: pas
pdf: Belay A 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $algal-products, $insect-contamination, $immunoassay, $ELISA, $Spirulina,
$Arthrospira, $Chlorella.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis, d.
rsum:

While the insect fragment count is currently the primary test used for assessing insect contamination
of food products, this technique is very problematical for assaying microalgal materials. An account is
given of a new immunoassay technique,which is based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay(ELISA) detection of insect myosin and which provides a rapid and convenient means of
quantitatively determining the amount of insect contamination in algal product samples with a high
degree of replicability. Up to 30 samples can be tested in duplicate in 2.53 h. Experiments were
carried out with a variety of common contaminant insects of algal products, using various life stages,
including Corixidae, Ephydridaeand Chironomidae using both Spirulina (Arthrospira) and Chlorella as
typical algal materials. As little as one insect per 50 g sample can readily be detected, with excellent
correlation (r2 =0.99) between the number of insects present and the color produced. A matrix
analysis to determine the ruggedness of the immunoassay was carried out following the protocols of
the AOAC International and established that minor departures in seven variables from the standard
assay resulted in no substantial differences. The insect myosin assay offers a quantitative and reliable
means for assessing insect contamination of algal materials and should be considered for adoption as
a standard method for this type of product.

----------------------------

47: Belay A, Kato T, Ota Y.
Spirulina (Arthrospira): potential application as an animal feed supplement.
J ournal of Applied Phycology 8, No 4-5 (1996) 303-311.
PMID: pas
pdf: Belay A 1996.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $animal-feed; $Arthrospira; $growth-and-survival; $immunomodulation;
$macrophage-activation; $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: ; N.
rsum:
22

Spirulina has been used as human food supplement for over 20 years, but its use as an animal feed
supplement is relatively recent. This paper reviews earlier studies on its more established effects on
growth, survival and tissue quality in a whole range of animals and more recent studies on its
immunomodulatory, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects. The basis for potential application as an animal
feed supplement is discussed.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

48: Belay A, Ota Y, Miyakawa K, Shimamatsu H.
Current knowledge on potential health benefits of Spirulina.
J Appl Phycol 5, No 2 (1993) 235-241.
PMID: pas
pdf: Belay A 1993.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $anti-virus, $hyperlipidemia, $immune-system, $nephrotoxicity, $radioprotection,
$Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: , d.
rsum:

Spirulina is a microscopic filamentous alga that is rich in proteins, vitamins, essential amino acids,
minerals and essential fatty acids like gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). It is produced commercially and
sold as a food supplement in health food stores around the world. Up to very recently, the interest in
Spirulina was mainly in its nutritive value. Currently, however, numerous people are looking into the
possible therapeutic effects of Spirulina. Many pre-clinical studies and a few clinical studies suggest
several therapeutic effects ranging from reduction of cholesterol and cancer to enhancing the immune
system, increasing intestinal lactobacilli, reducing nephrotoxicity by heavy metals and drugs and
radiation protection. This paper presents a critical review of some published and unpublished data on
therapeutic effects of Spirulina.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

49: Belgis C, Persoone G.
Cyst-based toxicity tests XVII--prefeeding advantages in short-chronic rotifer microbiotests.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2005 J an;60(1):73-80.
PMID: 15482843
pdf: Belgis C 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Brachionus-calyciflorus; $Rotifers; $Cysts; $Short-chronic-microbiotests; $Toxkits;
$Growth-rate.
mots-cls Antenna: ; alimentation-animale; toxicity, B.
rsum:

Attempts were made to overcome too-low reproductive output in the 48-h short-chronic microbiotest
with the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus fed with microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) from
algal beads older than 4 months (Chemosphere 50 (2002a) 365). Prefeeding of freshly hatched
rotifers prior to the start of the actual growth experiments resulted in a satisfactory reproduction (i.e.,
an intrinsic growth rate r >0.65), even with subsequent feeding of the rotifers with microalgae from
beads stored up to 1 year. Rotirich is an attractive alternative inert food compared with the mixture of
microalgae and Spirulina, originally used to prefeed the rotifers. When the rotifers were prefed for 2 h
with 30 microg/mL Rotirich, it was then not necessary to add Spirulina to the microalgal food from
beads. The above findings are a substantial simplification of the testing procedure of the new short-
chronic "culture/maintenance-free" Rotoxkit microbiotest.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

50: Belgis C, Guido P.
Cyst-based toxicity tests. XI. Influence of the type of food on the intrinsic growth rate of the rotifer
Brachionus calyciflorus in short-chronic toxicity tests.
Chemosphere. 2003 J an;50(3):365-72.
PMID: 12656256
pdf: Belgis C 2003.pdf PAS
23
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; alimentation-animale; toxicity..
rsum:

As important members of zooplankton communities worldwide, rotifers are used extensively in
ecotoxicological research. Chronic rotifer tests are, however, dependent on live algal food which adds
to the complexity, the variability and the costs of these bioassays. To bypass the former problem,
experiments have been undertaken with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, to determine
their intrinsic growth rate (r) when fed for 48 h on a mixture of green algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata
recently renamed Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) obtained from algal beads stored for different
periods of time, and other inert foods. All tests have been performed in disposable multiwells, in 1 ml
cups each inoculated with 1 rotifer freshly hatched from dried cysts. The majority of the growth tests
was performed in eight replicates. The investigations revealed that microalgae from algal beads stored
for up to one year, in darkness, at 4 degrees C, supplemented with dried blue-green algae (Spirulina)
gave satisfactory rotifer reproduction. The intrinsic growth rates of the rotifers, were, however,
dependent on the storage time of the algal beads; the highests r's (0.7-0.8) were obtained with algae
from beads not older than four months. Growth tests with combinations of P. subcapitata and other
inert feeds revealed that the enrichment food Selco used in aquaculture, also gave the same
reproductive output as the combination microalgae/Spirulina. A rotifer growth experiment with 18
replicates showed that the variation coefficient is below 20% when the tests comprise eight replicates.
This study demonstrated that microalgae from beads, supplemented by other inert food, open the door
for a practical and cost-effective short-chronic rotifer test, which is totally independent of the culturing
of both the test species and its live food.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

51: Belkin S, Boussiba S.
Resistance of Spirulina platensis to ammonia at high pH values.
Plant Cell Physiol. 1991 32: 953-958
PMID: pas
pdf: Belkin S 1991.papier
mots-cls article: $ammonia-toxicity; $Ammonia-uptake; $pH-gradients; $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

Spirulina platensis is an alkalophilic cyanobacterium, exhibiting optimal growth at pH 9.0 to 10.0. It
grows well at pH 11.5 but not at pH 7.0. Unlike many other photosynthetic microorganisms, it is
capable of utilizing ammonia3 even at high pH values, and is resistant to the ammonia-mediated
uncoupling of photosynthesis. The entry of ammonia into the cells is pH-dependent, and is limited by a
relatively high average internal pH. This high pH value appears to be maintained predominantly by a
high intrathylakoid pH.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

52: Belokobylsky AI, Ginturi EI, Kuchava NE, Kirkesali EI, Mosulishvili LM, Frontasyeva MV, Pavlov
SS, Aksenova NG.
Accumulation of selenium and chromium in the growth dynamics ofspirulina platensis.
J Radioanalytical and Nucl Chem 259, No 1 (2004) 65-68.
PMID: pas
pdf: Belokobylsky A 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, j.
rsum:

The dynamics of accumulation of Se(IV) and Cr(III) in Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) cells was
studied using epithermal neutron activation analysis. The effect of Se(IV) and Cr(III) apart and
together on growth and morphology of S. platensis cells is discussed. It was established that
accumulation of Cr is more intensive than that of Se. As follows from the results obtained, the
simultaneous loading of Se and Cr affects the biomass growth dynamics of S. platensis without
24
changing its morphology and protein content. This finding serves the ground for developing the
pharmaceuticals based on Se and Cr enriched biomass.

--------------------------------------------------------

53: Belokobyl'skii AI, Tsibakhashvili NIa, Rcheulishvili AN, Khizanishvili AI, Mosulishvili LM.
[Binding of Cd(II) ions by C-phycocyanin during Spirulina platensis cell growth].
Biofizika. 2001 J ul-Aug;46(4):652-5.
PMID: 11558376
pdf: Belokobyl'skii A 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biochimie; C-phycocyanine.
rsum: article en russe

Modern effective methods of preparative biochemistry were used to obtain a highly purified
preparation of the globular protein C-phycocyanin from Cyanophyceae strain IPPAS B-256. It was
shown that C-phycocyanin accumulates endogeneous Cd(II) during the growth of Spirulina platensis
cells.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

54: Benavides J , Rito-Palomares M.
Potential aqueous two-phase processes for the primary recovery of colored protein from microbial
origin.
Engineering in Life Sciences 5, No 3 (2005) 259-266.
PMID: pas
pdf: Benavides J 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Extraction; $Microorganisms; $Modeling; $Proteins; $Two-Phase-systems.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-maxima; N.
rsum:

The primary recovery of c-phycocyanin and b-phycoerythrin from Spirulina maxima and Porphyridium
cruentum, respectively, using an established extraction strategy was selected as a practical model
system to study the generic application of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase
systems (ATPS). The generic practical implementation of ATPS extraction was evaluated for the
recovery of colored proteins from microbial origin. A comparison of the influence of system
parameters, such as PEG molecular mass, concentration of PEG as well as salt, system pH and
volume ratio, on the partition behavior of c-phycocyanin and b-phycoerythrin was carried out to
determine under which conditions target colored protein and contaminants concentrate to opposite
phases. One-stage processes are proposed for the primary recovery of the colored proteins.
PEG1450-phosphate ATPS extraction (volume ratio (VR) equal to 0.3, tie-line length (TLL) of 34 %
w/w and system pH 7.0) for the recovery of c-phycocyanin from Spirulina maxima resulted in a primary
recovery process that produced a protein purity of 2.1 0.2 (defined as the relationship of 620 nm to
280 nm absorbance) and a product yield of 98 % [w/w]. PEG1000-phosphate ATPS extraction (i.e.,
VR =1.0, PEG 1000, TLL 50 % w/w and system pH 7.0) was preferred for the recovery of b-
phycoerythrin from Porphyridium cruentum, which resulted in a protein purity of 2.8 0.2 (defined as
the relationship of 545 nm to 280 nm absorbance) and a product yield of 82 % [w/w]. The purity of c-
phycocyanin and b-phycoerythrin from the crude extract increased 3- and 4-fold, respectively, after
ATPS. The results reported herein demonstrated the benefits of the practical generic application of
ATPS for the primary recovery of colored proteins from microbial origin as a first step for the
development of purification processes.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

55: Benedetti S, Rinalducci S, Benvenuti F, Francogli S, Pagliarani S, Giorgi L, Micheloni M, D'Amici
GM, Zolla L, Canestrari F.
Purification and characterization of phycocyanin from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Mar 20;833(1):12-8.
PMID: 16266834
pdf: Benedetti S 2006.pdf
25
mots-cls article: $Aphanizomenon-flos-aquae; $Cyanobacteria; $Phycocyanin; $Phycocyanobilin;
$Purification.
mots-cls Antenna: ; biochimie; C-phycocyanine; B.
rsum:

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a blue-green alga and represents a nutrient-dense food source.
In this study the presence of phycocyanin (PC), a blue protein belonging to the photosynthetic
apparatus, has been demonstrated in AFA. An efficient method for its separation has been set up: PC
can be purified by a simple single step chromatographic run using a hydroxyapatite column (ratio
A620/A280 of 4.78), allowing its usage for health-enhancing properties while eliminating other
aspecific algal components. Proteomic investigation and HPLC analysis of purified AFA
phycobilisomes revealed that, contrary to the well-characterized Synechocystis and Spirulina spp.,
only one type of biliprotein is present in phycobilisomes: phycocyanins with no allo-phycocyanins. Two
subunit polypeptides of PC were also separated: the beta subunit containing two bilins as
chromophore and the alpha subunit containing only one.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

56: Benedetti S, Benvenuti F, Pagliarani S, Francogli S, Scoglio S, Canestrari F.
Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-
aquae.
Life Sciences 75, No 19 (2004) 2353-62.
PMID: 15350832
pdf: Benedetti S 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Blue-green algae; $Aphanizomenon-flos-aquae; $Phycocyanin; $Antioxidant;
$Lipid-oxidation.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; f; B.
rsum:

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga (cyanophyta) rich in
phycocyanin (PC), a photosynthetic pigment with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The
purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel natural extract from AFA enriched with PC
to protect normal human erythrocytes and plasma samples against oxidative damage in vitro. In red
blood cells, oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical
generator [2,2'-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH] were significantly lowered by the
AFA extract in a time- and dose-dependent manner; at the same time, the depletion of cytosolic
glutathione was delayed. In plasma samples, the natural extract inhibited the extent of lipid oxidation
induced by the pro-oxidant agent cupric chloride (CuCl2); a concomitant increase of plasma resistance
to oxidation was observed as evaluated by conjugated diene formation. The involvement of PC in the
antioxidant protection of the AFA extract against the oxidative damage was demonstrated by
investigating the spectral changes of PC induced by AAPH or CuCl2. The incubation of the extract
with the oxidizing agents led to a significant decrease in the absorption of PC at 620 nm accompanied
with disappearance of its blue color, thus indicating a rapid oxidation of the protein. In the light of these
in vitro results, the potential clinical applications of this natural compound are under investigation.

Publication Types: In Vitro.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

57: Benlloch S, Acinas SG, Anton J , Lopez-Lopez A, Luz SP, Rodriguez-Valera F.
Archaeal biodiversity in crystallizer ponds from a solar saltern: culture versus PCR.
Microb Ecol. 2001 J an;41(1):12-19.
PMID: 11252160
pdf: Benlloch S 2001.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; biodiversit; ecology.
rsum:

The culturable haloarchaeal diversity in a crystallizer pond from a solar saltern has been analyzed and
compared with the biodiversity directly retrieved by analysis of rRNA genes amplified from the
26
environment. Two different sets of culture conditions have been assayed: solid medium with yeast
extract as carbon source and liquid media with either yeast extract or a mixture of fishmeal, Spirulina
sp., and Artemia salina. Seventeen colonies grown on plates with yeast extract incubated at 30
degrees C were analyzed by 16S rDNA partial sequencing. Sixteen were closely related to
haloarchaea of the genus Halorubrum; 13 of them to Halorubrum coriense, a haloarchaeon isolated
from a solar saltern pond in Australia, which had not been previously isolated from the pond analyzed
in this study; and one to Haloarcula marismortui. Liquid cultures were analyzed by ribosomal internal
spacer analysis (RISA) and partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA genes. A total of 18 sequences were
analyzed, 15 corresponding to RISA bands obtained from cultures, and 3 from the environmental
sample used as inoculum. Thirteen sequences obtained from cultures were related to several
Halorubrum species, and 2 to Haloarcula. One of the clones obtained directly from the environmental
sample was distantly related to a Natronobacterium, whereas two were related to SPhT, the phylotype
most frequently retrieved from this environment by culture independent techniques. Our results show
an extremely low diversity for the haloarchaea retrieved by cultivation even when modifications to the
standard technique are introduced.

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58: Ben Ouada H, et al.
Physiological, biochemical and morphological analysis of seawater acclimated cyanobacterium
Arthrospira platensis.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 17-18.
PMID: pas
pdf: Ben Ouada H 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

59: Berger J .
Stratgie de lutte contre les carences en micronutriments, en particulier en fer, dans les pays en
dveloppement.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 91-100.
PMID: pas
pdf: Berger J 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

60: Bermejo R, Felipe MA, Talavera EM, Alvarez-Pez J M.
Expanded bed adsorption chromatography for recovery of phycocyanins from the microalga Spirulina
platensis.
Chromatographia 63, No 1-2 (2006) 59-66.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bermejo R 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Electrophoresis; $Ion-exchange-chromatography; $Expanded-bed-adsorption-
chromatography; $Phycocyanins-and-Phycobiliproteins; $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

We carried out the purification of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin from Spirulina platensis taking
advantage of the adsorption properties of the expanded beds. Initially, phycobiliproteins were released
from the microalga cells by osmotic shock. Next, phycocyanins were recovered by applying the
centrifuged cell suspension directly to the anion exchanger Streamline-DEAE using expanded bed
columns, equilibrated with 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. After adsorption, washing was
carried out in the expanded-bed mode. Having removed unbound proteins and cellular debris, the bed
was allowed to sediment and phycocyanins rich solution was eluted with a downward flow of 500 mM
27
sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. Finally, we utilized conventional gel filtration and ion exchange
chromatography methods for separation and purification of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. The
purification steps were monitored using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,
and the purity of recovered phycocyanins was confirmed by absorption and emission spectroscopy.
The main advantage of this new method is the high yield achieved in the steps of product extraction
and adsorption by expanded bed adsorption, so reducing both processing times and costs.

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61: Berry S, Bolychevtseva YV, Rogner M, Karapetyan NV.
Photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport in the alkaliphilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira
(Spirulina) platensis.
Photosynth Res. 2003;78(1):67-76.
PMID: 16245065
pdf: Berry S 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $fluorescence; $proton-translocation; $sodium.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

Photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport and their interplay with ion transport have been
studied in Arthrospira platensis, a filamentous alkaliphilic cyanobacterium living in hypersaline lakes.
As typical for alkaliphiles, A. platensis apparently does not maintain an outward positive pH gradient at
its plasma membrane. Accordingly, sodium extrusion occurs via an ATP-dependent primary sodium
pump, in contrast to the Na(+)/H(+) antiport in most cyanobacteria. A. platensis is strongly dependent
on sodium/bicarbonate symport for the uptake of inorganic carbon. Sodium extrusion in the presence
of the Photosystem II inhibitor diuron indicates that a significant amount of ATP is supplied by cyclic
electron transport around Photosystem I, the content of which in A. platensis is exceptionally high.
Plastoquinol is oxidized by two parallel pathways, via the cytochrome b (6) f complex and a putative
cytochrome bd complex, both of which are active in the light and in the dark.

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62: Berthold HK, Crain PF, Gouni I, Reeds PJ , Klein PD.
Evidence for incorporation of intact dietary pyrimidine (but not purine) nucleosides into hepatic RNA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Oct 24;92(22):10123-7.
PMID: 7479738
pdf: Berthold H 1995a.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; gnomique; ARN.
rsum:

The absorption and metabolism of dietary nucleic acids have received less attention than those of
other organic nutrients, largely because of methodological difficulties. We supplemented the rations of
poultry and mice with the edible alga Spirulina platensis, which had been uniformly labeled with 13C
by hydroponic culture in 13CO2. The rations were ingested by a hen for 4 wk and by four mice for 6
days; two mice were fed a normal diet and two were fed a nucleic acid-deficient diet. The animals
were killed and nucleosides were isolated from hepatic RNA. The isotopic enrichment of all mass
isotopomers of the nucleosides was analyzed by selected ion monitoring of the negative chemical
ionization mass spectrum and the labeling pattern was deconvoluted by reference to the enrichment
pattern of the tracer material. We found a distinct difference in the 13C enrichment pattern between
pyrimidine and purine nucleosides; the isotopic enrichment of uniformly labeled [M +9] isotopomers of
pyrimidines exceeded that of purines [M +10] by >2 orders of magnitude in the avian nucleic acids
and by 7- and 14-fold in the murine nucleic acids. The purines were more enriched in lower mass
isotopomers, those less than [M +3], than the pyrimidines. Our results suggest that large quantities of
dietary pyrimidine nucleosides and almost no dietary purine nucleosides are incorporated into hepatic
nucleic acids without hydrolytic removal of the ribose moiety. In addition, our results support a
potential nutritional role for nucleosides and suggest that pyrimidines are conditionally essential
organic nutrients.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
28

63: Berthold HK, J ahoor F, Klein PD, Reeds PJ .
Estimates of the effect of feeding on whole-body protein degradation in women vary with the amino
acid used as tracer.
J Nutr. 1995 Oct;125(10):2516-27.
PMID: 7562086
pdf: Berthold H 1995.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; mtabolisme; processus-
biophysiques.
rsum:

We measured how feeding status affects the kinetics of multiple indispensable amino acids in four
adult female subjects studied both in fed and fasted state. The subjects ingested one dose of
uniformly 13C-labeled algae (Spirulina platensis). The isotopic enrichments (measured with negative
chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the branched chain amino acids,
phenylalanine, lysine and threonine were followed for 24 h in both the plasma and in VLDL-
apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100). Fasting lowered body protein degradation when measured with the
branched chain amino acids, increased it when measured with phenylalanine and had no statistically
significant effect when determined from the kinetics of lysine and threonine. These apparent
differences challenge the adequacy of current models of whole-body protein turnover. The ratio of the
peak labeling of amino acids in plasma and apoB-100 was used as an estimate of the isotopic dilution
in the hepatic pool. In contrast to our earlier observations during intravenous tracer amino acid
administration, in the present study fasting lowered the ratio of the peak isotopic enrichments of apoB-
100 and plasma amino acids. This supports our contention that feeding increases the use of hepatic
portal amino acids for hepatic secretory protein synthesis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

64: Berthold HK, Hachey DL, Reeds PJ , Thomas OP, Hoeksema S, Klein PD.
Uniformly 13C-labeled algal protein used to determine amino acid essentiality in vivo.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 15;88(18):8091-5.
PMID: 11607211
pdf: Berthold H 1991.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; techniques-de-culture; techniques-
d'analyses.
rsum:

The edible alga Spirulina platensis was uniformly labeled with 13C by growth in an atmosphere of pure
13CO2. The labeled biomass was then incorporated into the diet of a laying hen for 27 days. The
isotopic enrichment of individual amino acids in egg white and yolk proteins, as well as in various
tissues of the hen at the end of the feeding period, was analyzed by negative chemical ionization gas
chromatography/mass spectrometry. The amino acids of successive eggs showed one of two
exclusive enrichment patterns: complete preservation of the intact carbon skeleton or extensive
degradation and resynthesis. The same observation was made in tissue proteins. These patterns were
cleanly divided according to known nutritional amino acid essentiality/nonessentiality but revealed
differences in labeling among the nonessential amino acids: most notable was that proline accretion
was derived entirely from the diet. Feeding uniformly 13C-labeled algal protein and recovering and
analyzing de novo-synthesized protein provides a useful method to examine amino acid metabolism
and determine conditional amino acid essentially in vivo.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

65: Bertolin TBP, Costa J AV, Bertolin TE, Colla LM, Hemkemeier M.
Cultivo da cianobactria Spirulina platensis a partir de effluente sinttico de suino.
Cinc agrotec Lavras 29, No 1 (2005) 118-125.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bertolin T 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis, $cianobactria, $efluente-suino; $cyanobacteria, $swine.
29
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, j.
rsum:

Estudou-se o cultivo da cianobactria Spirulina platensis utilizando-se efluente sinttico de suno a fim
de avaliar o crescimento das cepas LEB 52 e PARACAS dessa cianobactria, em funo da diluio
do meio (0 e 50%) e da concentrao de bicarbonato de sdio (0 e 3g/L). Nesta etapa foi utilizado um
Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2^3. Na Segunda etapa, diluiu-se o meio em 80, 50 e 20% e utilizou-
se um Planejamento Fatorial Multinveis 3^1 x 2^1. Os cultivos foram realizados a 30 C, com
fotoperodo de 12 horas. As variveis utilizadas como resposta nas duas etapas foram a
concentrao mxima de biomassa e a velocidade especfica mxima de crescimento, sendo os
resultados avaliados mediante de Anlise de Varincia. Na primeira etapa, os maiores valores de
concentrao celular, 0,55 g/L, foram obtidos com a cepa LEB-52 em efluente sinttico diludo a 50%
em gua destilada e sem a adio de bicarbonato de sdio, como suplementao da fonte de
carbono. Na otimizao da diluio, o maior valor de concentrao celular foi de 0,35 g/L utilizando-se
cepa PARACAS e diluio de 80%. As duas cepas estudadas de Spirulina platensis podem crescer
em efluente sinttico de suno e o seu crescimento favorecido pela diluio do meio.

[The growth of LEB-52 and PARACAS strains of Spirulina platensis cyanobacteria was studied using
synthetic swine wastewater. The effects of medium dilution (0 and 50%) and sodium bicarbonate
addition to the medium (0 and 3g/L) were initially investigated. In this step, it was used a complete
Factorial Planning 2^3. In the second step, the medium was diluted at 80, 50 and 20% and it was used
a Factorial Planning 3^1x2^1. The cultivation was carried out at 30 C, with photophase of 12 hours.
The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were assessed, with the
results being evaluated through Analysis of Variance. In first step, the greater biomass concentration
(0.55g/L) was obtained with strain LEB-52, in synthetic swine wastewater diluted at 50% and without
the sodium bicarbonate addition, as supplementation of the carbon source. In the second step, the
greater biomass concentration was 0.35g/L using strain PARACAS and synthetic swine wastewater
diluted at 80%. The two strains studied can grow in the synthetic swine wastewater and cyanobacteria
growth is enhanced by medium dilution].

--------------------------------------------------------

66: Bertolin TBP, et al.
Culture of Spirulina platensis using synthetic swine wastewater.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 57-59.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bertolin T 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

67: Bertrand P, Gayda J P, Fee J A, Kuila D, Cammack R.
Comparison of the spin-lattice relaxation properties of the two classes of [2Fe-2S] clusters in proteins.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987 Nov 5;916(1):24-8.
PMID: 2822125
pdf: Bertrand P 1987.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

Two classes of [2Fe-2S] proteins have been defined according to the mean value gav of their g tensor
components (Bertrand, P., Guigliarelli, B., Gayda, J .P., Beardwood, P. and Gibson, J .F. (1985)
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 831, 261-266). To characterize their magnetic properties better, we have
compared the spin-lattice relaxation behavior of typical proteins which belong to these two classes,
namely Spirulina maxima and adrenal ferredoxin for the gav approximately 1.96 class, Thermus
thermophilus Rieske protein and Pseudomonas putida benzene dioxygenase for the gav
approximately 1.91 class. For all these proteins, the data support the existence of an efficient Orbach
process in the highest temperature range, which allows the determination of the exchange coupling
30
parameter, J . From the comparison of the J values obtained in each class, it is concluded that the
structural factors which determine the value of the g tensor and the strength of the antiferromagnetic
exchange interactions are different.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

68: Besednova NN, Smolina TP, Mikheiskaia LV, Ovodova RG.
[Immunostimulating activity of the lipopolysaccharides of blue-green algae].
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1979 Dec;(12):75-9.
PMID: 117655
pdf: Besednova N 1979.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The whole cells of blue-gree algae and lipopolysaccharides isolated from these cells were shown to
stimulate the production of macro-(mainly) and microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and
microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue-green
algae 24--48 hours before infecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides,
the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished
immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemagglutination test allowed to prove the
absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue-green algae and the following organisms:
Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uncinatum.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

69: Bhaskar SU, Gopalaswamy G, Raghu R.
A simple method for efficient extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis
Geitler.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Mar;43(3):277-9.
PMID: 15816417
pdf: Bhaskar S 2005.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biochimie; C-phycocyanine.
rsum:

Phycocyanin is a major light harvesting accessory pigment of red algae and cyanobacteria. In the light
of its many commercial applications in food and pharmaceutical industry, purity of the pigment plays a
major role. Pharmaceutical industry demands a highly pure phycocyanin with A620/280 ratio of 4 and
food industry a ratio of 2. In the present study phycocyanin was extracted in sodium phosphate buffer
(pH 7) after macerating in liquid nitrogen. The crude phycocyanin thus extracted was precipitated with
50% ammonium sulphate, purified by dialysis and finally by gel filtration chromatography. Pure
phycocyanin was finally obtained with an A620/A280 value of 4.98.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

70: Bhat VB, Madyastha KM.
Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection
against oxidative damage to DNA.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 J ul 13;285(2):262-6. Erratum in: Biochem Biophys Res
Commun 2001 Aug 10;286(1):228.
PMID: 11444835
pdf: Bhat V 2001.pdf +Bhat V 2001errata.pdf
mots-cls article: $phycocyanin; $phycocyanobilin; $peroxynitrite-scavenging; $pyrogallol-red; $DNA-
damage; $antioxidant.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is known to inactivate important cellular targets and also mediate oxidative
damage in DNA. The present study has demonstrated that phycocyanin, a biliprotein from spirulina
31
platensis and its chromophore, phycocyanobilin (PCB), efficiently scavenge ONOO(-), a potent
physiological inorganic toxin. Scavenging of ONOO(-) by phycocyanin and PCB was established by
studying their interaction with ONOO(-) and quantified by using competition kinetics of pyrogallol red
bleaching assay. The relative antioxidant ratio and IC(50) value clearly indicate that phycocyanin is a
more efficient ONOO(-) scavenger than PCB. The present study has also shown that PCB significantly
inhibits the ONOO(-)-mediated single-strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent
manner with an IC(50) value of 2.9 +/- 0.6 microM. These results suggest that phycocyanin, has the
ability to inhibit the ONOO(-)-mediated deleterious biological effects and hence has the potential to be
used as a therapeutic agent.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

71: Bhat VB, Madyastha KM.
C-phycocyanin: a potent peroxyl radical scavenger in vivo and in vitro.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Aug 18;275(1):20-5.
PMID: 10944434
pdf: Bhat V 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina platensis; $C-phycocyanin; $reduced-phycocyanin; $peroxyl-radical-
scavenger; $hepatotoxicity.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **phycocyanin, **antioxidant, **mouse.
rsum:

C-Phycocyanin (from Spirulina platensis) effectively inhibited CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat
liver in vivo. Both native and reduced phycocyanin significantly inhibited peroxyl radical-induced lipid
peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and the inhibition was concentration dependent with an IC(50) of
11.35 and 12.7 microM, respectively. The radical scavenging property of phycocyanin was established
by studying its reactivity with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and also by competition kinetics of crocin
bleaching. These studies have demonstrated that phycocyanin is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger
with an IC(50) of 5.0 microM and the rate constant ratios obtained for phycocyanin and uric acid (a
known peroxyl radical scavenger) were 1.54 and 3.5, respectively. These studies clearly suggest that
the covalently linked chromophore, phycocyanobilin, is involved in the antioxidant and radical
scavenging activity of phycocyanin.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

72: Bhattacharya S, MK Shivaprakash.
Evaluation of three Spirulina species grown under similar conditions for their growth and biochemicals.
J Sci Food Agricult 85, No 2 (2005) 333-336.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bhattacharya S 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $biomass-production; $growth-rate; $phenolics; $pigments; $Spirulina-spp.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; spirulina-laxissima; spirulina-lonar; m; B.
rsum:

Growth pattern and biochemical composition of three species of Spirulina, S platensis, S laxissima
and S lonar, were studied under controlled culture conditions. The chemical constituents were
analysed in terms of chlorophyll-alpha, phycobilliproteins, beta-carotene and phenolics (intracellular
and extracellular). Of the three species S platensis showed highest growth rate, biomass, pigment
concentration and low intracellular phenolics. The shortest doubling time was seen in S platensis. The
results demonstrated the importance of strain selection for large-scale cultivation. The results also
showed differences in culture conditions (light intensity and pH) for the three species of Spirulina to
obtain the maximum growth, as well as biochemical basis for obtaining the maximum growth in
Spirulina spp.

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73: Bini F, De Rossi E, Barbierato L, Riccardi G.
Molecular cloning and sequencing of the beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene from the
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
32
J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Mar;138(3):493-8.
PMID: 1593261
pdf: Bini F 1992.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The gene for beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.85) of Spirulina platensis (leuB) was
cloned from a lambda EMBL3 genomic library by heterologous hybridization using the Nostoc UCD
7801 leuB gene as a probe. The sequence of the entire leuB coding region was determined as well as
645 bp of 5' flanking region and 956 bp of 3' flanking region. DNA sequencing revealed an open
reading frame of 1065 nucleotides capable of encoding a polypeptide of 355 amino acids. Homologies
between the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the S. platensis leuB
gene and the amino acid sequences published for corresponding proteins either from bacteria or
yeasts are 45% or more. Northern hybridization analysis indicated that the S. platensis leuB gene is
transcribed as a single monocistronic RNA of approximately 1200 bases.

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74: Biswas B, Phillips GO.
Characterisation of processed Spirulina by chemometric analysis
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 31-40.
PMID: pas
pdf: Biswas B 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

75: Ble-Castillo J L, Rodriguez-Hernandez A, Miranda-Zamora R, J uarez-Oropeza MA, Diaz-Zagoya
J C.
Arthrospira maxima prevents the acute fatty liver induced by the administration of simvastatin, ethanol
and a hypercholesterolemic diet to mice.
Life Sci. 2002 Apr 19;70(22):2665-73.
PMID: 12269393
pdf: Ble-Castillo J 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, arthrospira-maxima; mdecine; organes; foie.
rsum:

An evident fatty liver, corroborated morphologically and chemically, was produced in CD-1 mice after
five daily doses of simvastatin 75 mg/Kg body weight, a hypercholesterolemic diet and 20 percent
ethanol in the drinking water. After treating the animals, they presented serum triacylglycerols levels
five times higher than the control mice, total lipids, cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the liver were 2, 2
and 1.5 times higher, respectively, than in control animals. When Arthrospira maxima was given with
diet two weeks prior the onset of fatty liver induction, there was a decrement of liver total lipids (40%),
liver triacylglycerols (50%) and serum triacylglycerols (50%) compared to the animals with the same
treatment but without Arthrospira maxima. In addition to the mentioned protective effect, the
administration of this algae, produced a significant increase (45%) in serum high density lipoproteins.
The mechanism for this protective effect was not established in these experiments.

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76: Blinkova LP, Gorobets OB, Baturo AP.
[Detection of biologically active substances with antagonistic and stimulating activity in Spirulina
platensis].
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;(5):11-5.
PMID: 12524993
33
pdf: Blinkova L 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The results of studies on the detection of biologically active substances (BAS) in biomass dilutions and
culture fluid of Spirulina platensi and algae (Chlorella, Fucus, Laminaria) by the agar diffusion method
are presented. After the sterilization of the solutions with chloroform (CF) a substance with lysozyme-
like activity and 2 substances with antagonistic activity deep in agar and on its surface were detected
with the use of the micrococcal indicator strain. After CF treatment, depending on the concentration of
S. platensis strains, a compound stimulating the growth of bacteria and sensitive to heat treatment
was detected. BAS were also detected with the use of other indicator cultures.

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77: Blinkova LP, Gorobets OB, Baturo AP.
[Biological activity of Spirulina].
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Mar-Apr;(2):114-8. Review.
PMID: 11548244
pdf: Blinkova L 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe, article de revue

In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing
cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable
proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances,
indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive
additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals,
chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of
antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP
sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also
been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable
in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the
preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to
a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to
microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

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78: Bohm H, Briarty LG, Lowe KC, Power J B, Benes E, Davey MR.
Quantification of a novel h-shaped ultrasonic resonator for separation of biomaterials under terrestrial
gravity and microgravity conditions.
Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003 Apr 5;82(1):74-85.
PMID: 12569626
pdf: Bohm H 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $acoustic-separation, $cell-trapping, $microgravity, $polystyrene-microspheres,
$Spirulina-platensis, $ultrasonic-h-resonator.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis: instrumentation; contrle.
rsum:

A novel, h-shaped ultrasonic resonator was used to separate biological particulates. The effectiveness
of the resonator was demonstrated using suspensions of the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis. The
key advantages of this approach were improved acoustic field homogeneity, flow characteristics, and
overall separation efficiency (sigma =1 - ratio of concentration in cleared phase to input), monitored
using a turbidity sensor. The novel separation concept was also effective under microgravity
conditions; gravitational forces influenced overall efficiency. Separation of Spirulina at cleared flow
rates of 14 to 58 L/day, as assessed by remote video recording, was evaluated under both
microgravity (</=0.05 g) and terrestrial gravity conditions. The latter involved a comparison with 5- and
24-microm-diameter polystyrene microspheres. Influences of gravity on sigma were evaluated by
34
varying the relative inclination angle (within a range of 120 degrees ) between the resonator and the
gravitational vector. Cells of Spirulina behaved in a manner comparable to that of the 5-microm-
diameter polystyrene microspheres, with a significant decrease in mean (+/-SE, n =3) sigma from
0.97 +/- 0.03 and 0.91 +/- 0.02 at a flow rate of 14 L/day, to corresponding values of 0.53 +/- 0.05 and
0.57 +/- 0.03 (P <0.05) at 58 L/day, respectively. During a typical microgravity period of ca. 22 s,
achieved during the 29th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign, sigma was unchanged at a flow rate of 14
L/day, compared with terrestrial gravity conditions; with increased flow rates, sigma was significantly
reduced. Overall, these results demonstrate that, for optimum resonator performance under the
relatively short microgravity period utilized in this study, flow rates of ca. 14 L/day were preferred.
These data provide a baseline for exploiting noninvasive, compact, ultrasonic separation systems for
manipulating biological particulates under microgravity conditions.

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79: Bohme H, Pelzer B, Boger P.
Purification and characterization of cytochrome f-556.5 from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Oct 3;592(3):528-35.
PMID: 6251870
pdf: Bohme H 1980.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The membrane-bound cytochrome f-556.5 from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was purified to
apparent homogeneity. Most of its properties are comparable to cytochrome f isolated from higher
plants and green algae. It is clearly distinguishable from soluble cytochrome c-554, also present in
Spirulina, which probably replaces the function of plastocyanin in photosynthetic electron transport.
1. The reduced form of cytochrome f exhibits an asymmetrical alpha-band with a maximum at 556.5
nm, and a pronounced shoulder at 550 nm. The beta-, gamma and delta-bands coincide with those
described for Scenedesmus cytochrome f-553, with maxima at 524 (532), 422, 331 and a protein peak
at 276 nm. The maximum of ferricytochrome f is at 410.5 nm; there is no indication of a weak 695 nm
band, described for soluble c-type cytochromes. The purest preparations had a delta/protein-peak
ratio of 0.8; the gamma/alpha ratio was 7.3. Formation of a pyridine hemochromogen with a maximum
at 550 nm indicated a c-type cytochrome. The molar extinction coefficient at 556.5 nm is 30200, the
differential extinction coefficient 21 500.
2. The molecular weight determined by gel filtration or SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is 33
000 and 34 000, respectively.
3. The redox properties differ from those described for other cytochromes f isolated from green algae
and higher plants: the midpoint redox potential is significantly more negative (+318 mV, pH 7.0) and
from pH 6 to 10 no pH dependence is observed.
4. The isoelectric point was determined at pH 3.95, which is more acidic as compared to other
cytochromes f.
5. Comparison of the amino acid composition indicated a distant relationship to higher plant
cytochrome f and a closer relationship to cytochrome f from green algae.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

80: Bolsunovskii AIa, Kosinenko SV.
[Intracellular phosphorus pool in a culture of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis].
Mikrobiologiia. 2000 J an-Feb;69(1):135-7.
PMID: 10808502
pdf: Bolsunovskii A 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

An intracellular phosphorus pool in a monoculture of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was
assessed using radioactive and nonradioactive phosphorus. The derived dependence of specific
growth rate on the intracellular content of mineral phosphorus can be presented in the form of the
Droop equation. It was found that the stage of replenishment of the intracellular phosphorus pool may
35
affect the phosphorus turnover estimation in aquatic environments from the results of short-term
measurements of phosphorus uptake.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

81: Bolychevtseva YuV, Terekhova IV, Roegner M, Karapetyan NV.
Effects of oxygen and photosynthesis carbon cycle reactions on kinetics of P700 redox transients in
cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis cells.
Biochemistry (Moscow) 72, No 3 (2007) 275-281.
PMID: 17447880
pdf: Bolychevtseva Y 2006.pdf (preprint)
mots-cls article: $anaerobiosis; $reducing-phase-of-Calvins-cycle, inhibitors; $kinetics-of-the-P700-
redox-transients; $NADP; $photosystem-I.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis, D.
rsum:

Effects of oxygen and photosynthesis and respiration inhibitors on the electron transport in
photosystem I (PSI) of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis cells were studied. Redox transients
of P700 were induced by illumination at 730 nm and monitored as kinetics of the absorption changes
at 810 nm; to block electron influx from PSII, the measurements were performed in the presence of 30
microM 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Inhibitors of terminal oxidases (potassium
cyanide and pentachlorophenol) insignificantly influenced the fast oxidation of P700 under aerobic
conditions, whereas removal of oxygen significantly decelerated the accumulation of P700+. In the
absence of oxygen the slow oxidation of P700 observed on the first illumination was accelerated on
each subsequent illumination, suggesting an activation of the carbon cycle enzymes. Under the same
conditions, pentachlorophenol (an uncoupler) markedly accelerated the P700 photooxidation. Under
anaerobic conditions, potassium cyanide (an inhibitor of carbon dioxide assimilation) failed to influence
the kinetics of redox transients of P700, whereas iodoacetamide (an inhibitor of NADP
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) completely prevented the photooxidation of P700. Thus,
the fast photooxidation of P700 in the A. platensis cells under aerobic conditions in the presence of
DCMU was caused by electron transport from PSI onto oxygen, and complicated transient changes in
the P700 photooxidation kinetics under anaerobic conditions (in the presence of DCMU) were due to
involvement of NADP+generated during the reducing phase of the carbon cycle.

--------------------------------------------------------

82: Bolychevtseva IuV, Mazhorova LE, Terekhova IV, Egorova EA, Shugaev AG, Rakhimberdieva
MG, Karapetian NV.
[A new type of adaptation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis to illumination conditions].
Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2003 Sep-Oct;39(5):571-6.
PMID: 14593872
pdf: Bolychevtseva I 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

Incubation of cells of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis under conditions of exposure to low-
intensity (2-3 microE m-2 s-1) red light, which was predominantly absorbed by photosystem I (PS I),
caused atypical adaptation changes. Invariable pigment composition and stoichiometry of
photosystems was observed in the cells incubated under these conditions against the background of a
decrease in the rate of photosynthetic fixation of CO2 (by one-half) and a 1.5-fold increase in the rate
of dark respiration relative to cells incubated under conditions of exposure to green light. Comparison
of these data with a high rate of dark relaxation of P700+in the presence of diuron suggests that
deficiency of reduced equivalents at the donor side of PS I in the Spirulina cells exposed to red light is
compensated by electron supply from the respiratory chain NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

83: Bompart P, Brouers M, Dujardin E, Sironval C.
Spirulina cultures in temperate climates.
36
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 97-102.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bompart P 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

84: Bonnin G.
A scheme for the transfer of technology concerning Spirulina production and utilization to developing
countries.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 157-167.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bonnin G 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
remarques: planche en couleur page 217

----------------------------------------------------------

85: Bories G, Tulliez J .
Dtermination du 3-4 Benzo-pyrne dans les algues Spirulines produites et traites suivant diffrents
procds.
[Determination of 3, 4-benzopyrene in spiruline algae produced and treated by various procedures].
Ann Nutr Aliment. 1975;29(6):573-5.
PMID: 824999
pdf: Bories G 1975.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en franais

Spirulina algae grow in highly salted natural lakes. Artificial cultivation in tanks with addition of carbon
dioxide (natural gas, burned gases) has been studied in order to improve the biosynthesis. A possible
3, 4-benzopyrene (BaP) contamination must be then considered. Several BaP determinations have
been performed in batches of algae from bath origins, prepared following different processes (filtration,
spray, cylinder drying). BaP contents are very low (2 to 3 ppb) and comparable between batches.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

86: Borowitzka MA.
Algal biotechnology products and processes matching science and economics.
J Appl Phycol 4, No 3 (1992) 267-279.
PMID: pas
pdf: Borowitzka M 1992.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $economic-modelling, $culture-systems, $harvesting, $productivity, $microalgae.
mots-cls Antenna: , d.
rsum:

Several microalgae, such as species ofChlorella, Spirulina and Dunaliella, are grown commercially
and algal products such as beta-carotene and phycocyanin are available. The main focus of algal
biotechnology continues to be on high value fine chemicals and on algae for use as aquaculture feeds.
This paper provides the outline for a rational approach in evaluating which algae and which algal
products are the most likely to be commercially viable. This approach involves some simple market
analysis followed by economic modelling of the whole production process. It also permits an
evaluation of which steps in the production process have the greatest effect on the final production
cost of the alga or algal product, thus providing a guide as to what area the research and development
effort should be directed to. An example of this approach is presented and compared with other
37
models. The base model used here gives a production cost of microalgal biomass at about AS 14 to
15 kg^1, excluding the costs of further processing, packaging and marketing. The model also shows
that some of the key factors in microalgal production are productivity, labor costs and harvesting costs.
Given the existing technology, high value products such as carotenoids and algal biomass for
aquaculture feeds have the greatest commercial potential in the short term.

----------------------------

87: Bounous G, Kongshavn PA, Gold P.
The immunoenhancing property of dietary whey protein concentrate.
Clin Invest Med. 1988 Aug;11(4):271-8.
PMID: 3168349
pdf: Bounous G 1988.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

The plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells was found to be enhanced in mice fed a
formula diet containing 20 g lactalbumin/100 g diet in comparison to mice fed equivalent formula diets
of similar nutritional efficiency containing 20 g/100 g diet of either casein, soy, wheat or corn protein,
egg albumin, beef or fish protein, Spirulina maxima, or Scenedesmus protein, or Purina mouse chow.
This effect was manifest after 2 weeks and persisted for at least 8 weeks of dietary treatment. Mixing
lactalbumin with either casein or soy protein in a 20 g protein/100 g diet formula significantly enhanced
the immune response in comparison to that of mice fed diets containing 20% soy protein or casein.

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88: Boyandin AN, Popova LY.
Expression of lux-genes as an indicator of metabolic activity of cells in model ecosystem studies.
Adv Space Res. 2003;31(7):1839-45.
PMID: 14503525
pdf: Boyandin A 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; techniques-de-culture; techniques-d'analyses.
rsum:

Quick response to different impacts and easy measurement make the luminescent systems of
luminous bacteria an object convenient for application in various fields. Cloning of gene luminescence
in different organisms is currently used to study both the survival of microbial cells and the effect of
different factors on their metabolic activity, including the environment. A primary test-object in
estimating bacteriological contamination of water bodies, Escherichia coli, can be conveniently used
as an indicator of bactericidal properties of aquatic ecosystems. The application of Escherichia coli
Z905/pPHL7 (lux+) as a marker microorganism can facilitate monitoring the microbiological status of
closed biocenoses, including systems with higher organisms. The investigation of various parameters
of microecosystems (carbon nutrition type, concentrations of inorganic ions and toxic compounds)
shows that the recombinant strain E. coli Z905/pPHL7 can be effectively used as a marker.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

89: Branger B.
Spiruline et nutrition Rponse de lauteur.
[Spiruline and malnutrition].
Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):467-8.
PMID: pas
pdf: Branger B 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Malnutrition; $Spiruline; $Marasme; $Kwashiorkor.
Keywords: $Malnutrition; $Spiruline; $Marasmus; $Kwashiorkor; $Child.
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: rpliques :

38
Fox R, Pagnon Y, Weber B, Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6.
Falquet J , von der Weid D, Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465.
Darcas C, Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):466-7.

Publication Types: Comment
* Letter

--------------------------------------------------------------------

90: Branger B, Cadudal J L, Delobel M, Ouoba H, Yameogo P, Ouedraogo D, Guerin D, Valea A,
Zombre C, Ancel P; personnels des CREN.
La spiruline comme complment alimentaire dans la malnutrition du nourrisson au Burkina-Faso.
[Spiruline as a food supplement in case of infant malnutrition in Burkina-Faso].
Arch Pediatr. 2003 May;10(5):424-31.
PMID: 12878335
pdf: Branger B 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Malnutrition; $Spiruline; $Marasme; $Kwashiorkor.
Keywords: $Malnutrition; $Spiruline; $Marasmus; $Kwashiorkor; $Child.
mots-cls Antenna: ; B.
rsum: en franais

BACKGROUND: Spiruline, a microscopic algae with nutritious quality was put forward as food
supplement to fight malnutrition in infant.
POPULATION AND METHODS: To assess its effectiveness, a survey was carried out among children
with malnutrition whose Z-score was <2 for their age, in the Koudougou province, Burkina-Faso.
Within five centers, three groups were defined at randomization: group 1 with usual nutritional
rehabilitation program, group 2 as above +5 g x d(-1) of spiruline, group 3 as above +spiruline +fish.
182 children, aged three months - three years, were originally involved. Six died (3.3%) and 11
hospitalised were excluded; the study was carried out on 165 children and lasted three months.
J udging criteria were: length per aged, weight for length group evolution and the corresponding Z-
score at 60 et 90 days.
RESULTS: At the inclusion, children were aged 14.6 months on average and weighed 6.7 kg (Z-score
of -3.2 weight/age) with a length of 71.4 cm (-2.0 Z-score length/age) and weight for length of 0.093 (-
2.5 Z-score). 9.4% had oedema. There were no noticeable differences between the three groups as to
weight gain, length gain, weight for length gain.
CONCLUSION: A 5 g x d(-1) spiruline dose does not bring any benefit over 90 days, compared to
traditional renutrition. Furthermore, at the moment, it is costly, and the battle against infant malnutrition
cannot be based on one single element, such as a wonder drug, but on a national or local policy
based on training, education, economical aid, and nutritional rehabilitation centers and infection
treatment.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial
* Multicenter Study
* Randomized Controlled Trial

Comment in: Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6; author reply 467-8.
* Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465; author reply 467-8.
* Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):466-7; author reply 467-8.

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91: Brasoveanua M, Nemtanu M, Minea R, Grecu MN, Mazilu E, Radulescu N.
Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis.
Nucl Inst Meth in Phys Res B 240 (2005) 87-90.
PMID: pas
pdf: Brasoveanua M 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $Irradiation; $Microbial-load; $Antioxidant-properties.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, j, B.
rsum:

39
The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic
purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to
study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological
decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance
(ESR) and UVVis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with
doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

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92: Bravi E, Perretti G, Montanari L.
Fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detector.
J Chromatogr A 1134 (2006) 210-214.
PMID: 17007865
pdf: Bravi E 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $HPLC; $ELSD; $Fatty-acids.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis; O.
rsum:

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation method with an evaporative light-
scattering detector (ELSD) has been developed for the separation and quantitative analysis of fatty
acid methyl esters (FAME) in three different oils. Reverse-phased C(18) HPLC separation of 13 FAME
is achieved using a methanol/water eluent mixture. The retention times (RT) reflect the elution
behavior of these compounds on C(18) reversed-phase HPLC. The proposed method is tested on:
soybean oil (Glycine max L.) as reference sample, rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L.), pumpkin seed oil
(Cucurbita pepo L.) and algal oil (Arthrospira platensis Nordst.).

------------------------------------------------------------

93: Brejc K, Ficner R, Huber R, Steinbacher S.
Isolation, crystallization, crystal structure analysis and refinement of allophycocyanin from the
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis at 2.3 A resolution.
J Mol Biol. 1995 J un 2;249(2):424-40.
PMID: 7783202
pdf: Brejc K 1995.pdf
mots-cls article: $allophycocyanin; $cyanobacteria; $protein-structure; $light-harvesting-complex;
$energy-transfer .
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The phycobiliprotein allophycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been isolated
and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P6(3)22 with cell constants a =b =101.9 A, c =
130.6 A, alpha =beta =90 degrees, gamma =120 degrees, with one (alpha beta) monomer in the
asymmetric unit. The three-dimensional structure of the (alpha beta) monomer was solved by multiple
isomorphous replacement. The crystal structure has been refined in a cyclic manner by energy-
restrained crystallographic refinement and model building. The conventional crystallographic R-factor
of the final model is 19.6% with data from 8.0 to 2.3 A. The molecular structure of the subunits
resembles other solved phycobiliprotein structures. In comparison to C-phycocyanin and b-
phycoerythrin the major differences arise from deletions and insertions of segments involved in the
protein-chromophore interactions. The stereochemistry of the alpha 84 and beta 84 chiral atoms are
C(2)-R, C(3)-R and C(31)-R. The configuration (C(4)-Z, C(10)-Z and C(15)-Z) and the conformation
(C(5)-anti, C(9)-syn and C(14)-anti) are equal for both chromophores.

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94: Brouers M.
Utilisation traditionnelle de la spiruline (Arthrospira sp.) au Tchad.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 135-140ter.
PMID: pas
pdf: Brouers M 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
40
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

95: Buletsa BA, Ihnatovych II, Lupych PP, Pulyk OR.
[The prevalence, structure and clinical problems of multiple sclerosis in the Transcarpathian area
based on epidemiological study data].
Lik Sprava. 1996 Oct-Dec;(10-12):163-5.
PMID: 9138801
pdf: Buletsa B 1996.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en ukrainien

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96: Bulik CG.
How the Spirulina, a blue-green alga, preserves the cell from degeneration, and extends youth and
human lifespan.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 121-132.
PMID: pas
pdf: Bulik C 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

97: Buttarelli FR, Calogero RA, Tiboni O, Gualerzi CO, Pon CL.
Characterization of the str operon genes from Spirulina platensis and their evolutionary relationship to
those of other prokaryotes.
Mol Gen Genet. 1989 May;217(1):97-104.
PMID: 2505055
pdf: Buttarelli F 1989.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

A 5.3 kb DNA segment containing the str operon (ca. 4.5 kb) of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis
has been sequenced. The str operon includes the structural genes rpsL (ribosomal protein S12), rpsG
(ribosomal protein S7), fus (translation elongation factor EF-G) and tuf (translation elongation factor
EF-Tu). From the nucleotide sequence of this operon, the primary structures of the four gene products
have been derived and compared with the available corresponding structures from eubacteria,
archaebacteria and chloroplasts. Extensive homologies were found in almost all cases and in the
order S12 greater than EF-Tu greater than EF-G greater than S7; the largest homologies were
generally found between the cyanobacterial proteins and the corresponding chloroplast gene
products. Overall codon usage in S. platensis was found to be rather unbiased.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

98: Calamand P.
Production semi-industrielle et humanitaire.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 163.
PMID: pas
pdf: Calamand P 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:
41

----------------------------------------------------------

99: Cammack R, Rao KK, Bargeron CP, Hutson KG, Andrew PW, Rogers LJ .
Midpoint redox potentials of plant and algal ferredoxins.
Biochem J . 1977 Nov 15;168(2):205-9.
PMID: 202262
pdf: Cammack R 1977.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

Midpoint potentials of plant-type ferredoxins from a range of sources were measured by redox
titrations combined with electron-paramagnetic-resonance spectroscopy. For ferredoxins from higher
plants, green algae and most red algae, the midpoint potentials (at pH 8.0) were between --390 and --
425 mV. Values for the major ferredoxin fractions from blue-green algae were less negative (between
--325 and --390 mV). In addition, Spirulina maxima and Nostoc strain MAC contain second minor
ferredoxin components with a different potential, --305 mV (the highest so far measured for a plant-
algal ferrodoxin) for Spirulina ferrodoxin II, and --455 mV (the lowest so far measured for a plant-algal
ferredoxin) for Nostoc strain MAC ferredoxin II. However, two ferredoxins extracted from a variety of
the higher plant Pisum sativum (pea) had midpoint potentials that were only slightly different from each
other. These values are discussed in terms of possible roles for the ferredoxins in addition to their
involvement in photosynthetic electron transport.

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100: Campanella L, Russo MV, Avino P.
Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae.
Annali di Chimica 92,No 4 (2002) 343-52.
PMID: 12073880
pdf: Campanella L 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

A simple, accurate and reproducible analytical method is described for the extraction and the
simultaneous determination of 18 amino acids in different for geographical origin Spirulina alga
samples using phenylisothiocianate as derivatizating agent in natural feed. The best experimental
hydrolysis conditions have been studied varying the temperature, the time and the hydrolyzing
reagent. The separation and the quantitative analysis of the by-products have been carried out by
HPLC analysis and UV detection. An amino acid pattern is compared with that proposed by the Food
Agriculture Organization (FAO) for an ideal protein and with those of some traditional feed.

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101: Campanella L, Cubadda F, Sammartino MP, Saoncella A.
An algal biosensor for the monitoring of water toxicity in estuarine environments.
Water Res. 2000 J an;35(1):69-76.
PMID: 11257895
pdf: Campanella L 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $algal-biosensor; $marine-pollution; $environmental-monitoring; $water-toxicity-
assessment; $toxicity-biosensor.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-subsalsa; instrumentation; contrle; fausse-spiruline; B.
rsum:

An algal biosensor for toxicity assessment of estuarine waters is proposed. The sensor was obtained
by coupling a suited algal bioreceptor (the cyanobacterium Spirulina subsalsa) to an amperometric
gas diffusion electrode. The analytical device allows the monitoring of the evolution of photosynthetic
O2 and the detection of alterations due to toxic effects caused by environmental pollutants present in
the medium. Four chemical species representative of three main different classes of pollutants (heavy
42
metals, triazinic herbicides, carbamate insecticides) were tested at different concentrations using a
standardized natural water as experimental medium. In all the cases a toxic response was detected
(i.e. a dose-related inhibition of photosynthetic activity was recorded) with good reproducibility.

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102: Campanella L, Crescentini G, Avino P.
Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of some natural and commercial food products based
on Spirulina.
Analusis 27 (1999) 533-540.
PMID: pas
pdf: Campanella L 1999.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis, $algae, $chemical-composition, $nutrition.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S, B.
rsum:

A natural and a commercial Spirulina product of Cuban origin have been extensively studied together
with four algal food products available on the Italian market. The contents of macrominerals, trace
elements, free and total amino acids, fatty acids and of two important phycobiliproteins (C-
phycocyanine and allophycocyanine) have been determined. The results are compared with those of
other studies regarding both natural and commercial analogous products. A nutritional and
toxicological evaluation of the products was conducted. The analyses were performed using different
analytical procedures: macrominerals and trace elements were determined by INAAand by ICP-AES,
free and total amino acids (as PTC-derivatives) and phycobiliproteins were determined by HPLC
analysis (with UVdetection). Fatty acids were extracted using two different methods (one based on
benzene and the other based on supercritical fluid extraction with CO2) and analyzed as esters by
GC-analysis.

--------------------------------------------------------

103: Campanella L, Crescentini G, Avino P, Moauro A.
Determination of macrominerals and trace elements in the alga Spirulina platensis.
Analusis 26 (1998) 210-214.
PMID: pas
pdf: Campanella L 1998.pdf
mots-cls article: $Macrominerals, $trace-elements, $INAA, $ICP-AES.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **Bioaccumulation.
rsum:

The alga Spirulina, in particular Spirulina platensis, an ubiquitous component of sea and ocean with
high nutritional content, is considered a potential alimentary source for third world countries affected
by heavy famine problems. On other side, Spirulina-based products are nowadays commonly
commercialized and recommended by suppliers as health food, diet pills, vitamins supplement etc..
However, a careful nutritional and toxicological evaluation of these products is necessary, since algae
show bioaccumulation properties towards heavy metals. In this frame, samples of commercial and
natural Spirulina platensis of Cuban origin, have been characterized for their macromineral and trace
elements content. Measurements have been carried out by INAA and ICP-AES employing standard
reference materials. The use of two techniques allowed the determination of a wider spectrum of
elements and in some cases, the cross-checking of the data obtained. The toxic heavy metals levels
found in both products are such that they do not constitute, on the basis of the recommended daily
doses a health hazard for consumers.

--------------------------------------------------------

104: Campbell J 3rd, Stevens SE J r, Balkwill DL.
Accumulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in Spirulina platensis.
J Bacteriol. 1982 J an;149(1):361-3.
PMID: 6798024
pdf: Campbell J 1982.pdf
43
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **bioaccumulation.
rsum:

Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate has been identified in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. The addition
of reduced carbon compounds to the growth medium was not required for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate
accumulation. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accumulated during exponential growth to 6% of the total dry
weight and then decreased during the stationary phase.

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105: Canela APRF, Rosa PTV, Marques MOM, Meireles MAA.
Supercritical fluid extraction of fatty acids and carotenoids from the microalgae Spirulina maxima.
Indust Eng Chem Res 41, No 12 (2002) 3012-3018.
PMID: pas
pdf: Canela A 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; spirulina-platensis; spirulina-pacifica; m; B.
rsum :

The supercritical fluid extraction of fatty acids and carotenoids from the microalgae Spirulina maxima
with carbon dioxide was studied. The effects of pressure and temperature on the yield and chemical
composition of the extracts were assessed. The experiments were conducted at temperatures of 20-
70 C and pressures of 15-180 bar. The solvent mass flow rate was 3.33 x 10^-5 kg/s. Statistical
analysis showed that neither the temperature nor the pressure significantly affected the total yield, but
both the temperature and the pressure affected the extraction rate, and the effect of the temperature
prevailed over that of the pressure. The extracts were rich in essential fatty acids and carotenes, and
at 100 bar and 45 C the extract contained no carotenes. Temperatures larger than 50 C degraded the
carotenes, as expected. The model of Goto et al. described the overall experimental extraction curves
quite well.

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106: Canizares-Villanueva RO.
Biosorcin de metales pesados mediante el uso de biomasa microbiana.
Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiologa 42, No 3 (2000) 131-143.
PMID: pas
pdf: Canizares-Villanueva R 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $biomasa, $metales-pesados, $biosorcin, $bioprecipitacin, $eliminacin-
microbiana, $biomass, $heavy-metal, $biosorption, $bioprecipitation, $microbial-removal.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

La utilizacin de microorganismos como biosorbentes de metales pesados, ofrece una alternativa
potencial a los mtodos ya existentes para la destoxificacin y recuperacin de metales txicos o
valiosos presentes en aguas residuales industriales. Muchas levaduras, hongos, algas, bacterias y
cierta flora acutica tienen la capacidad de concentrar metales a partir de soluciones acuosas diluidas
y de acumularlas dentro de la estructura microbiana. Actualmente los procesos biotecnolgicos mas
eficientes utilizan la biosorcin y la bioprecipitacin, pero otros procesos tales como la unin a
macromolculas especficas pueden tener un potencial en el futuro. Las tecnologas que usan estos
procesos son comnmente usadas para el control de la contaminacin de diversas fuentes. En este
artculo, el trmino biosorcin es usado para abarcar la utilizacin por la biomasa total (viva o muerta)
va mecanismos fisicoqumicos tales como la adsorcin y el intercambio inico. El mecanismo de
utilizacin metablica es usado cuando se utiliza la biomasa viva. Asimismo se mencionan sistemas
que emplean mezclas de microorganismos as como plantas superiores.

[Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water and their utilization as biosorbents
for heavy metal removal, offers a potential alternative to the existent methods for the detoxification and
recovery of toxic/precious metals present in industrial wastewater. Many yeasts, fungi, algae, bacteria
44
and some aquatic plants have the capacity to concentrate metals from aqueous diluted solutions, and
to accumulate them inside the cell structure. To date, the most successful biotechnological processes
utilize biosorption and bioprecipitation, but other processes such as binding by specific
macromolecules may have future potential. Technologies using these processes are currently used to
control pollution from diverse sources. In this article, the term biosorption is used to encompass
uptake by whole biomass (living or dead) via physico-chemical mechanisms such as adsorption or ion
exchange. Where living biomass is used, metabolic uptake mechanisms may also contribute to the
process. Mention is made about systems that employ a mixture of microorganisms as well as higher
plants].

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107: Canne C, Ebelshauser M, Gay E, Shergill J K, Cammack R, Kappl R, Huttermann J .
Probing magnetic properties of the reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster of the ferredoxin from Arthrospira
platensis by 1H ENDOR spectroscopy.
J Biol Inorg Chem. 2000 Aug;5(4):514-26.
PMID: 10968623
pdf: Canne C 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis; fundamental-biology;
photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

The 1H electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectra in frozen solutions of the reduced [2Fe-
2S] cluster in ferredoxin from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis have been measured at low
temperatures (5-20 K) and simulated using orientational selection methods. The analysis confirmed
the existence of a single paramagnetic species with iron valence states II and III connected uniquely to
the cluster irons. The experimental ENDOR spectra were fitted to a model including the spin
distribution on the centre, the orientation of the g-matrix, and the isotropic and anisotropic hyperfine
couplings of the nearest protons in the crystallographically determined structure. In order to partially
simulate ENDOR line shapes, a statistical distribution of the corresponding torsion angles between the
Fe(III) centre and one of the beta-CH2 protons was introduced. From the analysis, four of the larger
hyperfine couplings found were assigned to the cysteine beta-protons near the Fe(III) ion of the
cluster, with isotropic hyperfine couplings ranging from 1.6 to 4.1 MHz. The spin distribution on the two
iron ions was estimated to be +1.85 for the Fe(III) ion and -0.9 for the Fe(II) ion. The Fe(III) ion was
identified as being coordinated to the cysteine ligands Cys49 and Cys79, confirming previous NMR
results. The direction of the g-tensor with respect to the cluster was deduced. The g1-g2 plane is
parallel to the planes through each iron and its adjacent cysteine sulfurs; the g2-g3 plane is nearly
perpendicular to the latter planes and deviates by 25 degrees from the FeSSFe plane. The g1
direction is dominated by the bonding geometry of Fe(II) and does not align with the Fe(II)-Fe(III)
vector.

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108: Cao J , Liang D, Xu Z, Qiu G, Li B, Vonshak A.
Physico-chemical parameters influencing DNase activity of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
Microbiol Res. 2000 Apr;155(1):59-63.
PMID: 10830902
pdf: Cao J 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

A novel protease has been identified, purified and partially characterised from complete medium
grown Spirulina platensis, which could be responsible for the selective proteolysis of phycobiliproteins.
It is an 80 kDa homodimeric enzyme; its N-terminal sequence is not related to any known protease
sequence. It hydrolyses native phycocyanins in both crude extracts and reconstructed systems with
purified Allo- or C-phycocyanin. It is inactive on several native proteins, including ribulose-1,5-
bisphosphate carboxylase. The two phycocyanins are degraded at different velocities since C-
phycocyanin is the better substrate, in agreement with the earlier observations on the progress of the
45
phycobilisome disassembly. Specificity for synthetic substrates and inhibitors strongly suggests its
assignment to the serine-protease family. The enzyme, however, is insensitive to the commercially
available protein inhibitors of trypsin-like proteases.

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109: Capasso J M, Cossio BR, Berl T, Rivard CJ , J imenez C.
A colorimetric assay for determination of cell viability in algal cultures.
Biomol Eng. 2003 J ul;20(4-6):133-8.
PMID: 12919790
pdf: Capasso J 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Cell-viability; $Microalgae; $Tetrazolium; $Formazan; $Colorimetry.
mots-cls Antenna: .
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **cell-density.
rsum:

In this work, we propose the determination of cell viability in algal cultures by using a colorimetric
assay widely used for estimation of cell proliferation in animal cell cultures. The method is based on in
vivo reduction by metabolically active cells of a tetrazolium compound (MTS=3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-
yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenil)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) to a colored formazan,
with maximal absorbance at 490 nm, that is released to the culture medium. For this purpose, we have
tested two microalgae with high commercial value (Dunaliella and Spirulina) and two seaweeds with
different morphology (Ulva and Gracilaria). Color development in this assay is directly proportional to
the number of viable cells, to the incubation time in the presence of the assay solution, and to the
incubation temperature. A direct significant correlation was found between algal photosynthesis rate
and color development in all species used through this work. Moreover, the intensity of absorbance at
490 nm was significantly lower in stressed cells (e.g. in nutrient-limited cultures, in the presence of
toxic substances, and in osmotically-stressed cultures). We conclude that cell viability of algal cultures
can be rapidly and easily estimated through colorimetric determination of the reduction of MTS to
formazan.

Publication Types: Evaluation Studies
* Validation Studies

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110: Careri M, Furlattini L, Mangia A, Musc M, Anklam E, Theobald A, von Holst C.
Supercritical fluid extraction for liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids in Spirulina
Pacifica algae: a chemometric approach.
J Chromatogr A 912,No 1 (200) 61-71.
PMID: 11307988
Careri M 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $Experimental-design; $Optimization; $Carotenoids; $Carotenes; $Cryptoxanthin;
$Zeaxanthin.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-pacifica; n, B.
rsum:

An experimental design procedure was used to investigate the effects of some operating parameters
on the supercritical fluid extraction of carotenoids beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin
from Spirulina Pacifica algae, a carotenoid-rich dietary product. Variables tested were temperature
and pressure of the supercritical fluid, dynamic extraction time and percentage of ethanol added as
the modifier. Each variable was tested at three levels; 31 experiments were performed in random
order. Analyses of the extracts were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-
Vis photodiode array detection. Analytical responses (chromatographic peak areas) were processed
by using a stepwise multiple regression analysis, in order to find polynomial functions describing the
relationships between variables and responses. For all the analytes the experimental conditions
providing the highest extraction yield inside the experimental domain considered were found.
Supercritical fluid extraction results obtained in these conditions were compared with those obtained
by performing solvent extraction in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the supercritical fluid
extraction procedure.
46

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111: Carlozzi P, Pinzani E.
Growth characteristics of Arthrospira platensis cultured inside a new close-coil photobioreactor
incorporating a mandrel to control culture temperature.
Biotechnol Bioeng 90, No 6 (2005) 675-684.
PMID: 15803465
pdf: Carlozzi P 2005a.pdf
mots-cls article: $photobioreactor, $hydrodynamic-aspects, $biomass, $fluorescence, $Arthrospira-
platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

The aim of this study was to investigate Arthrospira growth inside a new CCP incorporating a mandrel
for culture temperature control. Some hydrodynamic aspects and photobioreactor performances were
investigated as well. The bioreactor incorporated A. platensis grown under batch and semicontinuous
conditions. Two systems were used to recycle Arthrospira cultures: a peristaltic pump and an airlift
system. When the pump recycled the culture, we achieved a very high Dean number (De=3,950),
which decreased a great deal when the pump was replaced with the airlift system. During outdoor
Arthrospira batch growth, a cell concentration of 16.4 g (DW)l-1 was reached after 9 days. However,
the maximum chlorophyll content of the biomass (2.0% of DW) was achieved on the fifth and sixth
days. The highest daily biomass output rate was obtained using the airlift system, when the CCP was
operated under a semicontinuous regime: the gross output rate was 2.85+/-0.37 g (DW) l-1 d-1 and
the net was 2.32+/-0.11 g (DW) l-1 d-1. The advantages of the airlift system may be due to the low
concentration of oxygen built up inside Arthrospira culture and the lack of cell damage due to the
pump system. Thus, oxygen and pump stress may have been avoided.

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112: Carlozzi P, Ena A, Carnevale S.
Hydrodynamic alterations during cyanobacteria (Arthrospira platensis) growth from low to high
biomass concentration inside tubular photobioreactors.
Biotechnol Prog 21, No 2 (2005) 416-22.
PMID: 15801780
pdf: Carlozzi P 2005.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

The rheological behavior of an Arthrospira culture was studied from low to high biomass
concentration. Two tubular undulating row photobioreactors (TURP-5r and TURP-10r), with a very
short light path of 1.0 cm, were used during batch growth. In TURP-5r, the biomass concentration
increased to 14.5 g(dw) L(-1), and alterations of the physical properties and hydrodynamic behavior
occurred as a result. In the past, the rheological characteristics of photosynthetic-microbe cultures
were rarely investigated because of the low biomass concentration attained in the systems.
Developing closed photobioreactor technologies, the optimum biomass concentration rises and the
viscosity, the generalized Reynolds number (N'(Re)), and the power required for culture recycling are
also subject to alteration. Starting from a biomass concentration of 4.1 g(dw) L(-1), the Arthrospira
culture already exhibits the characteristics of a non-Newtonian fluid. As a result of culture recycling
from 2.0 to 20.5 g(dw) L(-1) and an available power of 1.67 W row(-1), we demonstrated that N'(Re) is
reduced from 6265 to 1148. Our experimental results showed that N'(Re) of 2345 can be reached only
at a cell concentration below 11.1 g(dw) L(-1), while at a cell concentration below 4.1 g(dw) L(-1)
N'(Re) =4080 was reached. The power consumption (P(c)) for culture recycling increased noticeably
when the cell concentration rose; the highest P(c) increase attained was from 2.0 to 4.1 g(dw) L(-1).
This is the range within which the Arthrospira culture changes from a Newtonian to a non-Newtonian
fluid.

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47
113: Carlozzi P.
Dilution of solar radiation through "culture" lamination in photobioreactor rows facing south-north: a
way to improve the efficiency of light utilization by cyanobacteria (Arthrospira platensis).
Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003 Feb 5;81(3):305-15.
PMID: 12474253
pdf: Carlozzi P 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira, $photobioreactors, $culture-lamination, $light-dilution.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

Efficient utilization of solar radiation for the photoautotrophic production of cyanobacterium biomass
was achieved, using small pipes (ID =0.01 m) arranged in rows in two photobioreactors facing south-
north. A high Arthrospira yield of 47.7 g m(-2) (installation area) d(-1) was attained under outdoor
conditions in a tubular undulating row photobioreactor (TURP-10r). During the summer, under a
semicontinuous culture regime, the optimal biomass concentration (OBC) in TURP-5r was 6.0 g L(-1):
it was 5.0 g L(-1) in TURP-10r. These OBCs made it possible to produce a biomass output rate of 2.7
+/- 0.2 g L(-1) d(-1) in the former and 2.1 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) d(-1) in the latter. When Arthrospira was
grown at a preset dilution rate (0.3 d(-1)), sunrise cell density (SrCD) variations were not proportional
to the drop of solar radiation. The SrCD was comparatively high at high solar radiation and decreased
abruptly with decreasing solar radiation. There was a tendency to stabilize at low solar radiation. In
both photobioreactors, the chlorophyll content of the Arthrospira biomass (% of the dry weight) was
higher at sunrise than at sunset. A comparison of the chlorophyll biomass content in the TURPs
showed no significant differences. Night biomass losses were very high (>30% of the daylight
productivity) when the culture temperature was kept constant at 31 +/- 1.0 degrees C: these losses fell
to <20% of the daylight productivity, when the night temperature of the cultures decreased according
to the environmental temperature. Dilution of solar radiation was carried out using two quasi-laminated
bioreactors. The rows of S-N facing bioreactors showed a very high growth yield in TURP-10r [about
2.1g (d.w.) MJ (-1)]. In TURP-10r, the high photic ratio (R(f) =6), the high surface-to-volume ratio
(S(ill)/V =400 m(-1)) and the S-N facing of the rows (better than an E-W orientation) allowed for good
results.

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114: Carlozzi P.
Hydrodynamic aspects and Arthrospira growth in two outdoor tubular undulating row photobioreactors.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54, No 1 (2000) 14-22.
PMID: 10951999
pdf: Carlozzi P 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis; m.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **photobioreactor.
rsum :

Two tubular undulating row photobioreactors (TURPs) with a very high illuminated surface/volume
ratio (400 m(-1)) were designed and constructed for the growth of photosynthetic micro-organisms.
Experiments were conducted under outdoor conditions; and Arthrospira recycling was performed with
airlifts (one for each row). The rows in each reactor faced east-west and consisted of a flexible
polyvinyl chloride pipe (22 m long, 0.01 m bore) arranged in a sinusoidal shape. We studied the
hydraulic performance of the sine-shaped photobioreactor rows during culture recycling in the TURPs
at a very high Reynolds number (4,200), when Arthrospira showed Newtonian fluid behavior. The
sinusoidal pipe arrangement imposed a sine waveform on the culture, which led to better light
utilization. During summer, a volumetric productivity of 2.2 g l(-1) day(-1) was reached in the TURP-5r
(5 rows m(-2)), whereas an area productivity of 35 g m(-2) day(-1) was obtained in the TURP-10r (10
rows m(-2)). This was due to more light being available in the TURP-5r, because its rows were more
spaced out and the photic ratio (Rf) was low (3.0). In the TURP-10r, the closer rows caused a dilution
of the sunlight, but gave a better light distribution inside the Arthrospira culture and improved the light
utilization. This was attributed to the high Rf (6.0) of this reactor.

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48
115: Carmichael W, Drapeau C, Anderson DM.
Harvesting of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Born. & Flah. var. flos-aquae (Cyanobacteria) from
Klamath Lake for human dietary use.
J Appl Phycol 12, No 6 (2000) 585-595.
PMID: pas
pdf: Carmichael W 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $Aphanizomenon-flos-aquae, $biomass, $blue-green-algae, $cyanobacteria, $food,
$harvesting, $Klamath-Lake, $quality-control, $waterbloom.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima, d.
rsum:

In western cultures, certain cyanobacteria have been an accepted source of microalgal biomass for
food for about 30 years, in particular Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis and S. maxima. Beginning in the
early 1980s, another species, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was adopted for similar uses. This is
harvested from Upper Klamath Lake, the largest freshwater lake system in Oregon. In 1998 the annual
commercial production of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was about 1 x 10^6 kg. Since this species is not
cultured like Spirulina in outdoor ponds or raceways, it requires very different procedures for
harvesting and processing. These are reviewed here and include extensive off-lake screens or on-lake
barges, which dewater and concentrate the cells. Other procedures, such as those for removal of
detritus and mineral materials, and those for monitoring and reducing the amounts of certain
contaminant cyanobacteria, which can produce cyanotoxins, have also become important in quality
control and marketing.

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116: Carmichael WW.
The toxins of cyanobacteria.
Sci Amer (J anuary 1994) 64-72.
PMID: 8284661
pdf: Carmichael W 1994.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; f.
rsum:

These poisons, which periodically and fatally contaminate the water supplies of wild and dmestic
animals, can also harm humans. But they are coaxed into doing good.

Publication Types: Review

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117: Cases J , Wysocka IA, Caporiccio B, J ouy N, Besancon P, Szpunar J , Rouanet J M.
Assessment of selenium bioavailability from high-selenium spirulina subfractions in selenium-deficient
rats.
J Agric Food Chem. 2002 J un 19;50(13):3867-73.
PMID: 12059173
pdf: Cases J 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Selenium; $bioavailability; $glutathione-peroxidase; $high-selenium-spirulina-
subfractions.
mots-cls Antenna: , B.
rsum:

It was previously found that the bioavailability of Se from Se-rich spirulina (SeSp) was lower than that
from selenite or selenomethionine when fed to Se-deficient rats. The present study examined the
bioavailability of Se from SeSp subfractions: a pellet (P) issuing from the centrifugation of a
suspension of broken SeSp and a retentate (R) resulting from ultrafiltration of the supernatant through
a 30 kDa exclusion membrane. Animals were fed a torula yeast based diet with no Se (deficients) or
supplemented with 75 microg of Se/kg of diet as sodium selenite (controls) for 42 days. Se-deficient
rats were then repleted for 56 days with Se (75 microg/kg of diet) supplied as sodium selenite, SeSp,
P, or R. During this period, controls continued to receive sodium selenite. Speciation of Se in
49
subfractions showed that the majority was present in the form of high molecular weight compounds;
free selenomethionine was only a minor constituent. Gross absorption of Se from sodium selenite, P,
and R was not different and was higher than from SeSp. Only retentate allowed full replenishment of
Se concentration in liver and kidney (as did sodium selenite) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx)
activity in liver, kidney, plasma, and erythrocytes. The bioavailabilities of Se in retentate, as assessed
by slope ratio analysis using selenite as a reference Se, were 89 and 112% in the tissue Se content
and 106-133% in the GSHPx activities. SeSp and P exhibited a gross bioavailability of <100%. These
results indicate that Se in retentate is highly bioavailable and represents an interesting source of Se
for food supplementation.

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118: Cases J , Vacchina V, Napolitano A, Caporiccio B, Besancon P, Lobinski R, Rouanet J M.
Selenium from selenium-rich Spirulina is less bioavailable than selenium from sodium selenite and
selenomethionine in selenium-deficient rats.
J Nutr. 2001 Sep;131(9):2343-50.
PMID: 11533277
pdf: Cases J 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $selenium; $Spirulina; $rats; $glutathione-peroxidase.
mots-cls Antenna: .
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **bioavalability.
rsum:

The bioavailabilty of selenium (Se) from selenium-rich Spirulina (SeSp) was assessed in Se-deficient
rats by measuring tissue Se accumulation and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. For 42 d, rats
were subjected to dietary Se depletion by consumption of a Torula yeast (TY)-based diet with no Se;
controls were fed the same diet supplemented with 75 microg Se/kg diet as sodium selenite. Se-
deficient rats were then repleted with Se (75 microg/kg) by the addition of sodium selenite,
selenomethionine (SeMet) or SeSp to the TY basal diet. Selenium speciation in SeSp emphasized the
quasi-absence of selenite (2% of total Se); organic Se comprised SeMet (approximately 18%), with
the majority present in the form of two selenoproteins (20-30 kDa and 80 kDa). Gross absorption of Se
from SeSp was significantly lower than from free SeMet and sodium selenite. SeMet was less effective
than sodium selenite in restoring Se concentration in the liver but not in kidney. SeSp was always
much less effective. Similarly, Se from SeSp was less effective than the other forms of Se in restoring
GSH-Px activity, except in plasma and red blood cells where no differences were noted among the
three sources. This was confirmed by measuring the bioavailability of Se by slope-ratio analysis using
selenite as the reference form of Se. Although Se from SeSp did not replenish Se concentration and
GSH-Px activity in most tissues to the same degree as the other forms of Se, we conclude that it is
biologically useful and differently metabolized due to its chemical form.

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119: Cases J , Puig M, Caporiccio B, Baroux B, Baccou J C, Besanon P, Rouanet J M.
Glutathione-related enzymic activities in rats receiving high cholesterol or standard diets
supplemented with two forms of selenium.
Food Chemistry 65, No 2 (1999) 207-211.
PMID: pas
pdf: Cases J 1999.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; N.
rsum:

Selenium deficiency was produced in rats fed a high cholesterol diet for 57 days (Group 1). It was
characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) an end product of lipid peroxidation and by
the dramatic collapse of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity (GSHPx) in plasma,
erythrocytes and in homogenate supernatant fraction of liver, kidney and heart compared with rats fed
a standard diet containing sodium selenite (Group 3). A compensatory rise in the activity of liver
glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and also in glutathione reductase (GSSGR) activity was
accompanied by an increase in NADPH-generating enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Adequate dietary selenium supplementation by Se-rich
50
Spirulina corrected all the selenium deficiency effects (Group 2), then, GSHPx and NADPH-
consuming enzymes activities were of the same magnitude as those exhibited by rats fed a standard
diet containing adequate selenium in the form of sodium selenite. Based on this study, it is concluded
that Se-enriched Spirulina behave as an excellent selenium carrier.

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120: Castiglioni B, Rizzi E, Frosini A, Sivonen K, Rajaniemi P, Rantala A, Mugnai MA, Ventura S,
Wilmotte A, Boutte C, Grubisic S, Balthasart P, Consolandi C, Bordoni R, Mezzelani A, Battaglia C, De
Bellis G.
Development of a universal microarray based on the ligation detection reaction and 16S rRNA gene
polymorphism to target diversity of cyanobacteria.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Dec;70(12):7161-72.
PMID: 15574913
pdf: Castiglioni B 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; gnomique; ARN.
rsum:

The cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes of significant ecological and biotechnological
interest, since they strongly contribute to primary production and are a rich source of bioactive
compounds. In eutrophic fresh and brackish waters, their mass occurrences (water blooms) are often
toxic and constitute a high potential risk for human health. Therefore, rapid and reliable identification of
cyanobacterial species in complex environmental samples is important. Here we describe the
development and validation of a microarray for the identification of cyanobacteria in aquatic
environments. Our approach is based on the use of a ligation detection reaction coupled to a universal
array. Probes were designed for detecting 19 cyanobacterial groups including
Anabaena/Aphanizomenon, Calothrix, Cylindrospermopsis, Cylindrospermum, Gloeothece,
halotolerants, Leptolyngbya, Palau Lyngbya, Microcystis, Nodularia, Nostoc, Planktothrix, Antarctic
Phormidium, Prochlorococcus, Spirulina, Synechococcus, Synechocystis, Trichodesmium, and
Woronichinia. These groups were identified based on an alignment of over 300 cyanobacterial 16S
rRNA sequences. For validation of the microarrays, 95 samples (24 axenic strains from culture
collections, 27 isolated strains, and 44 cloned fragments recovered from environmental samples) were
tested. The results demonstrated a high discriminative power and sensitivity to 1 fmol of the PCR-
amplified 16S rRNA gene. Accurate identification of target strains was also achieved with unbalanced
mixes of PCR amplicons from different cyanobacteria and an environmental sample. Our universal
array method shows great potential for rapid and reliable identification of cyanobacteria. It can be
easily adapted to future development and could thus be applied both in research and environmental
monitoring.

Publication Types: Evaluation Studies

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121: Chakravarthi S, Kapoor R.
Development of a nutritious low viscosity weaning mix using natural ingredients and microbial
amylases.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Sep;54(5):341-7.
PMID: 12907405
pdf: Chakravarthi S 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

A nutritious weaning food was developed using natural ingredients; namely, staple cereals and pulses,
groundnut, Spirulina and gooseberry. The nutritive value of the developed weaning mix was found to
be better than a commercial mix. The viscosity of the mixes was reduced by the addition of bacterial
and fungal amylases. Addition of amylases at a concentration of 0.1-0.4% drastically reduced the
viscosity in all the formulated mixes. The maximum viscosity reduction effect was evident at 0.2% for
bacterial amylase and at 0.4% for fungal amylases.
51

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122: Chamorro G, Salazar M, Araujo KG, dos Santos CP, Ceballos G, Castillo LF.
Actualizacion en la farmacologia de Spirulina (Arthrospira), un alimento no convencional.
[Update on the pharmacology of Spirulina (Arthrospira), an unconventional food].
Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2002 Sep;52(3):232-40.
PMID: 12448336
pdf: Chamorro G 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: article de revue en espagnol

Spirulina (Arthrospira), a filamentous, unicellular alga, is a cyanobacterium grown in certain countries
as food for human and animal consumption. It is also used to derive additives in pharmaceuticals and
foods. This alga is a rich source of proteins, vitamins, amino acids, minerals, and other nutrients. Its
main use, therefore, is as a food supplement. Over the last few years, however, it has been found to
have many additional pharmacological properties. Thus, it has been experimentally proven, in vivo
and in vitro that it is effective to treat certain allergies, anemia, cancer, hepatotoxicity, viral and
cardiovascular diseases, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory
processes, among others. Several of these activities are attributed to Spirulina itself or to some of its
components including fatty acids omega-3 or omega-6, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, phycocyanin,
phenol compounds, and a recently isolated complex, Ca-Spirulan (Ca-SP). This paper aims to update
and critically review the results published over the last few years with regards to these properties. The
conclusion is that even if this cyanobacterium has been one of the most extensively studied from the
chemical, pharmacological and toxicological points of view, it is still necessary to expand the research
in order to have more consistent data for its possible use in human beings.

Publication Types: Review

--------------------------------------------------------------------

123: Chamorro G, Salazar S, Favila-Castillo L, Steele C, Salazar M.
Reproductive and peri- and postnatal evaluation of Spirulina maxima in mice.
J Appl Phycol 9, No 2 (1997) 107-112.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chamorro G 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $toxicity-evaluation, $reproductive-toxicology, $single-cellproteins, $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, d.
rsum:

Spirulina maxima, provided by Sosa Texcoco Company (Mxico City), was administered to mice of
both sexes in a fertility study, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30% incorporated into the diet. Males
were fed for nine weeks while females, for two weeks, and feeding continued during the mating period
and gestation. On the other hand, in a peri- and postnatal study, the alga was given only to females at
the same concentrations from day 15 of gestation until day 21 post-partum. Treatments were not
associated with any adverse effect on reproductive performance, pregnancy rate, number of corpora
lutea, resorptions or number of live or dead fetuses. There was no increase in the number of abnormal
pups at caesarean section. Length of gestation, parturition status, and litter values were unaffected by
treatment. However, there was a statistically significant reduction in bodyweight and survival rate on
postnatal days 04 at the high dose group in the peri- and postnatal study. The reproductive
performance of F1 generation was normal in all groups. We conclude that S. maxima is not toxic to
reproduction.

----------------------------

124: Chamorro G, Salazar M, Favila L, Bourges H.
[Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].
Rev Invest Clin. 1996 Sep-Oct;48(5):389-99.
PMID: 9005517
52
pdf: Chamorro G 1996.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en espagnol

Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in
Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the
interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More
recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as
hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed
evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic
chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the
recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic
and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or
organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts
than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the
effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

125: Chamorro G, Salazar M.
Teratogenic study of Spirulina in mice.
Arch Latinoam Nutr 1990;40:86-94
pdf: Chamorro G 1990.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en espagnol

The embryotoxic and fetotoxic potential of Spirulina was investigated in mice. The algae was given to
pregnant animals at the levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30 g/100 in the diet through days 7-13, 1-13 and 1-19
of gestation. On day 19, the rats were sacrificed, and the uterine horns were examined for live, dead
and resorbed fetuses. The live fetuses were weighed and examined for external malformations and
either skeletal or visceral abnormalities. With the litter as the unit of analysis and when the total
number of fetuses affected was considered, no significant difference was found in the number of
resorbed or malformed among groups. These results indicate that the feeding of pregnant mice with
algae, up to a dietary level of 30 g/100, did not evoke any signs of embryotoxic effects. The Spirulina
levels tested in this study represent exaggeration over any anticipated human consumption.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

126: Chamorro G, Salazar M, Salazar S.
[Teratogenic study of Spirulina in rats].
Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1989 Dec;39(4):641-9.
PMID: 2518788
pdf: Chamorro G 1989.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en espagnol

The algae Spirulina has been considered for use as a supplementary protein to feed and food. Any
form of single cell protein destined to this purpose should be previously subjected to detailed
toxicological investigations in animals or another experimental models. The present study was
therefore designed to determine the teratogenic potential of Spirulina in rats. The algae was
administered in the diet at the levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30 g/100 g on days 7-14, 1-14 and 1-21 of
gestation. The dams were sacrificed prior to term, and the fetuses examined for external, visceral and
skeletal abnormalities. Maternal and fetal weights were not affected. Neither fetotoxicity nor
teratogenicity was associated with the dietary ingestion of Spirulina. It is also considered important to
extend these studies to other animal species.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
53

127: Chamorro GA, Herrera G, Salazar M, Salazar S, Ulloa V.
Short-term toxicity study of Spirulina in F3b generation rats.
J Toxicol Clin Exp. 1988 May-J un;8(3):163-7.
PMID: 3139874
pdf: Chamorro G 1988a.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Male and female Wistar rats, that were F3b generation, were maintained for 13 weeks on the same
diets of Spirulina that their parents with levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30% of dried algae. The algae had no
adverse effects on food consumption, or body weights. Haematology, clinical chemistry, urine
analyses, organ weights, histology or renal functions tests, were nof affected. It was concluded that
Spirulina up to level of 30% in the diet of rats did not produce toxic effects.

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128: Chamorro GA, Herrera G, Salazar M, Salazar S, Ulloa V.
Subchronic toxicity study in rats fed Spirulina.
J Pharm Belg. 1988 J an-Feb;43(1):29-36.
PMID: 3132549
pdf: Chamorro G 1988.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Spirulina algae was given for 13 wk to groups of 10 weanling rats of each sex, incorporated into
experimental diets at levels of 10, 20 and 30 0/00. Body weights of the test animals were slightly lower
than in the control in both sexes. This was accompanied by a slightly lower food consumption. No
effects on haematology, semi-quantative analysis of urine, serum chemistry or histological
examination could be attributed to treatment. It was concluded that Spirulina up level of 30% in the
diet of rats did not produce toxic effects.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

129: Chanawongse L, Lee YK, Bunnag B, Tanticharoen M.
Productivity of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in cultures using sunlight.
Bioresource Technol 48, No 2 (1994) 143-148.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chanawongse L 1994.papier
mots-cls article: $productivity, $outdoor-culture, $spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **optimisation.
rsum :

The growth kinetics of a vacuolated Spirulina platensis strain BP and a non-vacuolated Spirulina
platensis strain 12D in open pond cultures were studied. The changes in the dissolved oxygen
concentration of the cultures were parallel to the sunlight intensity profiles during the day. The specific
growth rate remained unchanged over a large part of the day, although the growth rate in the early
morning varied as a function of cell concentration. The variation in the dark respiration rate during the
day was about 30%. The photosynthesis of the cultures was not photoinhibited in the early morning.
The degree of photoinhibition increased in the morning to reach a value of 1524%, depending on the
cell concentration and light intensity at noon, and then decreased gradually in the afternoon. The study
suggests that the rate limiting step in the growth of Spirulina cultures using sunlight was not at the light
harvesting step (photosynthesis), but the rate of uptake of a key substrate, or the activity of a key
enzyme in the biochemical pathways.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

54
130: Charpy L, Langlade MJ , Vicente N, Riva A (eds).
"Colloque International sur les Cyanobactries pour la Sant, la Science et le Dveloppement --
International Symposium on Cyanobacteria for Health, Science and Development", le des Embiez, 3-
6 mai 2004, Var, FRANCE (Institut Ocanographique Paul Ricard, Marseille, 2005) 192 pp. Mentionn
comme CICSSD (2004).
PMID: pas
pdf: Charpy L 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E, B.
rsum:

Le compte-rendu du colloque et les rsums des prsentations orales des intervenantss sont tous
deux tlchargeables ladresse http://www.spirunet.org/?page_id=18


----------------------------------------------------------

131: Charpy L, Langlade MJ , Vicente N.
Synthse du colloque sur les cyanobactries.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 180-185.
PMID: pas
pdf: Charpy L 2004a.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

132: Chatterjee A, Majee M, Ghosh S, Majumder AL.
sll1722, an unassigned open reading frame of Synechocystis PCC 6803, codes for L-myo-inositol 1-
phosphate synthase.
Planta. 2004 Apr;218(6):989-98.
PMID: 14730448
pdf: Chatterjee A 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Bioinformatics; $Chloroplast; $Functional-complementation; $INO1-gene; $myo-
Inositol-1-phosphate-synthase; $Synechocystis-sp.-PCC-6803.
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme.
rsum:

L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4; MIPS) catalyzes conversion of glucose 6-phosphate
to L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate, the first and the rate-limiting step in the production of inositol, and has
been reported from evolutionarily diverse organisms. Two forms of the enzyme have been
characterized from higher plants, viz. cytosolic and chloroplastic, and the presence of MIPS has been
earlier reported from the cyanobacteria (e.g. Spirulina sp.), the presumed chloroplast progenitors. The
present study demonstrates possible multiple forms of MIPS and identifies the gene for one of them in
the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Following detection of at least two immunologically
cross-reactive MIPS forms, we have been able to identify from the fully sequenced Synechocystis
genome an as yet unassigned open reading frame (ORF), sll1722, coding for the approx. 50-kDa
MIPS protein, by using biochemical, molecular and bioinformatics tools. The DNA fragment
corresponding to sll1722 was PCR-amplified and functional identity of the gene was confirmed by a
complementation assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants containing a disrupted INO1 gene for
the yeast MIPS. The sll1722 PCR product was cloned in Escherichia coli expression vector pET20b
and the isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-induced overexpressed protein product was
characterized following complete purification. Comparison of the sll1722 sequences with other MIPS
sequences and its phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Synechocystis MIPS gene is quite divergent
from the others.

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133: Chauhan VS, Yadav KR, Thacker SP, Ramamurthy V, Kothari RM.
55
A novel isolate of Chlorella, recalcitrant in an outdoor Spirulina cultivation.
Fresenius Envir Bull 3 (1994) 691-696.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chauhan V 1994.papier
mots-cls article: $chlorella-sp., $formidable-contaminant, $recalcitrant-control.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **optimisation.
rsum :

A unicellular green alga resembling Chlorella in morphological and many biochemical characteristics is
identified. However, unlike Chlorella, it is viable between pH 3.0-10.8, to bubbling with CO2-free air,
artificial shading, 200mM NaCl and 0.2 M NaHCO3, thus rendering its control difficult in an outdoor
propagation of Spirulina. Its control by manipulation with (...).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

134: Chen B, Zhou XC.
[Protective effect of natural dietary antioxidants on space radiation-induced damages].
Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2003;16 Suppl:514-8.
PMID: 14989308
pdf: Chen B 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en chinois

--------------------------------------------------------------------

135: Chen C, Zhang YZ, Chen XL, Zhou BC, Gao HJ .
Langmuir-Blodgett film of phycobilisomes from blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.
Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 2003 Oct;35(10):952-5.
PMID: 14515216
pdf: Chen C 2003.pdf (HTML sans figures)
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; production.
rsum:

The phycobilisomes were isolated from blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, and could form monolayer
film at air/water interface. The monolayer film of phycobilisomes was transferred to newly cleaved
mica, and coated with gold. Scanning tunneling microscope was used to investigate the structure of
the Langmuir-Blodgett film of phycobilisomes. It was shown that phycobilisomes in the monolayer
arrayed in rows with core attaching on the substrate surface and rods radiating towards the air phase,
this phenomenon was similar to the arrangement of phycobilisomes on cytoplasmic surface of
thylakoid membrane in vivo. The possible applications of the Langmuir-Blodgett film of phycobilisomes
were also discussed.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

136: Chen F, Zhang Q.
[Inhibitive effects of spirulina on aberrant crypts in colon induced by dimethylhydrazine].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995 J an;29(1):13-7.
PMID: 7600882
pdf: Chen F 1995.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; mdecine; organes.
rsum: en chinois

--------------------------------------------------------------------

137: Chen H, Pan SS.
Bioremediation potential of spirulina: toxicity and biosorption studies of lead.
56
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2005 Mar;6(3):171-4.
PMID: 15682500
pdf: Chen H 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Bioadsorption, $Bioremediation, $Spirulina, $Lead.
mots-cls Antenna: ; puration; mtaux-lourds; plomb.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **bioaccumulation.
rsum:

This study examines the possibility of using live spirulina to biologically remove aqueous lead of low
concentration (below 50 mg/L) from wastewater. The spirulina cells were first immersed for seven
days in five wastewater samples containing lead of different concentrations, and the growth rate was
determined by light at wavelength of 560 nm. The 72 h-EC50 (72 h medium effective concentration)
was estimated to be 11.46 mg/L (lead). Afterwards, the lead adsorption by live spirulina cells was
conducted. It was observed that at the initial stage (0-12 min) the adsorption rate was so rapid that
74% of the metal was biologically adsorbed. The maximum biosorption capacity of live spirulina was
estimated to be 0.62 mg lead per 10(5) alga cells.

Publication Types: Evaluation Studies

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138: Chen H, Pan G, Yan H, Qin Y.
[Toxic effects of hexavalent chromium on the growth of blue-green microalgae].
Huan J ing Ke Xue. 2003 Mar;24(2):13-8.
PMID: 12800651
pdf: Chen H 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima.
rsum: article en chinois

A standard method of algal bioassay for determining the toxicity of toxic chemicals was applied to the
interaction between Cr(VI) and six blue-green microalgae. The 96h-EC50 of hexavalent chromium on
the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Synechococcus, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis,
Selenastrum capriornutum and Scenedesmus quadricauda were 4.96, 6.50, 11.16, 11.74, 12.43 and
20.89 mg/L, respectively. The tolerance of the six blue-green microalgae to Cr(VI) was in the order of
Scenedesmus quadricauda >Selenastrum capriornutum >Spirulina platensis >Spirulina maxima >
Synechococcus >Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The sensitivity of these species to Cr(VI) might relate to the
cell size, the structure of cell wall, as well as the redox reaction caused by the exudate or enzyme. X-
ray absorption near edge structure(XANES) was used to study the accumulation and transformation of
Cr(VI) in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

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139: Chen J , Mai K, Ma H, Wang X, Deng D, Liu X, Xu W, Liufu Z, Zhang W, Tan B, Ai Q.
Effects of dissolved oxygen on survival and immune responses of scallop (Chlamys farreri J ones et
Preston).
Fish Shellfish Immunol 22, No 3 (2007) 272-281.
PMID: 16901718
pdf: Chen J 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Scallop; $Chlamys-farreri; $Dissolved-oxygen; $Survival; $Immune-responses.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, A.
rsum:

This experiment investigated the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the survival and immune
responses of scallop Chlamys farreri. The scallops (initial mean dry weight of soft tissue 1.52+/-0.10g)
were cultivated in the seawater with different DO levels (8.5, 6.5, 4.5, and 2.5mgl(-1), respectively) for
21d. Each treatment had triplicate groups of 35 animals. During the experimental period, the scallops
were fed with Spirulina maxima, and water temperature ranged from 15.2 degrees C to 17.5 degrees
C, salinity from 29.5 per thousand to 32.5 per thousand and pH from 7.5 to 8.2. Survival, specific
growth rate (SGR) and total haemocyte count (THC) were examined at the end of the study, and
57
superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were
examined at 12h, 24h, Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 after being exposed to the graded DO levels. The
lower DO levels (2.5 and 4.5mgl(-1)) resulted in lower survivals of scallops, and the survival (81.7%) at
2.5mgl(-1)DO was significantly lower than those (100.0%) at 8.5 and 6.5mgl(-1) DO. Similarly, the
SGR and THC of scallop gradually reduced with decreasing DO levels, and reached significant levels
at 2.5mgl(-1) DO (P<0.05). At higher DO levels (8.5 and 6.5mgl(-1)), the SOD activity maintained
rather stable during the entire sampling period. At lower DO levels (4.5 and 2.5mgl(-1)), however, the
SOD activity significantly increased at 12h, and then significantly decreased to the levels below the
normal. At the two lower DO levels, ACP activities had no significant changes before Day 7, and then
declined to the levels that were significantly lower than the normal. Significantly higher ALP activity
was only observed at 12h in the treatment of 2.5mgl(-1) DO, but in all other treatments and sampling
times it fluctuated in a narrow range. In conclusion, less than 4.5mgl(-1) DO reduced the survival and
depressed the immune responses of C. farreri.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

140: Chen LC, Chen J S, Tung TC.
[Effects of spirulina on serum lipoproteins and its hypocholesterolemic activities].
Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1981 Sep;80(9):934-42.
PMID: 6948087
pdf: Chen L 1981.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en chinois

--------------------------------------------------------------------

141: Chen LL, Zhang SF, Huang DN, Tan J Q, He SH.
[Experimental study of spirulina platensis in treating allergic rhinitis in rats].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 Feb;30(1):96-8.
PMID: 15871200
pdf: Chen L 2005.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en chinois

OBJ ECTIVE: To determine the therapeutic effect of spirulina platensis in allergic rhinitis (AR).
METHODS: Ovalbumin sensitized white rats used as AR animals were treated with spirulina platensis
(SPP). At the end of the treatment, the differences in the behavior science were observed; the
changes in the nasal mucosa and mast cell degranulation were studied pathologically; and the levels
of serum histamine and total immunoglobulin (Ig) E were determined by enzyme-linked immune
sorbent assay.
RESULTS: The behavior science score of the SPP treatment group was lower than that of the
negative control group (P<0.01) ; inflammatory reaction of nasal mucosa in the SPP treatment group
were remarkably relieved; the number of nasal mucosa mastocyte and mast cell degranulation in the
SPP treatment group were lower than that of the negative control group (P<0.01). The levels of serum
histamine and total IgE in the SPP treatment group were lower than that of the negative control group
(P<0.01). It had no significant difference in the positive control group and the SPP treatment group
and the blank control group (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: Spirulina platensis can prevent and treat AR in rats, which implies the possibility of
using spirulina platensis for AR patients in the future.

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142: Chen T, Wong YS, Zheng W.
Purification and characterization of selenium-containing phycocyanin from selenium-enriched Spirulina
platensis.
Phytochemistry 67 (2006) 2424-230.
PMID: 16973186
pdf: Chen T 2006.pdf
58
mots-cls article: $Selenium; $Phycocyanin; $Spirulina-platensis; $Purification; $Chromatography.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

A fast protein liquid chromatographic method for purification of selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-
PC) from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis was described in this study. The purification
procedures involved fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose ion-exchange
chromatography and Sephacry S-300 size exclusion chromatography. The purity ratio (A(620)/A(280))
and the separation factor (A(620)/A(655)) of the purified Se-PC were 5.12 and 7.92, respectively. The
Se concentration of purified Se-PC was 496.5mug g(-1) protein, as determined by ICP-AES analysis.
The purity of the Se-PC was further characterized by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectrometry, SDS-
PAGE, RP-HPLC and gel filtration HPLC. The apparent molecular mass of the native Se-PC
determined by gel filtration HPLC was 109kDa, indicating that the protein existed as a trimer. SDS-
PAGE of the purified Se-PC yielded two major bands corresponding to the alpha and beta subunits. A
better separation of these two subunits was obtained by RP-HPLC. Identification of the alpha and beta
subunits separated by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC was achieved by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF)
using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

143: Chen T, Zheng W, Wong YS, Yang F, Bai Y.
Accumulation of selenium in mixotrophic culture of Spirulina platensis on glucose.
Bioresour Technol 97 (2006) 2260-2265.
PMID: 16343896
pdf: Chen T 2006a.pdf
mots-cls article: $Selenium; $Accumulation; $Mixotrophic-culture; $Phycocyanin; $Allophycocyanin;
$Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Accumulation of Se in mixotrophic culture of Spirulina platensis was investigated in this study. Results
indicated that glucose was better than acetate as an organic carbon source for mixotrophic culture of
S. platensis. Supplementation of glucose (2gL(-1)) significantly enhanced the biomass concentration
(2.57gL(-1)) and the production of phycocyanin (0.279gL(-1)) and allophycocyanin (0.126gL(-1)) in S.
platensis, which were much higher than those of photoautotrophic culture (1.08gL(-1), 0.119gL(-1) and
0.042gL(-1), respectively). Stepwise addition of Se during the growth phase avoided the inhibitory
effect of high Se concentration on the growth of S. platensis. The Se enrichment favored the
production of phycocyanin and allophycocyanin in the algal cells. The highest Se yield (1033mugL(-1))
was obtained at an accumulative Se concentration of 250mgL(-1), with organic Se percentage,
biomass concentration, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin yields of 92.3%, 2.55gL(-1), 0.295gL(-1)
and 0.153gL(-1), respectively. These results indicated that the application of mixotrophic culture S.
platensis with stepwise addition of Se to the medium could offer an effective and economical way for
the production of high Se-enriched algal products.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

144: Chen T, Zheng W, Yang F, Bai Y, Wong YS.
Mixotrophic culture of high selenium enriched Spirulina platensis on acetate and the enhanced
production of photosynthetic pigments.
Enzyme and Microbial Technol 39 (2006) 103-107.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chen T 2006b.pdf
mots-cls article: $Selenium; $Spirulina-platensis; $Mixotrophic-culture; $Biotransformation; $Acetate.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

The feasibility of mixotrophic culture of high selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis was investigated in
this study. The results indicated that supplementation of acetate to the mixotrophic culture of S.
platensis led to a significant enhancement in biomass concentration, chlorophyll alpha, lutein, beta-
carotene, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin production when compared to the photoautotrophic
59
culture. Stepwise addition of selenium (Se) source during the exponential growth phase of S. platensis
can avoid the inhibitory effect of high Se concentration on cell growth. At an accumulative Se
concentration of 450 mg L^-1 under mixotrophic culture conditions, the highest Se yield was obtained;
while significant enhancement in Se accumulation capability, algal biomass concentration and
photosynthetic pigment yield was also observed. These results indicated that the application of
mixotrophic culture with stepwise addition of Se to culture of S. platensis offers a more effective and
economical way for the production of high Se-enriched biological compounds.

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145: Chen YM, Lee TH, Lee SJ , Lin J Z, Huang R, Chou HN.
Potential of a simple solid-phase extraction method coupled to analytical and bioanalytical methods for
an improved determination of microcystins in algal samples.
J Chromatogr B 844, No 1 (2006) 134-141.
PMID: 16890502
pdf: Chen Y 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Solid-phase extraction (SPE); $Microcystis; $Microcystin (MC); $Artemia-
assay;$Protein-phosphatase-assay; $HPLC; $Mouse-Bioassay; $Algal-dietary-supplement;
$Cyanobacteria.
mots-cls Antenna: , A.
rsum:

Artemia assays and protein phosphatase assays are commonly used for the screening of microcystins
(MCs) in algal samples instead of the standard mouse toxicity assay. However, it has been shown that
their results are often biased because of the matrix effects. To eliminate the possible interferences in
the algal matrices, a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using silica gel as a sorbent was
developed and evaluated. Results show that this SPE method could not only reduce the toxicity of the
Microcystis samples towards brine shrimp by 5080% but also eliminate 90100% of the endogenous
phosphatase activity from Spirulina and Chlorella samples, thus improving the determination of
microcystins in algal samples using either of the two bioanalytical methods. The application of this
SPE method as an off-line cleanup for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV
detection is also described in this study. After SPE, the HPLC chromatograms of Microcystis samples
have clear baselines that have no interferences with the analyte peaks.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

146: Cheng CG, Hong QH, Li DT, Fan MH, Cai XD.
[Determination of trace elements in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. by flame atomic absorption
spectrometry combined with microsampling pulse nebulization technique].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2006 Sep;26(9):1735-7.
PMID: pas
pdf: Cheng C 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; f.
rsum: texte en chinois

The contents of trace elements Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca and Pb in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.)
Geitl. were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry combined with microsampling pulse
nebulization technique. The results of the determination show that Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl.
are rich in the inorganic elements such as Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca and Cu. Its recovery ratio obtained by
standard addition method ranged between 96.58% and 106.12%, and its RSD was lower than 4.26%.
The result will provide scientific data for the study on the trace elements in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.)
Geitl. and on their relativity of efficacy of medicine.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

147: Cherniad'ev II, Terekhova IV, Doman NG, Al'bitskaia ON.
[Paths of photosynthetic assimilation of carbon dioxide in Spirulina].
Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 1974 Nov 1;219(1):249-52.
PMID: 4214685
60
pdf: Cherniad'ev I 1974.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en russe

--------------------------------------------------------------------

148: Chernikova AA, Tsoglin LN, Markelova AG, Zorin SN, Mazo VK, Pronina NA.
Capacity of Spirulina platensis to accumulate manganese and its distribution in cell.
Russian J Plant Physiol 53, No 6 (2006) 800-806.
PMID: pas
pdf : Chernikova A 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $manganese, accumulation, growth, ultrastructure,
intracellular-distribution.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-plasis, f, B.
rsum:

Effects of manganese salt (MnCl2) on growth of Spirulina platensis and capacity of the cyanobacteria
to accumulate the metal in various cell components were studied. S. platensis cells were shown to
tolerate high concentrations of manganese and preserve, although strongly suppressed, the capacity
to grow in the medium containing 5.1 mM MnCl2. The concentrations of manganese that did not inhibit
growth considerably altered cell ultrastructure and changed the protein profile. The accumulation of
manganese in S. platensis cells was proportional to the period of culturing and manganese
concentration in the medium, reaching a plateau at about 2.5 mM. A threshold intracellular
concentration of this metal is estimated as 28 3 micromol/g dry wt. The fractionation of the
manganese-enriched biomass demonstrated that the major portion of intracellular manganese (over
90%) was found in the total protein fraction. The chromatographic separation of the soluble protein
fraction showed that manganese was incorporated into proteins with molecular weight of 5 to 15 kD.
Dry biomass adsorbed manganese cations; this evidence seems to indicate a considerable
contribution of biosorption to manganese accumulation by S. platensis cells.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

149: Chial B, Persoone G.
Cyst-based toxicity tests XII--development of a short chronic sediment toxicity test with the ostracod
crustacean Heterocypris incongruens: selection of test parameters.
Environ Toxicol. 2002 Dec;17(6):520-7.
PMID: 12448019
pdf: Chial B 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $toxicity-tests; $microbiotests; $ostracods; $Heterocypris-incongruens; $sediment-
tests; $solid-phase-tests; $small-scale-tests; $culture/maintenance-free-tests.
mots-cls Antenna: ; alimentation-animale; toxicity..
rsum:

Experiments were carried out with neonates of the freshwater ostracod Heterocypris incongruens
hatched from cysts in order to develop a new culture/maintenance-free solid-phase microbiotest for
the toxicity assessment of contaminated sediments. Based on preliminary investigations, a number of
test parameters were investigated for a short-chronic assay: hatching time, size of the cups of the
multiwell test plates, feeding of the test organisms prior to the test, amount of supplemental algal food,
volume of sediment, and duration of the test. On the basis of the findings, a test protocol was
formulated for a 6-day assay in 12-cup multiwell plates with 10 organisms per cup and 3 replicates.
The test organisms were collected 52 h after the start of the incubation of the cysts in standard
freshwater at 25 degrees C under continuous illumination after a 4-h prefeeding with 1.3 mg/mL
Spirulina. The test biota in the cups were exposed to 300 microL of test sediment in 2 mL of standard
freshwater with 3 x 10(7) live algal cells (Raphidocelis subcapitata) as food supplement. Calibrated
sand was used as a reference sediment. Mortality and growth of the ostracods were determined after
6 days' incubation at 25 degrees C in darkness. The selected test parameters for the new microbiotest
were found adequate for toxicity determination of natural sediments compared with the 10-day contact
test with the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

61
--------------------------------------------------------------------

150: Chini Zittelli G, Tomasello V, Pinzani E, Tredici MR.
Outdoor cultivation ofArthrospira platensis during autumn and winter in temperate climates.
J Appl Phycol 8, No 4-5 (1996) 293-301.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chini Zittelli G 1996.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira-platensis, $Spirulina, $tubular-photobioreactors, $outdoor-culture,
$aeration-rate, $cell-density, $temperature.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis M2 was grown outdoors in 50-mm diameter tubular reactors under the
climatic conditions of central Italy (Florence) from September to December 1995 and in March 1996.
Except for September, the cultures temperature was regulated. Mean productivities of 0.83, 0.44 and
0.61 g dry wt L^1 d^1 were achieved in autumn (SeptemberOctober), winter (November
December) and March, respectively. In autumn and winter, the photosynthetic efficiency of the
cultures and the degree of correlation between productivity and solar irradiance were significantly
greater than in summer. The effect of cell density and aeration rate on productivity was evaluated in
September. The productivity of cultures operated at high supra-optimal population density was about
30% less at high aeration rate (1.0 LL^1 min^1), and 50% less at standard aeration rate (0.17 LL^1
min^1), than that of control cultures kept at optimal population density and standard aeration rate.
The reduction of productivity in high-density cultures was due to lower daylight output rates and higher
night biomass losses (the latter were particularly relevant under standard aeration conditions). The
main factor limiting productivity in closed reactors during autumn was the night temperature. Heating
the cultures during daylight hours on sunny days did not cause any significant increase of the yields,
since under sunlight the unheated cultures also reached the optimal temperature for growth early in
the morning. On cloudy days, the day-time temperature of the unheated cultures remained well below
the optimum, however this had only a limited effect on productivity since algal growth was mainly light-
limited.

----------------------------

151: Chitkara DK, Camilleri M, Zinsmeister AR, Burton D, El-Youssef M, Freese D, Walker L,
Stephens D.
Gastric sensory and motor dysfunction in adolescents with functional dyspepsia.
J Pediatr. 2005 Apr;146(4):500-5.
PMID: 15812453
pdf: Chitkara D 2005.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; instrumentation; gastric-monitoring.
rsum:

OBJ ECTIVES: Validated, noninvasive studies were used to compare sensation and motor function of
the upper gastrointestinal tract in adolescents with functional dyspepsia (FD) and in control subjects.
STUDY DESIGN: Fifteen adolescents with FD and 15 healthy participants underwent standardized
symptom assessment, a satiation nutrient drink test, and 13 C-Spirulina platensis breath test for
gastric emptying of solids. Adolescents with FD also underwent measurements of fasting and
postprandial gastric volume by means of single-photon emission computed tomography, and their
results were compared with those from 15 healthy volunteers (age, 18 to 25 years).
RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with FD had significantly higher postprandial
symptoms 30 minutes after reaching maximum satiation with the nutrient drink test and significant
delay in the T 1/2 for gastric emptying of solids. Compared with healthy 18- to 25-year-old adults,
adolescents had a diminished postprandial gastric volume response. By means of single-photon
emission computed tomography, frequent baseline dyspeptic symptoms were associated with
prolonged T 1/2 for gastric emptying and higher postprandial aggregate symptom score. A baseline
increased severity of dyspepsia symptoms was associated with prolonged T 1/2 for gastric emptying.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with FD demonstrate increased postprandial symptoms after challenge,
delayed gastric emptying, and a reduced gastric volume response to feeding.

62
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152: Chiu HF, Yang SP, Kuo YL, Lai YS, Chou TC.
Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet effect of C-phycocyanin.
Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):435-40.
PMID: 16469164
pdf: Chiu H 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $C-phycocyanin; $Platelet-aggregation; $Thromboxane; $B2; $Cyclic-AMP.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis, A.
rsum:

C-phycocyanin (cpc), a biliprotein isolated from Spirulina platensis, has been reported to exert many
therapeutic and nutritional values. In the present study, we examined whether cpc has an antiplatelet
activity in vitro and further investigated the possible anti-aggregatory mechanisms involved. Our
results showed that preincubation of cpc (1-50 microg/ml) with rabbit washed platelets dose-
dependently inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by collagen (10 microg/ml) or arachidonic acid
(100 microm), with an IC50 of about 10 microg/ml. Furthermore, the thromboxane B2 formation
caused by collagen or arachidonic acid was significantly inhibited by cpc due to suppression of
cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase activity. Similarly, the rise of platelet intracellular calcium
level stimulated by arachidonic acid and collagen-induced platelet membrane surface glycoprotein
IIb/IIIa expression were also attenuated by cpc. In addition, cpc itself significantly increased the
platelet membrane fluidity and the cyclic AMP level through inhibiting cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase
activity. These findings strongly demonstrate that cpc is an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, which may
be associated with mechanisms including inhibition of thromboxane A2 formation, intracellular calcium
mobilization and platelet surface glycoprotein IIb/IIIa expression accompanied by increasing cyclic
AMP formation and platelet membrane fluidity.

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153: Cho YS, Wang QJ , Krogmann D, Whitmarsh J .
Extinction coefficients and midpoint potentials of cytochrome c(6) from the cyanobacteria Arthrospira
maxima, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Synechocystis 6803.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Oct 6;1413(2):92-7.
PMID: 10514550
pdf: Cho Y 1999.pdf
mots-cls article: $Photosynthesis; $Cytochrome; $Optical-spectroscopy; $Extinction-coefficient;
$Redox-potentiometry.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima; f.
rsum:

Cytochrome c(6) is a soluble heme protein that serves as a photosynthetic electron transport
component in cyanobacteria and algae, carrying electrons from the cytochrome bf complex to
photosystem I. The rapid accumulation of cytochrome c(6) sequence data from a wide range of
species, combined with significant advances in determining high resolution three-dimensional
structures, provides a powerful database for investigating the relationship between structure and
function. The fact that the gene encoding cytochrome c(6) can be readily modified in a number of
species adds to the usefulness of cytochrome c(6) as a tool for comparative analysis. Efforts to relate
cytochrome c(6) sequence information to structure, and structural information to function depend on
knowledge of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cytochrome from different species. To
this end we have determined the optical extinction coefficient, the oxidation/reduction midpoint
potential, and the pH dependence of the midpoint potential of cytochrome c(6) isolated from three
cyanobacteria, Arthrospira maxima, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Synechocystis 6803.

Publication Types: Comparative Study

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154: Chojnacka K, Chojnacki A, Gorecka H.
Biosorption of Cr3+, Cd2+and Cu2+ions by blue-green algae Spirulina sp.: kinetics, equilibrium and
the mechanism of the process.
63
Chemosphere. 2005 Mar;59(1):75-84.
PMID: 15698647
pdf: Chojnacka K 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Algae; $Spirulina-sp.; $Metal-ions-biosorption; $Ion-exchange; $Metal-binding-
sites; $Desorption.
mots-cls Antenna: ; puration; biosorption; B.
rsum:

The process of biosorption of heavy metal ions (Cr3+, Cd2+, Cu2+) by blue-green algae Spirulina sp.
is discussed in this paper. Spirulina sp. was found to be a very efficient biosorbent. The aim of the
present study was to investigate quantitatively the potential binding sites present at the surface of
Spirulina sp., using both potentiometric titrations and adsorption isotherms. The kinetic experiments
showed that the process equilibrium was reached quickly, in less than 5-10 min. It was found that the
equilibrium dependence between biosorption capacity and bulk metal ion concentration could be
described with Langmuir equation. This suggests that the mechanism of biosorption is rather
chemisorption than physical adsorption and was further confirmed by the low surface area associated
with physical adsorption and by the presence of cations that appeared in the solution after biosorption.
The maximum contribution of physical adsorption in the overall biosorption process was evaluated as
3.7%. It was proposed that functional groups on the cell surface contributed to the binding of metal
ions by a biosorbent via equilibrium reaction. Three functional groups capable of cation exchange
were identified on the cell surface. The biomass was described as weakly acidic ion exchanger. Since
deprotonation of each functional group depends on pH, the process of biosorption is strongly pH-
dependent. This was confirmed in the biosorption experiments carried out at different pH. The
contribution of functional groups in the biosorption process was confirmed by chemical modification of
the groups. Chemically blocked groups did not show neither biosorption nor ion-exchange capabilities.
It has been shown that growth conditions can affect the metal adsorption properties of microalgae.
The paper also discusses desorption characteristics of the biosorbent. The criteria for desorption were
high elution efficiency and preservation of biosorptive properties. Desorbent that possessed these
characteristics was nitric acid.

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155: Chojnacka K, Noworyta A.
Evaluation of Spirulina sp. growth in photoautotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures
Enzymes Microb Tech 2004;34:461-5.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chojnacka K 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $spirulina-sp.; $heterotrophic-and-mixotrophic-culture; $light-intensity; $glucose-
concentration; $growth-model.
mots-cls Antenna: , A.
B : **Technology, **Spirulina, **heterotrophy.
rsum:

Spirulina sp. was able to grow photoautotrophically (in the light), heterotrophically (on glucose) and
mixotrophically (simultaneously in the light and on glucose). The highest specific growth rate was
reached in mixotrophic culture (0.055 h^-1, above I=30 W m-2, C_Gl=0.5 g l^-1). The specific growth
rate of the alga on 2.5 g l^-1 glucose was markedly increased with increasing light intensity up to 30 W
m^-2. In photoautotrophic culture at a light intensity above 50 W m^-2 photoinhibition occurred.
Unstructured kinetic models to describe microalgal culture system including photoautotrophic,
heterotrophic and mixotrophic specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and glucose
concentration were proposed. The models demonstrated that the light intensity for autotrophic culture
was 30-50 W m^-2, glucose concentration for heterotrophic growth was >0.5 g l^-1 and for
mixotrophic growth of Spirulina sp. in batch culture using 1 l photobioreactor was >30 W m^-2 and
glucose concentration >0.5 g l^-1.

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156: Chomerat N, Fayolle S, Cazaubon A.
64
Toxicit non exprime par la cyanobactrie potentiellement toxique Planktothrix agardhii rencontre
dans un tang saumtre mditerranen: prise en compte du risque dans le choix des espces
cultives des fins nutritives.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 19.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chomerat N 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

157: Choudhary M, J etley UK, Abash Khan M, Zutshi S, Fatma T.
Effect of heavy metal stress on proline, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase activity in the
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis-S5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 66, No 2 (2007) 204-209.
PMID: 16600377
pdf: Choudhary M 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Heavy-metals; $Free-radicals; $Proline; $MDA; $SOD; $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

This study investigated toxic impacts of lead, copper, and zinc over a concentration gradient of 0.05-
0.20mg/L on proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis-S5. Despite a reduction in growth of the test microorganism, its
MDA, SOD, and proline contents increased under the heavy metal stress, corresponding to the
concentration of the metal ion in the culture medium. Increased amount of MDA was indicative of
formation of free radicals in the test microorganism under heavy metals stress(es), while increased
levels of SOD and proline pointed to the occurrence of a scavenging mechanism.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

158: Chronakis IS.
Gelation of edible blue-green algae protein isolate (Spirulina platensis Strain Pacifica): thermal
transitions, rheological properties, and molecular forces involved.
J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Feb;49(2):888-98.
PMID: 11262046
pdf: Chronakis I 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $algae-protein; $thermal-transitions; $denaturation;
$aggregation; $gelation; $molecular-forces; $heating-rate.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Proteins isolated from blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica were characterized by
visible absorption, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscometry, and dynamic oscillatory
rheological measurements. Unique thermal unfolding, denaturation, aggregation, and gelation of the
algal protein isolate are presented. DSC analysis showed that thermal transitions occur at about 67
and 109 degrees C at neutral pH. Calcium chloride stabilized the quaternary structure against
denaturation and shifted the transitions at higher temperatures. Viscometric studies of Spirulina
protein isolate as a function of temperature showed that the onset of the viscosity increase is closely
related to the dissociation-denaturation process. Lower viscosities were observed for the protein
solutions dissolved at pH 9 due to an increased protein solubility. Solutions of Spirulina protein isolate
form elastic gels during heating to 90 degrees C. Subsequent cooling at ambient temperatures caused
a further pronounced increase in the elastic moduli and network elasticity. Spirulina protein isolate has
good gelling properties with fairly low minimum critical gelling concentrations of about 1.5 and 2.5 wt
% in 0.1 M Tris buffer, pH 7, and with 0.02 M CaCl(2) in the same buffer, respectively. It is suggested
that mainly the interactions of exposed hydrophobic regions generate the molecular association, initial
aggregation, and gelation of the protein isolate during the thermal treatment. Hydrogen bonds
reinforce the network rigidity of the protein on cooling and further stabilize the structure of Spirulina
protein gels but alone are not sufficient to form a network structure. Intermolecular sulfhydryl and
65
disulfide bonds were found to play a minor role for the network strength of Spirulina protein gels but
affect the elasticity of the structures formed. Both time and temperature at isothermal heat-induced
gelation within 40-80 degrees C affect substantially the network formation and the development of
elastic modulus of Spirulina protein gels. This is also attributed to the strong temperature dependence
of hydrophobic interactions. The aggregation, denaturation, and gelation properties of Spirulina algal
protein isolate are likely to be controlled from protein-protein complexes rather than individual protein
molecules.

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159: Chuntapa B, Powtongsook S, Menasveta P.
Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks.
Aquaculture 220, No 1 (2003) 355-366.
PMID: pas
pdf: Chuntapa B 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Aquaculture; $Water-quality; $Integrated-culture; $Microalgae; $Spirulina-platensis;
$Shrimp-culture; $Prawn-culture; $Penaeus-monodon.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, f.
B: **Technologie, **Spirulina, **Shrimp-culture.
rsum:

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for
water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic
nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent,
nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen
concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous harvesting of S. platensis at one shrimp
density resulted in significantly reduced (P<0.05) inorganic nitrogen concentrations (NH4, NO2 and
NO3). With S. platensis absent, ammonium and nitrite concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 0.6 mg l-1,
while nitrate concentrations ranged from 16 to 18 mg l-1 by day 44. With nonharvested S. platensis,
considerable variability occurred with nitrogen concentrations. Semicontinuous harvest of S. platensis
reduced nitrate to 4 mg l-1, while ammonium and nitrite ranged from 0.0 to 0.15 mg l-1, respectively.
The factorial evaluation of shrimp density versus presence and absence of S. platensis resulted in
greatly reduced nitrogenous compounds with S. platensis present regardless of shrimp density, and
only moderately increased nitrogen with greater shrimp density. Without S. platensis, all nitrogen
compounds were substantially elevated and shrimp survived was significantly reduced at high shrimp
density.

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160: Ciferri O, Tiboni O, Riccardi G, Sanangelantoni, de Rossi E, Milano A, di Pasquale G.
Mutants, genes, and phylogeny of Spirulina platensis.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 25-29.
PMID: pas
pdf: Ciferri O 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

161: Ciferri O, Tiboni O.
The biochemistry and industrial potential of Spirulina.
Annu Rev Microbiol. 1985;39:503-26.
PMID: 3933408
pdf: Ciferri O 1985.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; biochimie; production.
rsum: article de revue

66
--------------------------------------------------------------------

162: Ciferri O.
Spirulina, the edible microorganism.
Microbiol Rev. 1983 Dec;47(4):551-78.
PMID: 6420655
pdf: Ciferri O 1983.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , B..
rsum: article de revue

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163: Cisneros-Ruiz M, Rito-Palomares M.
Estrategias de bioingeniera para la recuperacion primaria de productos biologicos.
[Bioengineering strategies for the primary recovery of biological products].
Revista Mexicana de Ingenieria Quimica 4 (2005) 131-139.
PMID: pas
pdf: Cisneros-Ruiz M 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $bioengineering-strategies, $recovery, $process-integration, $process-
intensification, $estrategias-de-bioingeniera, $recuperacin, $integracin-de-procesos,
$intensificacin-de-procesos.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-maxima; n.
rsum: texte en espagnol

El creciente inters de las empresas farmacuticas de desarrollar procesos eficientes y escalables
que les permitan sacar rapidamente al mercado nuevos productos las ha obligado a desarrollar
nuevas estrategias de bioingeniera. Una de las tendencias actuales es utilizar los enfoques de
integracin e intensificacin de bioprocesos para el desarrollo de sistemas de recuperacin y
purificacin de productos biolgicos, particularmente protenas. En el presente artculo se discuten
algunos casos de la aplicacin prctica de estos enfoques empleando las tcnicas de sistemas de
dos fases acuosas y adsorcin de cama expandible. Los casos experimentales involucran: la
recuperacin de protenas intracelulares de levaduras, la recuperacin in situ de 6-pentil-alpha-pirona
(aroma de coco) producida por Trichoderma harzianum, el desarrollo de un proceso prototipo para la
recuperacin de c-ficocianina a partir de Sprirulina maxima y un enfoque nuevo que facilita la
recuperacin y procesamiento de protenas expresadas como cuerpos de inclusin. Se anticipa que la
aplicacin de estas estrategias facilite el desarrollo de sistemas de recuperacin para productos de
alto valor comercial o la optimizacin de los procesos ya existentes, atrayendo la atencin de la
industria para aplicaciones comerciales.

[The increasing interest of the pharmaceutical companies to develop efficient and scale-up processes,
that allow them to rapidly bring new products to the market, has forced them to develop new
bioengineering strategies. One of the current trend is to exploit bioprocess integration and
intensification approaches for the development of recovery and purification processes for biological
products, particularly proteins. This article presents some cases of the results of the practical
application of these approaches, using the techniques of aqueous two phase system and expanded
bed adsorption. The experimental cases involve recovery of intracellular protein from baker s yeast, in
situ recovery of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone (coconut-like aroma compound) produced by Trichoderma
harzianum, the development of a prototype process for the recovery of c-phycocyanin from Spirulina
maxima and a new approach for the processing and recovery of inclusion bodies. It is expected that in
the future the application of these strategies will facilitate the development of recovery systems for
products of high commercial value and the optimization of already existing processes, attracting the
attention of the industry for commercial applications].

----------------------------------------------------------------

164: Clment G.
Production et constituants caractristiques des algues Spirulina plantensis et maxima.
[Production and characteristic constituents of the algae Spirulina platensis and maxima].
Ann Nutr Aliment. 1975;29(6):477-88.
67
PMID: 824992
pdf: Clement G 1975.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima.
rsum: article en franais

Microscopic blue-green Spirulina algae, such as have been consumed since ancient times, are algae
having a very high protein content (70 p. 100 of dry matter). At present the Spirulina platensis species
in the Kanem region in Chad is gathered by primitive methods, sold in the marketplace and consumed
by the local population. The Spirulina maxima species exists in a seminatural state in Mexico City, and
an industrial pilot plant harvests and produces one ton per day. Both species, Sp. platensis and
maxima, can be cultivated in the same way in a controlled synthetic medium in large-area basins.
Whether these Spirulina come from a natural medium or synthetic culture basin, harvesting includes
the successive stages of concentration, filtration and washing followed by drying done in a
conventional manner. The characteristic constituents of Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima, in
addition to the high protein content, are both nucleic acids that account for about 4 p. 100 of the dry
matter and the fatty-acid composition which is saturated C16 and ethylenic C18 substances. Linoleic
acid and especially gamma-linolenic acid arecharacteristic of these two species. The unsaponifiable
content is made up in particular of sterols such as cholesterol and beta-sitosterol as well as by
triterpenic alcohols such as alpha-amyrin.

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165: Clment G, Giddey C, Menzi R.
Amino acid composition and nutritive value of the alga Spirulina maxima.
J Sci Food Agric. 1967 Nov;18(11):497-501.
PMID: 6080845
pdf: Clement G 1967.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

Spirulina maxima is an alga, rich in organic nitrogenous constituents, used for food in the Chad
Republic. Amino acids, vitamins, and nutritive value were determined for a strain of the algae grown in
an open-air pilot production unit. The dried alga, more than 60% of which was proteinaceous material,
contained all the essential amino acids in fairly good concentration except that the amount of the
sulphur amino acids was low. Nutrition experiments on rats showed that the biological value of the
alga was acceptable and was correlated with the chemical score (protein index). Dried Spirulina
maxima also contained several vitamins, particularly beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A).

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166: Cogne G, Cornet J F, Gros J B.
Design, operation, and modeling of a membrane photobioreactor to study the growth of the
Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis in space conditions.
Biotechnol Prog. 2005 May-J un;21(3):741-50.
PMID: 15932251
pdf: Cogne G 2005.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

A membrane photobioreactor was designed, implemented and used to grow the cyanobacterium
Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005 in batch mode. Growth was followed directly by monitoring optical
density and indirectly by measuring pressure increase due to the oxygen produced and separated
from the liquid phase by diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane, and pH increase due to carbon
consumption. When the pressure attained an upper limit, valves opened automatically, and the oxygen
in the gas chamber was flushed out with nitrogen. As expected, two growth phases were observed, a
short exponential phase followed by a linear phase, indicating limitation by light transfer. Growth rate
during the second phase was measured easily and accurately, and consistency of optical density,
68
pressure and pH data values was checked using a model of the system. Pressure measurement was
found best suited to monitoring and measuring growth rate in space in terms of accuracy, precision
and reliability.

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167: Cogne G, et al.
Minerals requirement for Spirulina platensis (A. platensis PCC 8005) growth by ICP-ES determination
and continuous cultures.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 42-44.
PMID: pas
pdf: Cogne G 2004.papier
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira-platensis, $trce-elements, $yield-determination, $medium-composition.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

168: Cogne G, Gros J B.
Arthrospira platensis: rseau mtabolique et calcul de flux en photoautotrophie.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 45-46.
PMID: pas
pdf: Cogne G 2004a.papier
mots-cls article: $arthrospira-platensis, $mtabolisme, $photoautotrophie, $flux.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

169: Cogne G, Gros J B, Dussap CG.
Identification of a metabolic network structure representative of Arthrospira (spirulina) platensis
metabolism.
Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003 Dec 20;84(6):667-76.
PMID: 14595779
pdf: Cogne G 2003a.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis, B.
rsum:

A comprehensive network structure for the autotrophic growth of Arthrospira platensis is proposed.
The metabolic network was built up with 121 reactions and 134 metabolites including biomass
synthesis, production of a growth-associated exopolysaccharide, and energy aspects. The model
supports the existence of a metabolic shunt of PEP to pyruvate through PEP carboxylase, NAD(+)-
dependent malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme to convert NADH,H(+) into NADPH,H(+). A limit
in Arthrospira growth metabolism due to NADH,H(+) balancing is evidenced, explaining why the
maximal light-dependent mass yield of the growth-associated exopolysaccharide was 0.51 kg EPS
kg(-1) biomass, consistent with experimental results.

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170: Cogne G, Lehmann B, Dussap CG, Gros J B.
Uptake of macrominerals and trace elements by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira
platensis PCC 8005) under photoautotrophic conditions: culture medium optimization.
Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003 Mar 5;81(5):588-93.
PMID: 12514808
pdf: Cogne G 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira-platensis, $trace-elements, $yield-determination, $medium-
composition.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:
69

Uptake rates of macrominerals and trace elements were characterized in batch and continuous
cultures of Spirulina platensis under photoautotropic conditions. The values of yield coefficients were
determined using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES). Further simplifications
of culture medium proved possible, mainly in the trace element solutions; concentrations of some
elements were lowered and trace elements B, Mo, V, Cr, Ni, Co, W, and Ti were removed.

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171: Colla LM, Oliveira Reinehr C, Reichert C, Costa J A.
Production of biomass and nutraceutical compounds by Spirulina platensis under different
temperature and nitrogen regimes.
Bioresour Technol 98, No 7 (2007) 1489-1493.
PMID: 17070035
pdf: Colla L 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Nitrogen; $Nutraceuticals; $Spirulina-platensis; $Temperature.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been used by humans because of its nutritional and
possibly medicinal effects. Our study evaluated the influence of temperature and nitrogen
concentration in the medium on the production of biomass by this cyanobacterium and the biomass
composition in protein, lipid and phenolic compounds. We found that at 35 degrees C there was a
negative effect on biomass production but a positive effect on the production of protein, lipids and
phenolics, the highest levels of these compounds being obtained in Zarrouk's medium containing
1.875 or 2.500gl(-1) sodium nitrate. Higher biomass densities and productivity were obtained at 30
degrees C than at 35 degrees C, but nitrogen concentration appeared to have no effect on the amount
of protein, lipid or phenolics, indicating that at 30 degrees C the concentration of sodium nitrate in
Zarrouk's medium (2.50gl(-1)) can be reduced without loss of productivity, an important cost-saving
factor in large-scale cultivation.

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172: Colla LM, Mosele PC, Domingues AM, Bertolin TE, Costa J AV.
Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis with glucose in fed-batch cultivation.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 60-62.
PMID: pas
pdf: Colla L 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

173: Colla LM, Muccillo-Baisch AL, Costa J AV.
The effect of a high cholesterol diet, with or without supplementation with Spirulina platensis, on the
levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rabbits.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 121-123.
PMID: pas
pdf: Colla L 2004a.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

174: Colla LM, Bertolin TE, Costa J A.
Fatty acids profile of Spirulina platensis grown under different temperatures and nitrogen
concentrations.
Z Naturforsch [C]. 2004 J an-Feb;59(1-2):55-9.
70
PMID: 15018053
pdf: Colla L 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The influence of culture temperature and the concentration of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) on the gas-
chromatographic profile of the fatty acids of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was
evaluated. We found that temperature was the most important factor and that the greatest amount of
gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was obtained at 30 degrees C, the fatty acid profile of the Spirulina
cultivated showing that (in order of abundance) palmitic, linolenic and linoleic acids were most
prevalent.

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175: Cometta A, Zucchelli G, Karapetyan NV, Engelmann E, Garlaschi FM, J ennings RC.
Thermal behavior of long wavelength absorption transitions in Spirulina platensis photosystem I
trimers.
Biophys J . 2000 Dec;79(6):3235-43.
PMID: 11106627
pdf: Cometta A 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

In photosystem I trimers of Spirulina platensis a major long wavelength transition is irreversibly
bleached by illumination with high-intensity white light. The photobleaching hole, identified by both
absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopies, is interpreted as the inhomogeneously broadened
Q(y) transition of a chlorophyll form that absorbs maximally near 709 nm at room temperature.
Analysis of the mean square deviation of the photobleaching hole between 80 and 300 K, in the linear
electron-phonon frame, indicates that the optical reorganization energy is 52 cm(-1), four times greater
than that for the bulk, short-wavelength-absorbing chlorophylls, and the inhomogenous site distribution
bandwidth is close to 150 cm(-1). The room temperature bandwidth, close to 18.5 nm, is dominated by
thermal (homogeneous) broadening. Photobleaching induces correlated circular dichroism changes, of
opposite sign, at 709 and 670 nm, which suggests that the long wavelength transition may be a low
energy excitonic band, in agreement with its high reorganization energy. Clear identification of the
709-nm spectral form was used in developing a Gaussian description of the long wavelength
absorption tail by analyzing the changing band shape during photobleaching using a global
decomposition procedure. Additional absorption states near 720, 733, and 743 nm were thus
identified. The lowest energy state at 743 nm is present in substoichiometric levels at room
temperature and its presence was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy. This state displays an
unusual increase in intensity upon lowering the temperature, which is successfully described by
assuming the presence of low-lying, thermally populated states.

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176: Converti A, Scapazzoni S, Lodi A, Carvalho J C.
Ammonium and urea removal by Spirulina platensis.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006 J an;33(1):8-16.
PMID: 16175408
pdf: Converti A 2006.pdf (HTML)
mots-cls article: $Urea, $Ammonium-Removal, $Spirulina-platensis, $Kinetics.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; puration; organic-remouval; B.
rsum:

Different concentrations either of ammonium chloride or urea were used in batch and fed-batch
cultivations of Spirulina platensis to evaluate the possibility of substituting nitrate by cheaper reduced
nitrogen sources in wastewaters biotreatment. The maximum nitrogen concentration able to sustain
the batch growth of this microalga without inhibition was 1.7 mM in both cases. Ammonium chloride
was limiting for the growth at lower concentrations, whereas inhibition took place at higher levels. This
71
inhibition effect was less marked with urea, likely because the enzymatic hydrolysis of this compound
by urease controlled the ammonia transfer into the cell. Fed-batch experiments carried out by pulse-
feeding either ammonium or urea proved that the use of these compounds as nitrogen sources can
sustain the long term-cultivation of S. platensis, provided that the conditions for their feeding are
accurately optimized.

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177: Costa J A, de Morais MG, Dalcanton F, Reichert Cda C, Durante AJ .
Simultaneous cultivation of Spirulina platensis and the toxigenic cyanobacteria Microcystis
aeruginosa.
Z Naturforsch [C]. 2006 J an-Feb;61(1-2):105-10.
PMID: 16610226
pdf: Costa J 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Mangueira Lagoon, located in the extreme south of Brazil, has water with physicochemical
characteristics such as alkaline pH and carbonate levels propitious for the growth of the
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Previously published studies have shown that Mangueira Lagoon
water supplemented with small quantities of carbon and nitrogen is suitable for S. platensis cultivation
and can significantly reduce production costs. We studied mixed cultures of Spirulina platensis and the
toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa using a 2(3) factorial design in which the three factors
were the initial biomass concentration of S. platensis and M. aeruginosa and the type of culture
medium (100% Zarrouk's medium or 80% Mangueira Lagoon water plus 20% Zarrouk's medium). The
highest S. platensis maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) occurred in the culture with the highest
M. aeruginosa biomass concentration and when undiluted culture medium was used (micro(max) =
0.283 d(-1)). The highest M. aeruginosa specific death rate (k) was obtained in the presence of S.
platensis (k =0.555 d(-1)) and was independent of the initial M. aeruginosa biomass concentration
and culture medium, demonstrating that S. platensis cultures are not susceptible to contamination by
M. aeruginosa. The culture medium had no significant influence (p >0.05) on S. platensis micro(max)
values, indicating that production costs could be reduced by using a medium consisting of 80%
Mangueira Lagoon water plus 20% Zarrouk's medium.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

178: Costa J A, Colla LM, Duarte Filho PF.
Improving Spirulina platensis biomass yield using a fed-batch process.
Bioresour Technol. 2004 May;92(3):237-41.
PMID: 14766156
pdf: Costa J 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Factorial-design; $Fed-batch; $Fresh-water; $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Increasing interest is being shown in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis because of its nutritional
properties when used as food supplement and possible therapeutic effects. One of the most important
areas being studied is the development of alternative nutrient sources which can be used to decrease
the production costs of commercially produced S. platensis and obtain high productivity. Water from
Mangueira Lagoon (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil) has high levels of carbonates and a high pH and
has the potential to be used as a culture medium for S. platensis, although some nutrient
supplementation may be required. We tested the effect of unsupplemented Mangueira Lagoon water
(MLW) or MLW supplemented with 1.125 or 2.250 mg/l of urea and/or 21 or 42 mg/l of sodium
bicarbonate on the growth of S. platensis in fed-batch culture using a 3(2) factorial design and found
that there the addition of 1.125 mg/l of urea resulted in a 2.67 fold increase times in the final biomass
concentration of S. platensis.

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72
179: Costa J A, Colla LM, Duarte Filho P.
Spirulina platensis growth in open raceway ponds using fresh water supplemented with carbon,
nitrogen and metal ions.
Z Naturforsch [C]. 2003 J an-Feb;58(1-2):76-80.
PMID: 12622231
pdf: Costa J 2003.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

To investigate the feasibility of using fresh water from Mangueira Lagoon (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)
for biomass production in open raceway ponds (0.7 m long, 0.18 m wide, 0.075 m deep) we studied
the influence of nutrient addition (carbon as sodium bicarbonate, nitrogen as urea, phosphate, sulfate,
ferric iron, magnesium and potassium) on the growth rate of the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis
using a 22 factorial design. In unsupplemented lagoon water production of S platensis was 0.78 +/-
0.01 g/l (dry weight basis) while the addition of 2.88 g/l of sodium bicarbonate (without added urea,
phosphate, sulfate or metal ions) resulted in 0.82 +/- 0.01 g/l after 400 hours of culture. The further
addition of phosphate and metal ions resulted in growth for up to 750 h and a final S. platensis
biomass of 1.23 +/- 0.04 to 1.34 +/- 0.03 g/l.

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180: Cozzone A, Busson F.
[Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins of Spirulina platensis (Gom.) Geitler and Spirulina
geitleri J . de Toni].
C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1970 J un 8;270(23):2878-81.
PMID: 4987939
pdf: Cozzone A 1970.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en franais

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181: Cui J Y, Wakabayashi S, Wada K, Fukuyama K, Matsubara H.
Isolation and sequence studies of cysteinyl peptides from Spirulina glutathione reductase: comparison
of active site cysteine peptides with those of other flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases.
J Biochem (Tokyo). 1989 Mar;105(3):390-4.
PMID: 2499573
pdf: Cui J 1989.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

The amino acid sequences of the cysteinyl peptides of Spirulina sp. glutathione reductase were
determined. Spirulina glutathione reductase was covalently bound to Thiopropyl-Sepharose 6B in the
presence of 8M urea through thiol-disulfide exchange. After tryptic digestion, 4 distinct cysteinyl
peptides were finally isolated from NADPH-reduced glutathione reductase and 2 from oxidized
glutathione reductase. The amino acid sequences of the two cysteinyl peptides which could not be
isolated from the oxidized glutathione reductase were very similar to those around the active site
disulfide of the other flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases and a unique replacement of asparagine
and valine by isoleucine and arginine between the two cysteine residues was found. The other two
peptides isolated from both oxidized and reduced glutathione reductase also show considerable
homology to the corresponding parts of human and Escherichia coli glutathione reductases.

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182: Cussiol J R, Alves SV, de Oliveira MA, Netto LE.
Organic hydroperoxide resistance gene encodes a thiol-dependent peroxidase.
J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 28;278(13):11570-8.
73
PMID: 12540833
pdf: Cussiol J 2003.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme.
rsum:

ohr (organic hydroperoxide resistance gene) is present in several species of bacteria, and its deletion
renders cells specifically sensitive to organic peroxides. The goal of this work was to determine the
biochemical function of Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa. All of the Ohr homologues possess two cysteine
residues, one of them located in a VCP motif, which is also present in all of the proteins from the
peroxiredoxin family. Therefore, we have investigated whether Ohr possesses thiol-dependent
peroxidase activity. The ohr gene from X. fastidiosa was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the
recombinant Ohr decomposed hydroperoxides in a dithiothreitol-dependent manner. Ohr was about
twenty times more efficient to remove organic hydroperoxides than to remove H(2)O(2). This result is
consistent with the organic hydroperoxide sensitivity of Delta ohr strains. The dependence of Ohr on
thiol compounds was ascertained by glutamine synthetase protection assays. Approximately two thiol
equivalents were consumed per peroxide removed indicating that Ohr catalyzes the following reaction:
2RSH +ROOH -->RSSR +ROH +H(2)O. Pretreatment of Ohr with N-ethyl maleimide and
substitution of cysteine residues by serines inhibited this peroxidase activity indicating that both of the
Ohr cysteines are important to the decomposition of peroxides. C125S still had a residual enzymatic
activity indicating that Cys-61 is directly involved in peroxide removal. Monothiol compounds do not
support the peroxidase activity of Ohr as well as thioredoxin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from
Spirulina. Interestingly, dithiothreitol and dyhydrolipoic acid, which possess two sulfhydryl groups, do
support the peroxidase activity of Ohr. Taken together our results unequivocally demonstrated that
Ohr is a thiol-dependent peroxidase.

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183: da Costa AC, de Franca FP.
Cadmium interaction with microalgal cells, cyanobacterial cells, and seaweeds; toxicology and
biotechnological potential for wastewater treatment.
Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2003 Mar-Apr;5(2):149-56.
PMID: 12876650
pdf: da Costa A 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Cadmium; $cell-immobilization; $fixed-bed-bioreactor; $seaweeds; $Spirulina-
maxima; $Tetraselmis-chuii.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; toxicity; mtaux-lourds, B.
rsum:

The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) by Tetraselmis chuii and Spirulina maxima was studied with dead
and growing cells. Results indicated that the 2 microorganisms accumulated Cd by 2 different means
according to the mechanisms involved-metabolism-dependent or metabolism-independent sorption.
The mechanism involved in Cd accumulation on Tetraselmis chuii was restricted to surface
phenomena, while in Spirulina maxima, Cd was accumulated on different layers of the cyanobacterium
surface. In order to select a suitable immobilization support for the cells, several seaweeds were
tested. Two types of seaweed were selected for experiments, using a small continuous pilot unit:
Sargassum sp., a strong Cd adsorber, and Ulva sp., a poor one. The column reactors of the
continuous system were filled with the algal supports and covered with dense microbial biofilms of
Tetraselmis chuii or Spirulina maxima. The results obtained proved the success of the association
between living microbial cells and dead seaweeds for operation of the continuous system.

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184: Dagan A, Gatt S, Cerbu-Karabat S, Maziere J C, Maziere C, Santus R, Engelhardt EL, Yeh KA,
Stobbe CC, Fenning MC, et al.
Uptake by cells and photosensitizing effectiveness of novel pheophorbide derivatives in vitro.
Int J Cancer. 1995 Dec 11;63(6):831-9.
PMID: 8847142
pdf: Dagan A 1995.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
74
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; mtabolisme; processus-biophysiques.
rsum:

Pheophorbide a prepared from the algae Spirulina was derivatized at the C(7)-carboxylic group by
linking amino alkyls of various lengths and terminal functional groups. The compounds were purified
by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Solubilization of compounds by serum lipoproteins, the kinetics of compound uptake into mammalian
cells, and photosensitizing effectiveness when activated by 673 nm laser light have been studied.
Optimal photosensitizer uptake into cells and the greatest photosensitizing activity were observed with
compounds having side-chain lengths of 4-6 carbon atoms which terminated in -OH and -CH3 groups.
The most effective compounds were 3 orders of magnitude more potent than Photofrin in the degree
of photoinactivation of cultured EMT-6 tumor cells. HDL and LDL significantly promoted the efflux of
these photosensitizing drugs from cells, suggesting that their long-term retention in normal tissues in
vivo would be minimal and produce little phototoxicity.

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185: Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, van den Berg H.
Vitamin B-12 from algae appears not to be bioavailable.
Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:695-7.
PMID: 2000824
pdf: Dagnelie P 1991.pdf mais PAS l'erratum
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , B.
rsum:

L'erratum au complet se lit ainsi: "Reference 15 on page 697 should be replaced with the following
reference: Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ . Vitamin B-12 status in macrobiotic
communities. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

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186: Dalay MC.
Arthrospira maxima (=Spirulina maxima (Stiz.) Geitl., 1930) Ac Lake Strain.
E.U. J ournal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 19, No 1-2 (2002) 241-245.
PMID: pas
pdf: Dalay M 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Cyanobacteria, $Arthrospira-maxima, $Aci-Lake.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima, f, B.
rsum:

In this study, Cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima (Stiz.) Geitl.; 1930 has been initially identified in Ac
Lake and its annual existence in the lake determined. For that purpose, phytoplanktonic composition
of the lake has searched with monthly qualitative and quantitative analyses. Chemical analyses have
been done in months that cyanobacteria has been found in lake to obtain the water conditions that the
organism prefers. Aci Lake is a shallow salt lake, 55.9% of whose chrystalized water contains
Na2SO4.10H2O. The sodium sulphate ratio in the lake rises up to 92,353 mg l^-1 and its salinity could
reach 117 . In view of these conditions, the number of euryhalin organisms living in the lake is
somewhat restricted. A. maxima has found only in April (67x 10^4 filament l^-1) and October (60x10^4
filament l^-1) as dominant organism in samples collected annually.

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187: Dang DK.
Outdoor mass culture of Spirulina platensis in Vietnam.
J Appl Phycol 2, No 2 (1990) 179-181.
PMID: pas
pdf: Kim D 1990.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $Spirulina, $health-food, $mass-culture.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
75
rsum:

----------------------------

188: Darcas C.
Cultures artisanales de spiruline dans le Tiers monde pour lutter contre la malnutrition.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 143-150.
PMID: pas
pdf: Darcas C 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

189: Darcas C.
Spiruline et nutrition.
[Spiruline and malnutrition].
Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):466-7; author reply 467-8.
PMID: 15135439
pdf: Darcas C 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spiruline; $Malnutrition; $Pays-en-voie-de-dveloppement.
Keywords: $Spiruline; $Developing-countries; $Nutrition-disorders; $Kwashiorkor, $Marasmus;
$Infant.
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: voir aussi:

Branger B; Arch Pediatr. 2003 May;10(5):424-31.
Falquet J , von der Weid D; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465.
Fox R, Pagnon Y, Weber B; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6.

Branger B; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6.

Publication Types:
* Comment
* Letter

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190: Dasgupta T, Banejee S, Yadav PK, Rao AR.
Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant profiles and skin and forestomach
papillomagenesis by Spirulina platensis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Oct;226(1-2):27-38.
PMID: 11768236
pdf: Dasgupta T 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $chemoprevention, $Spirulina-platensis, $drug-metabolizing-enzymes, $antioxidant-
profile, $skin-and-forestomach-papillomas.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
B: **Medicine; **Spirulina; **spirulina; **anticancer; **mouse.
rsum:

Numerous reports have revealed an inverse association between consumption of some selective
natural products and risk of developing cancer. In the present study the effect of 250 and 500 mg/kg
body wt. of Spirulina was examined on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant
enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old
Swiss albino mice. The implications of these biochemical alterations have been further evaluated
adopting the protocol of benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene
(DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal the
'Monofunctional' nature of Spirulina as deduced from its potential to induce only the phase II enzyme
activities associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification. The glutathione S-transferase and DT-
76
diaphorase specific activities were induced in hepatic and all the extrahepatic organs examined (lung,
kidney and forestomach) by Spirulina pretreatment (significance level being from p <0.05 to p <
0.005) except for the low dose treatment in forestomach. With reference to antioxidant enzymes viz.,
superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced
glutathione were increased significantly by both the chosen doses of Spirulina from p <0.01 to p <
0.005. Chemopreventive response was quantitated by the average number of papillomas per effective
mouse (tumor burden) as well as percentage of tumor bearing animals. There was a significant
inhibition of tumor burden as well as tumor incidence in both the tumor model systems studied. In the
skin tumor studies tumor burden was reduced from 4.86 to 1.20 and 1.15 by the low and high dose
treatment respectively. In stomach tumor studies tumor burden was 2.05 and 1.73 by the low and high
doses of Spirulina treatment against 3.73 that of control.

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191: de Alava D, Corra de Mello P, Wagener K.
The relevance of the CO2 partial pressure of sodium bicarbonate solutions for the mass cultivation of
the microalga Spirulina.
J Braz Chem Soc 8, No 5 (1997) 447-450.
PMID: pas
pdf: de Alava D 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina, $CO2, $sodium-bicarbonate.
mots-cls Antenna: ; m.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **optimisation.
rsum :

It is demonstrated by experiments and calculations that the medium used for growing the microalga
Spirulina (prepared according to ZARROUK with a resulting pH of 8.7) is highly meta-stable in contact
with the atmosphere and is thus loosing considerable amounts of CO2. This economic problem can be
avoided by raising the pH of the culture medium to 10.2 whereits partial pressure of CO2 corresponds
to the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere. The pH shift has practically no influence on the
growth of the algae.

[O meio de cultivo na base de bicarbonato de sdio usado para produzir a microalga Spirulina em
massa e preparado seguinte ZARROUK meta-estvel em contato com a atmosfera. Este fato causa
uma grande perda de CO2. Com clculos e experincias foi determinada a relao entre a presso
parcial de CO2 de solues de bicarbonato de sdio e o pH da soluo. Com pH 10.2 existe um
equilbrio com a concentrao de CO2 no ar e desta maneira no h perda de CO2].

--------------------------------------------------------------------

192: Degbey H, Hamadou B, Oumarou H.
Evaluation de l'efficacit de la supplmentation en spiruline du rgime habituel des enfants atteints de
malnutrition svre.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 101-105.
PMID: pas
pdf: Degbey H 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

193: De Lara Andrade R, Castro Barrera T, Castro Mejia J , Castro Mejia G, Malpica Sanchez A,
Garcia Castillo V.
La importancia de Spirulina en la alimentacion acuicola.
Contactos 57 (2005) 13-16.
PMID: pas
pdf: De Lara Andrade R 2005.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S.
77
rsum:

La cianoficea Spirulina que aparece en afloramientos de aguas con altos contenidos de sales, ha sido
aprovechada para el consumo humano, en Mxico en la poca prehispanica, los aztecas ya la
usaban como alimento. Se presenta su composicion bioquimica destacando los nutrientes que
contiene, en base a estos contenidos se senalan las venta jas que Spirulina puede aportar como
alimento a peces y crustaceos comerciales cultivados. Tambin se indica la importancia para
enriquecer a otros organismos que se utilizan en la alimentacion acuicola. Asimismo se senalan las
posibilidades de su aprovechamiento en aguas residuales y aguas con contenidos de sales que
actualmente no se utilizan.

[Cyanophyta, Spirulina that appears in blooming of waters with high contents of salts, has been taken
advantage of for the human consumption, in Mexico in the prehispanic time, the Aztecs already used it
like food. Their biochemical composition is presented emphasizing the nutrients that it contains, based
on these contents the advantages they are pointed out that Spirulina can contribute like food to fish
and cultivated commercial crustaceans. The importance is also indicated to enrich to other organisms
that are used in the aquaculture feeding. Also the possibilities of their use are pointed out in residual
waters and waters with contents of salts that at the moment they are not used].

--------------------------------------------------------

194: de Lima EC, Masini J C.
Caracterizao cido-base da superfcie de espcies mistas da alga Spirulina atravs de titulao
potenciomtrica e modelo de distribuio de stios discretos.
[Acid base characterization of the surface of mixed species of algae Spirulin by potentiometric titration
and discrete site distribution model].
Qum Nova 22, No 5 (1999) 10pp.
PMID: pas
pdf: de Lima E 1999.pdf
mots-cls article: $algae-surface; $ionizable-groups; $potentiometric-titrations; $discrete-site-model.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **bioaccumulation.
rsum :

Acid base properties of mixed species of the microalgae Spirulina were studied by potentiometric
titration in medium of 0.01 and 0.10 mols L^-1 NaNO3 at 25.0.1 C using modified Gran functions or
nonlinear regression techniques for data fitting. The discrete site distribution model was used,
permitting the characterization of five classes of ionizable sites in both ionic media. This fact suggests
that the chemical heterogeneity of the ionizable sites on the cell surface plays a major role on the acid-
base properties of the suspension in comparison to electrostatic effects due to charge-charge
interactions. The total of ionizable sites were 1.750.1 and 1.860.2 mmolsg^-1 in ionic media of 0.01
and 0.10 mols L^-1 NaNO3, respectively. A major contribution of carboxylic groups was observed with
an average 34 and 22% of ionizable sites being titrated with conditional pcKa of 4.0 and 5.4,
respectively. The remaining 44% of ionizable sites were divided in three classes with averaged
conditional pcKa of 6.9, 8.7 and 10.12, which may be assigned respectively to imidazolic, aminic, and
phenolic functionalities.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

195: Delpeuch F, J oseph A, Cavelier C.
Consommation alimentaire et apport nutritionnel des algues bleues (Oscillatoris platensis) chez
quelques populations du Kanem (Tchad).
[Consumption and nutritional contribution of the blue algae (Oscillatoria platensis) among some
populations of Kanem (Tchad)].
Ann Nutr Aliment. 1975;29(6):497-516.
PMID: 824994
pdf: Delpeuch F 1975.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: article en franais
78

Two food surveys determined the areas of consumption and the ethnic groups involved as well as the
way and motivations for using Spirulina algae (Oscillatoria platensis) in Chad. More than 400 homes
were visited in February (dry season) and October (end of the rainy season and period after the millet
harvest). Consumption is limited to a restricted proportion of the population in the Kanem region.
Among the Kanembu group (the leading consumers of Spirulina), frequencies of use vary between
one and six melas out of ten. The amounts consumed per person during a meal, in the sauce
accompanying millet, are between 9 and 13 g. Variations in consumption linked to ethnic, social and
seasonal factors are discussed. With regard to food value, the very high proportion of sand
considerably reduces the protein content in the product sold on the market. An average ration of
sauce containing "die" helps cover about 10 to 12 p. 100 of the protein requirements of an active adult
man, and the algae by themselves contribute 5 to 8 p. 100 of these requirements. A comparison with
the leading sauces consumed in Kanem reveals no superiority for Spirulina.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

196: del Valle Prez L, Macas Abraham C, Torres Leyva I, Socarrs Ferrer BB, Marsn Surez V,
Snchez Segura M.
Efecto in vitro de la espirulina sobre la respuesta inmune.
Rev Cubana Hematol Inmunol Hemoter 18, No 2 (2002) on-line.
PMID: pas
pdf: del Valle Prez L 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Cyanobacterias/inmunologia, $aditivos-alimentarios, $transformacion-linfocitica,
$formacion-de-roseta, $antigenos-HLA-DR.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis, f.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **immune-system.
rsum:

La espirulina es un alga cianofcea que es utilizada como aditivo alimentario y por sus propiedades
medicinales. Se realiz este trabajo para evaluar el efecto in vitro de la espirulina (Spirel, Gnix,
Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba) en 14 donantes sanos del Instituto de Hematologa e Inmunologa
mediante las pruebas de transformacin linfoblstica con criterio de timidina tritiada; en la expresin
de los antgenos de activacin HLA-DR y CD-25 por el ultramicromtodo inmunocitoqumico
(UMICIQ) y la formacin de roseta activa. En la transformacin blstica no se hallaron diferencias
estadsticamente significativas entre las condiciones experimentales con y sin espirulina, mientras
que se hallaron diferencias estadsticamente significativas al aplicar la t de Student para muestras
pareadas entre las condiciones experimentales con y sin espirulina, tanto en la expresin de los
antgenos de activacin como en la formacin de roseta activa. Se concluye que la espirulina de
produccin nacional influye in vitro en el proceso de activacin de los linfocitos humanos.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

197: De Morais MG, Dalcaton F, Reichert CC, Durante AJ , Costa J AV, Marins LFF.
A novel strain of Spirulina from Southern Brazil with potential for cultivation.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 20-21.
PMID: pas
pdf: De Morais M 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

198: de Mule MCZ, de Caire GZ, de Cano MS, de Halperin DR, Cohen-Arazi S.
Cyanobacterias de alto valor proteico: efecto de Spirulina platensis sobre Carassius sp.
Int J Experiment Botany 55 (1994) 77-82.
PMID: pas
pdf: de Mule M 1994.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
79
rsum : texte en espagnol

[Spirulina platensis can fully replace a commercial product as protein food for the fish Carassius sp.
From 36 autochthonous Cyanobacteria, 3 were selected as alternative protein source: Nostoc
muscorum 60a and 101: Anabaena variabilis var. ellipsospora 70a (52.26: 48.41; 48.74% protein
respectively)].

--------------------------------------------------------------------

199: de Olivera Rangel-Yagui C, Danesi ED, de Carvalho J C, Sato S.
Chlorophyll production from Spirulina platensis: cultivation with urea addition by fed-batch process.
Bioresour Technol. 2004 Apr;92(2):133-41.
PMID: 14693445
pdf: de Oliveira Rangel-Yagui C 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $Biomass-production; $Chlorophyll; $Fed-batch-process;
$Urea; $Light-intensity.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive alternative source of the pigment chlorophyll,
which is used as a natural color in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. In this work, the
influence of the light intensity and urea supplementation as a nitrogen source using fed-batch
cultivation for S. platensis growth and chlorophyll content was examined. Cultivations were carried out
in 5 l open tanks, at 30+/-1 degrees C. Response surface methodology was utilized for analysis of the
results, and models were obtained for biomass productivity, nitrogen-cell conversion factor and
chlorophyll productivity. The best cellular growth was observed with 500 mg/l of urea at a light intensity
of 5600 lx, whereas the highest concentration of chlorophyll in the biomass was observed with 500
mg/l of urea at a light intensity of 1400 lx. Overall, the best chlorophyll productivity was observed with
500 mg/l of urea at a light intensity of 3500 lx, providing the optimal balance between the cellular
growth and the biomass chlorophyll content.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

200: De Philippis R, Sili C, Paperi R, Vincenzini M.
Exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria and their possible exploitation: A review.
J Appl Phycol 13, No 4 (2001) 293-299.
PMID: pas
pdf: De Philippis R 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $cyanobacteria, $released-polysaccharides, $exocellular-polysaccharides, $capsule,
$slime, $uronic-acids, $metal-removal, $copper, $heavy-metal, $biomass-anion-density.
mots-cls Antenna: , f.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **polysaccharides, **activity.
rsum: article de revue.

Since the early 1950s, more than one hundred cyanobacterial strains, belonging to twenty different
genera, have been investigated with regard tothe production and the released exocellular
polysaccharides (RPS) into theculture medium. The chemical and rheological properties show that
such polysaccharides are complex anionic heteropolymers, in about 80% cases containing six to ten
different monosaccharides and in about 90% cases containing one or more uronic acids; almost all
have non-saccharidic components, such as peptidic moieties, acetyl, pyruvyl and/or sulphate groups.
Based on such ingredients, cyanobacterial RPSs show promise asthickening or suspending agents,
emulsifying or cation-chelating compounds and the residual capsulated cyanobacterial biomass,
following RPS extraction, could be an effective cation-chelating material. Indeed, when eleven
unicellular and filamentous RPS-producing cyanobacteria, selected on the basis of the anion density
of their RPSs and on the abundance of their outermost investments, were screened for their ability to
remove Cu2+from aqueous solutions, a quick and most effective heavy metal adsorption was
observed for the unicellular Cyanothece CE 4 and the filamentous Cyanospira capsulata. These
results suggest the possibilityto accomplish, through the exploitation of RPS-producing cyanobacteria,
a multiproduct strategy to procure a wide range of biopolymers suited tovarious industrial applications,
in addition to the residual biomass effective in the recovery of heavy metals from polluted waters.
80

-------------------------------

201: Derdour L, Desmorieux H.
A model for internal moisture diffusivity during the regular regime. Comparison with experimental data
obtained on plaster and spirulina.
In: Drying 2004, Proc 14th Int Drying Symposium (IDS 2004) Vol A, 718-725.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **drying.
PMID: pas
pdf: Derdour L 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $convective-drying, $moisture-diffusivity, $critical-moisture-content, $plaster,
$spirulina, $Ficks-law.
mots-cls Antenna: ; m; B.
rsum :

In this paper, the receding evaporative front model is applied to derive new expressions for the local
moisture diffusivity and the mean moisture diffusivity for slabs during the regular regime. The model is
based on the assumption of heat transfer being the limiting mechanism. The models simulations
indicate a mean moisture diffusivity depending only on the products characteristics and on the
thickness of the dry zone. This finding permitted a comparison of the models predictions with
experimental moisture diffusivity obtained using the 2nd Ficks law and assuming a constant global
diffusivity during the early stages of the falling drying rate period. It was found that the model gives a
good estimate of the mean moisture diffusivity in two products with large structure differences, namely,
plaster and spirulina.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

202: Deshnium P, Paithoonrangsarid K, Suphatrakul A, Meesapyodsuk D, Tanticharoen M,
Cheevadhanarak S.
Temperature-independent and -dependent expression of desaturase genes in filamentous
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis strain C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC 9438)
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000 Mar 15;184(2):207-13. Erratum in: FEMS Microbiol Lett 2000 J ul
1;188(1):109.
PMID: 10713422
pdf: Deshnium P 2000.pdf +Deshnium P 2000errata.pdf
mots-cls article: $Fatty-acid-desaturation; $Gene-regulation; $Temperature-stress; $Temperature-
adaptation.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

The alteration of the degree of unsaturated fatty acids in membrane lipids has been shown to be a key
mechanism in the tolerance to temperature stress of living organisms. The step that most influences
the physiology of membranes has been proposed to be the amount of di-unsaturated fatty acids in
membrane lipids. In this study, we found that the desaturation of fatty acid to yield the di-unsaturated
fatty acid 18:2(9,12), in Spirulina platensis strain C1, was not regulated by temperature. As shown by
the fatty acid composition and gene expression patterns, the levels of 18:1(9) and 18:2(9,12) remained
almost constant either when the cells were grown at 35 degrees C (normal growth temperature) or 22
and 40 degrees C. The expression of desC (Delta9) and desA (Delta12) genes, which are responsible
for the introduction of first and second double bonds into fatty acids, respectively, was not affected by
the temperature shift from 35 to 22 degrees C or to 40 degrees C. Only the expression and mRNA
stability of the desD gene (Delta6) that is responsible for the introduction of a third double bond into
fatty acids were enhanced by a temperature shift from 35 to 22 degrees C, but not the shift from 35 to
40 degrees C. The increase in the level of desD mRNA elevated the desaturation of fatty acid from
18:2(9,12) to 18:3(6,9,12) at 22 degrees C. However, the increased level of 18:3(6,9,12) was
observed after 36 h of incubation at 22 degrees C, indicating a slow response to temperature of fatty
acid desaturation in this cyanobacterium. These findings suggest that the desaturation of fatty acids
might not be a key mechanism in the response to the temperature change of S. platensis strain C1.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

81
203: Desmorieux H, Decaen N.
Convective drying of Spirulina in thin layer.
J Food Engineering 77, No 1 (2006) 64-70.
PMID: pas
pdf: Desmorieux H 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina; $Convective-drying; $Sorption-isotherm; $Thin-layer-drying.
mots-cls Antenna: , f.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **drying.
rsum:

ATTENTION: il s'agit d'une variante plus rcente et virtuellement identique l'article de mme titre
publi dans J Food Engineering 66, No 4 (2005) 497-503. Le rsum est le mme!

Spirulina is a microalgae with therapeutic and nutritional properties. It is now industrially produced and
dried by spray drying into a powder. The drying method of small productions facilities in addition to a
need for a different form of presentation, leads us to study the drying of Spirulina by convection. In this
study, Spirulina sorption isotherm is established through different methods at 25 and 40 C. The results
vary slightly in function of the method but do not vary in function of the temperature. A simple
Henderson model is proposed to represent the isotherm. The drying by convection is characterized by
the experimental drying kinetics in order to study the influences of temperature and air velocity. Under
conditions of temperature and air velocity of less than 40 C 2.5 m/s, a first drying phase appears on
the curves. By normalizing, the use of the drying characteristic curve allows the regrouping of curves
and the representation of thin layer Spirulina convective drying by a polynomial function.

-------------------------------------------

203bis: Desmorieux H, Decaen N.
Convective drying of Spirulina in thin layer.
J Food Engineering 66, No 4 (2005) 497-503.
PMID: pas
pdf: Desmorieux H 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina; $Convective-drying; $Sorption-isotherm; $Thin-layer-drying.
mots-cls Antenna: , f.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **drying.
rsum:

Spirulina is a microalgae with therapeutic and nutritional properties. It is now industrially produced and
dried by spray drying into a powder. The drying method of small productions facilities in addition to a
need for a different form of presentation, leads us to study the drying of Spirulina by convection. In this
study, Spirulina sorption isotherm is established through different methods at 25 and 40 C. The results
vary slightly in function of the method but do not vary in function of the temperature. A simple
Henderson model is proposed to represent the isotherm. The drying by convection is characterized by
the experimental drying kinetics in order to study the influences of temperature and air velocity. Under
conditions of temperature and air velocity of less than 40 C 2.5 m/s, a first drying phase appears on
the curves. By normalizing, the use of the drying characteristic curve allows the regrouping of curves
and the representation of thin layer Spirulina convective drying by a polynomial function.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

204: Desmorieux H, Hernandez F.
Biochemical and physical criteria of spirulina after different drying processes.
In: Drying 2004, Proc 14th Int Drying Symposium (IDS 2004) Vol B, 900-907.
PMID: pas
pdf: Desmorieux H 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $pirulina, $protein, $sugar, $convective-drying, $freeze-drying, $infrared-drying,
$spray-drying.
mots-cls Antenna: ; m.
B: **Technology; **Spirulina; **drying.
rsum :

82
The essential nutritional elements found in spirulina made this cyanobacteruim a potential food
product for the use of spatial crews. After culture and harvesting, the spirulina must be dried, usually
by spray drying in the big farms on the Earth. However, the obtained powder does not satisfy all
criteria for using the spirulina as food for human consumption. In this study, convective and oven
drying, infrared drying, spray and freeze-drying methods were selected to assess the best technology
to dry spirulina. Protein and sugar content were determined before and after drying. Freeze-drying
showed the highest retention of the analyzable proteins and sugars. Thin layers spreading out gave
better results compared to cylinders. The dried end-product ischaracterized by microscopy that
allowed to show damage because of the air dryingtemperature. The best drying method can be
selected by ranking of the drying processes using the studied parameters.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

205: Desmorieux H.
Le schage de la Spiruline utilise comme aliment.
In: C Kapseu, J Ngannou, M Parmentier, M. Dirand (eds), Sminaire dAnimation Rgionale du
Rseau GP3A de lAUF (Yaound, 2003) pp 148-159.
PMID: pas
Desmorieux H 2003.papier
mots-cls article: $transfert-de-technologie; $spiruline; $schage; $courbe-caractristique-de-
schage.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

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206: Devi MA, Subbulakshmi G, Devi KM, Venkataraman LV.
Studies on the proteins of mass-cultivated, blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis).
J Agric Food Chem. 1981 May-J un;29(3):522-5.
PMID: 6788823
pdf: Devi M 1981.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; B.
rsum:

The characteristics of the protein of fresh-water, mass-cultured Spirulina platensis have been studied.
The solubility of this algal protein in water and various aqueous solvents has been estimated. The total
protein content of the blue-green algae was around 50-45% of which nearly 9.9% was nonprotein
nitrogen. About 80% of the total protein nitrogen can be extracted by three successive extractions with
water. The isoelectric point of this algal protein is found to be 3.0. The total proteins were
characterized physicochemically by standard techniques. In the ultracentrifuge total proteins resolve
into two major components with s(20,w) values of 2.6 and 4.7 S. The polyacrylamide gel
electrophoretic pattern of the total protein showed seven bands including three prominent ones. The in
vitro digestibility of the total protein of fresh algae was found to be 85% when assayed with a pepsin
pancreatin system.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

207: DiBaise J K, Park FL, Lyden E, Brand RE, Brand RM.
Effects of low doses of erythromycin on the 13C Spirulina platensis gastric emptying breath test and
electrogastrogram: a controlled study in healthy volunteers.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 J ul;96(7):2041-50.
PMID: 11467630
pdf: DiBiaise J 2001.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; instrumentation; gastric-monitoring.
rsum:

OBJ ECTIVE: Electrogastrography and stable isotope gastric emptying breath tests (GEBTs) are
relatively simple, noninvasive tests of gastric motor function that may be useful in monitoring the
83
effects of therapeutic interventions. It was our primary objective to examine the effects of low dose i.v.
erythromycin on the results of the 13C Spirulina platensis GEBT and electrogastrography. We were
also interested in evaluating the reproducibility of these tests.
METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects (five female, ages 23-37 yr), we simultaneously performed the
GEBT, using a prepackaged meal (340 kcal), and electrogastrography on each of four different
occasions separated by at least 1 wk. After performance of baseline studies, they were repeated in
random order after the infusion of 50 mg of erythromycin (Er50), 100 mg erythromycin (Er100), and a
placebo (saline). Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 75, 90, and 180 min after the meal
and T1/2 and Tlag calculated. Electrogastrography recordings began 30 min before the test meal and
continued for 2 h after the meal.
RESULTS: Baseline and placebo T1/2 and Tlag were similar. Er50 resulted in a modest acceleration
of gastric emptying (T1/2 Er50 vs baseline vs placebo =104.0 vs 132.7 vs 125.5 min) and reduction in
lag time (Tlag Er50 vs baseline vs placebo =47.2 vs 61.5 vs 56.2 min). A similar decrease was seen
in response to Er100. The baseline and placebo fasting and fed electrogastrography parameters were
similar. After infusion of Er100, the percentage of normal slow waves in the first postprandial hour
decreased relative to baseline and placebo (percent normogastria Er100 vs baseline vs placebo =
64.1+/-7.5 vs 82.4+/-6.4 vs 79.7+/-5.5). This corresponded with an increase in percent tachygastria
during the same period and an overall decrease in the mean dominant frequency. Similar but less
striking changes were seen after administration of Er50. Replicate GEBTs showed a high degree of
reproducibility both within and between individuals for T1/2 and Tlag. In contrast, replicate
electrogastrograms revealed moderate to high variability for all parameters except the dominant
frequency.
CONCLUSION: The stable isotope GEBT utilizing 13C S. platensis demonstrates responsiveness to
the prokinetic effects of low dose i.v. erythromycin and good reproducibility.

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208: Dietzek B, Maksimenka R, Hermann G, Kiefer W, Popp J , Schmitt M.
The excited-state dynamics of phycocyanobilin in dependence on the excitation wavelength.
Chemphyschem. 2004 Aug 20;5(8):1171-7.
PMID: 15446739
pdf: Dietzek B 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $chromophores; $kinetics; $photochemistry; $phycocyanobilin; $time-resolved-
spectroscopy.
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; photosynthse.
rsum:

The primary light-induced processes of phycocyanobilin were studied by means of transient-grating
spectroscopy, whereby the excitation wavelength was varied over the spectral region of the ground-
state absorption. On the basis of the results obtained, both the rate of the photoreaction in
phycocyanobilin and the ratio of the decay of different excited-state species via two decay channels
depend on the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, the formation of the photoreaction product is also
dependent on the pump color. These data support a recently established model for the primary
photoprocesses in phycocyanobilin. In addition, phycocyanobilin protonated at the basic pyrrolenine-
type nitrogen atom was included in the transient absorption study. The decay behavior was found to
be almost unchanged when compared with the unprotonated form, and this suggests that protonation
of the tetrapyrrole ring structure has no effect on the overall photochemistry.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

209: Dillon J C, Phuc AP, Dubacq J P.
Nutritional value of the alga Spirulina.
World Rev Nutr Diet 1995;77:32-46.
PMID: 7732699
pdf: Dillon J 1995.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------
84

210: Dillon J C, Phan PA.
Spirulina as a source of proteins in human nutrition.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 103-107.
PMID: pas
pdf: Dillon J 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

Spirulina is an edible microorganism, useful in human nutrition due to the high quantity and quality of
its protein. Protein content of Spirulina varies from 60 to 71% crude protein according to strains. The
nutritive value of a protein is related to its amino acid composition, digestibility and bioavailability of its
essential amino acids. The essential amino acids comprise 47% of the protein. The methionine
deficiency, which is common in all types of single cell protein can be compensated for by blending the
algae with other conventional protein source. In vitro, the fresh algal samples are more digestible
(85%) than sun-dried or freeze-dried samples. Recently a J oint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation
recommended to express Protein Quality as Amino Acid Score Corrected for Digestibility (Di-Sco).
There are few and incomplete reports of experiments in humans to detailed evaluation regarding the
nutritional quality of Spirulina.

----------------------------------------------------------

211: Disyawongs G.
Accumulation of cooper, mercury and lead in Spirulina platensis studied in Zarrouk's medium.
J of KMITNB 12, No 4 (2002) 33-35.
PMID: pas
pdf: Disyawongs G 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $heavy-metal-absorption; $wastewater-treatment; $blue-green-algae; $spirulina-
platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

Spirulina platensis can be cultivated in wastewater to improve water quality. (...)

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212: Doke J M.
An improved and efficient method for the extraction of phycocyanin from Spirulina sp.
Int J Food Engineering 1, No 5 (2005) Article 2.
Available at: http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol1/iss5/art2
PMID: pas
pdf: Doke J 2005.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; f, B.
rsum:

This paper describes an improved drying method and efficient procedure for the optimum extraction of
phycocyanin from the Spirulina sp. We observed that, when Spirulina biomass is dried at 250C under
shadow by air circulation and extraction of phycocyanin at 40C for 24 h in phosphate buffer at pH 7.0
(0.1 M) yield maximum phycocyanin (80 mg/g). This also shows relatively highest purity ratio of 1.8.
When extraction of phycocyanin with other available methods were carried out, showed purity ratio of
0.45 to 1.34. The extraction of phycocyanin in hydrochloric acid (2.0 N to 10.0 N) showed the
contamination of chlorophyll in the phycocyanin extract. The proposed method of air-drying and
extraction suggested in this paper showed only 5 to 7% loss of phycocyanin during drying process.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

213: Doshi H, Ray A, Kothari IL.
85
Bioremediation potential of live and dead Spirulina: Spectroscopic, kinetics and SEM studies.
Biotechnol Bioeng 96, No 6 (2007) 1051-1063.
PMID: 17041959
pdf: Doshi H 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina; $Biosorption; $Metal-uptake; $Bioremediation; $Kinetics; $IR-and-SEM.
mots-cls Antenna: , ATF.
rsum:

Metal binding by algae has enormous potential for environmental bioremediation targeting towards
detoxification of water bodies. The present work reports the use of live and dead Spirulina sp. for
sorption of metals like Cr(+3), Ni(+2), Cu(+2) and Cr(+6) in form of Cr(2)O(7) (-2). Preliminary
investigation shows that this biomass takes up substantial amount of metal ions indicated above. IR
spectroscopic study, kinetics models, Langmuir & Freundlich adsorption isotherms, SEM analysis and
fluorescence microscopic study of Spirulina sp. and the Spirulina sp. treated with different metal ions
have been employed to understand the sorption mechanism. It is hope that live Spirulina sp. will be a
strong candidate for management of industrial waste water.

--------------------------------------------------------

214: Dos Santos GC, Costa J AV.
Development of foods enriched with the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 126-127.
PMID: pas
pdf: Dos Santos G 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

215: dos Santos GM, Verthein Tavares de Macedo R, Monte Alegre R.
Influncia do teor de nitrognio no cultivo de Spirulina maxima em duas temperaturas - Parte I:
Alterao da composio da biomassa.
[Influence of nitrogen concentration on the culture of Spirulina maxima grown at two temperatures -
Part I: Changes in biomass composition].
Cinc Tecnol Aliment 23 suppl (2003) on-line
PMID: pas
pdf: dos Santos 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina; $biomassa; $microalga; $composio-centesimal; $biomass;
$microalgae; $centesimal-composition.
mots-cls Antenna: , f.
B : **Technology, **Spirulina, **nitrogen.
rsum:

Spirulina maxima uma cianobactria de grande interesse para a produo de substncias nutritivas
e teraputicas. mesoflica, essencialmente fotoautotrfica, sendo suas principais fontes de
nitrognio os nitratos, uria ou sais de amnio em meios com alta alcalinidade [1, 2, 3, 10, 16].
Spirulina maxima foi cultivada em fermentadores, expostos a luz com intensidade de 2400lux,
contendo 3L do meio proposto por PAOLETTI, PUSHPARAJ & TOMASELLI com concentrao de
2,5g/L de KNO3, em meio modificado com 0,2g/L de KNO3 e em meio sem fonte de nitrognio,
denominados respectivamente meios 2,5N, 0,2N e SN, visando observar as alteraes provocadas
em sua composio final. Em culturas crescidas a 35C observou-se reduo do teor de protenas na
massa celular seca de 28,84% e de 32,87%, aumento do teor de carboidratos de 30,34% e de
54,21% e aumento dos lipdios totais de 287,90% e 277,37%, quando se utilizou os meios 0,2N e SN,
respectivamente, em comparao com o meio 2,5N. O teor de cinzas mostrou variao desprezvel.
Quando a temperatura de cultivo foi reduzida para 25C, ocorreu uma reduo do teor de protenas
da massa seca de 40,28% e 39,02%, aumento de teor de carboidratos de 88,90% e de 91,15% e
aumento do teor de lipdios totais em 321,25% e de 307,08%, quando se utilizou os meios 0,2N e SN
em comparao com o meio 2,5N, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram alteraes sensveis
86
na composio da biomassa seca, com a diminuio do teor de nitrognio e da temperatura de
cultivo, exceto no teor de cinzas que no foi significativo.

[Spirulina maxima is a cianobacter of great interest to the production of nutritious and therapeutic
substances. It is mesophilic, essentially fotoautotrophic and has preference for media with high
alkalinity. Its principal nitrogen source are nitrates and ammonium salts or urea [1, 2, 3, 10, 16].
Spirulina maxima was cultured in fermentors with 3 liters of medium proposed by PAOLETTI,
PUSHPARAJ & TOMASELLI exposed at light with intensity of 2400lux and in two other media in which
the KNO3 concentration was reduced from 2.5 to 0.2g/L KNO3 and zero, that were denominated 2.5N
and 0.2N and medium without KNO3 SN respectively. In cultures at 35C a reduction of the
percentage of proteins was observed, in the dry cellular mass, of 28.84% and 32.87%, an increased of
30.34% and of 54.21% in carbohydrates and total lipids of 287.90% and 277.37%, when it was used
the media 0.2N and SN instead the medium 2.5N respectively, except the percentage of ashes that
showed no significant variation. When the temperature was reduced from 35 to 25C, the percentage
of protein in the dry mass decreased 40.28% and 39.02%, while the percentage of carbohydrates
increased 88.9% and of 91.15% and percentage of total lipidic increased 321.25% and of 307.08%,
when it was used the media 0.2N and SN instead of the medium 2.5N respectively. The percentage of
ashes showed no significant variation. The data showed a sensitive alteration in the cellular mass
composition when the percentage of nitrogen and the cultivation temperature were decreased].

----------------------------------------------------------

216: F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont (eds).
Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life (Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 222 pp.
PMID: pas
pdf: Doumenge F 1993.papier
mots-cls livre: $Spiruline, $taxonomie, $biochimie, $culture, $valeur-nutritive, $source-alimentaire.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E, introduction+figures-pages-211-218.
rsum:

Reports of spirulina cultivation around the world presented at the Monaco Oceanographic Institute,
1993. Introduction of Spirulina, the algae of life by Hubert Durand Chastel. Reports on spirulina
production in Mexico, India, Spain, Myanmar, Chile and developing countries.

----------------------------------------------------------

217: Downham A, Collins P.
Colouring our foods in the last and next millennium.
Int J Food Sci Technol 35, No 1 (2000) 5-22.
PMID: pas
pdf: Downham A 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $Functional-food-ingredients, $market-trends, $natural-pigments, $regulations.
mots-cls Antenna: , f, B.
rsum:

Colour in one form or another, has been added to our foods for centuries. It is known that the
Egyptians coloured candy, and wine was coloured as long ago as 400 bc. The developing food
industry had available a vast array of synthetic colours in the late 1800s. This led to colours being
added for decorative purposes and unfortunately to disguise low quality foods. (...).

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218: Duan M, Ma WX, Li L, Sun XT.
[Determination of micro-elements in natural spirulina using FAAS].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2001 Dec;21(6):868-70.
PMID: 12958919
pdf: Duan M 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en chinois
87

The analytic results show that the spirulina powder have a plenty of microelements(K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe,
Zn). Compared with that of rice, wheat flour, maize and soybean, the content of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe and
Zn of it is respectively as from 4 to 10 times, from 10 to 80 times, from 25 to 70 times, from 3 to 15
times, from 4 to 36 times and from 4 to 24 times as theirs. The content of microelements of it
compared with vegetable is much higher. The spirulina has a certain inhibition from cancer, high blood
pressure, sugar diabetes and hasten body to absorb Se and Mo, and is of benefit to cardiac muscle.
The experimental result indicated that spirulina was good health care food with value of nourish and
medicinal.

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219: Dubacq J P, Pham-Quoc K.
Biotechnology of Spirulina lipids: a source of gamma-linolenic acid.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 59-64.
PMID: pas
pdf: Dubacq J 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

220: Dugad LB, La Mar GN, Banci L, Bertini I.
Identification of localized redox states in plant-type two-iron ferredoxins using the nuclear Overhauser
effect.
Biochemistry. 1990 Mar 6;29(9):2263-71.
PMID: 2110829
pdf: Dugad L 1990.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

The homonuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), in conjunction with nonselective spin-lattice relaxation
measurements, has been employed to assign the contact-shifted resonances for the reduced form of
two typical plant-type two-iron ferredoxins from the algae Spirulina platensis and Porphyra umbilicalis.
These results demonstrate that the NOE should have broad general applicability for the assignments
and electronic structural elucidation of diverse subclasses of paramagnetic iron-sulfur cluster proteins.
NOE connectivities were detected only among sets of resonance exhibiting characteristically different
deviations from Curie behavior, providing strong support for the applicability of the spin Hamiltonian
formulation for the NMR properties of the antiferromagnetically coupled iron clusters [Dunham, W. R.,
Palmer, G., Sands, R. H., & Bearden, A. J . (1971) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 253, 373-384; Banci, L.,
Bertini, I., & Luchinat, C. (1989) Struct. Bonding (in press)]. The geminal beta-methylene protons for
the two cysteines bound to the iron(II) center were clearly identified, as well as the C alpha H and one
C beta H for each of the cysteines bound to the iron(III). The identification of the iron bound to
cysteines 41 and 46 as the iron(II) in the reduced protein was effected on the basis of dipolar contacts
between the bound cysteines, as predicted by crystal coordinates of S. platensis Fd [Tsukihara, T.,
Fukuyama, K., Nakamura, M., Katsube, Y., Tanaka, N., Kakudo, M., Wada, K., Hase, T., & Matsubara,
H. (1981) J . Biochem. (Tokyo) 90, 1763-1773]. Resolved labile proton contact-shifted resonances are
attributed to hydrogen bonding to the iron(II1) center, and it is concluded that the contact-shifted
resonances for the more numerous hydrogen bonds to the iron(I1) center are not resolved from the
diamagnetic envelope. The identification of the iron closer to the protein surface as the more reducible
one is consistent with predictions based on a larger number of hydrogen bonds to this center.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

221: Durand-Chastel H, Fox RD.
History of the Spirulina.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 131-132.
88
PMID: pas
pdf: Durand-Chastel H 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

222: Durand-Chastel H.
La spiruline, algue de vie.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 7-11.
PMID: pas
pdf: Durand-Chastel H 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
remarques: planche en couleur page 218.

----------------------------------------------------------

223: Egorova EA, Gmoshinskii IV, Zorin SI, Mazo VK.
[Studies of bioavailability of different food sources of selenium in experiment].
Vopr Pitan. 2006;75(3):45-9.
PMID: 16862955
pdf: Egorova E 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: Arthrospira-platensis, spirulina-platensis, A.
rsum: en russe

The selenium bioavailability in selenium enriched Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), phycocyanin
containing (Se-PC) protein isolate, separated from this micro algae and in sodium selenite was studied
and compared in rats. The daily dose of selenium per one animal was 5 microgram in all experimental
groups. The average selenium levels in blood serum and liver of animals that received sodium selenite
during 14 days were the highest. The average selenium level in blood serum of animals fed with
selenium enriched Spirulina platensis after 14 days of receiving was the same with the control group,
but the average concentration of selenium in their liver was rather high and close to this parameter of
sodium selenite animal group. The animals which were fed with Se-PC showed better results. Their
average selenium level in blood serum was higher than in Spirulina group, but lower than in sodium
selenite group. The average concentration of selenium in the liver of these animals was the same with
sodium selenite animal group. As regards to animals that were fed with selenium enriched Spirulina,
Se-PC and sodium selenite for 21 days, the average selenium levels ratio in their blood serum and
liver was higher than in control group, but these results were not significantly different among each
other. The concentrations of selenium in seminal glands in all groups of animals including control
group both after 14 and 21 days feeding were close to each other.

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224: Engelmann E, Tagliabue T, Karapetyan NV, Garlaschi FM, Zucchelli G, J ennings RC.
CD spectroscopy provides evidence for excitonic interactions involving red-shifted chlorophyll forms in
photosystem I.
FEBS Lett. 2001 J un 15;499(1-2):112-5.
PMID: 11418123
pdf: Engelmann E 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $CD-spectroscopy; $Excitonic-interaction; $Photobleaching; $Red-chlorophyll-form.
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; photosystems.
rsum:

Selective destruction of the strongly dichroic red-shifted chlorophyll form (C709 nm) in photosystem I
(PSI) trimers from Spirulina, by either non-selective high intensity illumination (photobleaching) or
incubation with low concentrations of Triton X-100 is accompanied by changes in the circular
89
dichroism spectrum of the same amplitude and of opposite sign at 677 nm. The data are interpreted in
terms of a dimeric chlorophyll structure with excitonic bands at these two wavelengths. Similar
photobleaching experiments with PSI-200 from maize also suggest the presence of bulk antenna/red
form excitonic interactions.

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225: Falquet J , von der Weid D.
Spiruline et nutrition.
[Spiruline and malnutrition].
Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465; author reply 467-8.
PMID: 15135437
pdf: Falquet J 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spiruline; $Malnutrition; $Pays-en-voie-de-dveloppement; $Spiruline-et-nutrition;
$Spiruline; $Developing-countries; $Nutrition-disorders; $Kwashiorkor; $Infant.
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: voir aussi:

Branger B; Arch Pediatr. 2003 May;10(5):424-31.
Fox R, Pagnon Y, Weber B; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6.
Darcas C; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):466-7.
Branger B; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6.

Publication Types: Comment
* Letter

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226: Farooq SM, Ebrahim AS, Subramhanya KH, Sakthivel R, Rajesh NG, Varalakshmi P.
Oxalate mediated nephronal impairment and its inhibition by c-phycocyanin: A study on urolithic rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Feb 14;:1-7
PMID: 16477383
pdf: Farooq S 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $antioxidant; $hyperoxaluria; $oxidative-stress; $phycocyanin.
mots-cls Antenna: ; mdecine; organes; reins.
rsum:

The assumption of oxidative stress as a mechanism in oxalate induced renal damage suggests that
antioxidants might play a beneficial role against oxalate toxicity. An in vivo model was used to
investigate the effect of C-phycocyanin (from aquatic micro algae; Spirulina spp.), a known
antioxidant, against calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Hyperoxaluria was induced in two of the 4 groups of
Wistar albino rats (n =6 in each) by intraperitoneally injecting sodium oxalate (70,mg/kg body weight).
A pretreatment of phycocyanin (100,mg/kg body weight) as a single oral dosage was given, one hour
prior to oxalate challenge. An untreated control and drug control (phycocyanin alone) were employed.
Phycocyanin administration resulted in a significant improvement (p <0.001) in the thiol content of
renal tissue and RBC lysate via increasing glutathione and reducing malondialdehyde levels in the
plasma of oxalate induced rats (p <0.001), indicating phycocyanin's antioxidant effect on oxalate
mediated oxidative stress. Administering phycocyanin after oxalate treatment significantly increased
catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (p <0.001) in RBC lysate suggesting
phycocyanin as a free radical quencher. Assessing calcium oxalate crystal retention in renal tissue
using polarization microscopy and renal ultrastructure by electron microscopy reveals normal features
in phycocyanin - pretreated groups. Thus the study presents positive pharmacological implications of
phycocyanin against oxalate mediated nephronal impairment and warrants further work to tap this
potential aquatic resource for its medicinal application. (Mol Cell Biochem xxx: 1-7, 2004).

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227: Farooq SM, Ebrahim AS, Asokan D, Sakthivel R, Savitha S, Rajesh NG, Varalakshmi P.
Credentials of Spirulina diet on stability and flux related properties on the biomineralization process
during oxalate mediated renal calcification in rats.
90
Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;24(6):932-42.
PMID: 16084629
pdf: Farooq S 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Urolithiasis; $Calcium-oxalate; $Free-radical; $Lipid-peroxidation; $Spirulina;
$Purine-diet; $Protein-diet.
mots-cls Antenna: ; mdecine; organes; reins; B.
rsum:

BACKGROUND: High Spirulina diet is a potential risk factor for nephrolithiasis since it has the
capacity to increase urinary oxalate and uric acid level, facilitating lithogenesis. Our aim was to identify
the effect of Spirulina diet during hyperoxaluric condition in Wistar albino rats.
METHODS: The animals were divided into four groups: control (Gl, n=6); ethylene glycol (EG) induced
(G2, n=6); EG+Spirulina (G3, n=6); Spirulina alone (G4, n=6). EG at 0.75% was administered to G2
and G3 through drinking water for 4 weeks and Spirulina 1500 mg/kg feed was administered to G3
and G4.
RESULTS: Urinary parameters like oxalate, uric acid, calcium, urea, and creatinine (P<0.001) were
found increased after Spirulina diet under hyperoxaluric conditions compared to the same without
Spirulina diet. Similarly the BUN, plasma contents of uric acid, urea, creatinine (P<0.001) were found
to be raised in G3. The renal and RBC GSH levels, as estimated by HPLC, seemed decreased when
compared to G2.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that free radicals aid in the progression of nephrolithiasis.
The crystal deposition was found to be high in the renal cells of G3 than G2 and TEM revealed
damage in renal cell of G3 implying that the disease deteriorates by free radical injury. In contrast the
Spirulina diet alone (G4) did not induce any features relating to stone forming condition suggesting
that free radical release might have been suppressed due to enrichment of dietary antioxidants and
vitamins. Thus the present investigation demonstrates that during hyperoxaluric conditions the
Spirulina diet must possibly be avoided and can be considered in normal subjects checked for family
history of renal stone deposition.

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228: Farooq SM, Asokan D, Sakthivel R, Kalaiselvi P, Varalakshmi P.
Salubrious effect of C-phycocyanin against oxalate-mediated renal cell injury.
Clin Chim Acta. 2004 Oct;348(1-2):199-205.
PMID: 15369755
pdf: Farooq S 2004a.pdf
mots-cls article: $Antioxidant; $Calcium-oxalate; $Phycocyanin; $Phycocyanobilin; $Spirulina-
platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; reins.
rsum:

BACKGROUND: C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein pigment found in some blue green algae (Spirulina
platensis) with nutritional and medicinal properties, was investigated for its efficacy on sodium oxalate-
induced nephrotoxicity in experimentally induced urolithic rats.
METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Hyperoxaluria was induced in two of these
groups by intraperitoneal infusion of sodium oxalate (70 mg/kg), and a pretreatment of phycocyanin
(100 mg/kg) as a single oral dosage was given to one of these groups by 1 h prior to sodium oxalate
infusion challenges. The study also encompasses an untreated control group and a phycocyanin-
alone treated drug control group. The extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated in terms of
renal concentrations of MDA, conjugated diene and hydroperoxides. The following assay was
performed in the renal tissue (a) antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
catalase, (b) glutathione metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione
reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD),
(c) the low molecular weight antioxidants (GSH, vitamins E and C) and protein carbonyl content.
RESULTS: The increased concentrations of MDA, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide (index of the
lipid peroxidation) were controlled (P <0.001) in the phycocyanin-pretreated group. At the outset, the
low molecular weight antioxidants were appreciably increased (P <0.001), whereas the tissue protein
carbonyl concentration was decreased (P <0.001), suggesting that phycocyanin provides protection
to renal cell antioxidants. It was noticed that the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione
metabolizing enzymes were considerably stabilized in rats pretreated with phycocyanin.
91
CONCLUSION: We suggest that phycocyanin protects the integrity of the renal cell by stabilizing the
free radical mediated LPO and protein carbonyl, as well as low molecular weight antioxidants and
antioxidant enzymes in renal cells. Thus, the present analysis reveals that the antioxidant nature of C-
phycocyanin protects the renal cell against oxalate-induced injury and may be a nephroprotective
agent.

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229: Farooq SM, Asokan D, Kalaiselvi P, Sakthivel R, Varalakshmi P.
Prophylactic role of phycocyanin: a study of oxalate mediated renal cell injury.
Chem Biol Interact. 2004 Aug 10;149(1):1-7.
PMID: 15294440
pdf: Farooq S 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Antioxidant; $Calcium-oxalate; $Kidney-stone; $Oxalate; $Phycocyanin;
$Phycocyanobilin; $Spirulina-platensis; $Urolithiasis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; reins.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **phycocyanin, **kidney, **mouse.
rsum:

Oxalate induced renal calculi formation and the associated renal injury is thought to be caused by free
radical mediated mechanisms. An in vivo model was used to investigate the effect of phycocyanin
(from Spirulina platensis), a known antioxidant, against calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Male Wistar rats
were divided into four groups. Hyperoxaluria was induced in two of these groups by intraperitoneal
infusion of sodium oxalate (70 mg/kg) and a pretreatment of phycocyanin (100 mg/kg) as a single oral
dosage was given, 1h prior to sodium oxalate infusion. An untreated control and drug control
(phycocyanin alone) were also included in the study. We observed that phycocyanin significantly
controlled the early biochemical changes in calcium oxalate stone formation. The antiurolithic nature of
the drug was evaluated by the assessment of urinary risk factors and light microscopic observation of
urinary crystals. Renal tubular damage as divulged by urinary marker enzymes (alkaline phosphatase,
acid phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) and histopathological observations such as
decreased tubulointerstitial, tubular dilatation and mononuclear inflammatory cells, indicated that renal
damage was minimised in drug-pretreated group. Oxalate levels (P <0.001) and lipid peroxidation (P
<0.001) in kidney tissue were significantly controlled by drug pretreatment, suggesting the ability of
phycocyanin to quench the free radicals, thereby preventing the lipid peroxidation mediated tissue
damage and oxalate entry. This accounts for the prevention of CaOx stones. Thus, the present
analysis revealed the antioxidant and antiurolithic potential of phycocyanin thereby projecting it as a
promising therapeutic agent against renal cell injury associated kidney stone formation.

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230: Farrar WV.
Tecuitlatl; a glimpse of aztec food technology.
Nature 211 (1966) 341-342.
PMID: pas
pdf: Farrar W 1966.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

Traduction des premiers textes qui mentionnent la plus ancienne utilisation alimentaire par les
Aztques d'une algue commestible qui sera quelques annes plus tard identifie comme de la
spiruline (Spirulia maxima, une variante mexicaine de Spirulina platensis suggre par l'auteur).

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231: Fattom A, Shilo M.
Hydrophobicity as an adhesion mechanism of benthic cyanobacteria.
Appl Environ Microbiol 7 (1984) 135-143.
PMID: 16346453
pdf: Fattom A 1984.pdf
92
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

The capacity of benthic cyanobacteria to adhere to solid substrates was examined in terms of their cell
surface properties. By using a biphasic water-hydrocarbon test system, it was demonstrated that
benthic cyanobacteria from divergent habitats were all hydrophobic, whereas all the planktonic
cyanobacteria tested were hydrophilic. Divalent cations were found more efficient than monovalent
cations in effecting the expression of hydrophobicity. Mechanical shearing of the cell surface, as well
as chemical removal of the cell wall, demonstrated that the hydrophobicity was confined to the outer
surface layers. The hydrophobic sites were distributed along the whole length of the cyanobacterial
filament. Hydrophilic hormogonia of benthic cyanobacteria became hydrophobic within 48 h when
grown in the light; chloramphenicol, 3(3,4-dichlorophenyl)1,1 dimethylurea, or incubation in the dark
prevented this transition. Hydrophobicity of Phormidium filaments was masked in late stationary
phase; this effect was removed by gentle washing.

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232: Faucher O, Coupal B, Leduy A.
Utilization of seawater-urea as a culture medium for Spirulina maxima.
Can J Microbiol. 1979 J un;25(6):752-9.
PMID: 38896
pdf: Faucher O 1979.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

The possibilities of utilization of seawater enriched with ureas as the culture medium for a blue-green
alga, Spirulina maxima, were investigated. Pretreatment by precipitation with NaHCO3 and (or)
Na2CO3 was found essential to remove the excess amounts of Ca2+and Mg2+present in seawater
prior to cultivation. A culture medium as good as the synthetic medium reported in the literature for the
growth of S. maxima was obtained after treating seawater with NaHCO3 (19.2 g/L) at pH 9.2 and 35
degrees C for 2 h, filtering to remove precipitates, and enriching with K2HPO4 (0.5 g/L), NaNO3 (3.0
g/L), and FeSO4 (0.01 g/L). The same results were obtained by substituting a small amount (0.2 g/L or
less) of either crystalline or polymerized urea for the NaNO3 in the above medium. Growth of S.
maxima was inhibited at higher concentration of urea in the culture medium. The inhibition effect was
due to the partial decomposition of urea into ammonia in alkali medium. Tests conducted on the 130-L
cultivation open pond also confirmed that the seawater-urea medium supports growth of S. maxima as
well as the best known synthetic medium.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

233: Fedkovic Y, Astre C, Pinguet F, Gerber M, Ychou M, Pujol H.
Spiruline et cancer.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 117-120.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fedkovic Y 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

234: Feng DL, Wu ZC.
Culture of Spirulina platensis in human urine for biomass production and O(2) evolution.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006 J an;7(1):34-7.
PMID: 16365923
pdf: Feng D 2006.pdf
mots-cls article:
93
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Attempts were made to culture Spirulina platensis in human urine directly to achieve biomass
production and O(2) evolution, for potential application to nutrient regeneration and air revitalization in
life support system. The culture results showed that Spirulina platensis grows successfully in diluted
human urine, and yields maximal biomass at urine dilution ratios of 140 approximately 240.
Accumulation of lipid and decreasing of protein occurred due to N deficiency. O(2) release rate of
Spirulina platensis in diluted human urine was higher than that in Zarrouk medium.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

235: Fernandez-Cardenas T, Gonzalez-San Miguel H, Travieso L.
Determinacin de vitaminas del Complejo B en Arthrospira maxima por cromatografa lquida de alta
resolucin.
[The Determination of vitamin B-complex in Arthrospira maxima through high resolution liquid
chromatography].
Ars Pharmaceutica 42, No 3-4 (2001) 171-183.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fernandez-Cardenas T 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $vitaminas-del-complejo B. $Mtodos-de-extraccin. $Arthrospira-maxima,
$Cromatografa-liquida-de-alta-resolucin- $Extraction-methods, $B-complex-vitamins, $High-
performance-liquid-chromatography.
mots-cls Antenna: Arthrospira-maxima, f.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **vitamin-B.
rsum: texte bilingue espagnol-anglais

Se disean dos mtodos para la extraccin de las vitaminas del complejo B en muestras de
Arthrospira maxima cubana. Para la determinacin, se emplea un sistema HPLC formado por una
columna de octadecilsilano y fases mviles de metanol - agua - cido fosfrico 0.1 mol/L (20:79.5:0.5)
para el anlisis de la cianocobalamina y (30:69.5:0.5) para el resto de las vitaminas, empleando
hexanosulfonato sdico 5 mM en ambos casos. Las velocidades de flujo son de 1 y 0.8 mL/min
respectivamente. La determinacin se realiza a 362 y 270 nm. Se observ que la Arthrospira maxima
cultivada en Cuba constituye una rica fuente de vitaminas del grupo B presentando un contenido
promedio de 3.1 mg/10g de tiamina, 4.0 mg/10g de riboflavina, 9.0 mg/10g de piridoxina, 0.29 mg/10g
de cianocobalamina, 21 mg/10g de cido nicotnico y 26 mg/10g de nicotinamida.

[Two methods for the extraction and determination of B-complex vitamins in Cuban Arthrospira
maxima samples are described. High performance liquid chromatography was employed using a
column of octadecylsilane and mobile phase containing metanol-agua-0.1M, orthofosforic acid
(20:79.5:0.5) were used in the analysis of cyanocobalamine and (30:69.5:0.5) for the remaining
vitamins. 5 mM sodium hexanosulfonate was used as ion pair. Flow rates were set at 1 mL/min and
0.8 mL/min and injection volumes at 20 and 100 mL. Vitamin determinations at 362 and 270 nm using
a diode array detector produced good results. High detection values for B-complex vitamins in Cuban
Arthrospira maxima were obtained].

--------------------------------------------------------------------

236: Feroci LT, Margheri MC, Pelosi E.
[Ultrastructure of Spirulina in comparison with Oscillatoria].
Zentralbl Bakteriol Parasitenkd Infektionskr Hyg. 1976;131(7):592-601.
PMID: 827871
pdf: Feroci L 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en allemand

The following filamentous blue-green algae: S. platensis, S. platensis f. minor and S. princeps were
observed under electronmicroscope and were compared with two species of the related genera
Oscillatoria: O. rubescens and O. chalybea. From our research it was resulted that Spirulina is
94
characterized by a more dense cellular content and by a more wide thylakoid system. The protoplasm
shows various types of inclusions: polyglucan granules, lipid droplets, eyanophycin granules,
polyhedral bodies, polyphosphate granules and gas vacuoles. In addition Sprulina presents few
aggregated membranes with non photosynthetic character and therefore can be compared with
""Memosome'' of bacteria. Spirulina contains more polyhedral bodies and cyanophycin granules and
more proteins than Oscillatoria.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

237: Ferrari SG, Italiano MC, Silva HJ .
Effect of a cyanobacterial community on calcium carbonate precipitation in Puente del Inca (Mendoza,
Argentina).
Acta Bot Croat 61, No 1 (2002) 19.
PMID: pas
pdf: Ferrari S 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Cyanobacteria; $Spirulina; $Oscillatoria; $calcium-carbonate; $biomineralization;
$geothermal-spring; $Puente-del-Inca; $Argentina.
mots-cls Antenna: ; n.
rsum:

The involvement of cyanobacteria in the precipitation process forming calcium carbonate was studied
in samples collected at a geothermal spring located in an area close to Puente del Inca (Mendoza,
Argentina). In the summer season profuse cyanobacterial growth is observed at Puente del Inca in
areas exposed to sunlight and over which thermal water flows. Differences in cellular structure allowed
the recognition of strains of Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Plectonema, and Nostoc, Oscillatoria and Spirulina
being the dominant species. The mass cultivation of Oscillatoria sp. was obtained using a new culture
medium (BW 3) PI which was formulated according to the chemical composition of the thermal water.
On a dry-weight basis the biomass concentration was 0.88 g L^1 at pH 7.5 and 0.44 g L^1 with a
free pH evolution after 11 days of incubation. The increase of pH associated with Oscillatoria sp.
growth triggered calcium carbonate precipitation at values higher than 8.1. The events observed under
laboratory conditions are likely to occur in situ as a consequence of cyanobacterial growth in the
saturated thermal water of Puente del Inca.

----------------------------------------------------------------

238: Fevrier C, Seve B.
Essai dincorporation de Spiruline (Spirulina maxima) dans les aliments des porcins.
[Incorporation of a spiruline (Spirulina maxima) in swine food].
Ann Nutr Aliment. 1975;29(6):625-50.
PMID: 825004
pdf: Fevrier C 1975.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum: en franais

Two experiments on early weaned piglets and one experiment on sows during the first two
reproductive cycles were made to determine the nutritive value of Spirulina maxima algae in the pig,
taken as a "nutritional model" for man. The algae were introduced into the diets of the piglets, between
12 and 42 days of age, in a proportion representing 12 p. 100 of the total proteins. This level
corresponded to 12 p. 100 algae in the first age feed (up to 21 days) in replacement of skim milk, and
8 p. 100 of the second age feed in replacement of soyabean meal. For the overall experimental
period, from 12 to 42 days, the apparent digestibilities of the diets, measured by the chronium oxide
marking, decreased by 6.9 and 6.1 points, respectively, for energy and total crude proteins as
compared to the control diet. Replacement of the same raw materials by a soluble fish protein
concentrate only led to a reduction of 2.9 and 3.5 points for energy and proteins. However, during the
first week following weaning, the fish concentrate and spirulina gave identical results which were lower
than those of the control (fig. 1). In spite of this lowering in the apparent digestibility the growths of the
piglets were satisfactory and equivalent for all groups. Thus, the metabolic utilisation of the fraction of
feed absorbed was better for the spirulina group than for the control group, notably during the period
between 12 to 21 days, although the supply of lysine in the spirulina group was 12 p. 100 lower (tab.
95
VII). Consequently, this partially compensates for the low apparent digestibility of the algae in the
young animal. For the female, the spirulina algaes were continously administered in a proportion of 5
p. 100 of the diet from a live weight of 75 kg. This did not change either the age or the weight at onset
of puberty (tab IX). During the first reproductive cycle, the net weight gain of the sows receiving
spirulina was lower than that of the control sows, but the number of piglets and the weight of the litter
were higher (tab X). During the second cycle, performances were almost identical for the two groups,
but piglets from the spirulina sows were slightly heavier than those from the control sows, in corelation
with smaller litters (tab XI). During lactation, the lipid content of the milk was not substancially modified
by addition of spirulina to the diet (tab. XIII). At the end of the two reproductive cycle the
characteristics of the two groups of sows were identical, with a slightly higher culling rate for the
spirulina group, but without direct relationship with the use of algae. Furthermore, the productivity of
the sows was the same: 16.34 piglets weaned per sow and per year for the controls and 15.99 for the
spirulina sows. Thus, if considering spirulina as a protein supplement to traditional proteins, its use in
pig feeding does not seem to give rise to particular problem. However, it is advisable to restrict their
supply to a level not exceeding 25 p..

--------------------------------------------------------------------

239: Fica V, Andronescu D, Olteanu D.
[Comparative study of the efficacy of ranitidine, cimetidine (Asiloc), De-Nol and spirulina in the
treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer].
Rev Med Interna Neurol Psihiatr Neurochir Dermatovenerol Med Interna. 1987 J an-Mar;39(1):21-35.
PMID: 2884709
pdf: Fica V 1987.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en roumain

--------------------------------------------------------------------

240: Fica V, Olteanu D, Oprescu S.
[Use of spirulina as an adjuvant nutrient factor in the therapy of the diseases accompanying a
nutritional deficiency (preliminary note)].
Rev Med Interna Neurol Psihiatr Neurochir Dermatovenerol Med Interna. 1984 May-J un;36(3):225-32.
PMID: 6151730
pdf: Fica V 1984.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en roumain

--------------------------------------------------------------------

241: Filgueira DMVB, Pinto MH, Costa J AV, Trinidade GS.
Growth of Spirulina platensis under combined ultraviolet light (UV-A, B and C) or UV-A only.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 70-71.
PMID: pas
pdf: Filgueira D 2004.papier
mots-cls article: $light, $Spirulina-platensis, $ultraviolet.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

242: Fischer D, Schlsser UG, Pohl P.
Exopolysaccharide production by cyanobacteria grown in closed photobioreactors and immobilized
using white cotton towelling.
J ournal of Applied Phycology 9, No 3 (J une 1997) 205-213.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fischer D 1997.pdf
96
mots-cls article: $Exopolysaccharides, $immobilization, $photobioreactors, $Chroococcus-minutus,
$Nostoc-insulare.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina; O.
rsum:

Two exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing cyanobacteria, Croococcus minutus and Nostoc insulare,
were grown as batch cultures in closed cultivation systems (8-L flasks or 12-L and 250-L
photobioreactorswith internal illumination) at light intensities ranging between 25 and 150mol photon
m-2 s-1. Another batch of each organism was immobilized on white cotton towelling and grown in 470-
ml and17-L flat upright transparent chambers made of polycarbonate at light intensities of 0.51.5
mol photon m-2s-1. Both cultivation systems were compared with regard to EPS productivity and
technological feasibility. The EPS excreted by both cyanobacteria was separated into fractions which
had different molecular weights (5401600 kD) and analyzed for their sugar composition. Both
organisms produced acidic EPS, which contained, respectively, 4.2 and 25.3% uronic acids.

------------------------------------------------------------

243: Forin MC, Maume B, Baron C.
[Sterols and triterpene alcohols of a Cyanophyceae: Spirulina platensis Geitler].
C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1972 J an 3;274(1):133-6.
PMID: 4622029
pdf: Forin M 1972.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en franais

--------------------------------------------------------------------

244: Fox D.
Health benefits of Spirulina and proposal for a nutrition test on children suffering from kwashiorkor and
marasmus.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 179-186.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fox D 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

245: Fox RD.
Communication to the International committee on bacteriological nomenclature.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 22.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fox R 2004b.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

246: Fox RD.
Les cyanobactries pour la sant, la science et le dveloppement.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 133-134.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fox R 2004a.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:
97

----------------------------------------------------------

247: Fox R, Pagnon Y, Weber B.
Spiruline et nutrition.
[Spiruline and malnutrition].
Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6; author reply 467-8.
PMID: 15135438
pdf: Fox R 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spiruline; $Malnutrition; $Pays-en-voie-de-dveloppement; $Spirulina;
$Developing-countries; $Nutrition-disorders; $Kwashiorkor; $Infant.
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Publication Types: Comment
* Letter

voir aussi:

Branger B; Arch Pediatr. 2003 May;10(5):424-31.
Falquet J , von der Weid D; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465.
Darcas C; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):466-7.
Branger B; Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):465-6.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

248: Fox RD.
Construction of village-scale system integrating Spirulina production with sanitation and development.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 195-201.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fox R 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

249: Frese RN, Palacios MA, Azzizi A, van Stokkum IH, Kruip J , Rogner M, Karapetyan NV,
Schlodder E, van Grondelle R, Dekker J P.
Electric field effects on red chlorophylls, beta-carotenes and P700 in cyanobacterial Photosystem I
complexes.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 J ul 1;1554(3):180-91.
PMID: 12160991
pdf: Frese R 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Synechocystis-PCC-6803; $Synechococcus-elongatus; $Spirulina-platensis;
$Stark-spectroscopy; $Red-chlorophyll; $Photosystem-I; $Exciton-interaction.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; photosystems.
rsum:

We have probed the absorption changes due to an externally applied electric field (Stark effect) of
Photosystem I (PSI) core complexes from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803,
Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis. The results reveal that the so-called C719
chlorophylls in S. elongatus and S. platensis are characterized by very large polarizability differences
between the ground and electronically excited states (with Tr(Deltaalpha) values up to about 1000
A(3) f(-2)) and by moderately high change in permanent dipole moments (with average Deltamu
values between 2 and 3 D f(-1)). The C740 chlorophylls in S. platensis and, in particular, the C708
chlorophylls in all three species give rise to smaller Stark shifts, which are, however, still significantly
larger than those found before for monomeric chlorophyll. The results confirm the hypothesis that
these states originate from strongly coupled chlorophyll a molecules. The absorption and Stark
98
spectra of the beta-carotene molecules are almost identical in all complexes and suggest similar or
slightly higher values for Tr(Deltaalpha) and Deltamu than for those of beta-carotene in solution.
Oxidation of P700 did not significantly change the Stark response of the carotenes and the red
antenna states C719 and C740, but revealed in all PSI complexes changes around 700-705 and 690-
693 nm, which we attribute to the change in permanent dipole moments of reduced P700 and the
chlorophylls responsible for the strong absorption band at 690 nm with oxidized P700, respectively.

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250: Frontasyeva MV, Kirkesali EI, Aksenova NG, Mosulishvili LM, Belokobylsky AI, Khizanishvili AI.
Neutron activation analysis for development of mercury sorbent based on bluegreen alga Spirulina
platensis.
J ournal of Neutron Research 14, No 2 (2006) 131-137.
PMID: pas
pdf: Frontasyeva M 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $Neutron-activation-analysis, $Spirulina-platensis, $Mercury-accumulatiom-and-
sorption, $Bluegreen-alga.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, j.
rsum:

Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used to study the interaction of bluegreen alga
Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were introduced into a
nutrient medium during the process of Spirulina biomass cultivation. The dynamics of Hg accumulation
by Spirulina biomass was investigated over several days. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina
biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption based on the results
obtained was calculated. It was shown that live Spirulina biomass has the potential to be used for
sorption of mercury from solutions at concentrations of A 100500 microg/l.

--------------------------------------------------------

251: Fujimaki M.
Nutritional improvement of food proteins by enzymatic modification, especially by plastein synthesis
reaction.
Ann Nutr Aliment. 1978;32(2-3):233-41.
PMID: 360951
pdf: Fujimaki M 1978.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

The present paper reviews our recents studies on the plastein reaction applied to improve nutritional
quality of conventional and unconventional proteins, with special emphasis on the papaincatalyzed
incorporation of essential amino acids (used in ethyl ester form) into the proteins : L-methionine into
soybean protein, L-lysine into wheat gluten and L-tyrosine into fish protein (after removal of
phenylalanine). The paper deals also with an attempt to improve proteins extracted from the
photosynthetic microorganisms, Spirulina maxima (a blue-green alga), Rhodopseudomonas
capsulatus (a non-sulfur purple bacterium) and Trifolium repens L. (a type of white clover) by way of
incorporating simultaneously the three amino acids, L-methionine, L-lysine and L-tryptophan. This
process, when properly carried out, can produce plasteins whose essential amino acid patterns have
approximated the FAO/WHO suggested pattern (1973). Besides the plastein reaction, its novel
modification has been developed, which will be more conveniently applied to a larger-scale process
for the amino acid incorporation. A brief discussion is added in this regard.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

252: Fujishiro T, Ogawa T, Matsuoka M, Nagahama K, Takeshima Y, Hagiwara H.
Establishment of a pure culture of the hitherto uncultured unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece
sacrum, and phylogenetic position of the organism.
Appl Env Microbiol 70, No 6 (2004) 33383345.
PMID: pas
99
pdf: Fujishiro T 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, j.
rsum:

Aphanothece sacrum, an edible freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium, was isolated by using novel
synthetic media (designated AST and AST-5xNP). The media were designed on the basis of the ratio
of inorganic elements contained in A. sacrum cells cultured in a natural pond. The isolated strain
exhibits unicellular rod-shaped cells 6 m in length that are scattered in an exopolysaccharide
matrix, a feature similar to that of natural A. sacrum. DNA analysis of the isolated strain revealed that it
carried two ferredoxin genes whose deduced amino acid sequences were almost identical to
previously published sequences of ferredoxins from natural A. sacrum. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene
and ferredoxin genes revealed that A. sacrum occupies a phylogenetically unique position among the
cyanobacteria.

--------------------------------------------------------

253: Fujitani N, Sakaki, Yamaguchi Y, Takenaka H.
Inhibitory effects of microalgae on the activation of hyaluronidase.
J Appl Phycol 13, No 6 (2001) 489-492.
PMID: pas
pdf: Fujitani N 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $anti-allergic-effect, $anti-hyaluronidase-activity, $microalgae, $water-extracts,
$ethanol-insoluble-fraction, $Nostoc-flagelliforme, $Spirulina, $Porphyridium, $Dunaliella,
$Pleurochrysis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; d; B.
rsum:

The inhibitory effects of seven microalgae, Nostoc flagelliforme, Spirulina platensis, Porphyridium
purpureum, Rhodosorus marinus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Dunaliella salina and Pleurochrysi scarterae
on the activation of hyaluronidase were evaluated. The inhibitory effect of the ethanol-insoluble
fraction of each water extract from microalgae was stronger than that of the ethanol-soluble fraction.
The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol-insolublefraction of S. platensis, P. purpureum,
R. marinus, C.pyrenoidosa, D. salina and P. carterae was 0.15, 0.18, 0.26, 0.94, 0.15 and 0.41 mg
mL^-1, respectively. The IC50 of N .flagelliforme was not calculated, because there was no detectable
inhibitory effect of this alga. The IC50 of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) used as the anti-allergic
medicine was 0.14 mg mL^-1. The IC50 of S. platensis, P. purpureum and D. salina were almost the
same as that of DSCG. This suggests that the ethanol-insoluble fraction of S. platensis, P. purpureum
and D. salina might be an anti-allergic substance. The ethanol-insoluble fraction of S. platensis and D.
salina was ultrafiltered through a membrane having a molecular exclusion limit of 20 kDa. The IC50 of
the residue was stronger than that of the filtrate. These results suggest that the anti-allergic
substance(s) of these microalgae may be polysaccharides.

----------------------------

254: Fukuyama K, Ueki N, Nakamura H, Tsukihara T, Matsubara H.
Tertiary structure of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Spirulina platensis refined at 2.5 A resolution: structural
comparisons of plant-type ferredoxins and an electrostatic potential analysis.
J Biochem (Tokyo). 1995 May;117(5):1017-23.
PMID: 8586613
pdf: Fukuyama K 1995.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The structure of plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin isolated from Spirulina platensis has been refined using
diffraction data to 2.5 A resolution by alternate cycles of simulated annealing and manual revision of
the model. The final R factor is 19.9% for 2,912 reflections with F >2 sigma F between 8.0 and 2.5 A
resolution. S. platensis ferredoxin, like other plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins, has a major alpha-helix
flanking a sheet consisting of four beta strands. The present refinement revises the conformation of
100
residues 56-71, in which a one-turn helix was identified. Superposition of the Spirulina ferredoxin
structure on the structures of other ferredoxins that have been well refined showed structural
perturbation at a few residues on the amino and carboxyl termini and the turn between the first and
second beta-strands. The root-mean-square deviations of the corresponding C alpha atoms of the
pairs of ferredoxins range from 0.90 to 1.17 A for all the residues, but from 0.64 to 0.70 A if the few
perturbed residues are excluded. Therefore, it may be concluded that the main-chain foldings of all the
plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins are essentially the same. Electrostatic potential analysis showed that
the molecular surface around the cluster is negatively charged, whereas that of the beta-sheet of the
other side is positively charged. The interaction between ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+reductase
is discussed on the basis of the charge distributions of these molecules and biochemical data.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

255: Furuki T, Maeda S, Imajo S, Hiroi T, Amaya T, Hirokawa T, Ito K, Nozawa H.
Rapid and selective extraction of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis with ultrasonic cell disruption.
J Appl Phycol 15, No 4 (2003) 319-324.
PMID: pas
pdf: Furuki T 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira; $Chromoprotein; $Extraction; $Phycocyanin; $Sonication; $Spirulina-
platensis; $Ultrasonic-cell-disruption.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; n.
B : **Technology, **Spirulina, **phycocyanin, **extraction.
rsum:

A study was conducted on the efficiency of phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis
(Arthrospira platensis) cells disrupted by ultrasonic irradiation. Extraction followed first-order kinetics
with respect to the length of time for irradiation. The first-order rate constant increased linearly with the
output of ultrasonic irradiation. In order to extract phycocyanin there was an appropriate range of
ultrasonic frequency, f_u. In addition the most important finding is that the purity of phycocyanin in its
crude extract depended on fu. For example, phycocyanin was extracted with higher purity at f_u =28
kHz than at f_u =20 kHz. It is suggested that rapid and selective extraction of phycocyanin from S.
platensis may be possible if an optimized ultrasonic application is developed for a given suspension.

----------------------------------------------------------------

256: Gabbay-Azaria R, Tel-Or E, Schonfeld M.
Glycinebetaine as an osmoregulant and compatible solute in the marine cyanobacterium Spirulina
subsalsa.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988 J ul;264(1):333-9.
PMID: 3134857
pdf: Gabbay-Azaria R 1988.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-subsalsa; fundamental-biology; techniques-de-culture; techniques-
d'analyses.
rsum:

Glycinebetaine was found to be the major organic substrate accumulating under hypersaline growth
conditions in the halotolerant cyanobacterium Spirulina subsalsa. In addition to its proposed role as
osmolite, glycinebetaine is shown to specifically protect enzymatic activity. Glucose-6-phosphate
dehydrogenase from S. subsalsa retained full activity in the presence of NaCl at concentrations as
high as 1.5 M, provided that comparable concentrations of glycinebetaine were also present in the
reaction mixture. A kinetic analysis indicated that glycinebetaine protected the enzyme against both
NaCl-induced decrease in Vmax and reduction in affinity to glucose 6-phosphate. The alternative
osmolites, glycerol and proline, protected the enzyme against the reduction in Vmax but not against
the reduction in affinity to glucose 6-phosphate.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

257: Gallegos AJ .
The past, present and future of algae in Mexicco.
101
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 133-139.
PMID: pas
pdf: Gallegos A 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

258: Gan X, Tang X, Shi C, Wang B, Yuanyuan Cao Y, Zhao L.
Preparation and regeneration of spheroplasts from Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina).
J Appl Phycol 16, No 6 (2004) 513-517.
PMID: pas
pdf: Gan X 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira-platensis; $regeneration; $spheroplasts; $Spirulina; $ultrasonic.
mots-cls Antenna: Arthrospira-platensis; n, B.
rsum:

Ultrasonic pretreatment, lysozyme, inorganic osmotics and bovine albumin were used to prepare the
spheroplasts of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis). The average cell number of the fragments
from the filaments of strain A9 was about 2.2 cells after 80-s ultrasonic pretreatment. These fragments
could regenerate and were suitable material for isolating spheroplasts, so the optimum conditions for
doing this were investigated. The best enzymolysis parameters were designed. During the isolation
process, gentle shaking of the enzymolysis sample for several times greatly enhanced the proportion
of spheroplasts. However, no spheroplasts were obtained when organic compounds were used as
osmotics. The spheroplasts could form typical colonies on plate of inorganic medium, with a
regeneration rate of about 3%. These spheroplasts might be used as competence cells to carry on the
research of genetic transformation.

----------------------------------------------------------------

259: Ganesh AB, Manoharan PT, Suraishkumar GK.
Responses of the photosynthetic machinery of Spirulina maxima to induced reactive oxygen species.
Biotechnol Bioeng 96, No 6 (2007) 1191-1198.
PMID: 17013943
pdf: Ganesh A 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-maxima; $siROS; $photosynthetic-efficiency; $PBS; $PSII; $PSI.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, ATF.
rsum:

The photosynthetic machinery of Spirulina maxima was studied when subjected to induced reactive
oxygen species (ROS) to examine the organism's responses to stress. Significant decreases in both
photosynthetic efficiency and growth rate were observed. Exposure to 0.01 mmol H(2)O(2)/(g cell),
which induced the lowest specific intracellular ROS level (siROS) led to a 15% decrease in specific
growth rate; an increase in siROS by 70 -fold led to a 25% decrease in specific growth rate. Similarly,
siROS induced by 0.01 mmol H(2)O(2)/(g cell) led to 15% inhibition in photosynthetic efficiency, while
an increase in siROS by 40- or 70- fold led to about 60% inhibition in photosynthetic efficiency. To
further understand the effects of induced ROS on photosynthetic machinery, we performed a detailed
pigmentation analysis as well as analyzed Phycobilisomes (PBS), Photosystem II (PSII) and
Photosystem I (PSI), the three important components of cyanobacterial photosynthetic apparatus. We
found carotenoids (beta carotene and lutein) to be most sensitive to siROS. Also, specific levels of
phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, which are important PBS pigments, decreased significantly in
response to H(2)O(2). Further, electron transport assays revealed that ROS cause damage primarily
to PSII, whereas they do not significantly affect PSI in comparison; siROS induced by 0.01 mmol
H(2)O(2)/(g cell) led to a 15% inhibition of PSII, and increase in siROS by 9-, 40- and 70-fold led to
22%, 36% and 46% inhibition respectively.

--------------------------------------------------------

102
260: Garcia-Pichel F, Mechling M, Castenholz RW.
Diel Migrations of Microorganisms within a Benthic, Hypersaline Mat Community.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 May;60(5):1500-1511.
PMID: 16349251
pdf: Garcia-Pichel F 1994.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-subsalsa; fundamental-biology; biodiversity; ecology.
rsum:

We studied the diel migrations of several species of microorganisms in a hypersaline, layered
microbial mat. The migrations were quantified by repeated coring of the mat with glass capillary tubes.
The resulting minicores were microscopically analyzed by using bright-field and epifluorescence
(visible and infrared) microscopy to determine depths of coherent layers and were later dissected to
determine direct microscopic counts of microorganisms. Microelectrode measurements of oxygen
concentration, fiber optic microprobe measurements of light penetration within the mat, and incident
irradiance measurements accompanied the minicore sampling. In addition, pigment content,
photosynthesis and irradiance responses, the capacity for anoxygenic photosynthesis, and gliding
speeds were determined for the migrating cyanobacteria. Heavily pigmented Oscillatoria sp. and
Spirulina cf. subsalsa migrated downward into the mat during the early morning and remained deep
until dusk, when upward migration occurred. The mean depth of the migration (not more than 0.4 to
0.5 mm) was directly correlated with the incident irradiance over the mat surface. We estimated that
light intensity at the upper boundary of the migrating cyanobacteria was attenuated to such an extent
that photoinhibition was effectively avoided but that intensities which saturated photosynthesis were
maintained through most of the daylight hours. Light was a cue of paramount importance in triggering
and modulating the migration of the cyanobacteria, even though the migrating phenomenon could not
be explained solely in terms of a light response. We failed to detect diel migration patterns for other
cyanobacterial species and filamentous anoxyphotobacteria. The sulfide-oxidizing bacterium
Beggiatoa sp. migrated as a band that followed low oxygen concentrations within the mat during
daylight hours. During the nighttime, part of this population migrated toward the mat surface, but a
significant proportion remained deep.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

261: Garnier F, Dubacq J P, Thomas J C.
Evidence for a transient association of new proteins with the Spirulina maxima phycobilisome in
relation to light intensity.
Plant Physiol. 1994 Oct;106(2):747-754.
PMID: 12232367
pdf: Garnier F 1994.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, B.
rsum:

Environmental parameters are known to affect phycobilisomes. Variations of their structure and
relative composition in phycobiliproteins have been observed. We studied the effect of irradiance
variations on the phycobilisome structure in the cyanobacterium Spirulina maxima and discovered the
appearance of new polypeptides associated with the phycobilisomes under an increased light
intensity. In high light, the six rods of phycocyanin associated with the central core of allophycocyanin
contained only one to two phycocyanin hexamers instead of the two to three they contained in low
light. The concomitant disappearance of a 33-kD linker polypeptide was observed. Moreover, in high
light three polypeptides of 29, 30, and 47 kD, clearly unrelated to linkers, were found to be associated
with the phycobilisome fraction: protein labeling showed that a specific association of these
polypeptides was induced by high light. One polypeptide, at least, would play the role of a chaperone
protein. Not only the synthesis of these proteins, which appeared slightly increased in high light, but
also their association with phycobilisome structure are light intensity dependent.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

262: Garnier F, Thomas J C.
Light regulation of phycobiliproteins in Spirulina maxima.
103
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 41-48.
PMID: pas
pdf: Garnier F 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

263: Garnova ES, Zhilina TN, Tourova TP, Lysenko AM.
Anoxynatronum sibiricum gen.nov., sp.nov. alkaliphilic saccharolytic anaerobe from cellulolytic
community of Nizhnee Beloe (Transbaikal region).
Extremophiles. 2003 J un;7(3):213-20.
PMID: 12768452
pdf: Garnova E 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $16S-rDNA, $Alkaliphile, $Anaerobe, $Phylogeny, $Saccharolytic-bacterium, $Soda-
lake.
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; biodiversity.
rsum:

New alkaliphilic anaerobic fermentative bacteria, strains Z-7981 and Z-7981', with Gram-positive cell
walls, were isolated from the cellulolytic community from the soda lake Nizhnee Beloye, south-east of
Baikal. Cells were motile rods, which differed in dimensions but, according to 98% DNA/DNA
homology, belonged to the same species. Strain Z-7981 was chosen as the type and studied in detail.
It did not produce spores and its cells were non-thermoresistant. It was a true alkaliphile with a growth
range from pH 7.1 to pH 10.1 and optimal pH for growth at pH 9.1. It was obligately dependent on
Na(+) and carbonate ions but not on Cl(-). Growth occurred in media with total sodium content from
0.076 M to 1.27 M Na(+)with a broad optimum from 0.25 to 0.86 M Na(+). Growth showed an
optimum at 35 degrees C, with absence of growth above 46 degrees C. The organism was
aerotolerant and was capable of fermentation in non-reducing medium at less than 4.75% O(2) in the
gas phase. Strain Z-7981 fermented mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, but only glutamate and
cysteine among the amino acids, and the proteinaceous substrates, chitin and dried Spirulina
biomass. Fermentation products were acetate and ethanol. Fe(3+) was reduced in a process that
yielded no energy. Phylogenetically the new organism belonged to cluster XI of the Gram-positive
bacteria with low G+C content and its closest neighboring taxon was Tindallia magadiensis. However,
according to its phenotypic and genotypic characters it did not belong to any known genus from this
group. We suggest a new genus and species with the name Anoxynatronum sibiricum and strain Z-
7981 as its type (=DSM15060).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

264: Gavrila L, Vladimirescu A, Ionescu MD, Gavrila VR, Gavrila LB, Rebedea I, Timus DM.
A particular structure associated to the nucleoid of cyanobacteria.
Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 1999 J an-Mar;58(1):37-47.
PMID: 11845443
pdf: Gavrila L 1999.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Regressive staining as well as beta-radiations or trypsin treatment on Synechocystis PCC6803 and
Spirulina platensis (Gom,-Geilteri.) whole cells or permeaplasts, respectively, have demonstrated the
presence of a particular structure associated to the nucleoid of cyanobacteria. This structure with a
tridimensional network aspect has been called scaffold-like. We presume that it represents the
cellular-molecular support for the supercoiling of the nucleoid of cyanobacteria.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

265: Gayda J P, Bertrand P, Deville A, More C, Roger G, Gibson J F, Cammack R.
104
Temperature dependence of the electronic spin-lattice relaxation time in a 2-iron-2-sulfur protein.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979 Nov 23;581(1):15-26.
PMID: 228745
pdf: Gayda J 1979.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

The ferredoxins are characterized by a strong temperature dependence of the electronic spin-lattice
relaxation time T1. The measurement of this dependence above the liquid nitrogen temperature has
been presented in earlier work [1] for the 2-iron-2-sulfur ferredoxin of the blue green alga Spirulina
maxima. The different relaxation mechanisms which could be efficient in this range were briefly
discussed. In the present paper, we extend the measurement of the temperature dependence of T1 to
the low temperature range 1.25 to 30 K. From 1.25 K to 13 K, T1 is obtained by the saturating pulse
method, whereas the continuous saturation method is used from 8 K to 30 K. The experimental
conditions concerning these methods are discussed. The analysis of the temperature dependence
curve over the whole range 1.25 K to 133 K shows clearly that different regions must be distinguished.
For each region the possible relaxation processes and the corresponding vibrational modes are
discussed.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

266: Gayda J P, Gibson J F, Cammack R, Hall DO, Mullinger R.
Spin lattice relaxation and exchange interaction in a 2-iron, 2-sulphur protein.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 May 20;434(1):154-63.
PMID: 181065
pdf: Gayda J 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; iron-sulphur-proteins.
rsum:

A two-iron-two-sulphur non-haem iron protein, the ferredoxin from Spirulina maxima, has been studied
by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the range where the spectrum loses
resolution with increasing temperature. The spin-lattice relaxation times were deduced from linewidths
measured by spectral simulation and their variation as a function of temperature is interpreted in terms
of an Orbach mechanism. On this basis, the exchange integral between the two iron atoms, assuming
as antiferromagnetic interaction between them, is estimated to be - 83 cm-1.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

267: Gaydou EM.
Les constituants alimentaires des cyanobactries.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 13.
PMID: pas
pdf: Gaydou E 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

268: Gelagutashvili ES, Belokobyl'skii AI, Rcheulishvili AN, Mosulishvili LM.
[Interaction of Pb(II) ions with C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis: effect of ionic strength].
Biofizika. 2003 J ul-Aug;48(4):589-94.
PMID: 14515476
pdf: Gelagutashvili E 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biochimie; C-phycocyanine.
rsum: article en russe

105
The effect of Pb(II) ions on C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was studied by the method of
fluorescence spectroscopy. The efficiency of quenching was analyzed using the Stern-Volmer relation.
Isotherms of adsorption were constructed, and the constants of binding of Pb(II) ions to C-
phycocyanin in solutions of varying ionic strength were determined by equilibrium dialysis and atomic
absorption spectroscopy. The constants of binding of Pb(II) ions to C-phycocyanin in 2, 20, and 50
mM NaN03 solutions were estimated to be 4.79 x 10(5), 3.63 x 10(5) and 2.82 x 10(5), respectively. It
was found that the interaction of Pb(II) ions with C-phycocyanin has a cooperative character at all
values of ionic strengths studied.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

269: Gemma C, Mesches MH, Sepesi B, Choo K, Holmes DB, Bickford PC.
Diets enriched in foods with high antioxidant activity reverse age-induced decreases in cerebellar
beta-adrenergic function and increases in proinflammatory cytokines.
J Neurosci. 2002 J ul 15;22(14):6114-20.
PMID: 12122072
pdf: Gemma C 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $aging; $cerebellum; $cytokines; $antioxidants; $nor-epinephrine; $inflammation.
mots-cls Antenna: , B.
rsum:

Antioxidants and diets supplemented with foods high in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)
reverse age-related decreases in cerebellar beta-adrenergic receptor function. We examined whether
this effect was related to the antioxidant capacity of the food supplement and whether an antioxidant-
rich diet reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebellum. Aged male Fischer 344
rats were given apple (5 mg dry weight), spirulina (5 mg), or cucumber (5 mg) either in 0.5 ml water by
oral gavage or supplied in the rat chow daily for 14 d. Electrophysiologic techniques revealed a
significant decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor function in aged control rats. Spirulina reversed this
effect. Apple (a food with intermediate ORAC) had an intermediate effect on cerebellar beta-
adrenergic receptor physiology, and cucumber (low ORAC) had no effect, indicating that the reversal
of beta-adrenergic receptor function decreases might be related to the ORAC dose. The mRNA of the
proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and TNFbeta was also examined.
RNase protection assays revealed increased levels of these cytokines in the aged cerebellum.
Spirulina and apple significantly downregulated this age-related increase in proinflammatory cytokines,
whereas cucumber had no effect, suggesting that one mechanism by which these diets work is by
modulation of an age-related increase in inflammatory responses. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was
measured as a marker of oxidative damage. Apple and spirulina but not cucumber decreased MDA
levels in the aged rats. In summary, the improved beta-adrenergic receptor function in aged rats
induced by diets rich in antioxidants is related to the ORAC dose, and these diets reduce
proinflammatory cytokine levels.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

270: Ghoshal S, Mukhopadhyay MJ , Mukherjee A.
Clastogenic effects of dietary supplement--Spirulina alga, and some medicinal plant products from
Boswellia serrata, Withania somnifera on mice.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Oct;39(10):1068-70.
PMID: 11883518
pdf: Ghoshal S 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Pretreatment of aqueous extracts of Zyrulina (Spirulina), Aswagandha (Withania) and Nopane
(Boswellia) on colchicine induced chromosome damage showed weakness of clastogenic activity in
Swiss albino mice. None of the treatments increased significantly the number of chromosome
aberrations.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

106
271: Ginturi EN, Akopov FKh, Rcheulishvili AN, Gelagutasvili ES, Efremova EY, Belokobilsky AI.
Effect of magnetic field gradient on biomass growth and Cd(II) binding process by S.platensis cells.
In: 7th International Conference on Pharmacy and Applied Physical Chemistry, Innsbruck, Austria,
2003. 1 page.
PMID: pas
pdf: Ginturi E 2003.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

--------------------------------------------------------------------

272: Girardin-Andrani C.
Spiruline: systme sanguin, systme immunitaire et cancer.
[Spirulina: Blood supply, immune system and cancer.]
Phytothrapie 3, No 4 (2005) 158-161.
PMID: pas
pdf: Girardin-Andrani C 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spiruline; $Microalgue; $Cyanobactrie; $Protine; $Vitamine; $Oligolment;
$Phycocyanine; $EPO; $Cancer; $Systme-immunitaire; $Polysaccharide-membranaire; $Infection-
nosocomiale; $Nutrition; $Carence; $Spirulina; $Microalgae; $Cyanobacteria; $Protein; $Vitamin;
$Trace element; $Phycocyanin; $Immune system; $Membrane-polysaccaride; $Nosocomial-infection;
$Deficiency.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis, arthrospira-maxima, D, B.
rsum:

La spiruline est une cyanobactrie faisant partie des plus anciennes formes de vie terrestres.
Consomme depuis des sicles par certains peuples primitifs dAfrique et dAmrique, elle intresse
les scientifiques depuis plusieurs dcennies par sa richesse nutritionnelle et ses multiples intrts
thrapeutiques. Riche en protines, vitamines, oligolments, molcules complexes, la spiruline
permet de couvrir de nombreuses carences nutritives. La recherche scientifique de multiples pays a
mis en vidence son intrt dans la lutte contre le cancer, le vieillissement cellulaire, les maladies
infectieuses et les baisses du systme immunitaire, ainsi quune action majeure dans le
fonctionnement de la moelle osseuse (stimulation de lrythropose).
La spiruline na pas encore livr tous ses secrets et il est fort probable que les chercheurs lui
dcouvrent encore prochainement de nouvelles applications thrapeutiques.

[Spirulina is a cyanobacteria which is among the oldest forms of life on earth. For centuries it has been
eaten by certain primitive populations from Africa and America and scientists have taken an interest in
it for several decades because of its nutritional wealth and therapeutic significance. Rich in proteins,
vitamins, trace elements and complex molecules, Spirulina helps to protect against certain nutritional
deficiencies. Scientific research from many countries has given prominence to the part it plays in the
prevention of cancer, cellular ageing, infectious diseases and reduced immune system, as well as
playing an important part in the functioning of the medulla (stimulation of the erythropoiesis). Spirulina
has not given away all its secrets yet and it is likely that further research will help to discover more
therapeutic uses in the near future].

--------------------------------------------------------

273: Gireesh T, Nair PP, Sudhakaran PR.
Studies on the bioavailability of the provitamin A carotenoid, beta-carotene, using human exfoliated
colonic epithelial cells.
Br J Nutr. 2004 Aug;92(2):241-5.
PMID: 15333155
pdf: Gireesh T 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Vitamin-A; $b-Carotene; $Colonic-epithelial-cells.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

107
The possibility of using exfoliated colonic epithelial cells for assessing the bioavailability of beta-
carotene was examined. Analysis of exfoliated colonic epithelial cells showed the presence of beta-
carotene and vitamin A. The beta-carotene content was significantly lower in cells from stool samples
of subjects on a beta-carotene-poor diet than those receiving a single dose of a beta-carotene
supplement. Colonic epithelial cells isolated from stool samples collected daily during a wash-out
period while the subjects were on a beta-carotene-poor diet showed a steady decrease in beta-
carotene content, reaching the lowest value on day 7. Kinetic analysis showed that a single dose of a
beta-carotene supplement in the form of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) or agathi (Sesbania grandiflora)
after the wash-out period caused an increase in the beta-carotene content after a lag period of 5-7 d,
but the vitamin A levels during these periods were not significantly affected. Analysis of plasma beta-
carotene concentration also showed similar changes, which correlated with those of exfoliated colonic
cells. A relationship between the beta-carotene content of the diet and that of the colonic epithelial
cells suggests that analysis of the beta-carotene content in exfoliated human colonic epithelial cells is
a useful non-invasive method to assess the bioavailability of provitamin A beta-carotene.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

274: Gitelson A, Qiuang H, Richmond A.
Photic volume in photobioreactors supporting ultrahigh population densities of the photoautotroph
Spirulina platensis.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996 May;62(5):1570-1573.
PMID: 16535309
pdf: Gitelson A 1996.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Characterization of the photic zone and light penetration depth in cultures with ultrahigh cell densities
represents a major issue in mass cultures of phytoautotrophic microorganisms grown in enclosed
photobioreactors. In a study of the effect of underwater optical properties on the penetration depth of
photosynthetically active radiation, the inherent optical properties of algal suspensions, i.e., absorption
and scattering coefficients, as well as their apparent optical properties, i.e., the reflectance and the
vertical attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance, were determined by using high-spectral-
resolution radiometric measurements. The vertical attenuation coefficient was used to estimate
quantitatively the depth of light penetration into a reactor containing an ultrahigh cell density
(chlorophyll concentration, up to 300,000 mg m(sup-3)). For such a high cell density, the photic
volume in the reactor was found to be extremely small; nevertheless, it differed between the blue and
red light (less than 0.06 mm) and the green light (about 0.5 mm). This suggests a singular role for
green light under the unique circumstances existing in ultrahigh-cell-density cultures of
photoautotrophs.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

275: Gobets B, van Stokkum IHM, Rgner M, Kruip J , Schlodder, Karapetyan NV, Dekker J P, Van
Grondelle R.
Fluorescence kinetics of Photosystem I core particle with different low energy chlorophyll content: a
unified quantitative analysis.
In: PS2001 Proceedings of the 12th Int. Cong. on Photosynthesis (CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood,
2001).
PMID: pas
pdf: Gobets B 2001a.pdf
mots-cls article: $spirulina-platensis, $target-analysis, $streakcamera.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------

276: Gobets B, van Stokkum IH, Rogner M, Kruip J , Schlodder E, Karapetyan NV, Dekker J P, van
Grondelle R.
108
Time-resolved fluorescence emission measurements of photosystem I particles of various
cyanobacteria: a unified compartmental model.
Biophys J . 2001 J ul;81(1):407-24.
PMID: 11423424
pdf: Gobets B 2001.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; photosystems.
rsum:

Photosystem I (PS-I) contains a small fraction of chlorophylls (Chls) that absorb at wavelengths longer
than the primary electron donor P700. The total number of these long wavelength Chls and their
spectral distribution are strongly species dependent. In this contribution we present room temperature
time-resolved fluorescence data of five PS-I core complexes that contain different amounts of these
long wavelength Chls, i.e., monomeric and trimeric photosystem I particles of the cyanobacteria
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus, and Spirulina platensis, which were
obtained using a synchroscan streak camera. Global analysis of the data reveals considerable
differences between the equilibration components (3.4-15 ps) and trapping components (23-50 ps) of
the various PS-I complexes. We show that a relatively simple compartmental model can be used to
reproduce all of the observed kinetics and demonstrate that the large kinetic differences are purely the
result of differences in the long wavelength Chl content. This procedure not only offers rate constants
of energy transfer between and of trapping from the compartments, but also well-defined room
temperature emission spectra of the individual Chl pools. A pool of red shifted Chls absorbing around
702 nm and emitting around 712 nm was found to be a common feature of all studied PS-I particles.
These red shifted Chls were found to be located neither very close to P700 nor very remote from
P700. In Synechococcus trimeric and Spirulina monomeric PS-I cores, a second pool of red Chls was
present which absorbs around 708 nm, and emits around 721 nm. In Spirulina trimeric PS-I cores an
even more red shifted second pool of red Chls was found, absorbing around 715 nm and emitting at
730 nm.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

277: Godia F, Albiol J , Montesinos J L, Perez J , Creus N, Cabello F, Mengual X, Montras A, Lasseur
Ch.
MELISSA: a loop of interconnected bioreactors to develop life support in space.
J Biotechnol. 2002 Nov 13;99(3):319-30.
PMID: 12385718
pdf: Godia F 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Advanced-life-support; $Closed-ecological-systems; $Packed-bed-bioreactors;
$Gas-lift-bioreactors; $Continuous-operation.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biocycles, bioreactors, B.
rsum:

The development of a loop of interconnected continuous bioreactors, aimed to provide life support in
space, is reported. The complete loop concept consists of four bioreactors and one higher plant
compartment. For its realization the continuous and controlled operation of the bioreactors is
characterized, up to the pilot scale level, first for each individual reactor, second for the interconnected
reactor operation. The results obtained with the two more advanced bioreactors in the Micro
Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELISSA) loop are described more specifically. These
reactors consist of a packed-bed reactor working with an immobilized co-culture of Nitrosomonas and
Nitrobacter cells, and an external loop gas-lift photobioreactor for the culture of the cyanobacteria
Spirulina platensis. Their individual operation for long duration runs has been achieved and
characterized, and their interconnected operation at pilot scale is reported.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

278: Golubkina NA, Mazo VK, Gmoshinskii IV, Zorin SN, Tambiev AKh, Kirikova NN.
[The selenium haemostasis during experimental anaphylaxis reaction in rats treated with reduced
glutathione and selenium enriched spirulina].
Vopr Med Khim. 2000 J an-Feb;46(1):22-7.
PMID: 10802882
109
pdf: Golubkina N 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en russe

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279: Gomez-Coronado DJ , Ibanez E, Ruperez FJ , Barbas C.
Tocopherol measurement in edible products of vegetable origin.
J Chromatogr A. 2004 Oct 29;1054(1-2):227-33.
PMID: 15553148
pdf: Gomez-Coronado D 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; B.
rsum:

Since natural antioxidants present increasing interest for food industry due to their beneficial effect on
health, new potential sources have been screened among edible aromatic plants and a microalgae,
Spirulina platensis. The determination was performed after optimising a previously validated method,
because important differences have been found among values described in literature for tocopherol
content in products of vegetable origin. Values obtained ranged from 3.42 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g
of dill to 132.2 mg/100 g of fresh bay and from 0.14 mg gamma-tocopherol/100 g of spearmint to 3.45
mg/100 g of parsley. In all cases results were calculated from fresh leaves. Preliminary experiments
were developed with bay (Laurus nobilis) plant to devise the supercritical fluid extraction of
tocopherols, generating environmentally friendly processes to selectively extract fractions enriched
with antioxidant compounds while removing fractions corresponding to essential oils, that is, those that
correspond to the characteristic aroma of the plants. Another striking result has been the tocopherol
content in the microalgae, 1.3 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 g of dried commercial spirulina, which do not
justify the supposed source of antioxidant vitamins. Results suggest the need of more reliable
determinations of tocopherols in vegetable sources to be included in databases.

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280: Gomes de Lima Araujo K, Dumont Facchinetti A, Peireira dos Santos C.
Influncia da ingesto de biomassas de spirulina (Arthrospira sp.) sobre o peso corporal e consumo
de rao em ratos.
[Influence of consumption of spirulina (Arthrospira sp.) biomasses on body weight and food intake in
rats].
Cinc Tecnol Aliment 23, No 1 (2003) 6-9.
PMID: pas
pdf: Gomes de Lima Araujo K 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Biomassa-de-spirulina; $peso-corporal; $dieta-de-emagrecimento; $Spirulina-
biomass; $body-weight; $slimming-diet.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis; arthrospira-maxima; m.
B: **Medicine; **Spirulina; **spirulina; **mouse.
rsum :

Neste trabalho verificou-se a influncia do consumo de biomassas provenientes de trs diferentes
origens sobre o peso corporal e consumo de rao em ratos Wistar, machos e adultos. Grupos que
consumiram 5% ou 10% (p/p) da biomassa foram comparados comum controle. A biomassa I no
promoveu diferena significativa no consumo de rao ou peso corporal dos trs grupos. A biomassa
II no causou diferena significativa no peso corporal, mas sim no consumo de rao. A biomassa III
no causou diferena significativa no consumo de rao, nem no peso corporal, mas houve tendncia
de maior ganho de peso para o grupo que consumiu a rao contendo 10% de spirulina. Os
resultados obtidos indicam que diferentes biomassas podem apresentar diferentes propriedades, mas
no confirmam a alegao de que a spirulina pode levar a diminuio de peso ou de consumo de
alimento.

[In this work, it was verified the influence of the consumption of biomass from different origins on the
body weight gain and food consumption by adult male Wistar rats. Groups fed the biomasses in the
110
levels of 5% or 10% (w/w) were compared with a control. Biomass I did not promote significant
differences in food consumption or body weight. Biomass II did not cause significant difference in the
body weight, but it caused an increase in food consumption. Biomass III did not cause significant
differences in food consumption or body weight, but there was a tendency of increasing body weight
for the 10% spirulina group. The hypothesis that different biomasses may have different properties
was confirmed, but not the claim that spirulina may decrease body weight or food consumption].

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281: Gong R, Ding Y, Liu H, Chen Q, Liu Z.
Lead biosorption and desorption by intact and pretreated spirulina maxima biomass.
Chemosphere. 2005 J an;58(1):125-30.
PMID: 15522341
pdf: Gong R 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Biosorption; $Desorption; $Lead; $Pretreatment; $Spirulina-maxima.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; puration; plomb; biosorption.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **bioaccumulation.
rsum:

In order to search for locally available and untried biomaterials in China with high removal capacity of
heavy metals from wastewater, the feasibility of Spirulina maxima as biosorbent for lead removal and
recovery from aqueous solution was investigated. The lead biosorption was studied by using intact
biomass and pretreated biomass of S. maxima. The effects of operational conditions (e.g. pH, contact
time, biomass concentration etc.) on lead biosorption were investigated. The biosorption was solution
pH dependent and the maximum adsorption was obtained at a solution pH of about 5.5. The
adsorption equilibrium was reached in 60 min. The biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm
model. The maximum removal ratios of lead were about 84% in intact biomass and 92% in pretreated
biomass. The lead adsorbed could be desorbed effectively by 0.1 M nitric acid, EDTA and hydrochloric
acid. The results in this study indicated that pretreated biomass of S. maxima was a promising
candidate for removing lead from wastewater.

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282: Gonzalez R, Rodriguez S, Romay C, Gonzalez A, Armesto J , Remirez D, Merino N.
Anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin extract in acetic acid-indced colitis in rats.
Pharmacol Res 39, No 1, (1999) 1055-1059.
PMID: 10079148
pdf: Gonzalez R 1999.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , Arthrospira-maxima.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, *phycocyanin, **anti-inflammatory, **mouse.
rsum:

The anti-inflammatory effect of c-phycocyanin extract was studied in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.
Phycocyanin (150, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 p.o.) was administered 30 min before induction of colitis with
enema of 1 ml of 4% acetic acid per rat. Twenty-four hours later myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was
determined as well as histopathological and ultrastructural studies were carried out in colonic tissue.
Phycocyanin substantially reduced MPO activity which was increased in the control colitis group. Also,
histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed inhibition in inflammatory cell infiltration and
reduction to some extent in colonic damage in rats treated with phycocyanin. The probable role of
antioxidative and the scavenging properties of phycocyanin against reactive oxygen species in the
anti-colitic effect is discussed in this paper. To our knowledge this is the first report on the anti-
inflammatory effect of phycocyanin in an experimental model of colitis.(c) 1999 The Italian
Pharmacological Society.

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283: Gonzalez Arroyo S, Luna Lagunes RM, Hernandez Velarde R, Soriano Lucio P, Torres Gallardo
J .
[Preliminary study of bacterial contamination in a seminatural culture of Spirulina].
111
Salud Publica Mex. 1976 J ul-Aug;18(4):705-10.
PMID: 1019769
pdf: Gonzalez Arroyo S 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en espagnol

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284: Gonzalez de Rivera C, Miranda-Zamora R, Diaz-Zagoya J C, et al.
Preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fatty liver induced by a fructose-rich diet inthe rat, a
preliminary report.
Life Sci 1993;53:57-61.
PMID: 8515682
pdf: Gonzalez de Rivera C 1993.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; mdecine; organes; foie.
rsum:

Cyanobacteria Spirulina maxima from Texcoco Lake in Mexico was administered as a 5% component
of a purified diet, to Wistar rats together with a high percentage of fructose (60%) and its effect on
several lipid fractions of plasma and liver was studied and compared to those of rats fed purified diets
containing 60% of glucose or 60% of fructose. A preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fructose-
induced increase of the liver triglycerides level was observed together with an elevation of the
phospholipid concentration in this tissue. On the other hand Spirulina maxima produced a plasma
cholesterol level even lower than that observed in the control group.

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285: Gorban' EM, Orynchak MA, Virstiuk NG, Kuprash LP, Panteleimonova TM, Sharabura LB.
[Clinical and experimental study of spirulina efficacy in chronic diffuse liver diseases].
Lik Sprava. 2000 Sep;(6):89-93.
PMID: 11455931
pdf: Gorban' E 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; mdecine; organes; foie.
rsum: en ukrainien

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286: Gorban' EN, Kuprash LP, Gorban' NE.
[Spirulina: perspectives of the application in medicine].
Lik Sprava. 2003 Oct-Nov;(7):100-10. Review.
PMID: 14723150
pdf: Gorban' E 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en russe

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287: Gordillo FJ L, J imnez C, Figueroa FL, Xavier Niell F.
Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 and N supply on photosynthesis, growth and cell composition of
the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira).
J Appl Phycol 10, No 5 (1998) 461-469.
PMID: pas
pdf: Gordillo F 1998.pdf
mots-cls article: $Cyanobacterium, $Spirulina-platensis, $Arthrospira, $CO2, $organic-carbon,
$nitrogen, $photosynthesis, $batch-culture.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
112
rsum:

The consequences of the addition of CO2 (1%) in cultures of S. platensis are examined in terms of
biomass yield, cell composition and external medium composition. CO2 enrichment was tested under
nitrogen saturating and nitrogen limiting conditions. Increasing CO2 levels did not cause any change
in maximum growth rate while it decreased maximum biomass yield. Protein and pigments were
decreased and carbohydrate increased by high CO2, but the capability to store carbohydrates was
saturated. C:N ratio remained unchanged while organic carbon released to the external medium was
enhanced, suggesting that organic carbon release in S. platensis is an efficient mechanism for the
maintenance of the metabolic integrity, balancing the cell C:N ratio in response to environmental CO2
changes. CO2 affected the pigment content: Phycocyanin, chlorophyll and carotenoids were reduced
in around 50%, but the photosynthetic parameters were slightly changed. We propose that in S.
platensis CO2 could act promoting degradation of pigments synthetised in excess in normal CO2
conditions, that are not necessary for light harvesting. Nitrogen assimilation was significantly not
affected by CO2, and it is proposed that the inability to stimulate N assimilation by CO2 enrichment
determined the lack of response in maximum growth rate.

----------------------------

288: Gorobets OB, Blinkova LP, Baturo AP.
[Action of Spirulina platensis on bacterial viruses].
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2002 Nov-Dec;(6):18-21.
PMID: 12506621
pdf: Gorobets O 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The impact of the biomass of the blue-green microalga (cyanobacterium) S. platensis on
bacteriophage T4 (bacterial virus) has been evaluated. The study revealed that the addition of S.
platensis biomass into the agar nutrient medium, followed by sterilization with 2% chloroform and
thermal treatment, produced an inhibiting or stimulating effect on the reproduction of the
bacteriophage in Escherichia coli B cells, depending on the concentration of S. platensis and the
multiplicity of phage infection, as well as on the fact whether the microalgae were added during the
first cycle of the development of the virus. The reproduction of the bacteriophage in E. coli B was
influenced by the method and duration of the sterilization of the nutrient medium with S. platensis.

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289: Gorobets OB, Blinkova LP, Baturo AP.
[Stimulating and inhibiting effect of Spirulina platensis on microorganisms].
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Nov-Dec;(6):20-4.
PMID: 11881488
pdf: Gorobets O 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The blue-green microalga (cyanobacterium) S. platensis and the complex of its metabolites in the
culture fluid being added into nutrient agar in doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 10 mg/ml, may produce a
stimulating and inhibiting effect on microorganisms. In Spirulina biomass and in culture fluid
substances which may be associated with the stimulation or inhibition of the growth of some
microorganisms are supposedly contained. The manifestation of stimulating or inhibiting properties
depended on the concentration of S. platensis and the complex of its metabolites, as well as on
sterilization methods of nutrient media supplemented with these substances.

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290: Gowda NK, Ramana J V, Prasad CS, Singh K.
113
Micronutrient content of certain tropical conventional and unconventional feed resources of Southern
India.
Trop Anim Health Prod. 2004 J an;36(1):77-94.
PMID: 14979561
pdf: Gowda N 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

The ash, silica and certain important micronutrients were estimated in conventional and
unconventional feed and fodder resources available in Southern India. Commonly used dry
roughages, such as paddy straw, ragi straw, maize kadbi/stalk, jowar kadbi/stalk, bajra stalk and
wheat straw, were high in ash (9.9% +/- 0.77%) and silica (6.4% +/- 0.65%) and low in most of the
other micronutrients, except iron, with paddy straw containing most silica (>9%). Cultivated non-
leguminous (maize, jowar) and improved green crops (hybrid napier, guinea, green panic, NB-21, CO-
1) were also high in ash (10.5% +/- 0.60% and 12.5% +/- 0.51%) but were moderate sources of P, Mg
and Cu and good sources of Zn (98 +/- 13.8 ppm and 55 +/- 6.7 ppm). Leguminous green fodders
(stylosanthus, lucerne, cow pea, soyabean) were excellent sources of Ca (1.9% +/- 0.16%), Mg
(0.40% +/- 0.05%), Cu (30 +/- 5.2 ppm), Zn (121 +/- 14.7 ppm) and Fe (1234 +/- 166 ppm) and
moderate sources of P. Mixed local grasses and weeds were high in silica (6.9% +/- 1.00%) but were
good sources of Cu, Zn and Fe. Cereal grains (maize, wheat, rice, ragi) were low in ash (2.9% +/-
0.33%) and were relatively poor sources of Ca (0.22% +/- 0.03%), Mg (0.19% +/- 0.03%) and Cu (13
+/- 3.1 ppm). Pulses were low to medium sources of most minerals and good sources of Fe (1230 +/-
293 ppm). Oil seed cake/extractions (groundnut cake, cotton seed cake, soyabean meal, sunflower
cake, safflower cake) and cereal by-products (rice polish, rice bran, wheat bran) were excellent
sources of P (1.1% +/- 0.47% and 2.3% +/- 0.19%) and good sources of Zn (65 +/- 3.9 ppm and 66 +/-
10.7 ppm) and Fe (938 +/- 130 ppm and 662 +/- 126 ppm). Among the unconventional feeds
screened, orange peel, sunflower heads, meat meal, rubber seed cake, spirulina algae and sea weeds
contained plentiful Ca, Zn and Fe: tree leaves/top feeds (mulberry, erythrina, glyricidia, banana,
subabul, groundnut haulms) were excellent sources of Ca (1.5% +/- 0.13%), Zn (120 +/- 22.9 ppm)
and Fe (1033 +/- 133 ppm) but relatively poor sources of P. Soyabean husk, cocoa seed husk, rubber
seed cake and meat meal were moderate to good sources of P (1.0% and 0.33%). The high Zn and
Fe values of most feeds/fodders were probably due to soil contamination. This account of the
micronutrient content of feed/fodder resources should help in strategic supplementation intended to
alleviate local deficiencies.

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291: Grillet G, Villard C.
La formation la production artisanale de spiruline dans un Centre de formation dpartemental du
Ministre de l'agriculture et de la pche - France.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 177-179.
PMID: pas
pdf: Grillet G 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

292: Gros J B, Poughon L, Lasseur C, Tikhomirov AA.
Recycling efficiencies of C, H, O, N, S, and P elements in a Biological Life Support System based on
microorganisms and higher plants.
Adv Space Res. 2003;31(1):195-9.
PMID: 12580171
pdf: Gros J 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; biocycles, bioreactors.
rsum:

114
MELiSSA is a microorganism based artificial ecosystem conceived as a tool for understanding the
behavior of ecosystems and developing the technology for future Manned Space Missions. MELiSSA
is composed of four compartments colonized by the microorganisms required by the function of this
ecosystem : breakdown of waste produced by men, regeneration of atmosphere and biosynthesis of
edible biomass. This paper reports the mass balance description of a Biological Life Support System
composed of the MELiSSA loop and of a Higher Plant Compartment working in parallel with the
photosynthetic Spirulina compartment producing edible biomass. The recycling efficiencies of the
system are determined and compared for various working conditions of the MELiSSA loop with or
without the HPC.

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293: Grzanna R, Polotsky A, Phan PV, Pugh N, Pasco D, Frondoza CG.
Immolina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide fraction of spirulina, enhances chemokine
expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells.
J Altern Complement Med. 2006 J un;12(5):429-35.
PMID: 16813506
pdf: Grzanna R 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, A, B.
rsum:

INTRODUCTION: Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) is a dietary supplement valued for its immune-
enhancing properties. We previously reported that the immunostimulatory effect of spirulina can be
traced to a high-molecular- weight polysaccharide fraction. This fraction, labeled Immolina, activates
nuclear factor kappa-B in human monocytic THP-1 cells and increases expression of proinflammatory
cytokines.
OBJ ECTIVE: To characterize further the immunostimulatory effects of Immolina on THP-1 cells, we
evaluated its effect on genes encoding the chemokines interleukin (IL)-8, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-
1beta, IP-10, the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1beta, and the enzyme cyclo-
oxygenase-2 (COX-2).
METHODS: THP-1 cells were exposed to concentrations of Immolina ranging from 1 ng/mL to 100
microg/mL and changes in gene expression were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase
chain reaction (RT-PCR). For comparison, THP-1 cells were activated with 1 ng/mL of TNF-alpha, 10
ng/mL of IL-1beta, or 10 ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide using the same assay conditions. To assess the
response of THP-1 cells to Immolina at the protein level, we probed culture supernatants using a
cytokine array immunoblot assay.
RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis revealed that Immolina dose-dependently increased the expression of all
5 chemokines tested as well as the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and COX-2. The cytokine array
immunoblot assay revealed an increase in the chemokines IL-8 and MIP-1beta. Thymidine uptake
experiments verified that Immolina did not affect the viability and growth rate of THP-1 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the experiments demonstrate that Immolina activates THP-1 cells in a
manner that is consistent with the recruitment of diverse populations of leukocytes in response to
inflammatory and infectious signals.

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294: Guan Y, Guo B.
[Inhibition activity of spirulina platensis proteins photo-immobilization biomaterial on proliferation of
cancer cells].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2002 J an;19(1):1-3.
PMID: 11951491
pdf: Guan Y 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en chinois

The bioactive protein-phycocyanin and all the proteins of Spirulina Platensis were isolated and
purified. Photo-reactive proteins were synthesized by coupling the proteins with (N-(4-
azidobenzoyloxy)succinimide) and were spread onto the 24-well cell culture polystyrene plate. Then
115
the coated surface was exposed to ultraviolet irradiation for chemical fixation of proteins via the
conversion of the phenylazido group to the highly reactive phenyl-nitrene which spontaneously formed
covalent bonds with neighboring hydrocarbons. On these proteins-immobilized polystyrene plates, the
liver cancer cells 7402 were cultured under the serum-free conditions, and the inhibition activity on
proliferation of liver cancer cells was investigated and analyzed.

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295: Gudin C, Chaumont D.
Cell fragility - The key problem of microalgae mass production in closed photobioreactors.
Bioresource Technol 38, No 2-3 (1991) 145-151.
PMID: pas
pdf: Gudin C 1991.papier
mots-cls article: $Microalgae; $cell-fragility; $hydrodynamic-stress; $pump; $photobioreactor;
$biomass-productivity; $Porphyridium-cruentum; $Haematococcus-pluvialis; $Dunaliella-bardawill;
$Chlamydomonas-reinhardi.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; m; B.
rsum :

The gap between the theoretical biological potential of microalgae and the biomass productivity
obtained with algal culture in tubular biophotoreactors is due to a reduced growth rate related to
hydrodynamic stress of pumping. High levels of mixing are necessary to reach a turbulent flow of the
culture, in order to optimize the light regime. The optimal conditions of pumping to produce this
significant liquid mixing may produce some cell damage. Factors affecting this hydrodynamic stress
(geometry of the bioreactor involved, type of pump utilized, morphology of algal cells, physiological
conditions of microalgae, etc.) are discussed.

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296: Gurin-Dumartrait E, Moyse A.
Caracteristiques biologiques des spirulines.
[Biological characteristics of the spirulines].
Ann Nutr Aliment. 1975;29(6):489-96.
PMID: 824993
pdf: Guerin-Dumartrait E 1975.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

The biological characteristics of Spirulina are reported in this study. The cellular structure and
photosynthetic membrane structure of Spirulina (Cyanoschizophyta) were viewed by electron
microscopy after freeze-etching. Special characteristics of the alga, its ecological behavior in natural
carbonated water and its energetic behavior in the laboratory cultures are also reported.

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297: Guerrero R, Urmeneta J , Rampone G.
Distribution of types of microbial mats at the Ebro Delta, Spain.
Biosystems. 1993;31(2-3):135-44.
PMID: 8155846
pdf: Guerrero R 1993.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; biodiversity; ecology.
rsum:

The distribution and types of microbial mats of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are described. The
studied area is La Banya spit, formed by a narrow sand bar and a peninsula, located south of the main
body of the Ebro Delta. Sea water can penetrate into the back shore through channel inlets, cutting
the steeper coastal barrier of the open sea side of the spit or through the complex drainage channel
system of the low-energy beaches in the inner Alfacs Bay. Sea water can stay in the back shore
116
almost permanently, trapped in isolated depressions and lagoons. The surface distribution of microbial
mats in La Banya spit has been studied by means of a detailed interpretation of vertical aerial
photographs and field work consisting of mapping and sampling. The observed different ratios of
cyanobacteria, as well as the presence and thickness of the layers of anoxygenic sulfur phototrophic
bacteria, depend on the moisture content, the system stability, and the age of the microbial mat.
Lyngbya, Oscillatoria, and Spirulina are the first cyanobacteria able to colonize the bare sediment.
Lyngbya dominates in young microbial mats and in mats exposed to frequent desiccation. Microcoleus
is the second most important colonist in the microbial succession. In relation to water, the alternation
of emergence and submergence is optimal for the maximal development of Microcoleus-dominated
microbial mats. We classify the microbial mats of the Ebro Delta into five main types: (i) Lyngbya-
dominated type, in which the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are absent and the black layer of
sulfate-reducers is very thin; (ii) Spirulina-dominated type; (iii) Oscillatoria-dominated type, which is
found only at one site and covers a small area--this type, like the Spirulina-type mat, is not common in
the Ebro Delta; (iv) Lyngbya/Microcoleus-transition type, in which Microcoleus and Lyngbya coexist in
similar proportions--in the more developed mats of this group a layer of purple bacteria is usually
present, and the black layer of sulfate-reducers is usually also well developed; and (v) Microcoleus-
dominated type--in La Banya spit, this type is found in localities with relatively stable conditions. These
areas are wet during most of the year. After appropriate conditions of diagenesis, the most highly
developed microbial mats may be preserved as laminated hard sediments. The field study has been
completed with cultivation, isolation, and identification of the main cyanobacterial genera under
laboratory conditions.

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298: Guglielmi G, Rippka R, Tandeau de Marsac.
Main properties that justify the different taxonomic position of Spirulina spp. and Arthrospira spp.
among cyanobacteria.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastel, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 13-23.
PMID: pas
pdf: Guglielmi G 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
remarques: planches en couleur page 211

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299: Gupta R, Ahuja P, Khan S, Saxena RK, Mohapatra H.
Microbial biosorbents: Meeting challenges of heavy metal pollution in aqueous solutions.
Current Sci 78 (2000) 967-973.
PMID: pas
pdf: Gupta R 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

Heavy metal pollution in the aquatic system has become a serious threat today. The chemical
processes that exist are not economical for treating a large volume of water bodies of dilute metal
concentration. In this endeavour, microbial biomass has emerged as an option for developing
economic and ecofriendly wastewater treatment processes. Non-living and dead microbial biomass
may passively sequester metal(s) by the process of biosorption from dilute solutions. This biosorption
technology has advantages of low operating cost, is effective in dilute solutions and generates
minimum effluent. Here the dead microbial biomass functions as an ion exchanger by virtue of various
reactive groups available on the cell surface such as carboxyl, amine, imidazole, phosphate,
sulfhydryl, sulfate and hydroxyl. The process can be made economical by procuring natural bulk
biomass or spent biomass from various fermentation industries. The performance of a biosorbent can
further be improved by various physical and chemical treatments. The pretreatments modify the cell
surface either by removing or masking the groups or exposing more metal binding sites. Immobilized
biomass of these microbes offers the continuous sorptiondesorption system in a fixed bed reactor.
117
Various commercial microbial biosorbents available are AlgaSorb, AMT-Bioclaim and Bio-fix. The
economics of these sorbents merit their commercialization, over chemical ion exchangers.

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300: Haldemann F, J ourdan J P.
Modle de simulation de production de spiruline: dmonstration et validation par comparaison avec
des rsultats d'exploitation.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 49-51.
PMID: pas
pdf: Haldemann F 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

301: Haldemann F.
Production industrielle en Equateur.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 86-87.
PMID: pas
pdf: Haldemann F 2004a.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

302: Hall DO, Markov SA, Watanabe Y, Krishna Rao K.
The potential applications of cyanobacterial photosynthesis for clean technologies.
Photosynthesis Research 46, No 1-2 (1995) 159-167.
PMID: pas
pdf: Hall D 1995.papier
mots-cls article: $Anabea-Azolla-biofertiliser; $biocoil-photoreactors; $CO2-mitigation; $hydrogen-
production; $immobilised-cyanobacteria; $water-depollution.
mots-cls Antenna: ; m; B.
rsum :

Natural photosynthesis may be adapted to advantage in the development of clean energy
technologies. Efficient biocatalysts that can be used in solar energy conversion technologies are the
cyanobacteria. Photobioreactors incorporating cyanobacteia have been used to demonstrate (a) the
production of hydrogen gas, (b) the assimilation of CO2 with the production of algal biomass, (c) the
excretion of ammonium, and (d) the removal of nitrate and phosphate from contamined waters.

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303: Hall DO, Rao KK, Cammack R.
A stable and easily extractable plant-type ferredoxin from the blue-green alga Spirulina maxima.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1972 May 26;47(4):798-802.
PMID: 4402074
pdf: Hall D 1972.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

The 2Fe +2S plant-type ferredoxin from the blue-green alga can be easily extracted in high yield -35
mg ferredoxin/100 g dried cells. The cells can be stored as a dried powder which is readily obtainable.
The purified ferredoxin is very stable even aerobically at room temperature. It is much more stable
than the five other plant-type ferredoxins with which it was compared. The biological activity of all
ferredoxins was comparable.
118

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304: Hamadeh MJ , Hoffer LJ .
Effect of protein restriction on (15)N transfer from dietary [(15)N]alanine and [(15)N]Spirulina platensis
into urea.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;281(2):E349-56.
PMID: 11440912
pdf: Hamedeh M 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $humans; $stable-isotope; $fed-state; $amino-acid-oxidation.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Six normal men consumed a mixed test meal while adapted to high (1.5 g. kg(-1) x day(-1)) and low
(0.3 g. kg(-1) x day(-1)) protein intakes. They completed this protocol twice: when the test meals
included 3 mg/kg of [(15)N]alanine ([(15)N]Ala) and when they included 30 mg/kg of intrinsically
labeled [(15)N]Spirulina platensis ([(15)N]SPI). Six subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
(IDDM) receiving conventional insulin therapy consumed the test meal with added [(15)N]Ala while
adapted to their customary high-protein diet. Protein restriction increased serum alanine, glycine,
glutamine, and methionine concentrations and reduced those of leucine. Whether the previous diet
was high or low in protein, there was a similar increase in serum alanine, methionine, and branched-
chain amino acid concentrations after the test meal and a similar pattern of (15)N enrichment in serum
amino acids for a given tracer. When [(15)N]Ala was included in the test meal, (15)N appeared rapidly
in serum alanine and glutamine, to a minor degree in leucine and isoleucine, and not at all in other
circulating amino acids. With [(15)N]SPI, there was a slow appearance of the label in all serum amino
acids analyzed. Despite the different serum amino acid labeling, protein restriction reduced the
postmeal transfer of dietary (15)N in [(15)N]Ala or [(15)N]SPI into [(15)N]urea by similar amounts (38
and 43%, respectively, not significant). The response of the subjects with IDDM was similar to that of
the normal subjects. Information about adaptive reductions in dietary amino acid catabolism obtained
by adding [(15)N]Ala to a test meal appears to be equivalent to that obtained using an intrinsically
labeled protein tracer.

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305: Han LK, Li DX, Xiang L, Gong XJ , Kondo Y, Suzuki I, Okuda H.
[Isolation of pancreatic lipase activity-inhibitory component of spirulina platensis and it reduce
postprandial triacylglycerolemia].
Yakugaku Zasshi. 2006 J an;126(1):43-9.
PMID: 16394649
pdf: Han L 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $pancreatic-lipase-activity; $phycocyanin; $glycolipid-H-b2.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum: en japonais

In the process of investigating the hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina platensis, we found that the
aqueous extract of S. platensis may inhibit the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting
pancreatic lipase activity. The aqueous extract of S. platensis (500 m/kg) reduced the elevation of rat
plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of the lipid emulsion 2 h after administration. To
clarify the hypolipidemic effects of S. platensis, the active component was isolated and designated 1'-
O-(palmitonyl)-2'-O-(caprylonyl) glyceryl-beta-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (glycolipid H-b2). Glycolipid
H-b2 was found to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The fractions
containing glycolipid H-b2 (250 mg/kg) reduced the elevation of rat plasma triacylglycerol levels after
oral administration of the lipid emulsion 2 h after administration. Furthermore, we examined the effects
of phycocyanin isolated from S. platensis on pancreatic lipase activity. Phycocyanin inhibited the
pancreatic lipase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the inhibitory
effects of S. platensis on postprandial triacylglycerolemia may be due in part to the inhibition of
pancreatic lipase activity by glycolipid H-b2 and phycocyanin.

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119
306: Hao H, Wu M, Chen Y, Tang J , Wu Q.
Cyanobacterial bloom control by ultrasonic irradiation at 20 kHz and 1.7 MHz.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2004 J un;39(6):1435-46.
PMID: 15244327
pdf: Hao H 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $Ultrasonic-irradiation, $Cyanobacterial-bloom, $Chlorophyll-a (Chla), Phycocyanin
(PC), $Gas-vacuoles.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; toxicity; instrumentation.
rsum:

Ultrasonic irradiations at high frequency of 1.7 MHz and low frequency of 20 kHz were tested to
prevent cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis from bloom. The inhibition effectiveness at 1.7 MHz was
much greater than that at 20 kHz. The cyanobacteria biomass was reduced by 63% after 5 min
ultrasonic irradiation at 1.7 MHz, whereas three days were needed for the tested cyanobacteria to
recover its original density. However, longer exposure time did not significantly enhance the inhibition.
It was observed after ultrasonic irradiation that the gas vesicles in cells collapsed, which may result in
cyanobacterial precipitation and photosynthetic inhibition. The concentration of chlorophyll a (Chla)
was reduced and its biosynthesis was delayed in a 4-day continuous culture. The fluorescence
spectra at 77K of phycobilisome (PBS) and absorption spectra of intact cells in vivo showed that light
energy transfer in PBS was inhibited and phycocyanin (PC) was damaged much more acutely
compared with Chla. These results indicated that 5 min ultrasonic irradiation at 1.7 MHz every third
day might be an effective and economic operation mode for practical application.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

307: Haque SE, Gilani KM.
Effect of ambroxol, spirulina and vitamin-E in naphthalene induced cataract in female rats.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 J an;49(1):57-64.
PMID: 15881859
pdf: Haque S 2005.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Anticataract activity of Ambroxol, Spirulina and Vitamin E was examined using the naphthalene
cataract model. Adult female albino rats of Wistar strain weighing between 180 and 220 grams were
taken and divided into eight groups. Group I received light liquid paraffin 5 ml/kg/ day p.o. for 6 weeks.
Group II received naphthalene solution 0.5 gm/kg/ day p.o. for first three days and 1 gm/kg/day p.o.
thereafter for six weeks. Group III received Ambroxol suspension in 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose
(CMC) at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day p.o. alongwith naphthalene. Group IV received Spirulina in
distilled water at the dose of 1500 mg/kg/ day p.o. alongwith naphthalene. Group V received Vitamin E
emulsion at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day p.o. alongwith naphthalene. Group VI received Ambroxol alone
at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day p.o. Group VII received Spirulina alone at the dose of 1500 mg/kg/day
p.o. Group VIII received vitamin E alone at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day p.o. Lens glutathione, soluble
protein and water content profiles revealed the preventive role of Ambroxol, Spirulina and Vitamin E in
naphthalene-induced cataract in female rats.

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308: Hartig P, Grobbelaar J U, Soeder CJ , Groeneweg J .
On the mass culture of microalgae: Areal density as an important factor for achieving maximal
productivity.
Biomass 15, No 4 (1988) 211-221.
PMID: pas
pdf: Hartig P 1988.papier
mots-cls article: $Algal-productivity; $Scenedesmus; $areal-density; $photooxidation;
$photorespiration; $yields.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

120
Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in a bioreactor under constant light and at a temperature of 24 C.
From measurements of biomass production, it was possible to determine the influence of areal density
on productivity in open as well as closed cultures. Maximal productivity occurred at an areal density of
40 to 45 g(dw) M^-2, which was in good agreement with predicted values from a model. The optimal
areal density for maximal productivity was influenced by factors such as culture depth, algal species,
turbulence, available light, etc., and hence the establishment and maintenance of an optimal areal
density is seen as one of the most important operational procedures for the mass culture of algae.
Supersaturated concentrations of oxygen resulted in lower productivities due to photorespiration
and/or oxidation.

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309: Hase T, Wada K, Ohmiya M, Matsubara H.
Amino acid sequence of the major component of Nostoc muscorum ferredoxin.
J Biochem (Tokyo). 1976 Nov;80(5):993-9.
PMID: 826526
pdf: Hase T 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

The amino acid sequence of the major component of ferredoxin isolated from a blue-green alga,
Nostoc muscorum, grown under N2 as the sole nitrogen source has been studied. The use of a
combination of sequence analyzer, carboxypeptidases, and manual Edman degradations on tryptic
and chymotryptic peptides of carboxymethylferredoxin has established the amino acid seuqence,
which consists of 98 amino acid residues. Only four cysteine residues were present, located at
positions 41, 46, 49, and 79. These residues must fulfil the minimum requirement in this ferredoxin for
the chelation of two iron atoms, as postulated previously. The sequence is similar to those of Spirulina
ferredoxins in having two extra residues at positions 10 and 14 compared with other chloroplast-type
ferredoxins. Sequence comparison among blue-green algal ferredoxins suggests that Nostoc
muscorum ferredoxin is more closely related to Spirulina ferredoxins than to Aphanothece major
ferredoxin.

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310: Hatanaka H, Tanimura R, Katoh S, Inagaki F.
Solution structure of ferredoxin from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus and
its thermostability.
J Mol Biol. 1997 May 23;268(5):922-33.
PMID: 9180381
pdf: Hatanaka H 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $distance-geometry; $ferredoxin; $nuclear-magnetic-resonance; $thermostability;
$three-dimensional-structure.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

The three-dimensional structure of ferredoxin, purified from the thermophilic cyanobacterium
Synechococcus elongatus, was determined in aqueous solution by two-dimensional proton nuclear
magnetic resonance. In addition to the 946 distance constraints from nuclear Overhauser effect
connectivities, we added 241 distance constraints derived from the crystal structure of Spirulina
platensis ferredoxin to the 19 residues close to the [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur center, where crosspeaks
disappeared due to paramagnetic effects. The atomic root-mean-square difference of the ten
converged structures from the mean structure was 0.61(+/-0.12) A for backbone atoms (N, C(alpha),
C'). The main-chain structure was almost the same as the crystal structures of other mesophile
ferredoxins, but comparison of the side-chain structures revealed an extension of the hydrophobic
core, a unique hydrophobic patch on the surface of the large beta-sheet, and two unique charge
networks in this thermostable ferredoxin structure, some of which might contribute to thermostability.

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121
311: Hayakawa Y, Hirashima Y, Yamamoto H, Kurimoto M, Hayashi T, Lee J B, Endo S.
Mechanism of activation of heparin cofactor II by calcium spirulan.
Arch Biochem Biophys 416, No 1 (2003) 47-52.
PMID: 12859981
pdf: Hayakawa Y 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Serpin; $Heparin-cofactor-II; $Calcium-spirulan; $Aptamer; $Antithrombin;
$Thrombin.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, f, B.
rsum:

Calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide, increases the rate of thrombin inhibition by
heparin cofactor II (HCII) more than 1000-fold through a mechanism not requiring the amino-terminal
acidic domain of HCII. Activation of HCII by Ca-SP was molecular-weight dependent. Furthermore,
HD22, an aptamer that binds exosite II of thrombin, produced a concentration-dependent, 15-fold
reduction at 5 microM in the rate of thrombin inhibition by HCII with Ca-SP, suggesting that Ca-SP
interacts with exosite II of thrombin. Mutations of Lys173 to Leu (K173L) and Arg189 to Leu (R189L) in
the HCII molecule resulted in large decreases in the rate of thrombin inhibition mediated by Ca-SP
and in the NaCl concentration needed for elution from Ca-SP-Toyopearl. Mutations of Lys173 to Arg
(K173R) and Arg189 to Lys (R189K) showed inhibition of thrombin similar to wild-type rHCII (wt-
rHCII). These results indicate that Ca-SP binds to the positive charges of Lys173 and Arg189 on the
HCII molecule. In the thrombin inhibitory process by HCII, Ca-SP appears to play as a template by
binding to both thrombin and HCII.

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312: Hayakawa Y, Hayashi T, Lee J B, Ozawa T, Sakuragawa N.
Activation of heparin cofactor II by calcium spirulan.
J Biol Chem 275, No 15 (2000) 11379-11382.
PMID: 10753952
pdf: Hayakawa Y 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, f, B.
rsum:

Heparin cofactor II (HCII) is a plasma serine protease inhibitor whose ability to inhibit alpha-thrombin
is accelerated by a variety of sulfated polysaccharides in addition to heparin and dermatan sulfate.
Previous investigations have indicated that calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide,
enhanced the rate of inhibition of alpha-thrombin by HCII. In this study, we investigated the
mechanism of the activation of HCII by Ca-SP. Interestingly, in the presence of Ca-SP, an N-terminal
deletion mutant of HCII (rHCII-Delta74) inhibited alpha-thrombin, as native recombinant HCII (native
rHCII) did. The second-order rate constant for the inhibition of alpha-thrombin by rHCII-Delta74 was
2.0 x 10(8) M(-1) min(-1) in the presence of 50 microgram/ml Ca-SP and 10, 000-fold higher than in
the absence of Ca-SP. The rates of native rHCII and rHCII-Delta74 for the inhibition of gamma-
thrombin were increased only 80- and 120-fold, respectively. Our results suggested that the anion-
binding exosite I of alpha-thrombin was essential for the rapid inhibition reaction by HCII in the
presence of Ca-SP and that the N-terminal acidic domain of HCII was not required. Therefore, we
proposed a mechanism by which HCII was activated allosterically by Ca-SP and could interact with
the anion-binding exosite I of thrombin not through the N-terminal acidic domain of HCII. The Arg(103)
-->Leu mutant bound to Ca-SP-Toyopearl with normal affinity and inhibited alpha-thrombin in a
manner similar to native rHCII. These results indicate that Arg(103) in HCII molecule is not critical for
the interaction with Ca-SP.

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313: Hayakawa Y, Hayashi T, Hayashi K, Ozawa T, Niiya K, Sakuragawa N.
Calcium spirulan as an inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator in human fetal lung fibroblasts.
Biochim Biophys Acta-Molecular Cell Res 1355, No 3 (1997) 241-7.
PMID: 9060995
pdf: Hayakawa Y 1997.pdf
122
mots-cls article: $Tissue-type-plasminogen-activator; $Sulfated-polysaccharide; $Calcium-spirulan;
$Lung-fibroblast; $Post-transcriptional-regulation; $(Human).
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina
platensis, has been found to have antiviral and heparin cofactor II-dependent antithrombin activities.
We have obtained evidence that Ca-SP is a potent inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)
production. The addition of Ca-SP to a culture of IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts increased t-PA
concentrations in the conditioned medium, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but in the cell
lysate, t-PA concentrations were unchanged, suggesting that t-PA induced by Ca-SP is easily
secreted into the conditioned medium. The amount of newly synthesized t-PA in IMR-90 cells, as
measured by labeling with [35S]methionine and subsequent immunoprecipitation of t-PA from
conditioned medium, was significantly increased by Ca-SP-stimulation. However, Ca-SP did not
increase the t-PA mRNA levels. As previously reported, thrombin stimulated t-PA gene transcription in
IMR-90 cells, and the simultaneous treatment with Ca-SP and thrombin caused further enhancement
of t-PA production, in a synergistic manner. It would thus appear that Ca-SP increases t-PA production
through post-transcriptional processes. IMR-90 cells also produce plasminogen activator inhibitor
type-1 (PAI-1), but Ca-SP showed little effect on the PAI-1 production. H-SP, which was obtained by
removing the calcium from Ca-SP, had no effect on the t-PA production. Na-SP, which was prepared
by replacement of the calcium with sodium, stimulated the t-PA production similarly to Ca-SP. Thus,
Ca-SP specifically induces t-PA production, and the molecular conformation of Ca-SP maintained by
Ca or Na may be essential for the stimulation of t-PA synthesis.

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314: Hayakawa Y, Hayashi T, Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Ozawa T, Niiya K, Sakuragawa N.
Heparin cofactor II-dependent antithrombin activity of calcium spirulan.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1996 J ul;7(5):554-60.
PMID: 8874866
pdf: Hayakawa Y 1996.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina
platensis, enhanced the antithrombin activity of heparin cofactor II (HC II) more than 10000-fold. The
apparent second-order rate constant of thrombin inhibition by HC II was calculated to be 4.2 x 10(4)
M-1 min-1 in the absence of Ca-SP, and it increased in the presence of 50 micrograms/ml Ca-SP to
4.5 x 10(8) M-1 min-1. Ca-SP effectively induced the formation of a thrombin-HC II complex in plasma.
In the presence of Ca-SP, both the recombinant HC II variants Lys173-->Leu and Arg 189-->His,
which are defective in interactions with heparin and dermatan sulfate, respectively, inhibited thrombin
in a manner similar to native rHC II. This result indicates that the binding site of HC II for Ca-SP is
different from the heparin- or dermatan sulfate-binding site. When we removed the calcium from the
Ca-SP, the compound did not exert any antithrombin activity. Furthermore, Na-SP, which was
prepared by replacement of the calcium in Ca-SP with sodium, accelerated the antithrombin activity of
HC II as Ca-SP did. We therefore suggest that the molecular conformation maintained by Ca or Na is
indispensable to the antithrombin activity of Ca-SP. The HC II-dependent antithrombin activity of Ca-
SP was almost totally abolished by treatment with chondroitinase AC I, heparinase or heparitinase, but
not by treatment with chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC II, suggesting that a heparin- or
dermatan sulfate-like structure is not responsible for the activation of HC II by Ca-SP. Ca-SP is
therefore thought to be a unique sulfated polysaccharide which shows a strong antithrombin effect in
an exclusively HC II-dependent manner.

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315: Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Kojima I.
A natural sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: in vitro and ex
vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Oct 10;12(15):1463-71.
123
PMID: 8893054
pdf: Hayashi K 1996.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

A sulfated polysaccharide named calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) has been isolated from a sea alga,
Spirulina platensis, as an antiviral component. The anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
and anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activities of Ca-SP were compared with those of dextran
sulfate (DS) as a representative sulfated polysaccharide. Anti-HIV-1 activities of these agents were
measured by three different assays: viability of acutely infected CD4-positive cells, or a cytopathology
assay; determination of HIV-1 p24 antigen released into culture supernatants; and inhibition of HIV-
induced syncytium formation. Anti-HSV-1 activity was assessed by plaque yield reduction. In addition,
their effects on the blood coagulation processes and stability in the blood were evaluated. These data
indicate that Ca-SP is a potent antiviral agent against both HIV-1 and HSV-1. Furthermore, Ca-SP is
quite promising as an anti-HIV agent because even at low concentrations of Ca-SP an enhancement
of virus-induced syncytium formation was not observed, as was observed in DS-treated cultures, Ca-
SP had very low anticoagulant activity, and showed a much longer half-life in the blood of mice when
compared with that of DS. Thus, Ca-SP can be a candidate agent for an anti-HIV therapeutic drug that
might overcome the disadvantages observed in many sulfated polysaccharides. When the role of
chelation of calcium ion with sulfate groups was examined by removing calcium or its replacement by
sodium, the presence of calcium ion in the molecule was shown to be essential for the dose-
dependent inhibition of cytopathic effect and syncytium formation induced by HIV-1.

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316: Hayashi O, Ono S, Ishii K, Shi Y, Hirahashi T, Katoh T.
Enhancement of proliferation and differentiation in bone marrow hematopoietic cells by Spirulina
(Arthrospira) platensis in mice.
J Appl Phycol 18, No 1 (2006) 47-56.
PMID: pas
pdf: Hayashi O 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $cell-differentiation, $colony-stimulating-factor, $IL-3, $phycocyanin, $spirulina-
platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

This study evaluates whether Spirulina, including its components such as phycocyanin, enhances or
sustains immune functions by promoting immune competent-cell proliferation or differentiation. The
effects of Spirulina of a hot-water extract (SpHW), phycocyanin (Phyc), and cell-wall component
extract (SpCW) on proliferation of bone marrow cells and induction of colony-forming activity in mice
were investigated. The Spirulina extracts, SpHW, Phyc, and SpCW, enhanced proliferation of bone-
marrow cells and induced colony-forming activity in the spleen-cell culture supernatant. Granulocyte
macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) were detected in the culture
supernatant of the spleen cells stimulated with the Spirulina extracts. Bone marrow-cell colony
formation in soft-agar assay was also significantly induced by the blood samples and the culture
supernatants of the spleen and Peyer's patch cells of the mice which ingested Spirulina extracts orally
for 5 weeks in in vivo study. Ratios of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and bone
marrow, consequently, increased in the mice.
Spirulina may have potential therapeutic benefits for improvement of weakened immune functions
caused by, for example, the use of anticancer drugs.

----------------------------

317: Hayashi O, Hirahashi T, Katoh T, Miyajima H, Hirano T, Okuwaki Y.
Class specific influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on antibody production in mice.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1998 Dec;44(6):841-51.
PMID: 10197315
pdf: Hayashi O 1998a.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
124
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

In the present study, we investigated antibody productions of IgA and other classes, such as IgE and
IgG1, in mice as possible evidence of the protective effects of Spirulina toward food allergy and
microbial infection. An increase of IgE antibody level in the serum was observed in the mice that were
orally immunized with crude shrimp extract as an antigen (Ag group). The antibody level, however,
was not further enhanced by treatment with Spirulina extract (SpHW). IgG1 antibody, on the other
hand, which was increased by antigen administration, was further enhanced by Spirulina extract. It
was noted that the IgA antibody level in the intestinal contents was significantly enhanced by
treatment with Spirulina extract concurrently ingested with shrimp antigen, in comparison with that of
the Ag group treated with shrimp antigen alone. An enhancement of IgA antibody production by
Spirulina extract was also observed in culture supernatant of lymphoid cells, especially in the spleen
and mesenteric lymph node from mice treated with Spirulina extract for 4 weeks before antigen
stimulation. These results suggest that Spirulina may at least neither induce nor enhance allergic
reaction such as food allergy dependent on an IgE antibody, and that when ingested both concurrently
with antigen and before antigen stimulation, it may significantly enhance the IgA antibody level to
protect against allergic reaction.

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318: Hayashi O, Katoh T, Okuwaki Y.
Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary Spirulina platensis.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1994 Oct;40(5):431-41.
PMID: 7891204
pdf: Hayashi O 1994.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **Antibody, **Mouse.
rsum:

Mice fed a Spirulina platensis diet showed increased numbers of splenic antibody-producing cells in
the primary immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). However, immunoglobulin G (IgG)-
antibody production in the secondary immune response was hardly affected. The percentage of
phagocytic cells in peritoneal macrophages from the mice fed S. platensis diet, as well as the
proliferation of spleen cells by either concanavalin A (Con A) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was
significantly increased. Addition of a hot-water extract of S. platensis (SHW) to an in vitro culture of
spleen cells markedly increased proliferation of these cells, whereas culture of thymus cells was
scarcely affected. The Spirulina extract also significantly enhanced interleukin-1 (IL-1) production from
peritoneal macrophages. Addition to the in vitro spleen cell culture of SHW as well as the supernatant
of macrophages stimulated with SHW resulted in enhancement of antibody production, that is, an
increase of the number of PFC. These results suggest that Spirulina enhances the immune response,
particularly the primary response, by stimulating macrophage functions, phagocytosis, and IL-1
production.

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319: Hayashi T, Hayashi K, Maeda M, Kojima I.
Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina
platensis.
J Nat Prod. 1996 J an;59(1):83-7.
PMID: 8984158
pdf: Hayashi T 1996.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Bioactivity-directed fractionation of a hot H2O extract from a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis led to
the isolation of a novel sulfated polysaccharide named calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) as an antiviral
principle. This polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, ribose, mannose, fructose, galactose,
125
xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, sulfate, and calcium. Ca-SP was found to inhibit
the replication of several enveloped viruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1, human
cytomegalovirus, measles virus, mumps virus, influenza A virus, and HIV-1. It was revealed that Ca-
SP selectively inhibited the penetration of virus into host cells. Retention of molecular conformation by
chelation of calcium ion with sulfate groups was suggested to be indispensable to its antiviral effect.

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320: Helbling EW, Gao K, Ai H, Ma Z, Villafane VE.
Differential responses of Nostoc sphaeroides and Arthrospira platensis to solar ultraviolet radiation
exposure.
J Appl Phycol 18, No 1 (2006) 57-66.
PMID: pas
pdf: Helbling E 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira-platensis, $cyanobacteria, $Nostoc sphaeroides, $oxygen-evolution,
$photosynthesis, $Spirulina, $UVR.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

During October to December 2003 we carried out experiments to assess the impact of high solar
radiation levels (as normally occurring in a tropical region of Southern China) on the cyanobacteria
Nostoc sphaeroides and Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two types of experiments were done: a)
Short-term (i.e., 20 min) oxygen production of samples exposed to two radiation treatments (i.e.,
PAR+UVR280700 nm, and PAR only 400700 nm, PAB and P treatments, respectively), and b)
Long-term (i.e., 12 days) evaluation of photosynthetic quantum yield (Y) of samples exposed to three
radiation treatments (i.e., PAB; PA (PAR+UV-A, 320700 nm) and P treatments, respectively). N.
sphaeroides was resistant to UVR, with no significant differences (P>0.05) in oxygen production within
20 min of exposure, but with a slight inhibition of Y within hours. A fast recovery of Y was observed
after one day even in samples exposed to full solar radiation. A. platensis, on the other hand, was very
sensitive to solar radiation (mainly to UV-B), as determined by oxygen production and Y
measurements. A. platensis had a circadian rhythm of photosynthetic inhibition, and during the first six
days of exposure to solar radiation, it varied between 80 and 100% at local noon, but cells recovered
significantly during afternoon hours. There was a significant decrease in photosynthetic inhibition after
the first week of exposure with values less than 50% at local noon in samples receiving full solar
radiation. Samples exposed to PA and P treatments recovered much faster (within 23 days), and
there were no significant differences in Y between the three radiation treatments when irradiance was
low (late afternoon to early morning). Long-term acclimation seems to be important in A. platensis to
cope with high UVR levels however, it is not attained through the synthesis of UV-absorbing
compounds but it seems to be mostly related to adaptive morphological changes.

----------------------------

321: Herbert V, Drivas G.
Spirulina and vitamin B 12.
J AMA. 1982 Dec 17;248(23):3096-7.
PMID: 6815345
pdf: Herbert V 1982.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Publication Types: Letter

--------------------------------------------------------------------

322: Hernandez E, Olguin EJ .
Biosorption of heavy metals influenced by the chemical composition of Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira)
biomass.
Environ Technol. 2002 Dec;23(12):1369-77.
PMID: 12523508
126
pdf: Hernandez E 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $spirulina; $cyanobacteria; $heavy-metals; $biosorption; $chemical-composition.
mots-cls Antenna: ; mtaux-lourds; biosorption.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **bioaccumulation.
rsum:

The capacity of Spirulina sp. cells with different chemical composition for Pb (II), Cd (II) and Cr (VI)
sorption, was evaluated. Four different types of Spirulina biomass with a different chemical
composition were tested. Two of them contained a high percentage of protein (68.95 +/- 0.30 and
63.73 +/- 0.25%) as a result of being cultivated in Zarrouk medium and exposedat two light intensities
(66 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1) and 144 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1)) in batch cultures. A third type of
biomass, cultivated in a "Complex" medium and exposed at 66 micromol photon (m-2) s(-1), contained
a high percentage of lipids (30.08 +/- 1.92. Finally, the fourth type of biomass was enriched in
polysaccharides (25.54 +/- 0.51%) as a result of being cultivated in the "Complex" medium, but
exposed at 144 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1). It was found that the chemical composition of Spirulina
sp. cells did have a strong influence on their adsorption capacity. The maximum adsorption capacities
(q(max)) for Pb and Cd were highest (172.41 and 54.05 mg g(-1) of cells, at pH 5.0 and 4.5
respectively) when cells exhibited the higher polysaccharide content. In the case of Cr VI, the highest
q(max), was exhibited by cells cultivated in Zarrouk medium and showing the higher protein content
(at pH 2.0). pH did not affect the adsorption of Pb II in the range of 3 to 5.5, nor of Cd in the range of 4
to 7. For Cr VI, adsorption was observed only at a pH equal to 2 or lower.

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323: Hernandez-Corona A, Nieves I, Meckes M, Chamorro G, Barron BL.
Antiviral activity of Spirulina maxima against herpes simplex virus type 2.
Antiviral Res. 2002 Dec;56(3):279-85.
PMID: 12406511
pdf: Hernandez-Corona A 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina; $Inhibition; $HSV-2; $Hot-water-extract.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **spirulina, **antiviral, **IV.
rsum:

Spirulina has been used in a variety of practical applications in biotechnology and medical sciences.
This paper presents the antiviral activity found in a hot water extract (HWE) of a commercial
preparation of Spirulina maxima, studied by a microplate inhibition assay, using several viruses. The
HWE inhibited the infection for: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), pseudorabies virus (PRV),
human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and HSV-1, and the 50% effective inhibition doses (ED50) were
0.069, 0.103, 0.142, and 0.333 mg/ml for each virus, respectively. For adenovirus the inhibition was
less than 20%, and no inhibition was found for measles virus, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
virus (SSPE), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), poliovirus 1 and rotavirus SA-11, at concentrations of 2
mg/ml of the HWE. The highest antiviral activity was for HSV-2, with a selectivity index of 128. The
antiviral activity was not due to a virucidal effect. Herpesvirus infection was inhibited at the initial
events (adsorption and penetration) of the viral cycle. To initiate the isolation and identification of the
compound that exhibits the antiviral activity of S. maxima, some extracts made by using several
solvents with different polarity were evaluated by microplate inhibition assay using HSV-2. The highest
antiviral activity was detected in the methanolwater 3:1, which suggests that the antiviral activity is
probably due to highly polar compounds.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

324: Herrera A, Boussiba S, Napoleone V, Hohlberg A.
Recovery of c-phycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Spirulina maxima.
J Appl Phycol 1, No 4 (1989) 325-331.
PMID: pas
pdf: Herrera A 1989.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $microalgae, $Spirulina, $phycocyanin.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, d.
rsum:
127

Spirulina biomass was separated into two fractions which may have various uses. A phycocyanin
fraction may provide a food colourant and biomarkers, and a protein-rich leftover may be useful as
aquaculture feed. Activated charcoal adsorption, ultrafiltration and spray drying were used effectively
to produce a high quality colourant grade phycocyanin, while activated charcoal adsorption,
ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and chromatography were effective in preparing reagent
grade phycocyanin.

----------------------------

325: Herrero M, Cifuentes A, Ibanez E.
Sub- and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different natural sources: Plants,
food-by-products, algae and microalgae: A review.
Food Chemistry 98, No 1 (2006) 136-148.
PMID: pas
pdf: Herrero M 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Algae; $Antioxidant; $Food-by-products; $Functional-foods; $Microalgae;
$Nutraceuticals; $Subcritical-water-extraction; $Supercritical-fluid-extraction; $Plants.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima, spirulina-platensis, m; B.
rsum :

The increasing interest of consumers in functional foods has brought about a rise in demand for
functional ingredients obtained using natural processes. In this review, new environmentally clean
technologies for producing natural food ingredients are discussed. This work provides an updated
overview on the principal applications of two clean processes, supercritical fluid extraction and
subcritical water extraction, used to isolate natural products from different raw materials, such as
plants, food by-products, algae and microalgae. Although the extraction of some compounds with
antibacterial, antiviral or antifungical activity is discussed, special attention is paid to the extraction of
antioxidant compounds, due to their important role in food preservation and health promotion.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

326: Herrero M, Simo C, Ibanez E, Cifuentes A.
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of Spirulina platensis proteins obtained by pressurized
liquid extraction.
Electrophoresis. 2005 Nov;26(21):4215-24.
PMID: 16200528
pdf: Herrero M 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Capillary-electrophoresis, $Cyanobacteria, $Electrospray, $Food-analysis, $Intact-
proteins, $Ion-trap, $Mass-spectrometry, $Microalgae.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

In this work, the usefulness of CE-MS to monitor and optimize the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)
of proteins from Spirulina platensis microalga is demonstrated. Crude and purified PLE extracts from
microalga were analyzed by CE-MS. It was observed that the use of purification protocols of
phycobiliproteins (namely, ultrafiltration or precipitation-dialysis-freeze drying) resulted in better CE
resolution and MS signals, demonstrating that sample matrix plays an important role in CE-MS of
proteins in real samples. Ultrafiltration was found less laborious and much faster than precipitation-
dialysis-freeze drying (1 vs. 48 h). Direct analysis of crude extracts was demonstrated to be also
possible by CE-MS, providing less-quality information but enough to characterize PLE extracts in a
much faster way. Therefore, the latter protocol was selected to monitor and optimize the extraction
process of phycobiliproteins from S. platensis. To do that, different extraction conditions were tested,
including time, temperature and pressure of extraction, nature of pressurized liquid, distribution of
microalga inside the extraction cell, type of packing, etc. It is demonstrated that the combined use of
PLE and CE-MS allows the attainment of extracts rich in phycobiliproteins in short extraction times
(namely, yields of 20% can be obtained in less than 2 h under the optimum PLE process in an
automatic way). To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the usefulness of CE-MS for
monitoring and optimizing a PLE process.

128
--------------------------------------------------------------------

327: Herrero M, Martn-lvarez PJ , Seorns FJ , Cifuentes A, Ibez E.
Optimization of accelerated solvent extraction of antioxidants from Spirulina platensis microalga.
Food Chemistry 93, No 3 (2005) 417-423.
PMID: pas
pdf: Herrero M 2005a.pdf
mots-cls article: $ASE; $Antioxidant-compounds; $Alga; $Subcritical-water; $Experimental-design;
$Optimization.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

An experimental design has been used to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from the microalga
Spirulina platensis using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with four different solvents (hexane,
petroleum ether, ethanol and water). The optimization of the main variables involved in the ASE
process (extraction temperature and time) has been done by means of a full factorial (three levels)
design using, as responses, the extraction yield and the antioxidant activity of the extracts (determined
as EC50, i.e., efficient concentration, using an in vitro assay based on a free radical method). The
parameters of the model, for each response variable, were estimated by multiple linear regression
(MLR). The statistical analysis of the results provided mathematical models that allowed prediction of
the behaviour of the different responses selected, as a function of the main variables involved in the
process. It was observed that the optimum conditions that maximize yield and minimize EC50 depend
on the polarity of the solvent used to perform the extractions. Extraction temperature had an enormous
influence in both responses while the effect of extraction time was almost negligible.
Ethanol was finally selected as the extracting solvent for its GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe)
status and because it provides higher yields with medium antioxidant activities. The results presented
in this work show the possibility of using a fast and easy process to recover natural antioxidants from
natural sources such as microalgae.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

328: Herrero M, Ibanez E, Cifuentes A, Senorans J .
Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant
activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
J Chromatogr A. 1047, No 2 (2004) 195-203.
PMID: 15460249
pdf: Herrero M 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized
liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water).
Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging
from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro
assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar
electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary
analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus
MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and
the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work
shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to
investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

329: Hicks DB, Yocum CF.
Properties of the cyanobacterial coupling factor ATPase from Spirulina platensis. II. Activity of the
purified and membrane-bound enzymes.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986 Feb 15;245(1):230-7.
PMID: 2868695
129
pdf: Hicks D 1986a.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis) photosynthetic membranes and isolated F1 ATPase were
characterized with respect to ATP activity. The following results indicate that the regulation of
expression of ATPase activity in Spirulina platensis is similar to that found in chloroplasts: the ATPase
activity of Spirulina membranes and isolated F1 ATPase is mostly latent, a characteristic of chloroplast
ATPase activity; treatments that elicit ATPase activity in higher plant chloroplast thylakoids and
isolated chloroplast coupling factor (CF1) greatly stimulate the activity of Spirulina membranes and F1,
and the cation specificity of chloroplast ATPase activity, e. g., light-induced membrane activity that is
magnesium dependent and trypsin-activated CF1 activity that is calcium dependent, is also observed
in Spirulina. Thus, an 8- to 15-fold increase in specific activity (to 13-15 mumol Pi min-1 mg chl-1) is
obtained when Spirulina membranes are treated with trypsin (CaATPase) or with methanol
(MgATPase): a light-induced, dithiothreitol-dependent MgATPase activity is also found in the
membranes. Purified Spirulina F1 is a CaATPase when activated with trypsin (endogenous activity
increases from 4 to 27-37 mumol Pi min-1 mg protein-1) or with dithiothreitol (5.6 mumol Pi min-1 mg-
1), but a MgATPase when assayed with methanol (18-20 mumol Pi min-1 mg-1). The effects of
varying calcium and ATP concentrations on the kinetics of trypsin-induced CaATPase activity of
Spirulina F1 were examined. When the calcium concentration is varied at constant ATP concentration,
the velocity plot shows a marked sigmoidicity. By varying Ca-ATP metal-nucleotide complex
concentration at constant concentrations of free calcium or ATP, it is shown that the sigmoidicity is
due to the effect of free ATP, which changes the Hill constant to 1.6 from 1.0 observed when the free
calcium concentration is kept constant at 5 mM. Therefore not only is ATP an inhibitor but it is also an
allosteric effector of Spirulina F1 ATPase activity. At 5 mM free calcium, the Km for teh Ca-ATP metal-
nucleotide complex is 0.42 mM.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

330: Hicks DB, Yocum CF.
Properties of the cyanobacterial coupling factor ATPase from Spirulina platensis. I. Electrophoretic
characterization and reconstitution of photophosphorylation.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986 Feb 15;245(1):220-9.
PMID: 2868694
pdf: Hicks D 1986.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The coupling factor ATPase (F1) from photosynthetic membranes of the cyanobacterium Spirulina
platensis was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and sucrose
density gradient centrifugation. The ATPase activity of purified Spirulina F1 is latent but can be elicited
by trypsin treatment, resulting in specific activities (CaATPase) of 27-37 mumol Pi min-1 mg protein-1.
On denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gels, Spirulina F1 is resolved into five
subunits with molecular weights of 53,400, 51,600, 36,000, 21,100, and 14,700, similar to the
molecular weights of the subunits of spinach chloroplast coupling factor (CF1). As determined by
native polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the Spirulina F1
holoenzyme was estimated to be 320,000, somewhat smaller than the estimated molecular weight of
spinach CF1 (392,000). Spirulina F1 was shown to be an active coupling factor by its ability to
reconstitute phenazine methosulfate-dependent cyclic photophosphorylation in membrane vesicles
which had been depleted of coupling factor content by 2 M NaBr treatment. We estimate the Spirulina
F1 content of membrane vesicles to be 1 F1 per 830 chlorophylls or 0.12 mol F1 mol P700(-1), based
on the specific ATPase activities of the membrane vesicles and the purified Spirulina F1, the
molecular weight of F1, and the P700 content of the vesicles.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

331: Hillier W, McConnell I, Badger MR, Boussac A, Klimov VV, Dismukes GC, Wydrzynski T.
130
Quantitative assessment of intrinsic carbonic anhydrase activity and the capacity for bicarbonate
oxidation in photosystem II.
Biochemistry. 2006 Feb 21;45(7):2094-102.
PMID: 16475798
pdf: Hillier W 2006.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima; O.
rsum:

On the basis of equilibrium isotopic distribution experiments using (18)O-labeled water, it is generally
accepted that water is the sole substrate for O(2) production by photosystem II (PSII). Nevertheless,
recent studies indicating a direct interaction between bicarbonate and the donor side of PSII have
been used to hypothesize that bicarbonate may have been a physiologically important substrate for
O(2) production during the evolution of PSII [Dismukes, G. C., Klimov, V. V., Baranov, S. V., Kozlov,
Y. N., DasGupta, J ., and Tyryshikin, A. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 2170-2175]. To test
out this hypothesis and to determine whether contemporary oxygenic organisms have the capacity to
oxidize bicarbonate, we employed special rapid-mixing isotopic experiments using (18)O/(13)C-
labeled bicarbonate to quantify the inherent carbonic anhydrase activity in PSII samples and the
potential flux of oxygen from bicarbonate into the photosynthetically produced O(2). The
measurements were made on PSII samples prepared from spinach, Thermosynechococcus
elongatus, and Arthrospira maxima. For the latter organism, a strain was used that grows naturally in
an alkaline, high (bi)carbonate soda lake in Africa. The results reveal that bicarbonate is not the
substrate for O(2) production in these contemporary oxygenic photoautotrophs when assayed under
single turnover conditions.

------------------------------------------------------------

332: Hirahashi T, Matsumoto M, Hazeki K, Saeki Y, Ui M, Seya T.
Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production
and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2002 Mar;2(4):423-34.
PMID: 11962722
pdf: Hirahashi T 2002.papier
mots-cls article: $IL-12; $IL-18; $toll-like-receptors; $IFN-gamma; $cyanobacteria; $macrophages.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **water-extract, **immune-system, **human.
rsum:

Spirulina platensis is a cyanobacterial species that is surmised to potentiate the immune system
leading to suppression of cancer development and viral infection. Here, we identified the molecular
mechanism of the human immune potentiating capacity of Spirulina by analyzing blood cells of
volunteers with pre and post oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina. NK functions
represented by IFN gamma production and cytolysis were enhanced after administration of Spirulina
in >50% subjects. IFN gamma was produced in an IL-12/IL-18-dependent fashion. In vitro stimulation
of blood cells with BCG cell wall skeleton (CWS) allowed more potent IL-12 p40 production in cells
from volunteers given Spirulina than in cells without pre-exposure to Spirulina. As BCG-CWS serves
as a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 to raise the maturation stage of
monocytes/macrophages, Spirulina may be involved in the signaling responses through Toll in blood
cells even when orally administered. These observations indicated that in humans Spirulina acts
directly on myeloid lineages and either directly or indirectly on NK cells. The presence of co-operative
IL-12 and IL-18 is critically important for NK-mediated IFN gamma production.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

333: Hirata K, Tanaka M, Ooike M, Tsunomura T, Sakaguchi M.
Antioxidant activities of phycocyanobilin prepared from Spirulina platensis.
J Appl Phycol 12, No 3-5 (2000) 435-439.
PMID: pas
pdf: Hirata T 2000.pdf
131
mots-cls article: $active-oxygen, $blue-green-alga, $cyanobacteria, $liposome, $oxidation,
$phycobilin, $phycobiliprotein, $phycocyanin, $radical.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

The antioxidative activity of phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis was evaluated against oxidation
of methyl linoleate in a hydrophobic system or with phosphatidylcholine liposomes. Phycocyanobilin as
well as phytochemicals including alpha-tocopherol, caffeic acid and zeaxanthin, effectively inhibited
the peroxidation of methyllinoleate and produced a prolonged induction period. Oxidation of
phosphatidylcholine liposomes was also controlled markedly by adding phycocyanobilin or alpha-
tocopherol. Phycocyanobilin was distributed outside in the liposomes to scavenge radicals from AAPH
and to prevent initiation of radical chain reactions. When the concentrations of phycocyanin and
phycocyanobilin in the reaction mixture were adjusted equally on a phycocyanobilin basis, the activity
of phycocyanobilin was almost the same as that of phycocyanin in the AAPH-containing reaction
mixture. The antioxidizing action of phycocyanin prepared from spray-dried Spirulina almost agreed
with that from fresh Spirulina in the AAPH-containing reaction mixture. These results suggest that
phycocyanobilin is responsible for the majority of the antioxidative activity of phycocyanin and may act
as an effective antioxidant in a living human body.

----------------------------

334: Ho KK, Krogmann DW.
Cytochrome f from spinach and cyanobacteria. Purification and characterization.
J Biol Chem. 1980 May 10;255(9):3855-61.
PMID: 6768742
pdf: Ho K 1980.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; cytochrome.
rsum:

Cytochrome f has been purified from spinach chloroplasts and from the photosynthetic membranes of
the cyanobacterium Spirulina maxima. The spinach protein has an isoelectric point of 5.2 and gives a
single band on isoelectric focusing gels. The S. maxima cytochrome shows a major band with a pI of
4.01 and a minor band with a pI of 3.97. S. maxima cytochrome f has a molecular weight
approximately 38,000 and is monomeric, while the spinach protein is slightly smaller, approximately
36,000 daltons, and aggregates to form an octamer. S. maxima cytochrome f has an E'0 of +339 mV
which is close to that of cytochromes f from higher plants. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of
the cytochromes show striking similarities. Spinach cytochrome f shows a clear preference for
oxidation by spinach plastocyanin and S. maxima cytochrome f is more readily oxidized by its in vivo
reaction partner, cytochrome c553.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

335: Hongsthong A, Subudhi S, Sirijuntarut M, Kurdrid P, Cheevadhanarak S, Tanticharoen M.
Revealing the complementation of ferredoxin by cytochrome b (5) in the Spirulina- (6)-desaturation
reaction by N-terminal fusion and co-expression of the fungal-cytochrome b (5) domain and Spirulina-
(6)-acyl-lipid desaturase.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72 (2006) 1192-1201.
PMID: 16575563
pdf: Hongsthong A 2006.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Spirulina-acyl-lipid desaturases are integral membrane proteins found in thylakoid and plasma
membranes. These enzymes catalyze the fatty acid desaturation process of Spirulina to yield gamma-
linolenic acid (GLA) as the final desaturation product. It has been reported that the cyanobacterial
desaturases use ferredoxin as an electron donor, whereas the acyl-lipid desaturase in plant cytoplasm
and the acyl-CoA desaturase of animals and fungi use cytochrome b (5). The low level of ferredoxin
present in Escherichia coli cells leads to an inability to synthesize GLA when the cells are transformed
132
with the Spirulina-(6) desaturase, desD, and grown in the presence of the reaction substrate, linoleic
acid. In this study, Spirulina-(6) desaturase, encoded by the desD gene, was N-terminally fused and
co-expressed with the cytochrome b (5) domain from Mucor rouxii. The product, GLA, made
heterologously in E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was then detected and analyzed. The results
revealed the production of GLA by Spirulina-(6) desaturase fused or co-expressed with cytochrome b
(5) in E. coli cells, in which GLA production by this gene cannot occur in the absence of cytochrome b
(5). Moreover, the GLA production ability in the E. coli host cells was lost after the single substitution
mutation was introduced to H52 in the HPGG motif of the cytochrome b (5) domain. These results
revealed the complementation of the ferredoxin requirement by the fusion or co-expression of the
fungal-cytochrome b (5) domain in the desaturation process of Spirulina-(6) desaturase. Furthermore,
the free form of cytochrome b (5) domain can also enhance GLA production by the Spirulina-desD
gene in yeast cells.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

336: Hongsthong A, Subudhi S, Sirijuntarat M, Cheevadhanarak S.
Mutation study of conserved amino acid residues of Spirulina delta 6-acyl-lipid desaturase showing
involvement of histidine 313 in the regioselectivity of the enzyme.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004 Nov;66(1):74-84.
PMID: 15241633
pdf: Hongsthong A 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

In the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, the desaturation process is carried out by three
desaturases: the Delta(9), Delta(12) and Delta(6) desaturases, encoded by desC, desA and desD,
respectively. The Delta(6) desaturase is responsible for the catalysis of linoleic acid, yielding gamma-
linolenic acid (18:3(Delta 9,12,6)), the end-product of the process. In this study, the desD gene was
expressed in Escherichia coli using a pTrcHisA expression system. In order to identify the amino acid
residues involved in the enzymatic activity, a sequence comparison was performed using various
organisms. The alignment revealed three conserved histidine clusters, a number of conserved
residues among all listed organisms and a few conserved residues among cyanobacterial species
possibly involved in the desaturation activity. A series of site-directed mutations were generated in the
desD gene to evaluate the role of these residues vis-a-vis the enzyme function. This approach
revealed that: (1) H313 is involved in the regioselectivity of the enzyme, (2) the three histidine clusters
together with H313, H315, D138 and E140 are required for enzymatic activity, most likely as providers
of the catalytic Fe center and (3) W294 is also essential for the activity of Delta(6) desaturase,
possibly by forming part of the substrate-binding pocket.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

337: Hongsthong A, Deshnium P, Paithoonrangsarid K, Cheevadhanarak S, Tanticharoen M.
Differential responses of three acyl-lipid desaturases to immediate temperature reduction occurring in
two lipid membranes of Spirulina platensis strain C1.
J Biosci Bioeng. 2003;96(6):519-24.
PMID: 16233567
pdf: Hongsthong A 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $desaturase; $fatty-acid-desaturation; $temperature-stress; $gene-translation;
$gene-regulation; $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

In cyanobacteria, the elevation of unsaturated fatty acid levels in membrane lipids has been shown to
play a major role in the response to temperature change. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis
strain C1 contains three desaturases--delta9, delta12 and delta6 desaturases--which are encoded by
desC, desA and desD, respectively. In light of the above, a study was conducted of the regulation of
desaturase gene expression in response to temperature change in S. platensis strain C1. The two lipid
membranes, thylakoid and plasma, were separated, while the expressions of the desaturase genes to
the downward shift of growth temperature were studied in the translation level by Western blot
133
analysis. The results revealed that the expression of delta9 desaturase is independent of temperature.
In the case of delta12 desaturase, two forms of the enzyme were found, at 45 and 40 kDa. In terms of
correlation with the results in the transcription level, it is more likely that the 45 kDa-delta12
desaturase and the 40 kDa-delta12 desaturase are translated from 1.7 kb and 1.5 kb mRNA,
respectively. Taken together, the results indicate that the expression of the 40 kDa-delta12 desaturase
is temperature independent, whereas, the 45 kDa protein form demonstrates a response to the
immediate temperature reduction. Furthermore, the activity of delta6 desaturase in the two lipid
membranes is possibly regulated by temperature reduction. However, alteration in the level of gamma-
linolenic acid, the product synthesized by delta6 desaturase, was observed in the plasma membrane
prior to the thylakoid membrane.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

338: Hsiao G, Chou PH, Shen MY, Chou DS, Lin CH, Sheu J R.
C-phycocyanin, a very potent and novel platelet aggregation inhibitor from Spirulina platensis.
J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Oct 5;53(20):7734-40.
PMID: 16190625
pdf: Hsiao G 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Blue-green-alga; $C-phycocyanin; $thromboxane-A2; $protein-kinase-C; $cyclic-
GMP; $vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein; $hydroxyl-radical.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

The aim of this study was to systematically examine the inhibitory mechanisms of C-phycocyanin (C-
PC), one of the major phycobiliproteins of Spirulina platensis (a blue-green alga), in platelet activation.
In this study, C-PC concentration-dependently (0.5-10 nM) inhibited platelet aggregation stimulated by
agonists. C-PC (4 and 8 nM) inhibited intracellular Ca2+mobilization and thromboxane A2 formation
but not phosphoinositide breakdown stimulated by collagen (1 microg/mL) in human platelets. In
addition, C-PC (4 and 8 nM) markedly increased levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-induced
vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) Ser(157) phosphorylation. Rapid phosphorylation of a
platelet protein of Mw 47,000 (P47), a marker of protein kinase C activation, was triggered by phorbol-
12,13-dibutyrate (150 nM). This phosphorylation was markedly inhibited by C-PC (4 and 8 nM). In
addition, C-PC (4 and 8 nM) markedly reduced the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of
hydroxyl radicals in collagen (1 microg/mL)-activated platelets. The present study reports on a novel
and very potent (in nanomolar concentrations) antiplatelet agent, C-PC, which is involved in the
following inhibitory pathways: (1) C-phycocyanin increases cyclic GMP/VASP Ser157 phosphorylation
and subsequently inhibits protein kinase C activity, resulting in inhibition of both P47 phosphorylation
and intracellular Ca2+mobilization, and (2) C-PC may inhibit free radicals (such as hydroxyl radicals)
released from activated platelets, which ultimately inhibits platelet aggregation. These results strongly
indicate that C-PC appears to represent a novel and potential antiplatelet agent for treatment of
arterial thromboembolism.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

339: Hu ZH, Liu ZL.
[Determination and purification of beta-carotene in Spirulina maximum].
Se Pu. 2001 J an;19(1):85-7.
PMID: 12541855
pdf: Hu Z 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima?.
rsum: en chinois

There are several kinds of nutritious materials in Spirulina maximum, and beta-carotene is one of the
most important materials. Because beta-carotene is of low polarity, for purification it was extracted
with the mixture of acetone and methanol in the ratio of 7:2 (V/V), then saponified, and extracted with
petroleum ether, purified with column packed with neutral Al2O3. Its content was determined by
reversed-phase HPLC. This method is accurate and the results are reproducible. The average
recovery was 96.8%.

134
Publication Types: English Abstract

--------------------------------------------------------------------

340: Huang GL, Zhihui S.
Immobilization of Spirulina subsalsa for removal of triphenyltin from water.
Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2002 J ul;30(4):293-305.
PMID: 12227648
pdf: Huang G 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-subsalsa.
rsum:

Spirulina subsalsa is immobilized with alginate, which increases the growth rate, chlorophyll content,
phycocyanin content and nitrate reductase activity. Immobilized Spirulina subsalsa with alginate
increases absorption of triphenyltin chloride (TPT). The phycocyanin of immobilized Spirulina subsalsa
is more sensitive to TPT then free alga. The immobilization enhances the toxic effect of TPT on nitrate
reductase activity of Spirulina subsalsa. Experimental results demonstrate that the immobilization of
Spirulina subsalsa is feasible. Removal of TPT by immobilized Spirulina subsalsa reaches 68%.
Biosorption mechanism of TPT by Spirulina subsalsa should be further studied.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

341: Huang J M, Bai SM, Hu ZX, Yang CL, Zhu DB, Shi J P.
[Effects of spirulina on serum lipids, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and vascular endothelial cells in
tail-suspended rats].
Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2003 J un;16(3):184-6.
PMID: 12934612
pdf: Huang J 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en chinois

Objective: To study the changes of erythrocyte membrane fluidity, serum lipid and vascular endothelial
cell caused by simulated weightlessness in rats and the beneficial effect of spirulina.
Method: Thirty male SD rats were divided into 3 groups: free control group (group A) and two
simulated weightlessness groups (groups B, C). Rats in group A and B were fed with normal forage,
and the rats in group C were fed with normal forage supplemented with 5% (W/W) spirulina. Water
was taken ad libitum.
Result: Levels of serum CHO, HDL, TG, HDL-C/CHO and erythrocyte membrane fluidity decreased
significantly, and number of vascular endothelial cells in plasma increased markedly in group B as
compared with those in group A; The ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C, and atherosclerosis index (AI) decreased,
number of vascular endothelial cells significantly lowered; level of CHO, HDL-C and value of the
IDmax of plasma as well as erythrocyte membrane fluidity remarkedly increased in group C compared
with those in group B.
Conclusion: Spirulina can improve the physiological conditions of erythrocyte membrane fluidity,
serum lipid and vascular endothelial cell caused by simulated weightlessness in rats.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

342: Huang Z, Guo BJ , Wong RNS, J iang Y.
Characterization and antioxidant activity of selenium-containing phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina
platensis.
Food Chemistry 100, No 3 (2007) 1137-1143.
PMID: pas
pdf: Huang Z 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $Selenium; $Phycocyanin; $Antioxidant-activity.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

135
Selenium-containing phycocyanin (SePC) and its different aggregates monomer (alpha beta),
trimer (alpha beta)3 and hexamer (alpha beta)6, which are represented as SePC1, SePC2 and Se
PC3, as well as their alpha and beta subunits, were prepared and purified from selenium-rich Spirulina
platensis. The Se speciation in SePC, its aggregates and subunits, as well as the antioxidant
activities of these compounds against free radicals of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and 2,2-
diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) were investigated. By gel filtration on SephadexG-200 column and
SDS-PAGE, the molecular weight of SePC1, 2, and 3 were determined to be 38.5, 116 and 247 kDa,
respectively, and these of alpha and beta subunits were 17.8 and 19.5 kDa, respectively. Se
concentrations of SePC1, 2 and 3 were of 197, 289 and 422 micro-g/g protein, respectively, and
those of alpha and beta subunits were 126 and 187 micro-g/g protein, respectively, which suggested
that the Se content of SePC was decreased in the dissociation process of SePC and highly
associated with its aggregation state. The antioxidant activities of SePC, its aggregates and subunits
against different free radicals were found to be variable. Compared with phycocyanin without bound
Se, although there were no differences among the DPPH-scavenging activities of SePC, its alpha
and beta subunits and the pure phycocyanin, the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical-
scavenging activities of SePC, as well as SePC2 and SePC3, were significantly higher and proved
to be positively correlated with their Se contents.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

343: Huang Z, Yang F, Zheng WJ .
[Purification and properties of Se-containing allophycocyanins from selenium rich Spirulina platensis].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006 J un 4;46(3):401-5.
PMID: 16933609
pdf: Huang Z 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, A.
rsum: en chinois

Three Se-containing allophycocyanins (Se-APC) with high purity were purified from Se rich Spirulina
platensis (Se-sp.) by hydroxyapatite chromatography, DEAE-52 anion-exchange chromatography and
native gel preparative electrophoresis. Their biochemicial properties were explored by spectral
scanning and electrophoresis analysis of Native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE and IEF on thin slab gel. Protein
molecular weight (MW) of APC aggregation was determined by gel filter on Sephadex G-200 column.
Se content of native and denatured Se-APC was detected by 2, 3-DAN fluorocence method.
According to visible and fluorescence spectral character, three purified fractions of APC were
identified to be APCI, APCII and APCIII. Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that they all
shaped trimer (alphabeta) 3 of alpha and beta subunit with molecular mass of 18.3kDa and 15.7kDa,
whereas APCI contains gamma subunit (about 32kDa) visibly and APCIII maybe contain the linker
peptide of L(C)(8 - 10 kDa) based on their MW to be determined of 130.9, 98.1 and 106.30 kDa. IEF
detection showed that the pl of Se-APCs was 4.76, 4.85 and 5.02 respectively. Se content of three
purified Se-APCs were 316, 273 and 408 microg/g, which decreased about 25% after deaggregation
treatment by 0.50 mol/L NaSCN and decreased more than 50% after denaturation treatment by 2-
mercaptoethanol and reached to a steady content of 132 microg/g on average. These results indicated
that Se incorporation into APC had no influence on function of energy transfer as well as biochemical
property of APCs, and Se binding with APCs was highly relevant to its aggregation states whereas Se
integrated steadily with its subunits.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

344: Huang Z, Zheng WJ , Guo BJ .
[Optimization of cultivation conditions in se-enriched Spirulina platensis].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2002 May;18(3):373-6.
PMID: 12192878
pdf: Huang Z 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en chinois

136
Orthogonal combination design was adopted in examining the Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) yield
and the influence of four factors (Se content, Se-adding method, S content and NaHCO3 content) on
algae growth. The results showed that Se content, Se-adding method and NaHCO3 content were key
factors in cultivation conditions of Se-enriched S. platensis with the optimal combination being Se at
300 mg/L, Se-adding amount equally divided into three times and NaHCO3 at 16.8 g/L. Algae yield
had a remarkable correlation with OD560 and floating rate by linear regression analysis. There was a
corresponding relationship between effects of the four factors on algae yield and on OD560, floating
rate too. In conclusion, OD560 and floating rate could be served as yield-forming factors.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

345: Huang ZX, Mei XT, Xu DH, Xu SB, Lv J Y.
[Protective effects of polysacchride of Spirulina platensis and Sargassum thunbeergii on vascular of
alloxan induced diabetic rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Feb;30(3):211-5.
PMID: 15719643
pdf: Huang Z 2005.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en chinois

OBJ ECTIVE: To study the protective effects of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis and Sargassum
thunbeergii on vascular of alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats.
METHOD: With the doses of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis (PSP) and Sargassum thunbeergii
(PST) compound (1:1) 12.261, 36.783, 110.349 mg x kg(-1) by i.g. administration to alloxan induced
diabetic rats respectively for 6 weeks. Then the blood glucose and the TC, HDL-C, TG, NO, ET in
serum were detected. The contraction and relaxation response to NE and ACh in aortic rings of the
alloxan induced diabetic rats has been studied.
RESULT: The results showed the compound of PSP and PST could decrease the blood glucose and
the TC, TG, NO, ET in serum and increase HDL-C than in the alloxan induced diabetic rats. The
contraction responses to NE in aortic rings of the alloxan induced diabetic rats were significantly
elevated in the normal rats, and the responses to ACh were significantly lower. PSP and PST
compound could significantly lower the responses to NE and significantly elevate the responses to
ACh in aortic rings of the alloxan induced diabetic rats.
CONCLUSION: PSP and PST compound could decrease blood glucose and could protect the
vascular of alloxan induced diabetic rats.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

346: Hudson BJ , Karis IG.
The lipids of the alga Spirulina.
J Sci Food Agric. 1974 J ul;25(7):759-63.
PMID: 4369323
pdf: Hudson B 1974.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

347: Huq MA, Parveen F, Choudhury SR.
A cheap and convenient modification of arsine generator used for arsenic estimation.
Mymensingh Med J . 2003 J an;12(1):30-2.
PMID: 12715639
pdf: Huq M 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

137
In a study observing the effect of spirulina in the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning quantitative
estimation of arsenic in the urine of the patients was necessary. It was decided to try a modification of
the arsine generator in the process. An alternative apparatus was designed following the structure of
arsine generator by White (1976) using a 50-ml conical flask with rubber cork, 4-ml injection vial, two
3" long glass tubes and a glass test tube. An experiment was carried out with solutions containing
known amounts of arsenic. The alternative arsine generator was tried in the estimation of arsenic
content in those solutions. The results revealed that the apparatus permitted correct measurement of
arsenic concentration. The alternative arsine generator was cheap easy to use and provided authentic
results in estimation of arsenic concentration in the urine of patients with chronic arsenic poisoning.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

348: Iltis A.
Ecologie de Spirulina platensis dans le milieux natrons d'Afrique sahlienne.
[Ecologila di Spirulina platensis negli ambienti ad alcalinit sodica dellAfrfrica Saheliana].
In : Prospettive della coltura di spirulina in Italia. Florence : Tipografia Coppini, 1981, p. 41-48.
Prospettive della Coltura di Spirulina in Italia : Convegno, Florence (IT), 1980/11/20-21.
PMID: pas
pdf: Iltis A 1981.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

S. platensis (Nordstedt) Geitler est une espce ayant un large distribution gographique. Elle est
signale en Asie (Pakistan, Indes, Ceylon, Thailandie, Isral), en Amrique du Sud (Uruguay, Prou)
et en Afrique (Kenya, Egypte, Zaire, Zambie, Ethiopie, Soudan, Tchad, Lybie). Elle est considre
comme une forme des rgions tropicales et sub-tropicales. Une espce voisine, S. geitleri est signale
au Mexique et en Californie. Les milieux o elle se dveloppe massivement de faon naturelle, se
situent dans la zone soudano-sahlienne dAfrique: cette zone semi-dsertique est caractrise par
une pluviomtrie faible (moins de 30 mm annuels) rpartie sur 3 mois de l'anne, avec des carts
interannuels importants (minimum 4 m/m, max. 700 m/m sur 29 ans), des temps dinsolation levs
plus de 9 h par jour en moyenne) et des fortes tempratures (temprature annuelle moyenne de leau
entre 25 et 26 degrs). Les eaux des lacs spirulines ont des transparences faibles, un pH elev (9,5
11) et des teneurs en sels dissous variant entre 8,5 et 200 g/l, les dveloppements les plus
importants de spirulines se produisant entre 22 et 60 g/l. Au point de vue de la composition chimique
des eaux, le sodium est le mieux reprsent parmi les cations, le potassium est prsent, calcium et
magnsium sont inexistants ou en faibles quantits; parmi les anions, carbonates et bicarbonates sont
fortement dominants; dans certains milieux, chlorures et sulfates peuvent prsenter des proportions
apprciables. La densit des peuplements S. platensis est fonction de la salinit; plus cette dernire
est leve, plus la densit, lintrieur des limites de salinit tolres, est importante. Le pourcentage
d'organismes trangcrs coexistant avec les spirulines est dautan: plus faible que la teneur en sels
dissous est leve. Dans les mares temporaires la teneur en S. platensis est fonction de la salinit
moyenne et de la longuer de la priode en eau. La vitesse dinstallation des peuplements y est plus
rapide que dans les lacs permanents.

[S. platensis (Nord.) Geitler una specie a larga distribuzione geografica segnalata in Asia (Pakistan,
India, Ceylon, Tailandia, Israele), in America del Sud (Uruguay, Per) e in Africa (Kenya, Egitto, Zaire,
Zambia, Etiopia, Sudan, Tchad, Libia), la specie considerata come una forma delle regioni tropicali e
subtropicali. Una specie vicina, S. geitler, segnalata in Messico e in California. Gli ambienti in cui S.
platensis si sviluppa massivamente in condizioni naturali si trovano nella zona sudano-saheliana
dellAfrica: questa zona semidesertica caratterizzata da debole piovosit (meno di 300 mm annui),
ripartita in 3 mesi dellanno, con scarti fra un anno e un altro rilevanti (minimi di 46 mm, massimi di
700 mm su 29 anni), da tempi di insolazione elevati (pi di 9 ore al giorno in media) e da elevate
temperature (temperatura media annua dellacqua fra 25 e 26 C). Le acque dei laghi a Spirulina sono
di debole trasparenza, hanno un pH elevato (9,5-11) e tenori in sali disciolti Che variano da 8,5 a 200
g/l, con le produzioni pi importanti di Spirulina alle concentrazioni di 22-60 g/l. Dal punto di vista della
composizione chimica delle acque, il sodio maggiormente rappresentato fra i cationi; presente il
potassio; calcio e magnesio sono inesistenti o in deboli quantit; fra gli anioni, carbonati e bicarbonati
sono nettamente dominanti, in alcuni ambienti possono essere presenti in quantit apprezzabili cloruri
e solfati. La densiti dei popolamenti a S. platensis funzione della salinit: pi questa elevata, pi la
138
densit, nellambito dei limiti tollerati di salinit, importante. La percentuale di organismi estranei,
coesistenti con la Spirulina, tanto pi bassa, quanto pi alto il tenore di sali disciolti. Nei laghi
temporanei la densit di S. platensis funzione della salinit media e della durata del periodo di
acqua. La velocit dinsediamento di Spirulina pi rapida che nei laghi permanenti].

--------------------------------------------------------------------

349: Iltis A.
Peuplements phytoplanctoniques du lac Tchad. I-Stade Tchad normal (fvrier 1971) et janvier 1972).
Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sr. Hydrobiol 9, No 1, 1977, 33-52.
PMID: pas
pdf: Iltis A 1977a.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , j.
rsum:

La densit du phytoplancton prsent dans le lac Tchad varie entre 0,005 et 12 mg/l en fvrier 1971 et
entre 0,05 et 10,5 mg/l en janvier 1972. Les Cyanophytes, les Chlorophytes, les Diatomophyces et,
un degr moindre, les Pyrrhophytes sont les groupes qui interviennent dans la composition de la
biomasse. La diversit spcifique est maximale dans les eaux libres du nord.
Ltude de la structure des peuplements et des groupements spcifiques confirme le partage du lac
en quatre grandes zones cologiques : eaux libres et archipel de la cuvette nord, eaux libres et
archipel de la cuvette sud. Des peuplements phytoplanctoniques types ont t dfinis pour chacune
de ces grandres zones.
Les espces prsentes sont identiques en 1971 et 1972 mais on note en 1972 un sensible
accroissement de la biomasse moyenne accompagn dune diminution des valeurs de lindice de
diversit spcifique et de la constante de milieu. Des diffrences dans la distribution du phytoplancton
dans larchipel sud-est apparaissent comme les premires perturbations dues la baisse de niveau
qui entrainera durant les annes suivantes le partage du lac en plusieurs nappes deau.

[The phytoplankton biomass in Chad lake ranges from 0,005 to 12 mg/l in february 1971 und from
0,O5 to 20,5 mg/l in january 1972. Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Diatoms and, for a smaller degree,
Pyrrhophyta are the components of the present biomass. Specific diversity is maximal in the open
waters of the northern part of the lake. The partition of the lake in four ecological zones - open waters
and archipelago of the nosthern part and open waters and archipelago of the southern part - is
confirmed by the study of the structure of algal populations and the specific associations. Typical
phytoplanktonic populations are defined for each of these ecological zones. The species composition
is the same in 1971 and 1972 but an evident growth of the phytoplanktonic biomass occurs between
1971 and 1972 correlated with a decrease of the values of the specific diversity and of the constant of
milieu (or Motomuras constant). Differences in the phytoplankton distribution in the south-eastern
archipelago seem to be the first perturbations owing to the subsidence of the water levell that will bring
abaout during the following years the partition of the lake in several isolated sheets of mater].

--------------------------------------------------------

350: Iltis A.
Peuplements phytoplanctoniques du lac Tchad. II-Stade petit Tchad (avril 1974, novembre 1974 et
fvrier 1975).
Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sr. Hydrobiol 9, No 1, 1977, 53-72.
PMID: pas
pdf: Iltis A 1977b.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , j.
rsum:

Le phytoplancton des trois nappes deau qui constituent le lac Tchad durant la priode de scheresse
de 1973 1975 volue de faon indpendante dans chacune delles, mme si des communications
temporaires existent entre ces zones. La cuvette sud reste fortement perturbe par la crue du Chari
tandis que la cuvette nord qui ne reoit que des apports deau trs limits volue vers lasschement.
La biomasse algale reste comparable celle des annes prcdentes dans les eaux libres du sud
139
(0,1 13 mg/l) avec de fortes variations saisonnires, les Diatomes tant le plus souvent dominantes
associes des Cyanophyces. Dans larchipel de la cuvette sud, les biomasses sont en moyenne de
8,2 mg/l en avril 1974, 0,4 en novembre 1974 et 7,6 en fvrier 1975 : les Euglniens constituent le
groupe dominant. Dans la nappe deau subsistant dans la cuvette nord, les densits dalgues sont trs
leves (25 179 mg/l en moyenne suivant les priodes tudies), les Diatomes et les
Chlorophyces tant les plus abondantes. Des espces caractristiques des mares natrones
(Oscillatoria platensis f. minor par exemple) apparaissent en novembre 1971 alors que la conductivit
lectrique atteint 4.000 micromhos. Ltude de la structure des populations et lanalyse factorielle
confirment labsence de relations entre les phytoplanctons existant dans les trois nappes deau; des
peuplements phytoplanctoniques types ont t dfinis pour chacune delles.

[The phytoplankton of the three sheets of water constituting the Chad lake during the drought from
1973 to 1975 changes independently even if temporary communications exist between these waters.
The southern part of the lake remains very disturbed by the flood of the Chari river while the northern
part, receiving only very limited water-contributions, evolves into drying. In the open waters of the
southern part, the algal biomass remains comparable (0,1 to 13 mg/l) with that of the previous years,
the Diatoms associated to the Cyanophyta being the most frequently dominating. In the archipelago of
the southern part, biomass is on an average 8,2 mg/l in april 1974, 0,4 in november 1974 and 7,6 in
february 1975; Euglenophyta are dominating. In the waters staying in the northern part, the algal
density is verg high (average 25 to 179 mg/l according to the periods), Diatoms and Chlorophyta being
the most abundant, Characteristic species of natroned pools (Oscillatoria platensis f. minor for
example) appear in november 1974 when the electric conductivity of waters reaches 4.000
micromhos. The study of structure of the algal populations and the factorial analysis confirm the lack
of relations between the phytoplanktons existing in the three parts of the lake; typical phytoplanktonic
populations are defined for each of them].

--------------------------------------------------------

351: Iltis A.
Peuplements phytoplanctoniques du lac Tchad. III-Remarques gnrales.
Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sr. Hydrobiol 11, No 3, 1977, 189-199.
PMID: pas
pdf: Iltis A 1977c.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , j.
rsum:

Les observations effectues en priode de rgression lacustre, de 1971 1975, sur les peuplements
dalgues du lac Tchad permettent de considrer deux phases dans lvolution et la rpartition du
phytoplancton. Dans la premire, le lac constitue encore une unit hydrologiquze (Tchad normal) ;
daprs la densit algale, les valeurs de lindice de diversit spcifique et de la constante de milieu, les
groupes dalgues dominants et limportance des variations saisonires, on observe une zonation
stable quatre rgions cologiques distinctes.
Dans la seconde phase (petit Tchad), la partie nord du lac toute entire vers un facis de mare
natrone, larchipel de la cuvette sud se transforme en un marcage Euglnophytes et enfin les
eaux libres du sud voluent vers un facis fluvial marqu par lalternance dune priode de crue trs
pauvre en plancton et dun tiage plus riche.
Le tonnage dalgues planctoniques prsent dans le lac est de lordre de 45'O00 tonnes pour un stade
Tchad normal. Au stade petit Tchad, pour une superficie bien infrieure, les quantifs dalgues sont
quatre cinq fois suprieures. Ces estimations ne concernent que le plancton vgtal de pleine eau
et nincluent pas le phytobenthon et le priphyton. Ce dernier subit probablement une volution
quantitative inverse de celle du limnoplancton par suite des variations rapides de niveau (surtouf dans
la cuvette sud) et de lasschement de nombreuses zones d'herbiers, mais il nexiste pas jusqu
prsent dobservations pour apprcier la valeur de cettesupposition.

[The investigations made from 1971 to 1975 on the algal populations of Chad lake show two phases in
the evolution of the phytoplankton. In the first, the lake still maintains an hydrologic unity (Tchad
normal) and from the algal density, from the dominance of algal orders, from the values of the specific
diversity and the constant of milieu and from the importance of seasonal variations, a stable zonation
with four ecological distinct zones may be defined.
140
In the second phase (petit Tchad), the northern part of the lake evolves to a facies of natroned pool,
the archipelago of the southern part to a facies of wamp and the open waters of fhe southern part fo a
facies of river marked by the alternation of a flood nearly wifhout plankton and of rich lom water period.
The stock of phytoplankton staying in the lake is about 45.000 t for a Tchad normal phase. In the
second phase, the weight of algae is four fo five times higher although the flooded areas are smaller.
Only the limnoplankton is concerned in these estimations und phytobenthon and periphyton are not
examined. Probably periphyton evolves quantitatively inversely on account of the rapid variations of
the water level (mainly in the southern part) and of the drying of many areas of aquatic vegetation. But
the value of this supposition is not appreciable owing to the lack of investigations on this kind of
plankton].

--------------------------------------------------------

352: Iltis A.
Note sur Oscillatoria (sous-genre Spirulina) platensis (Nordst.) Bourrelly (Cyanophyta) au Tchad.
Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sr. Hydrobiol., vol. 5, No 1, 1971, 53-72.
PMID: pas
pdf: Iltis A 1971.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , S, B.
rsum:

Oscillatoria platensis a t trouv au Tchad dans des milieux natrons temporaires ou permanents
situs dune part directement au nord-est du lac Tchad (Kanem), dautre part au nord-est de Largeau
(Borkou). Les peuplements de cette algue atteignent de fortes densits, surtout dans les lacs
permanents qui possdent une teneur en sels leve (30 40 g/l). Dans les mares temporaires
restant en eau plus de 3 4 mois, 0. platensis se dveloppe mais les densits sont plus faibles et la
proportion dorganismes trangers est en gnral plus importante.
Une partie trs localise de la population tchadienne rcolte et utilise dans son alimentation cette
Cyanophyce. Celle-ci entre dans la confection de sauces et les quantits consommes par une
personne durant un repas sont assez rduites. Daprs les analyses effectues par diffrents
organismes scientifiques, la teneur en protines gale et mme dpasse 50 % du poids de matire
sche.
Les connaissances actuelles sont encore trs incompltes particulirement en ce qui concerne la
biologie de cette espce ef ses capacits de production dans les diffrents milieux naiurels natrons
existant au Tchad.

[Oscillatoria plalensis is found in Chad in the temporary or permanent natroned waters located on the
one hand directly at the nort east of the Chad lake (Kanem), on the other hand at the north east of
Largeau (Borkou). This alga reaches great densities, particularly in permanent lakes having a high
saline concenfraton (30 to 40 g/l). In the temporary ponds, flooded during over three or four months, 0.
platensis develops but the densities are more slight and the proportion of alien organismes is
generally more important].

--------------------------------------------------------

353: Iltis A.
Tolrance de salinit de Spirulina platensis (Gom.) Geitl., (Cyanophyta) dans les mares natrones du
Kanem /Tchad).
Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sr. Hydrobiol., vol. 2, No 3-4, 1968, 119-125.
PMID: pas
pdf: Iltis A 1968.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S.
rsum:

La cyanophyce S. platensis a t trouve dans des milieux ayant une concentration de 8,5 270
grammes de sel par litre. La zone optimale de dveloppement se situe entre 22 et 62 grammes de sel
par litre. Au point de vue concentration du milieu, le seuil dapparition de cette espce est plus lev
en milieu naturel quen cultures pures.
141

[Spirulina platensis occurs in alkaline waters with concentrations between 8,5 and 270 g/l. Optimal
zone is located between 22 and 62 g/l. In pure Cultures, this algae is able to grow in less alkaline
media].

--------------------------------------------------------

354: Ionov VA, Basova MM.
[Use of blue-green micro-seaweed Spirulina platensis for the correction of lipid and hemostatic
disturbances in patients with ischemic heart disease].
Vopr Pitan. 2003;72(6):28-31.
PMID: 14870586
pdf: Ionov V 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; coeur.
rsum: en russe

Changing in lipid spectrum, immunological state and coagulation in the 68 patients with IHD and
atherogenic dyslipidemia who were taking biomass microalga Spirulina platensis was investigated.
Modification of traditional plan of therapy of IHD when adding microalga Spirulina p. influences
correcting effect to cascade procoagulation and immunopathological reactions, characteristic of
atherosclerosis process.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

355: Ipata PL, Gualerzi C, Scolozzi C, Tozzi MG, Trinei M, Barsacchi D.
Occurrence of inosine kinase as a distinct enzyme in Spirulina platensis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Apr 17;209(2):547-53.
PMID: 7733924
pdf: Ipata P 1995.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Among a series of purine nucleosides, inosine was found to be phosphorylated at the highest rate by
crude extracts of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. The inosine phosphorylating activity could be
separated from hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This result shows that IMP
formation may occur via the direct phosphorylation of inosine at its 5'-position, rather than via inosine
phosphorolysis, followed by hypoxanthine phosphoribosylation, and provides unequivocal evidence for
the occurrence of inosine kinase in nature.

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356: Ishida T, Yokota A, Sugiyama J .
Phylogenetic relationships of filamentous cyanobacterial taxa inferred from 16S rRNA sequence
divergence.
J Gen Appl Microbiol. 1997 Aug;43(4):237-241.
PMID: 12501325
pdf: Ishida T 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $filamentous-cyanobacteria, $molecular-phylogeny, $Oscillatoriales, $16S-rRNA.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-subsalsa; spirulina-major; f.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

357: Ishii N, Uchida S.
Removal of Technetium from Solution by Algal Flagellate Euglena gracilis.
J Environ Qual. 2006 Oct 27;35(6):2017-20.
PMID: 17071870
pdf: Ishii N 2006.pdf PAS
142
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

Based on limited data for the removal of radioactive (99)Tc by freshwater phytoplankton, it has been
thought that phytoplankton are unsuitable for remediation of (99)Tc-contaminated waters. This work
sought to verify the validity of this assumption by studying the removal of (99)TcO(4)(-) by freshwater
and brackish water phytoplankton. The phytoplankton used were Euglena gracilis, Chlamydomonas
pulsatilla, Chlorella vulgaris, and Spirulina platensis. Each of them was incubated for 63 d, and the
removal of (99)Tc from solution was periodically determined. Significant removal of (99)Tc was
observed only for E. gracilis, and the maximum removal was 70% of the total (99)Tc added. The killed
cells of E. gracilis, however, removed hardly any (99)Tc. When E. gracilis cells were washed with
fresh culture medium, only 13% of the total (99)Tc was desorbed. These results suggested that
intracellular uptake of (99)Tc by E. gracilis occurred. These results are the first documented example
of significant removal of (99)Tc by planktonic microalgae.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

358: Ishimi Y, Sugiyama F, Ezaki J , Fujioka M, Wu J .
Effects of spirulina, a blue-green alga, on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats and hindlimb-
unloaded mice.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Feb;70(2):363-8.
PMID: 16495651
pdf: Ishimi Y 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $spirulina; $osteoporosis; $hindlimb-unloading; $bone; $health-food.
mots-cls Antenna: ; B.
rsum:

The safety and effectiveness were examined of the spirulina alga on bone metabolism in
ovariectomized estrogen-deficient rats and hindlimb-unloaded mice. The dosage range was from an
amount equal to that recommended in so-called health foods for humans (0.08 g/kg BW/day) to a 100-
fold higher dose. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole femur and tibia of ovariectomized rats
in the any spirulina-treated groups was not significantly different from that of the ovariectomized group,
although BMD of the distal femur and proximal tibia was significantly lower in the spirulina-treated
groups than in the ovariectomized group after a 6 week-experimental period. BMD of the femur and
tibia was not affected by treatment with any dose of spirulina in hindlimb-unloaded mice. These results
suggest that the intake of spirulina decreased BMD in the trabecular bone of rodents under estrogen-
deficient conditions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

359: Iteman I.
Cyanobactries et toxicit.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 14.
PMID: pas
pdf: Iteman I 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

360: Itoh T, Yano K, Inada Y, Fukushima Y.
Photostabilized chlorophyll a in mesoporous silica: adsorption properties and photoreduction activity of
chlorophyll a.
J Am Chem Soc. 2002 Nov 13;124(45):13437-41.
PMID: 12418895
pdf: Itoh T 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; biochimie; chlorophille.
143
rsum:

Chlorophyll a was adsorbed to mesoporous silica (FSM, folded-sheet mesoporous material) to form a
chlorophyll-FSM conjugate, in which a nanometer-scale interaction between chlorophyll a molecules
resembles a living plant leaf. The mesopores of FSM acted as nanoscale spaces not only for an
interaction between chlorophyll molecules and the silica support but also for a nanoscale interaction
between the absorbed chlorophyll molecules. These interactions contribute to photostability. An
increase in the amount of chlorophyll adsorbed to the pores of FSM leads to an enhancement of the
photostability accompanied by a shift in the absorbance maximum to a longer wavelength. The
physiological function of the chlorophyll-FSM conjugate was explored as chlorophyll-FSM exhibited
the photoinduced ability to catalyze the reduction of methyl viologen (an electron carrier). The
evolution of hydrogen gas was observed for 14 h without deterioration when an aqueous suspension
containing chlorophyll-FSM, methyl viologen, 2-mercaptoethanol (an electron donor), and platinum
was illuminated with visible light.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

361: Itoh T, Ishii A, Kodera Y, Matsushima A, Hiroto M, Nishimura H, Tsuzuki T, Kamachi T, Okura I,
Inada Y.
Photostable chlorophyll a conjugated with poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-smectite catalyzes photoreduction
and hydrogen gas evolution by visible light.
Bioconjug Chem. 1998 May-J un;9(3):409-12.
PMID: 9576817
pdf: Itoh T 1998.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; biochimie; chlorophille.
rsum:

Chlorophyll a was adsorbed to a synthetic smectite intercalated by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) to
form the chlorophyll-PVP-smectite conjugate (Chl-PVP-SME) having an absorption maximum at 677
nm. The conjugate was found to be stable toward light illumination in comparison with chlorophyll-
smectite, chlorophyll-PVP, and free chlorophyll a. Chl-PVP-SME had a photoinduced activity for
catalyzing the reduction of methyl viologen. Furthermore, the evolution of hydrogen gas was observed
when an aqueous suspension containing Chl-PVP-SME, methyl viologen (an electron carrier), 2-
mercaptoethanol (an electron donor), and hydrogenase was illuminated by visible light.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

362: Iwasa M, Yamamoto M, Tanaka Y, Kaito M, Adachi Y.
Spirulina-associated hepatotoxicity.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Dec;97(12):3212-3.
PMID: 12492223
pdf: Iwasa M 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; mdecine; organes; systme-hpatique; toxicity. B.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

363: Iwata K, Inayama T, Kato T.
Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic
rats.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1990 Apr;36(2):165-71.
PMID: 2117648
pdf: Iwata K 1990.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

144
The effects of Spirulina platensis on lipoprotein lipase activity and hepatic triglyceride lipase activity in
post-heparin plasma were studied in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3
weeks old (body weight, 54 g) were fed on the high-fructose diet (68%) or the high-fructose diets
containing Spirulina at the level of 5, 10, and 15%, respectively, for 4 weeks. The dietary
hyperlipidemia caused by the high-fructose diet was improved by Spirulina feeding, accompanied by a
significant increase in the lipoprotein lipase activity in post-heparin plasma.

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364: J agiello M, Minta E, Chojnacka K, Kafarski P.
Mode of biosorption of chromium(III) by Spirulina species cells from aqueous solutions.
Water Environ Res. 2006 J ul;78(7):740-3.
PMID: 16929645
pdf: J agiello M 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , A, B.
rsum:

The ability of commercial Spirulina species to remove chromium(III) [Cr(III)] from an aqueous
environment was studied under photoautotrophic conditions. Biomass displayed high adsorptive
capacity, with recorded sorption rates up to 99% at a concentration range of 0.02 to 0.18 mg
chromium ions/mL of medium. Using isolated cell wall preparations, it was shown that Cr(III) is mainly
sorbed onto the surface of cell walls and that the sorption capacity of the walls is enormously high.
Living cells of cyanobacteria show the tendency to form multilayer sorption systems, as indicated
electron microscopy.

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365: J aime L, Mendiola J A, Herrero M, Soler-Rivas C, Santoyo S, Senorans FJ , Cifuentes A, Ibanez
E.
Separation and characterization of antioxidants from Spirulina platensis microalga combining
pressurized liquid extraction, TLC, and HPLC-DAD.
J Separation Sci. 2005 Nov;28(16):2111-9.
PMID: 16318207
pdf: J aime L 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Antioxidant-activity; $HPLC-diode-array-detector; $Pressurized-liquid-extraction;
$Spirulina-platensis; $TLC.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

A new procedure has been developed to separate and characterize antioxidant compounds from
Spirulina platensis microalga based on the combination of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and
different chromatographic procedures, such as TLC, at preparative scale, and HPLC with a diode
array detector (DAD). Different solvents were tested for PLE extraction of antioxidants from S.
platensis microalga. An optimized PLE process using ethanol (generally recognized as safe, GRAS)
as extraction solvent has been obtained that provides natural extracts with high yields and good
antioxidant properties. TLC analysis of this ethanolic extract obtained at 115 degrees C for 15 min was
carried out and the silica layer was stained with a DPPH (diphenyl-pycril-hydrazyl) radical solution to
determine the antioxidant activity of different chromatographic bands. Next, these colored bands were
collected for their subsequent analysis by HPLC-DAD, revealing that the compounds with the most
important antioxidant activity present in Spirulina extracts were carotenoids, as well as phenolic
compounds and degradation products of chlorophylls.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

366: J aime-Ceballos B, Villareal-Colmenares H, Garcia-Galano T, Civera-Cerecedo R, Gaxiola-
Cortes G.
Empleo del polvo de Spirulina platensis en la alimentacion de zoeas y mysis de Litopenaeus Schmitti
(Perez-Farfante y Kensley, 1997).
145
In: Cruz Suarez LE, et al. (eds.), 7th International symposium on aquaculture nutrition [VII Simposio
Internacional de Nutrition Acuicola] Nov. 16-19, 2004. Centro de las Artes, Universidad de Sonora
Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.
PMID: pas
pdf: J aime-Ceballos B 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------

367: J ansen T, Reilander H, Steppuhn J , Herrmann RG.
Analysis of cDNA clones encoding the entire precursor-polypeptide for ferredoxin:NADP+
oxidoreductase from spinach.
Curr Genet. 1988 J un;13(6):517-22.
PMID: 2969782
pdf: J ansen T 1988.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; gnomique; ADN.
rsum:

In this paper, we report the structural characterization of several spinach ferredoxin-NADP+
oxidoreductase (FNR) cDNAs ranging in size from 0.9 to 1.5 kilobases. A comparison of the deduced
amino acid sequence with the known amino acid sequence determined for the spinach protein
establishes that 1.4-1.5 kpb inserts span the full length of the mature protein (314 amino acid
residues; Mr =35,382). These also include an N-terminal 55 amino acid transit peptide as well as
maximally 171 and 214 nucleotide 5' and 3' untranslated sequences, respectively. Evidence has been
obtained that various forms of FNR arise from at least two similar genes. The FNR precursor (369
amino acid residues) has a calculated molecular mass of 41.2 kDa. Comparison of the transit peptide
with transit peptides from two other stromal proteins shows little similarity at the level of primary
sequence but some common features in secondary structure predictions.

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368: J aouen P, Lpine B, Rossignol N, Royer R, Qumneur F.
Clarification and concentration with membrane technology of a phycocyanin solution extracted from
Spirulina platensis.
J Biotechnol Techniques 13, No 12 (1999) 877-881.
PMID: pas
pdf: J aouen P 1999.pdf
mots-cls article: $membrane-technology, $nanofiltration, $phycocyanin, $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, f.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **phycocyanin, **extraction.
rsum:

Membrane technologies were investigated with the aim to improve stability of C-Phycocyanin extracts
resulting from ultrasonic breakage of Spirulina platensis. Five membranes, ranging from microfiltration
to reverse osmosis, were utilized both for clarification and concentration steps. Nanofiltration with
tubular organic membranes exhibited good performances: pigment recovery was 100%, mean
permeation flux was 85 l h^1 m^2 for achieving a concentration factor of 7 with 30x105 Pa pressure
and 1.5 m s^1 tangential velocity (turbulent flow).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

369: J arisoa T, Charpy L, Vincente N, Langlade MJ .
Adaptation des souches de spiruline du Sud de Madagascar la culture en eau de mer.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 25-27.
PMID: pas
pdf: J arisoa T 2004.papier
mots-cls article: $spirulina, $seawater, $culture.
146
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

370: J assey Y, Berlot J P, Baron C.
[Comparative study of the nucleic acids of 2 species of Spirulina: Spirulina platensis Geitler and
Spirulina maxima Geitler].
C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1971 Dec 8;273(23):2365-8.
PMID: 5003405
pdf: J assey Y 1971.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima.
rsum: article en franais

--------------------------------------------------------------------

371: J au MH, Yew SP, Toh PS, Chong AS, Chu WL, Phang SM, Najimudin N, Sudesh K.
Biosynthesis and mobilization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] by Spirulina platensis.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2005 Aug;36(3):144-51.
PMID: 16005060
pdf: J au M 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Polyhydroxyalkanoates-(PHAs); $Spirulina-platensis; $pH; $Illumination;
$Mobilization.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Three strains of Spirulina platensis isolated from different locations showed capability of synthesizing
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] under nitrogen-starved conditions with a maximum accumulation of
up to 10 wt.% of the cell dry weight (CDW) under mixotrophic culture conditions. Intracellular
degradation (mobilization) of P(3HB) granules by S. platensis was initiated by the restoration of
nitrogen source. This mobilization process was affected by both illumination and culture pH. The
mobilization of P(3HB) was better under illumination (80% degradation) than in dark conditions (40%
degradation) over a period of 4 days. Alkaline conditions (pH 10-11) were optimal for both
biosynthesis and mobilization of P(3HB) at which 90% of the accumulated P(3HB) was mobilized.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the mobilization of P(3HB) involved changes in
granule quantity and morphology. The P(3HB) granules became irregular in shape and the boundary
region was less defined. In contrast to bacteria, in S. platensis the intracellular mobilization of P(3HB)
seems to be faster than the biosynthesis process. This is because in cyanobacteria chlorosis delays
the P(3HB) accumulation process.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

372: J eeji Bai N, Seshadri CV.
Small scale culture of Spirulina (Arthrospira) as a food supplement for rural households - technology
development and transfer.
Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 80, No 1-4 (1988) 565-572.
PMID: pas
pdf: J eeji Bai N 1988.papier
mots-cls article: $cyanophyta, $cyanobacteria, $mass-cultivation, $technology, $mass-culture-
practice, $pot-culture, $yields of-biomass, $food-utilization.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis; f.
rsum:

A simple technology of growing Spirulina (Arthrospira) fusiformis in mud pots to provide nutritive food
supplement for a familly has been developped. The technique of pot culture, its advantages, nutritive
value of the product, cost analysis etc. have appeared already in earlier reports (J EEJ I BAI &
SESHADRI 1986a, b). Here preliminary testing for comparative yields of a few strains, monitoring for
healthy and optimum yields and adaptability of this method as a familly enterprise have been
147
considered. The successful transfer of this technology to a village near Madras through training given
to women has been briefly reported.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

373: J enkins MY, Sheikh NM, Mitchell GV, Grundel E, Blakely SR, Carter CJ .
Dietary carotenoids influenced biochemical but not morphological changes in adult male rats fed a
choline-deficient diet.
Nutr Cancer. 1993;19(1):55-65.
PMID: 8446515
pdf: J enkins M 1993.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

In a study of the effects of carotenoids, canthaxanthin (CA), beta-apo-8'-carotenal (BA), or beta-
carotene in an extract of Spirulina-Dunaliella algae (AE) was fed at 0%, 0.1%, or 0.2% in a choline-
deficient (CD) diet. In each of eight groups, 10 adult male Fischer 344 rats were fed diets with
designated carotenoid sources and levels or a choline-sufficient diet for 12 weeks. Carotenoids altered
some of the changes induced by the CD diet. Increases in enlargement of fatty livers and low plasma
cholesterol levels occurred in rats fed 0.2% BA. Plasma retinol was further reduced 35% by BA or AE.
BA and AE increased liver total vitamin A about 80% and 305%, respectively. Liver lipid peroxidation
was enhanced and plasma alpha-tocopherol was reduced further by 1.0% AE. AE, BA, and CA (mg/g
fat) depressed liver alpha-tocopherol about 49%, 67%, and 78%, respectively. The decreased liver
alpha-tocopherol was concurrent with an increase in carotenoid stores of CA >BA >AE.
Histopathological examination of sections of liver tissue by light microscopy showed fatty and cirrhotic
changes in all rats fed CD diets. Histochemical evaluation based on a semiquantitative assay revealed
a marked increase in peroxisome enzyme activity in the livers of all CD rats. None of the carotenoids
appeared to have any effect on the development of morphological changes in the liver. Although
carotenoids can function as antioxidants, they did not prevent changes observed in rats fed CD diets.

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374: J ensen GS, Ginsberg DI, Drapeau C.
Blue-green algae as an immuno-enhancerand biomodulator.
J ANA 3, No 4 (2001) 24-30.
PMID: pas
pdf: J ensen G 2001.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , spirulina-fusiformis; m; B.
rsum :
article de revue

--------------------------------------------------------------------

375: J ensen GS, Ginsberg DI, Huerta P, Citton M, Drapeau C.
Consumption of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae has rapid effects on the circulation and function of
immune cells in humans.
J ANA 2, No 3 (2000) 50-58.
PMID: pas
pdf: J ensen G 2000.papier
mots-cls article: $Lymphocyte-trafficking, $natural-killer-cells, $phagocytes.
mots-cls Antenna: ; m; B.
rsum :

Objective: To examine the short-term effects of consumption of a moderate amount (1.5 grams) of the
blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), on the immune system.
Methods: Using a crossover, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind design, 21 volunteers
were studied, including 5 long-term AFA consumers.
148
Results: Consumption of a moderate amount (1.5 grams) of the blue-green algae Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae results in rapid changes in immune cell trafficking. Two hours after AFA consumption, a
generalized mobilization of lymphocytes and monocytes, but not polymorph nucleated cells, was
observed. This included increases in CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+T cell subsets and CDl9+B cells. In
addition, the relative proportions and absolute numbers of natural killer (NK) cells were reduced after
AFA consumption. No changes were observed in the relative proportions of naive versus memory T
cells, neither in the CD4 nor the CD8 fractions. A mild but significant reduction in phagocytic activity
was observed for polymorph nucleated cells. When freshly purified lymphocytes were exposed to AFA
extract in vitro, direct activation was not induced, as evaluated by tyrosine phosphorylation and
proliferative activity.
Discussion: The changes in immune cell trafficking displayed a high degree of cell specificity. Long-
term consumers responded stronger with respect to altered immune cell trafficking. In vitro, AFA did
not induce a direct activation of lymphocytes. These data support a signaling pathway from gut to CNS
to lymphoid tissue. The signals from CNS may be crucial for the rapid changes in the general
distribution and specific recruitment we observed. Moderate anti-inflammatory modulation may
account for the modification of phagocytic activity.
Conclusion: Consumption of AFA leads to rapid changes in immune cell trafficking, but not direct
activation of lymphocytes. Thus, AFA increases the immune surveillance without directly stimulating
the immune system.

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376: J etley UK, Choudhary M, Fatma T.
The impact of physical stresses on the growth of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis-S5.
J Environ Sci Eng. 2004 Oct;46(4):303-11.
PMID: 16649630
pdf: J etley U 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, A.
rsum:

Cyanobacterium Spirulina is in ever increasing demand internationally due to its high value bio-
chemical constituents which find application in areas like health foods and therapeutics, especially for
its high protein content. The Spirulina protein is superior to practically all proteins including those from
legumes, and is comparable to milk proteins for that matter. Moreover, interest in its phycocyanin, b-
carotene, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) contents has attracted the
attention of researchers the world over towards protecting, promoting and preserving the production of
this useful micro-organism. The present investigation deals with examining the impact of various
physical stresses viz. intensity and photo-period of light, varying chromatic regimes, temperature, pH,
etc., on the growth of Spirulina platensis-S5 to spell the appropriate conditions for raising the strain in
laboratory. No earlier report of this kind is available, so far, to our knowledge. The experimental results
suggested that 16 : 8 hours light : dark regime at light intensity of 2000 +/- 200 lux, temperature of 30
+/- 1 degrees C and pH of 9.1 are the optimal growth conditions for the test micro-organisim. The
growth under different chromatic regimes observed the order yellow>red>green>blue.

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377: J eyaprakash K, Chinnaswamy P.
Effect of spirulina and Liv-52 on cadmium induced toxicity in albino rats.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Sep;43(9):773-81.
PMID: 16187527
pdf: J eyaprakash K 2005.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Oral administration of cadmium (6mg/kg body weight/day) as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 30 days
resulted in a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and a
decrease in the levels of copper, zinc, iron, selenium, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase,
glutathione peroxidase when compared to normal control. Administration of either Liv-52 alone or in
149
combination with spirulina produced a well pronounced protective effect in respect to these
parameters in cadmium intoxicated rats. The protective effect of spirulina and Liv-52 in respect to
biochemical changes were also confirmed by histopathological study in the liver and kidney sections.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

378: J ohnson PE, Elliot Shubert L.
Availability of iron to rats from Spirulina, a blue-green alga.
Nutrition Research 6, No 1 (1986) 85-94.
PMID: pas
pdf: J ohnson P 1986.papier
mots-cls article: $algae; $iron-availability; $mercury; $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, f.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **iron, **Mouse.
rsum:

Both cultured Spirulina platensis (Nordst.) Geitl,a blue-green alga, and commercially available dried
Spirulina contained high levels of iron, 300400 ppm on a dry weight basis. Iron availability to rats
from cultured S. platensis and from commercial Spirulina equaled that of FeSO4. Ingestion of the daily
dose of Spirulina (10 g) recommended for human consumption by the commercial source would
provide up to 1.52 mg absorbed iron. However, both cultured and commercial Spirulina contained
approximately 9.5 ppm Hg, so that chronic use may lead to mercury intakes above prudent levels.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

379: J ohnson MK, Thomson AJ , Robinson AE, Rao KK, Hall DO.
Low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism spectra and magnetisation curves of 4Fe clusters in
iron-sulphur proteins from Chromatium and Clostridium pasteurianum.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 Feb 27;667(2):433-51.
PMID: 6260220
pdf: J ohnson M 1981.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; iron-sulphur-proteins.
rsum:

The magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of the 4Fe clusters in the iron-sulphur proteins high-
potential iron protein from Chromatium and the 8Fe ferredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum have
been measured over the wavelength range 300-800 nm at temperatures between approx. 1.5 and 50
K and at magnetic fields up to 5 tesla. In both cases the proteins have been studied in the oxidized
and reduced states. The reduced state of high-potential iron protein gives a temperature-independent
MCD spectrum up to 20 K, confirming the diamagetism of this state at low temperature. The MCD
spectrum of samples of oxidized ferredoxin invariably show the presence of a low concentration of a
paramagnetic species, in agreement with the observation that the EPR spectrum always shows a
signal at g =2.01. The paramagnetic MCD spectrum runs across the whole of the wavelength range
studied and therefore most probably originates from an iron-sulphur centre. The diamagnetic
component of the MCD spectrum of oxidized ferredoxin is very similar to that of reduced high-potential
iron protein. The low-temperature MCD spectra of oxidized high-potential iron protein and reduced
ferredoxin reveal intense, temperature-dependent bands. The spectra are highly structured with that of
high-potential iron protein showing a large number of electronic transitions across the visible region.
The MCD spectra of the two different oxidation levels are quite distinctive and should provide a means
of establishing the identity of these state of 4Fe clusters in more complex proteins. MCD
magnetisation curves have been constructed from detailed studies of the field and temperature
dependence of the MCD spectra of the two paramagnetic oxidation states. These plots can be
satisfactorily fitted to the theoretically computed curves for an S =1/2 ground state with the g factors
experimentally determined by EPR spectroscopy. The low-temperature MCD spectra of the reduced
2Fe-2S ferredoxin from Spirulina maxima are also presented and MCD magnetisation curves plotted
and fitted to the experimentally determined g factors.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

150
380: J ones MP, Shah D, Ebert CC.
Effects of rabeprazole sodium on gastric emptying, electrogastrography, and fullness.
Digest Dis Sci. 2003 J an;48(1):69-73.
PMID: 12645792
pdf: J ones M 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $rabeprazole; $gastric-emptying; $electrogastrography; $drink-test.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; instrumentation; gastric-monitoring.
rsum:

Proton pump inhibitors have been reported to delay gastric emptying, but this effect is controversial.
Our aim was to determine the effect of rabeprazole sodium on several parameters of gastric function
including gastric emptying, myoelectrical activity and ingested water volume required to produce
fullness. Fifteen healthy males underwent assessment of solid-phase gastric emptying with the [13C]
Spirulina platensis breath test as well as electrogastrography and satiety testing using a 5-min water
load. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, after administration of placebo, and after rabeprazole
sodium 20 mg daily for one week. No significant differences were seen between groups with respect
to solid-phase gastric emptying as measured by T1/2 or T(lag). No differences were seen between
baseline, placebo, and rabeprazole with respect to the number of normal electrogastrograms and the
volume of water required to produce fullness. In conclusion, one week of therapy with rabeprazole
sodium does not significantly alter gastric emptying, myoelectrical activity or threshold to fullness.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

381: J ourdan J P.
Solarium Spirulina farm in the Atacama desert (North Chile).
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 191-194.
PMID: pas
pdf: J ourdan J 1993a.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

382: J ung TM, Dailey MO.
A novel and inexpensive source of allophycocyanin for multicolor flow cytometry.
J Immunol Methods. 1989 J ul 6;121(1):9-18.
PMID: 2502578
pdf: J ung T 1989.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biochimie; C-phycocyanine.
rsum:

Allophycocyanin (APC) belongs to a family of phycobiliproteins that are well suited as fluorescent
reagents for flow cytometric analysis, since they have a broad excitation spectrum, a large Stoke's
shift and they fluoresce with a high quantum yield. The widespread use of APC has been limited by
the availability of raw material and high cost of the purified phycobiliprotein. We have assessed the
suitability of dry, powdered Spirulina platensis, available at health food stores, as an inexpensive
source of APC. APC was extracted from Spirulina platensis by overnight treatment with lysozyme,
followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation. APC was then separated from phycocyanin (the only
other major phycobiliprotein in Spirulina) by elution of bound material from an hydroxylapatite column
using an increasing continuous phosphate gradient. APC isolated in this manner retained its normal
trimeric structure. The absorbance and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the purified
phycobiliproteins were identical to those previously shown for C-PC and APC. APC can be stored
concentrated at 4 degrees C, frozen at -70 degrees C, or as a saturated ammonium sulfate
precipitate, with no subunit dissociation or change in spectral properties. Moreover, APC has been
conjugated to monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for use in multicolor FACS analysis, with the
conjugated antibody activity remaining stable for at least 2 years. Thus, this procedure is a simple,
cost-effective method for preparing reagents for multicolor immunofluorescence and flow cytometry.
151

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383: Kaji T, Okabe M, Shimada S, Yamamoto C, Fujiwara Y, Lee J B, Hayashi T.
Sodium spirulan as a potent inhibitor of arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro.
Life Sci. 2004 Mar 26;74(19):2431-9.
PMID: 14998720
pdf: Kaji T 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Atherosclerosis; $Polysaccharide; $Smooth-muscle-cell; $Sodium-spirulan;
$Vascular.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; systme-vasculaire; B.
rsum:

Sodium spirulan (Na-SP) is a sulfated polysaccharide with M(r) approximately 220,000 isolated from
the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. The polysaccharide consists of two types of disaccharide
repeating units, O-hexuronosyl-rhamnose (aldobiuronic acid) and O-rhamnosyl-3-O-methylrhamnose
(acofriose) with sulfate groups, other minor saccharides and sodium ion. Since vascular smooth
muscle cell proliferation is a crucial event in the progression of atherosclerosis, we investigated the
effect of Na-SP on the proliferation of bovine arterial smooth muscle cells in culture. It was found that
Na-SP markedly inhibits the proliferation without nonspecific cell damage. Either replacement of
sodium ion with calcium ion or depolymerization of the Na-SP molecule to M(r) approximately 14,700
maintained the inhibitory activity, however, removal of sodium ion or desulfation markedly reduced the
activity. Heparin and heparan sulfate also inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell growth but their effect
was weaker than that of Na-SP; dextran sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan
failed to inhibit the cell growth. The present data suggest that Na-SP is a potent inhibitor of arterial
smooth muscle cell proliferation, and the inhibitory effect requires a certain minimum sequence of
polysaccharide structure whose molecular conformation is maintained by sodium ion bound to sulfate
group.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

384: Kaji T, Fujiwara Y, Hamada C, Yamamoto C, Shimada S, Lee J B, Hayashi T.
Inhibition of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cell proliferation by sodium spirulan, a new sulfated
polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina platensis.
Planta Med. 2002 J un;68(6):505-9.
PMID: 12094292
pdf: Kaji T 2002b.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $Endothelial-cell, $polysaccharide, $proliferation, $sodium-spirulan, $Spirulina-
platensis, $blue-green-alga.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; systme-vasculaire.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **polysaccharides, **IV.
rsum:

Sodium spirulan (Na-SP) is a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina
platensis, which consists of two types of disaccharide repeating units, O-hexuronosyl-rhamnose
(aldobiuronic acid) and O-rhamnosyl-3-O-methylrhamnose (acofriose) with sulfate groups, other minor
saccharides and sodium ion. Vascular endothelial cells are present on the inner surface of blood
vessels in a monolayer and have anticoagulant properties. To address the question whether Na-SP
influences the maintenance of endothelial cell monolayers, we investigated the proliferation of cultured
bovine aortic endothelial cells treated with Na-SP. It was found that Na-SP has an inhibitory activity on
endothelial cell proliferation accompanied with suppression of whole protein synthesis but without non-
specific cell damage. The inhibitory activity of Na-SP was the strongest when compared to that of
heparan sulfate, heparin, dextran sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate A/C and hyaluronan.
Furthermore, it was shown that the inhibitory activity of Na-SP disappeared by either desulfation or
depolymerization. The present data suggest that Na-SP is a unique sulfated polysaccharide that
strongly inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation, and the inhibitory activity requires
polymerization of sulfated O-rhamnosyl-acofriose repeating units.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

152
385: Kaji T, Shimada S, Yamamoto C, Fujiwara Y, Lee J B, Hayashi T.
Inhibition of the association of proteoglycans with cultured vascular endothelial cell layers by calcium
and sodium spirulan.
J Health Sci 48, No 3 (2002) 250-255.
PMID: pas
pdf: Kaji T 2002a.pdf
mots-cls article: $calcium-spirulan, $endothelial-cell, $proteoglycan, $sodium-spirulan, $extracellular-
matrix, $vascular.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m.
B: **Medicine; **Spirulina; **polysaccharides, **IV.
rsum :

Vascular endothelial proteoglycans exhibit an antithrombogenic activity by activating antithrombin III
and heparin cofactor II on the luminal surface of the vascular wall. Calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) is a novel
sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Since Ca-SP exhibits
antithrombin activity by activation of heparin cofactor II, we hypothesized that the polysaccharide may
influence the metabolism of anticoagulant proteoglycans synthesized by endothelial cells. When
cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells were treated with Ca-SP (50 microg/ml or less) in the presence
of [S-35]sulfate for 24 hr, the accumulation of labeled proteoglycans in the cell layer was decreased
but that in the conditioned medium was significantly increased, indicating that Ca-SP inhibits the
association of proteoglycans with vascular endothelial cell layers. Na-SP, which was prepared by
replacement of calcium ion with sodium ion, showed an equal effect. When the endothelial cells were
labeled with [S-35]sulfate and then treated with Ca-SP (5 microg/ml or more) for 1 hr in the absence of
[S-35]sulfate, the percentage of [S-35]sulfate-labeled proteoglycans released into the medium was
markedly increased by Ca-SP. DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography of [S-35]sulfate-labeled
proteoglycans released into the medium from Na-SP-treated cells indicated that Na-SP stimulates the
release of both heparan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans from the cell layer. Taking
these results together it is suggested that Ca-SP and Na-SP promote the release of proteoglycans
from vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting the association of the macromolecules with the cell layer.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

386: Kaji T, Fujiwara Y, Inomata Y, Hamada C, Yamamoto C, Shimada S, Lee J B, Hayashi T.
Repair of wounded monolayers of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells is inhibited by calcium
spirulan, a novel sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina platensis.
Life Sci. 2002 Mar 8;70(16):1841-8.
PMID: 12005170
pdf: Kaji T 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; systme-vasculaire; B.
rsum:

Calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) is a novel sulfated polysaccharide isolated from a blue-green alga Spirulina
platensis. Ca-SP inhibits thrombin by activation of heparin cofactor II. Therefore, it could serve as an
origin of anti-atherogenic medicines. Since maintenance of vascular endothelial cell monolayers is
important for prevention of vascular lesions such as atherosclerosis, the effect of Ca-SP at 20
microg/ml or less on the repair of wounded bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers in culture was
investigated in the present study. When the monolayers were wounded and cultured in the presence
of Ca-SP, the polysaccharide inhibited the appearance of the cells in the wounded area. The inhibition
was also observed even when the repair was promoted by excess basic fibroblast growth factor, which
is one of the autocrine growth factors that are involved in the endothelial cell monolayer maintenance.
On the other hand, Ca-SP inhibited the cell growth and the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the
acid-insoluble fraction of proliferating endothelial cells, suggesting that Ca-SP inhibits endothelial cell
proliferation. From these results, it is concluded that Ca-SP may retard the repair process of damaged
vascular endothelium through inhibition of vascular endothelial cell proliferation by induction of a lower
ability to respond to stimulation by endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

387: Kaplan A.
153
Photoinhibition in Spirulina platensis: Response of photosynthesis and HCO3 uptake capability to CO2
depleted conditions.
J Exp Botany 32(4) 1981:669-677.
PMID: pas
pdf: Kaplan A 1981.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: , S.
rsum:

The apparent photosynthetic affinity-for inorganic carbon in Spirulina is severely reduced by exposing
the cells to CO2-depleted conditions in the light. The extent of reduction depends on the length of
exposure, the light intensity, and the O2 concentration. The photosynthetic dependence on inorganic
carbon (CInorg) concentration, however, is similar at 3% O2 and at 25% O2 but in the presence of
catalase. The amount of O2 released following the addition of catalase to the cell suspension also
depends on the O2 and CO2 concentrations. The addition of H2O2 either to the cell suspension or by
a treatment with methyl viologen caused a severe inhibition of the capability of the cells to accumulate
inorganic carbon internally. It is suggested that the reduction of the photosynthetic apparent affinity to
CInorg upon subjecting the cells to photoinhibitory conditions is caused by an alteration of their ability
to accumulate CInorg due to the accumulation of H2O2.

--------------------------------------------------------

388: Kapoor R, Mehta U.
Supplementary effect of spirulina on hematological status of rats during pregnancy and lactation.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998;52(4):315-24.
PMID: 10426118
pdf: Kapoor R 1998.papier
mots-cls article: $Blue-green-alga; $Hematological-response; $Protein; $Spirulina;
$Supplementation; $Wheat-gluten.
mots-cls Antenna: .
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **iron, **Mouse.
rsum:

The effect of Spirulina on iron status was assessed based on hemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum
iron, total iron binding capacity and ferritin levels of rats during pregnancy and lactation. Rats were fed
5 different kinds of diets (casein, Spirulina, wheat gluten, Spirulina +wheat gluten, Spirulina without
additional vitamins and minerals) each providing 22 percent protein. Diets containing Spirulina alone
or in combination with wheat gluten resulted in significantly higher iron storage and hemoglobin
contents than casein and wheat gluten diets during the first half of pregnancy and lactation. Wheat
gluten diet result in the smallest increase in hemoglobin levels and iron stores compared to other
diets. The values of serum iron and iron binding capacity remained unchanged with different diets.
Spirulina appears to be effective in improving the iron status of rats during pregnancy and lactation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

389: Kapoor R, Mehta U.
Iron status and growth of rats fed different dietary iron sources.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1993 J ul;44(1):29-34.
PMID: 8332584
pdf: Kapoor R 1993b.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **iron, **Mouse.
rsum:

The present study was carried out to investigate the availability of iron from spirulina, whole wheat,
whole egg and standard ferrous sulphate in terms of haemoglobin formation, serum and tissue iron
levels. Male albino Wistar rats were first depleted of iron by giving low-iron diet (9 ppm) and bleeding
1-2 ml blood at weekly intervals for a period of 21 days. The anaemic rats were repleted with iron
sources at a level of 35 ppm for 21 days. Rats receiving whole egg gained significantly (p <0.01)
154
higher weight than the rest of the three groups. The increase in haemoglobin was significantly higher
with ferrous sulphate than with whole wheat (p <0.05), spirulina and whole egg (p <0.01). Feeding of
ferrous sulphate, whole egg and spirulina produced significantly higher tissue iron levels than feeding
of whole wheat. Thus, availability of iron from spirulina and whole egg were found to be comparable to
that of the standard.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

390: Kapoor R, Mehta U.
Effect of supplementation of blue green alga (Spirulina) on outcome of pregnancy in rats.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1993;43:29-35.
PMID: 8464842
pdf: Kapoor R 1993a.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

To study the supplementary effect of Spirulina, pregnant rats were fed 5 different kinds of diets
(casein, Spirulina, wheat gluten, Spirulina +wheat gluten, Spirulina without additional vitamins and
minerals), each providing 22% protein during the period of pregnancy. The outcome of the pregnancy
was assessed from litter and dams weight and litter size. Maternal weight gain was found to be
maximum with Spirulina+wheat gluten and least with the wheat glutehn diet. Rats receiving Spirulina
containing diets produced significantly (p<0.05) higher litter size than those receiving casein and
wheat gluten. In spite of having higher litter size, Spirulina containing diet groups produced pups with
birth weights comparable to those of casein. Spirulina appears to be a good dietary supplement during
pregnancy.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

391: Kapoor R, Mehta U.
Utilization of beta-carotene from Spirulina platensis by rats.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1993 J an;43(1):1-7.
PMID: 8464841
pdf: Kapoor R 1993.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The availability of beta-carotene from Spirulina as compared to standard all trans beta-carotene was
studied by the liver and kidney vitamin A storage method. After 21 days of vitamin A depletion, the rats
were repleted with beta-carotene from Spirulina and a standard source at two dietary levels (60 and
120 micrograms/day) for a 10 day period. At lower levels, the liver storage levels of vitamin A and the
percent of beta-carotene absorption were comparable to those of the standard. At higher levels both
these parameters of the Spirulina fed group were significantly (P <0.01) inferior to the standard
source fed group. However, the Spirulina fed group showed better (P <0.05) growth than the standard
fed group did at both low and high levels of feeding.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

392: Kapoor R, Mehta U.
Iron bioavailability from Spirulina platensis, whole egg and whole wheat.
Indian J Exp Biol. 1992 Oct;30(10):904-7.
PMID: 1293017
pdf: Kapoor R 1992.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **iron, **Mouse.
rsum:

155
Bioavailability of iron from Spirulina was assessed in comparison with whole egg, whole wheat and
standard ferrous sulphate using haemoglobin depletion repletion assay. Haemoglobin regeneration
efficiency of Spirulina and whole egg was similar and significantly higher than that of whole wheat. The
absorption of iron from Spirulina was significantly lower than that of ferrous sulphate and whole egg
but significantly greater than that from whole wheat.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

393: Karaca T, Nejdet Simsek.
Effects of spirulina on the number of ovary mast cells in lead-induced toxicity in rats.
Phytother Res 21, No 1 (2007) 44-46.
PMID: pas
pdf: Karaca T 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina, $lead, $mast cell, $ovary, $rat.
mots-cls Antenna: , j.
rsum:

The present study investigated the protective effect of Spirulina against the lead-induced increase in
mast cells in the ovary during the oestrous cycle of rats. In the ovary cortex and medulla of lead-
exposed animals, there was a significant increase in the number of mast cells; however, when also
treated with Spirulina, a decrease was observed. The number of mast cells when Spirulina (300
mg/kg) was used alone was not significantly different from that of the control group. These results
indicate that Spirulina decreases the number of mast cells induced by lead in the cortex and medulla
of rat ovary.

--------------------------------------------------------

394: Karapetyan NV.
Organization and role of the long-wave chlorophylls in the photosystem I of the Cyanobacterium
spirulina.
Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(5):571-84.
PMID: 10379641
pdf: Karapetyan N 1998.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

The data on the organization and function of the photosystem I pigment-protein complexes of the
cyanobacterium Spirulina and the characteristics of pigment antenna of the photosystem I monomeric
and trimeric core complexes are presented and discussed. We proved that the photosystem I
complexes in the cyanobacterial membrane pre-exist mainly as trimers, though both types of
complexes contribute to the photosynthetic electron transport. In contrast to monomers, the antenna of
the photosystem I trimeric complexes of Spirulina contains the extreme long-wave chlorophyll form
absorbing at 735 nm and emitting at 760 nm (77 K). The intensity of fluorescence at 760 nm depends
strongly on the P700 redox state: it is maximum with the reduced P700 and strongly decreased with
the oxidized P700 which is the most efficient quencher of fluorescence at 760 nm. The energy
absorbed by the extreme long-wave chlorophyll form is active in the photooxidation of P700 in the
trimeric complex. The data obtained indicate that the long-wave form of chlorophyll originates from
interaction of the chlorophyll molecules localized on monomeric subunits forming the photosystem I
trimer. Kinetic analysis of the P700 photooxidation and light-induced quenching of fluorescence at 760
nm (77 K) allows the suggestion that the excess energy absorbed by the antenna monomeric subunits
within the trimer migrates via the extreme long-wave chlorophyll to the P700 cation radical and is
quenched, which prevents the photodestruction of the pigment-protein complex.

Publication Types: Review

--------------------------------------------------------------------

395: Karapetyan NV, Dorra D, Schweitzer G, Bezsmertnaya IN, Holzwarth AR.
156
Fluorescence spectroscopy of the longwave chlorophylls in trimeric and monomeric photosystem I
core complexes from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
Biochemistry. 1997 Nov 11;36(45):13830-7.
PMID: 9374860
pdf: Karapetyan N 1997.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The organization and interaction of chlorophylls (Chl) and the kinetics of the energy transfer in the
core antenna of photosystem I (PSI) trimeric and monomeric complexes, isolated from Spirulina
platensis with Triton X-100 have been studied by stationary and time-resolved fluorescence. At 295 K
both complexes show an unusually intense long-wavelength emission band with prominent peaks at
730 nm (trimers) or 715 nm (monomers), whose intensity is independent of the redox state of P700. A
broad band extending from 710 to 740 nm in the absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra of
trimers also indicates the existence of the longwave Chls at 295 K. The 77 K fluorescence emission of
PSI trimers frozen after addition of dithionite under illumination (P700 and the PSI acceptor side
reduced) shows an intense band at 760 (F760) and a smaller one at 725 nm (F725); when P700 is
oxidized, the intensity of F760 decreases about 15 times. In the 77 K spectrum of monomers only
F725 is present in the longwave region, and its intensity does not depend on the redox state of P700.
Bands of Chls with maxima near 680, 710, and 738 nm were found in the 77 K excitation spectrum of
trimers, and bands near 680 and 710 nm were seen in the spectrum of monomers. Five spectrally
different red Chl forms in PSI trimers and three red Chl in monomers have been resolved by
deconvolution of their 77 K absorption spectra. The difference absorption spectrum, trimers-minus-
monomers, shows that the appearance of the 735 nm band in trimers is accompanied by a decrease
of 708, 698, and 688 nm bands present in monomers. The reversible changes of F760 intensity of
Spirulina membranes as a result of their salt treatment confirm the idea that the most longwave Chl
form originates from an interaction of Chls bound to different monomeric PSI subunits forming the
trimer. The time-resolved fluorescence spectra of PSI trimers and monomers, measured at 287 K in
the region 680-770 nm, are substantially different, although a set of similar lifetimes (9, approximately
30, approximately 66, and 1400-2200 ps) was necessary for a good fit. No effect of P700 redox state
was observed on the fluorescence kinetics of both complexes at 287 K.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

396: Karpov LM, Brown II, Poltavtseva NV, Ershova ON, Karakis SG, Vasil'eva TV, Chaban IuL.
[The postradiation use of vitamin-containing complexes and a phycocyanin extract in a radiation lesion
in rats].
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 May-J un;40(3):310-4.
PMID: 10907410
pdf: Karpov L 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

Wistar rats have been exposed to X-rays with a dose of 5 Gy. Significant decrease in dehydrogenase
activity, energy-rich phosphate level and efficiency of antioxidant defence and significant increase in
pyruvate amount were observed within 4 weeks. It was also found that the feeding of exposed rats
with phycocyanin extract from blue-green algae Spirulina platensis lead to correcting effect. The same
result was observed after injections of tocopherol or complex of six water-soluble vitamins. The
combination of above mentioned compounds had more marked effect, especially at the presence
unitiole and Na2Se.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

397: Kasahara M, Unno T, Yashiro K, Ohmori M.
CyaG, a novel cyanobacterial adenylyl cyclase and a possible ancestor of mammalian guanylyl
cyclases.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):10564-9.
PMID: 11134014
157
pdf: Kasahara M 2001.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; protides-
cyclases.
rsum:

A novel gene encoding an adenylyl cyclase, designated cyaG, was identified in the filamentous
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. The predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminal region of
cyaG was similar to the catalytic domains of Class III adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases. The N-terminal
region next to the catalytic domain of CyaG was similar to the dimerization domain, which is highly
conserved among guanylyl cyclases. As a whole, CyaG is more closely related to guanylyl cyclases
than to adenylyl cyclases in its primary structure. The catalytic domain of CyaG was expressed in
Escherichia coli and partially purified. CyaG showed adenylyl cyclase (but not guanylyl cyclase)
activity. By site-directed mutagenesis of three amino acid residues (Lys(533), Ile(603), and Asp(605))
within the purine ring recognition site of CyaG to Glu, Arg, and Cys, respectively, CyaG was
transformed to a guanylyl cyclase that produced cGMP instead of cAMP. Thus having properties of
both cyclases, CyaG may therefore represent a critical position in the evolution of Class III adenylyl
and guanylyl cyclases.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

398: Kasahara M, Yashiro K, Sakamoto T, Ohmori M.
The Spirulina platensis adenylate cyclase gene, cyaC, encodes a novel signal transduction protein.
Plant Cell Physiol. 1997 J ul;38(7):828-36.
PMID: 9297847
pdf: Kasahara M 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $Adenylate-cyclase, $Bacterial-two-component-regulatory-system,
$Cyanobacterium, $Response-regulator, $Sensory-kinase.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

A cyaC gene encoding an adenylate cyclase of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis
was sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminal region of cyaC is similar to the
catalytic domains of adenylate cyclases in other cyanobacteria and eukaryotes. The sequences of
other regions are similar to those of proteins consisting of the bacterial two-component signal
transduction system: the sensory kinase and the response regulator. The predicted gene product of
cyaC contains, from the N-terminal end, a receiver domain of the response regulator protein (R1), a
domain similar to the ETR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana, a transmitter domain of the sensory kinase
protein, a receiver domain of the response regulator protein (R2), and a catalytic domain of adenylate
cyclase. The cyaC gene was expressed as an affinity-tagged protein in Escherichia coli, and the
recombinant protein was purified. The purified protein had adenylate cyclase activity which was
activated by Mu2+. The results of Western blotting using an anti-CyaC antiserum and the S.platensis
cell extract confirmed that cyaC gene is expressed in S. platensis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

399: Kaushik T, Shyam R, Vats P, Suri S, Kumria MML, Sharma PC, Nath Sing SN.
Glutathione metabolism in rats exposed to high-fluoride water and effect of spirulina treatment.
Fluoride 34, No 2 (2001) 132-138.
PMID: pas
pdf: Kaushik T 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $Albino-rats, $Enzyme-activities, $Fluorosis, $Glutathione-metabolism, $Lipid-
peroxidation, $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: , f.
B: **Toxicology, **Spirulina, **fluorosis, **mouse.
rsum:

Effects of high fluoride intake through water on glutathione and related enzymatic activities in blood
and liver of albino rats were studied. Twenty four rats were divided into three groups of 8 each. Group
I was given normal municipal supply water (fluoride content 0.55 ppm), Groups II and III were exposed
158
to 12 ppm fluoride in water for 15 days. Group III was treated orally with Spirulina (200 mg/kg bwt), a
functional food rich in protein, vitamins and minerals, for study of protective effects. After 15 days of
exposure reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG), lipid peroxidation and enzymes, i.e.
glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and
gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) activities were measured in blood/erythrocytes and
liver. There was a significant rise in blood GSSG level and a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio, with
increased lipid peroxidation in fluoride-exposed animals. A marked decrease in GR and GST activities
and an increase in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity were also noted in blood of fluoride
exposed animals. In the liver no significant changes in these variables were observed. Results
indicate oxidative stress during fluoride exposure. Spirulina treatment was beneficial to some extent as
a rich source of the antioxidant vitamin beta-carotene.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

400: Kawamura M, Sakakibara M, Watanabe T, Kita K, Hiraoka N, Obayashi A, Takagi M, Yano K.
A new restriction endonuclease from Spirulina platensis.
Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Mar 11;14(5):1985-9.
PMID: 3008081
pdf: Kawamura M 1986.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Three restriction endonucleases, Sp1I, Sp1II and Sp1III have been purified partially from Spirulina
platensis subspecies siamese and named. Sp1I cleaves bacteriophage lambda DNA at one site, phi X
174 RF DNA at two sites, but does not cleave pBR322 DNA. This enzyme recognizes the sequence
5'CGTACG3' 3'GCATCG5' and cuts the site indicated by the arrows. Sp1II is an isoschizomer of
Tth111I and Sp1III is an isoschizomer of HaeIII.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

401: Kawata Y, Yano S, Kojima H, Toyomizu M.
Transformation of Spirulina platensis strain C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438) with Tn5 transposase-
transposon DNA-cation liposome complex.
Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2004 J ul-Aug;6(4):355-63.
PMID: 15136915
pdf: Kawata Y 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $Arthrospira; $transformation; $electroporation; $transposase;
$Tn5-transposon; $cation-liposome.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

Spirulina platensis is one of the most commercially important species of microalgae. Thus, it is an
attractive candidate for genetic manipulation and the development of novel practical applications.
However, this process is hampered by the absence of a stable gene transfer system, specifically the
limited number of suitable vectors and transformation methods available for this organism. Artificial
transposon systems developed by extracting the essential elements from natural transposons have
been extensively studied, and recently a mutated transposase and transposon system was reported to
improve transformation efficiency by electroporation. We applied a modified transformation strategy
using a natural Tn5 transposon, transposase, and cation liposome complex by electroporation to
improve the transformation efficiency for Spirulina platensis strain C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438).
Aggregation of cells became visible after 3 weeks during 2.0 microg/ml chloramphenicol selection, and
growth continued for more than 12 months. Transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)
genes were detected in the genomic DNA by Southern hybridization. Transformed cells demonstrated
CAT activity, but non-transformed cells did not.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

402: Kawata Y, Yano S, Thankappan AK, Daniel EC, Kojima H.
Preparation of a genomic library using a TA vector.
159
Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 1999 Feb;29(1):91-100.
PMID: 10069436
pdf: Kawata Y 1999.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; gnomique; ADN.
rsum:

An efficient and simple method for constructing a genomic DNA library is presented using a TA cloning
vector. It is based on sonication cleavage of genomic DNA, blunting of the fragment ends with mung
bean nuclease, and addition of a single 3'-deoxyadenylate with Taq DNA polymerase, followed by
ligation with a TA vector. This method is useful for improving the quality of genomic libraries for
organisms whose genomic DNA is not well digested with restriction enzymes owing to the presence of
polysaccharides and/or DNA methylation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

403: Kawata Y, Yano S, Kojima H.
Efficient library construction with a TA vector and its application to cloning of the phytoene synthase
gene from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
Curr Microbiol. 1998 Oct;37(4):289-91.
PMID: 9732538
pdf: Kawata Y 1998.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

An efficient and simple method for constructing a genomic DNA library is presented by use of a TA
cloning vector. It is based on sonicative cleavage of genomic DNA and modification of the fragment
ends with Taq DNA polymerase, followed by ligation with a TA vector. This method was successfully
applied to cloning of the phytoene synthase gene crtB from Spirulina platensis. The method is useful
when the genomic DNA is not well digested with restriction enzymes owing to methylation or other
reasons.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

404: Kay RA.
Microalgae as food and supplement.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1991;30(6):555-73.
PMID: 1741951
pdf: Kay R 1991.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

The microalgae Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp., and Scenedesmus spp., and the cyanobacteria
Spirulina spp., and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are being used as nutrient-dense foods and sources
of fine chemicals. They have significant amounts of lipid, protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, vitamins,
minerals, and unique pigments. They may also have potent probiotic compounds that enhance health.
Their historical and current use are reviewed in this article.

Publication Types: Review

--------------------------------------------------------------------

405: Kebede E.
Response of Spirulina platensis (=Arthrospira fusiformis) from Lake Chitu, Ethiopia, to salinity stress
from sodium salts.
J ournal of Applied Phycology 9, No 6 (December 1997) 551-558.
PMID: pas
pdf: Kebede E 1997.pdf
160
mots-cls article: $Spirulina; $Arthrospira; $growth; $salinity; $quantum-yield; $nutrient-status; $Chitu;
$Ethiopia.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; arthrospira-fusiformis; O.
rsum:

Spirulina platensis (=Arthrospira fusiformis) was isolated from Lake Chitu, a soda crater lake in the
Ethiopian Rift Valley, where it formsa dense and almost unialgal population. Growth experiments were
run in turbidostats under constant light, to assess growth response and tolerance to salinity, as well as
to the component anions. Salinity was tested over the range 1388 g L^-1 using additions of NaHCO3,
NaCl or Na2SO4. A maximum specific growth rate (mu_max d^-1) of 2.14 was achieved at the lowest
salinity, but quantum yield (phi %) was highest between 33 to 51 g L^-1. Increasing salinity of the
medium reduced the specific growth rate (mu) to a minimum of 0.33 d^-1, and phi to <0.5%. Growth
response in terms of mu and phi was best in HCO3^, less in Cl^-, and least in SO4^2- series. Cultures
showed obvious differences in cellular morphology, pigment, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in
response to treatment with the different anions. Results indicate that the species has a wide range of
tolerance to salinity from NaHCO3. Some degree of tolerance is also shown to high concentrations of
Cl^- and SO4^2- , but with an overall lower performance of cells in terms of growth rate, light utilization
efficiency, and nutrient status to cells grown in high HCO3^- concentrations and the same levels of
salinity and light.

------------------------------------------------------------

406: Kerfeld CA, Sawaya MR, Bottin H, Tran KT, Sugiura M, Cascio D, Desbois A, Yeates TO,
Kirilovsky D, Boussac A.
Structural and EPR characterization of the soluble form of cytochrome c-550 and of the psbV2 gene
product from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2003 J ul;44(7):697-706.
PMID: 12881497
pdf: Kerfeld C 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Crystal structure, $EPR, $Resonance-Raman, $Photosystem-II, $Thermophile,
$Cytochrome.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima; f.
rsum :

First, the crystal structure of cytochrome c-550 (the psbV1 gene product) from the thermophilic
cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus has been determined to a resolution of 1.8 A. A
comparison of the T. elongatus cytochrome c-550 structure to its counterparts from mesophilic
organisms, Synechocystis 6803 and Arthrospira maxima, suggests that increased numbers of
hydrogen bonds may play a role in the structural basis of thermostability. The cytochrome c-550 in T.
elongatus also differs from that in Synechocystis 6803 and Arthrospira maxima in its lack of
dimerization and the presence of a trigonal planar molecule, possibly bicarbonate, tightly bound to the
heme propionate oxygen atoms. Cytochromes c-550 from T. elongatus, Synechocystis 6803 and
Arthrospira maxima exhibit different EPR spectra. A correlation has been done between the heme-
axial ligands geometries and the rhombicity calculated from the EPR spectra. This correlation
indicates that binding of cytochrome c-550 to Photosystem II is accompanied by structural changes in
the heme vicinity. Second, the psbV2 gene product has been found and purified. The UV-visible, EPR
and Raman spectra are reported. From the spectroscopic data and from a theoretical structural model
based on the cytochrome c-550 structure it is proposed that the 6th ligand of the heme-iron is the
Tyr86.

Publication Types: Comparative Study

--------------------------------------------------------------------

407: Kerfeld CA, Sawaya MR, Brahmandam V, Cascio D, Ho KK, Trevithick-Sutton CC, Krogmann
DW, Yeates TO.
The crystal structure of a cyanobacterial water-soluble carotenoid binding protein.
Structure 11, No 1 (2003):55-65.
PMID: 12517340
pdf: Kerfeld C 2003a.pdf
161
mots-cls article: $carotenoid; $methionine; $photoprotection; $photosynthesis; $pigment-protein.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima; f.
rsum :

Carotenoids undergo a wide range of photochemical reactions in animal, plant, and microbial systems.
In photosynthetic organisms, in addition to light harvesting, they perform an essential role in protecting
against light-induced damage by quenching singlet oxygen, superoxide anion radicals, or triplet-state
chlorophyll. We have determined the crystal structure of a water-soluble orange carotenoid protein
(OCP) isolated from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima at a resolution of 2.1 A. OCP forms a
homodimer with one carotenoid molecule per monomer. The carotenoid binding site is lined by a
striking number of methionine residues. The structure reveals several possible ways in which the
protein environment influences the spectral properties of the pigment and provides insight into how the
OCP carries out its putative functions in photoprotection.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

408: Kerfeld CA, Sawaya MR, Krogmann DW, Yeates TO.
Structure of cytochrome c6 from Arthrospira maxima: an assembly of 24 subunits in a nearly
symmetric shell.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002 J ul;58(Pt 7):1104-10.
PMID: 12077429
pdf: Kerfeld C 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $cages; $protein-self-assembly; $electron-transfer; $cytochrome-c6.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima; f.
rsum :

Cytochrome c(6) from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima is present in isoforms that can be
resolved by size-exclusion chromatography. One isoform crystallized in space group I4(1)32 with eight
protein molecules in the asymmetric unit and a total of 384 molecules in the unit cell. Within the
crystal, the molecules are arranged as clusters of 24 cytochrome c(6) molecules. Each cluster is a
hollow shell with approximate octahedral (432) symmetry. Structural and biochemical studies of
cytochrome c(6) isolated from other cyanobacteria and algae have led to the suggestion that
cytochrome c(6) forms oligomers. The cytochrome c(6) complex described here is the largest
assembly of cytochrome c(6) molecules observed thus far.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

409: Kerfeld CA, Wu YP, Chan C, Krogmann DW, Yeates TO.
Crystals of the carotenoid protein from Arthrospira maxima containing uniformly oriented pigment
molecules.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1997 Nov 1;53(Pt 6):720-3.
PMID: 15299860
pdf: Kerfeld C 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-maxima; f.
rsum :

Crystals of a carotenoid protein from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima have been grown in
space group C2 with unit-cell dimensions a =219.6, b =40.3, c =75.5 A and beta =95.5 degrees.
The crystals diffract X-rays to 2.3 A resolution and display unusual optical properties in polarized light
that suggest that all of the carotenoid molecules in the crystals are oriented similarly. A slight increase
in the concentration of a crystallization additive in the mother liquor induces macroscopic twinning,
which is also visible when the crystals are illuminated with polarized light.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

410: Khan M, Shobha J C, Mohan IK, Rao Naidu MU, Prayag A, Kutala VK.
Spirulina attenuates cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
J Appl Toxicol. 2006 Sep-Oct;26(5):444-51.
PMID: 16858688
162
pdf: Khan M 2006a.pdf
mots-cls article: $cyclosporine; $nephrotoxicity; $Spirulina; $oxidative-stress; $antioxidant.
mots-cls Antenna: , ATF.
rsum:

Cyclosporine (CsA) causes a dose-related decrease in renal function in experimental animals and
humans. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in CsA-induced
nephrotoxicity. It was previously shown that Spirulina, a blue-green algae, with antioxidant properties
effectively attenuated the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and cisplatin-induced
nephrotoxicity in rat. The present study investigated the nephroprotective role of Spirulina against
CsA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Spirulina (500 mg kg(-1) b.w.) was administered orally for 3 days
before and 14 days concurrently with CsA (50 mg kg-1 b.w.). Rats treated with CsA showed
nephrotoxicity as evidenced from a significant elevation in plasma urea, creatinine, urinary N-acetyl-
beta-D-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) and a decrease in creatinine and lithium clearance. Pretreatment
with Spirulina protected the rats from CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. The CsA-induced rise in plasma
urea and creatinine and the decrease in creatinine and lithium clearance were attenuated by Spirulina.
There was a significant increase in plasma and kidney tissue MDA with CsA. Spirulina prevented the
rise in plasma and kidney tissue MDA. Histopathology of the kidney from CsA-treated rats showed
severe isometric vacuolization and widening of the interstitium. However, pretreatment with Spirulina
prevented such changes, and the kidney morphology was comparable to that of the control. Spirulina
treatment did not alter the blood CsA levels. These results suggest that Spirulina has a protective
effect against nephrotoxicity induced by CsA. This study further supports the crucial role of the
antioxidant nature of Spirulina in protecting against CsA-induced oxidative stress.

--------------------------------------------------------

411: Khan M, Varadharaj S, Shobha J C, Naidu MU, Parinandi NL, Kutala VK, Kuppusamy P.
C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat
cardiomyocytes.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006 J an;47(1):9-20.
PMID: 16424780
pdf: Khan M 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $apoptosis; $biliprotein; $cardiotoxicity; $C-phycocyanin; $doxorubicin; $oxidative-
stress; $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: ; spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; coeur.
rsum:

Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the
associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of
doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina,
a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-
induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective
role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative
stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts.
Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as
measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The
doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated
with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and
apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide
staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the
doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase
in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced
oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the
antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative
stress and apoptosis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

412: Khan M, Varadharaj S, Ganesan LP, Shobha J C, Naidu MU, Parinandi NL, Tridandapani S,
Kutala VK, Kuppusamy P.
163
C-phycocyanin protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart through involvement of p38 MAPK
and ERK signaling.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 290 (2006) H2136-H2145.
PMID: 16373583
pdf: Khan M 2006b.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; mdecine; organes; coeur.
rsum:

Earlier, we have shown that C-phycocyanin (PC), an antioxidant biliprotein pigment of Spirulina
platensis (a blue-green alga), effectively inhibited doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis
in cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of PC against ischemia-
reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury in an isolated perfused Langendorff heart model. Rat
hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia at 37 degrees C followed by 45 min of reperfusion.
Hearts were perfused with PC (10 microM) or Spirulina preparation (SP, 50 mg/l) for 15 min before the
onset of ischemia and continued throughout reperfusion period. Untreated (control) hearts, at the end
of 45 min of reperfusion, showed a significant decrease in the recovery of coronary flow (44%), left-
ventricular-developed pressure (21%) and rate-pressure product (24%), increased release of lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in the coronary effluent, significant myocardial
infarction (44%, of risk area), and TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells as compared to the pre-ischemic
state. Treatment with PC or SP significantly enhanced the recovery of heart function and decreased
the infarct size, attenuated LDH and CK release, and suppressed I/R-induced free radical generation.
PC treatment reverted back the I/R-induced activation of p38 MAPK, Bax, and caspase-3, suppression
of Bcl-2, and increase in TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. However, I/R also induced the activation of
ERK1/2 that was enhanced by PC treatment. Overall, these results for the first time showed that PC
attenuated the I/R-induced cardiac dysfunction through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions and
modulation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

413: Khan M, Shobha J C, Mohan IK, Naidu MU, Sundaram C, Singh S, Kuppusamy P, Kutala VK.
Protective effect of Spirulina against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Phytother Res. 2005 Dec;19(12):1030-7.
PMID: 16372368
pdf: Khan M 2005a.pdf
mots-cls article: $doxorubicin, $Spirulina, $cardiotoxicity, $free-radicals, $antioxidant.
mots-cls Antenna: ; mdecine; organes; coeur; B.
rsum:

The generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in
doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether
Spirulina, a blue-green algae, could serve as a cardioprotective agent during DOX treatment in a
mouse model. Mice were treated with DOX (4 mg/kg bw, intraperitoneally), weekly, for 4 weeks.
Spirulina was administered orally for 3 days twice daily, then for 7 weeks along with the four equal
injections of DOX. Cardiotoxicity was assessed, at 3 weeks after the end of the DOX-treatment period,
by mortality, volume of ascites, liver congestion, oxidative stress and ultrastructural changes of heart
tissue. The DOX-treated animals showed higher mortality (53%) and more ascites. Myocardial
damage, as assessed by ultrastructural changes, showed loss of myofibrils, cytoplasmic vacuolization
and mitochondrial swelling. Myocardial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities
were decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly
protected the mice from DOX-induced cardiotoxic effects as evidenced from lower mortality (26%),
less ascites, lower levels of lipid peroxidation, normalization of antioxidant enzymes and ultrastructural
studies showing minimal damage to the heart. In vitro cytotoxic studies using ovarian cancer cells
demonstrated that Spirulina did not compromise the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin. These results
suggest that Spirulina has a protective effect against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX and it may,
therefore, improve the therapeutic index of DOX.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

414: Khan Z, Bhadouria P, Bisen PS.
164
Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2005 Oct;6(5):373-9.
PMID: 16248810
pdf: Khan Z 2005.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $spirulina-platensis; $ca-sp; $sulpholipid; $cyanovirin-n; $phycocyanin; $beta-
carotene; $HIV; $immunomodulatory.
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Spirulina, a filamentous cyanobacterium, possesses diverse biological activities and nutritional
significance due to high concentration of natural nutrients, having bio-modulatory and immuno-
modulatory functions. Different Spirulina preparations influence immune system viz. increase
phagocytic activity of macrophages, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines, increase
accumulation of NK cells into tissue and activation and mobilization of T and B cells. Spirulina have
also shown to perform regulatory role on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by exhibiting glucose and
lipid profile correcting activity in experimental animals and in diabetic patients. Preparations have been
found to be active against several enveloped viruses including herpes virus, cytomegalovirus,
influenza virus and HIV. They are capable to inhibit carcinogenesis due to anti-oxidant properties that
protect tissues and also reduce toxicity of liver, kidney and testes.

Publication Types: Review

--------------------------------------------------------------------

415: Kihara H.
Comparison of the redox reactions of various types of cytochrome c with iron hexacyanides.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 J an 14;634(1):93-104.
PMID: 6258647
pdf: Kihara H 1981.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; cytochrome.
rsum:

The dynamic behavior of various types of cytochromes c in the redox reaction with iron hexacyanides
was studied using a temperature-jump method in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the
redox reaction of cytochromes with their oxidoreductants. Transmittance after the temperature jump
changed through a single exponential decay for all cytochromes investigated. Under a constant
concentration of anion, the redox reaction of various types of cytochrome c with iron hexacyanides
was analyzed according to the scheme: (see formula in text) where C(III) and C(II) are ferric and
ferrous cytochromes, respectively, Fe(III) and Fe(II) are ferri- and ferrocyanides, respectively, C(III) .
Fe(II) is the ferricytochrome-ferrocyanide complex and C(II) . Fe(III) is the ferrocytochrome-
ferricyanide complex. When step B is slower than the other two steps A and C, tau-1 can be
represented approximately as (see formula in text) where the bar over the variables denotes the
equilibrium value. In a large excess of ferrocyanide against cytochrome, we can estimate kappa 2,
kappa-2, K1 and K3 independently. In the case of horse cytochrome c at 18 degrees C in 0.1 M
phosphate buffer at pH 7 with 0.3 M KNO3, the estimated parameters are kappa 2 =100 +/- 50 S-1,
kappa-2 =(3.5 +/- 1.0) . 10(3) S-1, K1 =15 +/- 7 M-1 and K3 =(8.5 +/- 1.5). 10(-4) M. From the same
experiments for seven cytochromes (cytochrome c from horse, tuna, Candida krusei, Saccharomyces
oviformis, Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2, Spirulina platensis cytochrome c-554 and Thermus
thermophilus cytochrome c-552), the following results can be deduced. (1) Each parameter defined in
the scheme above (kappa 2, kappa-2, K1, K3) diverged beyond the error range. Above all, kappa 2
values of cytochromes c-554 and c-552 are as large as 1 . 10(4) S-1 and much larger than those for
the other cytochromes (to 50 approx. 700 S-1). (2) The variance of kappa 2K1 and kappa-2/K3 are
relatively less than the variances of individual parameters (kappa 2, kappa-2, K1 and K3), which
suggests that the values of kappa 2K1 and kappa-2/K3 have been conserved during the course of
evolution.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

416: Kim DY, Myung SJ , Camilleri M.
165
Novel testing of human gastric motor and sensory functions: rationale, methods, and potential
applications in clinical practice.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Dec;95(12):3365-73.
PMID: 11151863
pdf: Kim D 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; instrumentation; gastric-monitoring.
rsum:

Sensitive and reproducible tests are essential to investigate the mechanisms of gastric motility and
sensation in healthy humans and patients with unexplained upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
Electrogastrography, manometry, scintigraphic emptying, and barostat studies with an intragastric
balloon were initially used to understand physiology and pathophysiology of gastric motility. However,
manometry and barostat studies are time-consuming, costly, and invasive, thus reducing their
widespread clinical application. To overcome these shortcomings, several novel approaches have
been proposed: water/nutrient drink test, paracetamol absorption test, 13C-octanoic acid or spirulina
breath tests, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed
tomography (SPECT), and tensostat. The water/nutrient (satiety) test is a noninvasive test proposed
as an alternative to sensory studies performed with an intragastric balloon. The satiety test cannot
measure gastric accommodation; interpretation of sensory tests usually has required independent
assessment of accommodation or compliance. The tensostat can be used as a gastric sensation test
because it measures gastric wall tension, which is related to the perception of gastric distention. To
measure gastric emptying, the paracetamol absorption test, 13C breath tests, ultrasound, or MRI can
be used. The paracetamol absorption test can measure the gastric emptying of liquids. 13C breath
test can measure the gastric emptying of solids or liquids and can achieve accuracy comparable with
gastric scintigraphy. Ultrasonography requires special skills, and MRI requires costly equipment. To
measure gastric accommodation to a meal, ultrasound, MRI, and SPECT have been proposed. The
recently introduced SPECT requires an intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate, which the
gastric mucosa specifically takes up, and specialized imaging and analysis, which have potential to be
automated. Thus, novel, noninvasive approaches assess different dimensions of gastric motility and
sensation testing. With further development of these techniques, refinement of their conduct and
analysis, and validation of clinical usefulness, they are likely to be applicable in clinical practice to
enhance cost-effective, evidence-based management of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Such
applications may provide an alternative to sequential empirical trials for symptoms.

Publication Types: Review

--------------------------------------------------------------------

417: Kim HM, Lee EH, Cho HH, Moon YH.
Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by spirulina.
Biochem Pharmacol 1998;55:1071-6.
PMID: 9605430
pdf: Kim H 1998.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

We investigated the effect of spirulina on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions.
Spirulina dose-dependently inhibited the systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in
rats. Spirulina inhibited compound 48/80-induced allergic reaction 100% with doses of 100-1000
microg/g body weight, i.p. Spirulina (10-1000 microg/g body weight, i.p.) also significantly inhibited
local allergic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. When rats were pretreated with
spirulina at a concentration ranging from 0.01 to 1000 microg/g body weight, i.p., the serum histamine
levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Spirulina (0.001 to 10 microg/mL) dose-
dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound
48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. The level of cyclic AMP in RPMC, when spirulina (10 microg/mL) was added,
transiently and significantly increased about 70-fold at 10 sec compared with that of control cells.
Moreover, spirulina (10 microg/mL) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor
166
necrosis factor-alpha production. These results indicate that spirulina inhibits mast cell-mediated
immediate-type allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

418: Kim SG, Choi A, Ahn CY, Park CS, Park YH, Oh HM.
Harvesting of Spirulina platensis by cellular flotation and growth stage determination.
Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;40(3):190-4.
PMID: 15715643
pdf: Kim S 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $cyanobacteria, $flotation, $gas-vesicle, $harvesting, $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

AIM: To investigate an effective harvesting method for Spirulina platensis.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty per cent of S. platensis cells in the logarithmic growth phase were
harvested by flotation when the cells were set in a static condition for 2 h. The optimum harvesting
time was about day 6 of cultivation. The flotation activity of S. platensis cells was enhanced by the
addition of NaCl.
CONCLUSIONS: The harvesting of S. platensis by flotation is a cost-effective and straightforward
method that can retain the algal quality. The optimum harvesting time of S. platensis can be predicted
by the cellular protein to carbon ratio.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Flotation harvesting is also applicable to other
cyanobacteria with gas vesicles.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

419: King GM.
Methanogenesis from methylated amines in a hypersaline algal mat.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 J an;54(1):130-136.
PMID: 16347519
pdf: King G 1988.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; techniques-de-culture; techniques-d'analyses.
rsum:

Methane ebullition and high rates of methane production were observed in sediments of a hypersaline
pond (180 per thousand) which contained sulfate in excess of 100 mM. The highest rates of methane
production were observed in surface sediments associated with an algal mat dominated by a Spirulina
sp. The mat contained a methylated amine, glycine betaine (GBT), at levels which accounted for up to
20% of the total mat nitrogen. GBT was apparently the source of trimethylamine (TMA), which was
also present in the sediment at relatively high concentrations. Patterns of substrate metabolism by the
methanogenic populations in sediment slurries suggested that TMA was a major methane precursor.
Neither exogenous hydrogen nor acetate stimulated methanogenesis, while addition of a variety of
amines including TMA, trimethylamine oxide, GBT, and choline resulted in substantial increases with
yields of >70%. The temperature optimum for methanogenesis in this system was 45 to 55 degrees C,
which coincided with the observed sediment temperature. Patterns and rates of methane production in
this and other hypersaline algal mats may be determined by a complex interaction between salinity,
the use of methylated amines for osmoregulation by algae, and the formation of TMA by fermentation.

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420: Klingler W, Kreja L, Nothdurft W, Selig C.
Influence of different radioprotective compounds on radiotolerance and cell cycle distribution of human
progenitor cells of granulocytopoiesis in vitro.
Br J Haematol. 2002 Oct;119(1):244-54.
PMID: 12358931
pdf: Klingler W 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
167
rsum:

Ficoll-separated mononuclear cells (MNC) of cryopreserved human bone marrow were incubated with
isotoxic doses of diltiazem, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), glycopolysaccharide extract of spirulina platensis
(SPE), tempol, thiopental, WR2721 and WR1065. After irradiation with a single dose of 0.73 Gy,
survival of granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFC) was determined at d 10-14, using
an agar culture system. Diltiazem, NAC, tempol and WR1065 significantly improved radiotolerance
with protection factors (PF) between 1.21 and 1.36 (n =5, P <0.05) at 0.73 Gy (PF-0.73 Gy). The
survival curves of diltiazem (D0 =0.88 Gy, n =1.00), NAC (D0 =0.92 Gy, n =1.10), tempol (D0 =0.99
Gy, n =1.10), WR1065 (D0 =0.89 Gy, n =1.16) and control (D0 =0.78 Gy, n =1.00) over 0.36-2.91
Gy showed a significant radioprotective effect for D0 only for tempol (P =0.018) and for the
extrapolation number 'n' only in the case of NAC (P =0.023). Cell cycle analysis of the CD34+cell
subpopulation (control-0 h: G1 =82.7%, S =13.7%, G2/M =3.6%) revealed that all compounds with a
significant PF-0.73 Gy also caused a significant increase in CD34+cells in S phase up to 48 h. Within
the first 24 h, only NAC (26.7 +/- 4.1%), tempol (14.3 +/- 1.0%) and possibly WR1065 (15.5 +/- 1.6%)
had higher fractions of CD34+S-phase cells compared with controls. This observation and the
improvement of GM-CFC cloning efficiency indicated that only NAC was able to recruit progenitor cells
in the cell cycle, whereas tempol and WR1065 possibly inhibited cell cycle progression by S and G2/M
arrest. Of the radioprotectors tested, NAC, tempol and WR1065 may be suitable to support, alone or
combined with cytokine therapy, accelerated haematopoietic recovery after irradiation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

421: Knutsen G, Skjanes K.
Simple growth chambers for culturing microalgae with precision at different temperatures and
irradiance.
J Appl Phycol 11, No 6 (1999) 487-491.
PMID: pas
pdf: Knutsen G 1999.pdf
mots-cls article: $cyanobacterium, $growth-chambers, $microalgae, $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

Profiles describing the relationships between growth, irradiance and temperature are important in the
evaluation of microalgae and cyanobacteria for biomass production, as well as for their general
characterization. To get correct results culturing chambers with plane parallel optical faces are
needed. Only these give a defined light climate in the culture, but such devices are not found
commercially. We here describe the testing of thermostated growth chambers with 200-mL culture
volumes, easily constructed from disposable 144-mm diameter plastic Petri dishes. Their properties
were examined by growing Spirulina platensis concurrently in 15 parallel cultures under identical
conditions of illumination and temperature, showing efficient and reproducible growth between them.
The chambers are naturally also very suitable for growing microalgae in general.

----------------------------

422: Kodentsova VM, Gmoshinskii IV, Vrzhesinskaia OA, Beketova NA, Kharitonchik LA, Nizov AA,
Mazo VK.
[Use of the microalgae Spirulina platensis and its selenium-containing form in nutrition of patients with
nonspecific ulcerative colitis].
Vopr Pitan. 2001;70(5):17-21.
PMID: 11715692
pdf: Kodentsova V 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The vitamin security and selenium status were measured in the patients with unspecific ulcerative
colitis. There were used food microalgae Spirulina platensis and it's preparation enriched with
selenium as auxiliary tools of dietetic treatment for these patients. It's shown that there is a combined
deficiency of beta-carotene and selenium and occasionally some other micronutrients in a significant
168
part of the patients. The doses used of said food supplements were not enough sufficient for a dietary
correction of deficiency of micronutrients with antioxidative properties.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

423: Koehne B, Trissl HW.
The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis contains a long wavelength-absorbing pigment C738
(F76077K) at room temperature.
Biochemistry. 1998 Apr 21;37(16):5494-500.
PMID: 9548932
pdf: Koehne B 1998.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Spirulina platensis is a cyanobacterium which usually lives under high-light conditions. Nonetheless, it
is thought to contain the most red-shifted antenna pigment of all known Chl a-containing phototrophic
organisms, as shown by its 77 K fluorescence peaking at 760 nm. To exclude preparation artifacts and
to exclude the possibility that long wavelength-absorbing pigments form only when the temperature is
lowered to 77 K, we carried out experiments with whole cells at room temperature. The combined
analysis of stationary absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence induction and time-
resolved fluorescence decays shows that the pigment responsible for the 77 K fluorescence at 760 nm
(i) has the oscillator strength of approximately one Chl a molecule, (ii) absorbs maximally at 738 nm (),
(iii) is present only in the antenna system of PS I, (iv) participates in light collection, and (v) does not
entail a low photochemical quantum yield. Other, more abundant but less red-shifted Chl a antenna
pigments lead to a significantly larger absorption cross section of the photosynthetic unit of PS I above
700 nm compared to units that would not possess these long wavelength-absorbing pigments. These
results support the hypothesis that the physiological role of long wavelength-absorbing pigments is to
increase the absorption cross section at wavelengths of >700 nm when in densely populated mats the
spectrally filtered light is relatively more intense at these wavelengths [Trissl, H.-W. (1993)
Photosynth. Res. 35, 247-263].

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424: Kol'chugina IB, Markarova EN.
Role of sodium ions and their uptake by cells of cultured blue-green algae, Spirulina platensis and
Spirulina maxima.
Microbiology 74, No 6 (2005) 646-649.
PMID: pas
pdf: Kol'chugina I 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis, $Spirulina-maxima, $Zarouk-medium-with-altered-sodium-
content, $optical-density-of-cells, $Na+transport.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; Spirulina-maxima; N.
rsum:

The growth of the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima, cultured in complete
mineral Zarouk medium containing Na+or Na+-deficient medium, was studied over a period of 24 h.
The optical densities of S. platensis and S. maxima cells, determined during the last hour of exposure
to sodium deficiency, amounted to 55.6 and 32.6%, respectively, of the optical densities of the same
cells grown in complete Zarouk medium. Moreover, the cultures grown in Na+-deficient medium
exhibited increased ability to take up sodium (which was low in S. platensis and S. maxima cells
cultured in complete mineral medium). It is concluded that the two species studied are characterized
by periodic, on the order of minutes, changes in the cellular uptake and release of sodium.

Translated from Mikrobiologiya, Vol. 74, No. 6, 2005, pp. 745749.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

425: Kol'chugina IB, Makarova EN.
169
[Role of sodium ions and their uptake by cells of cultured blue-green algae, Spirulina platensis and
Spirulina maxima].
Mikrobiologiia. 2005 Nov-Dec;74(6):745-9.
PMID: 16400983
pdf: Kol'chugina I 2005a.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima.
rsum: en russe

Translated in english in Microbiology 74, No 6 (2005) 646-649.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

426: Kolli BK, Sah J F, Mohanty P.
Studies on electron donation to photosystem I sites by exogenous donors in Spirulina thylakoids.
Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1996 Dec;33(6):465-70.
PMID: 9219431
pdf: Kolli B 1996.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The kinetic parameters of different sites of electron donation to photosystem I (PS I) were evaluated in
Spirulina platensis thylakoids. Reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIPH2) exhibited two sites of
electron donation, with apparent K(m) values of 8 and 40 microM each. The corresponding value for
reduced N-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPDH2) and diaminodurene (DADH2) which donate
electrons at a single site to PS I were 103 and 48 microM, respectively. The electron donation by
these three exogenous donors were differentially inhibited by KCN (70 mM) affecting the apparent
K(m) and Rmax values to varying extent. This cyanide inhibition of PS I catalyzed electron transport
suggests the presence of plastocyanin in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of Spirulina
platensis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

427: Komarova IuM, Terekhova IV, Doman NG, Al'bitskaia ON.
[Carbonic anhydrase of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis].
Biokhimiia. 1976 J an;41(1):183-7.
PMID: 6073
pdf: Komarova I 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: article en russe

Carboanhydrase (carbonate-hydroliase EC 4.2.1.1.) is found in the extract of Spirulina platensis cells.
A linear dependency of the enzyme activity on the protein concentration; pH optimum is found to be
8.0. Specific activity of carboanhydrase is 3 muM/min-mg of protein under the concentration of CO2 of
4-10(-3) M, appearing Michelis constant being 4.9-10(-3) M. The enzyme was stabilized with 10 mM of
cisteine, its activity was inhibited by 50% with sulphanylamide (1-10(-5) M), acetazolamide (8--10(-7)
M) and Cl- ions (5-10(-2) M). The activity of carboanhydrase, as well as the rate of NaH14CO3
fixation, depended on the pH value of cultural medium.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

428: Korsunskii OF, Smolygina LD, Laurinavichene TV, Gogotov IN.
[Low potential c-type cytochrome of Thiocapsa roseopersicina].
Biokhimiia. 1982 Mar;47(3):355-60.
PMID: 6280782
pdf: Korsunskii O 1982.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
170
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima; fundamental-biology; photosynthse;
cytochrome.
rsum: article en russe

The low potential c-type cytochrome from the phototrophic purple sulphur bacterium Thiocapsa
roseopersicina, strain BBS was isolated in electrophoretically homogeneous state. The bulk of the
cytochrome (approximately 90%) after disruption of the cells remained in the membrane fraction. The
absorption spectrum of the cytochrome was characterized by the maxima at 420, 523 and 552 nm in
the reduced state and at 408 nm in the oxidized one. The cytochrome interacted with CO in the
reduced state. The molecular weight of the cytochrome is 50 000. The cytochrome contains great
amounts of phenylalanine, leucine, valine, aspartic and glutamic acids and can be reduced by
dithionite but not by cysteine, sulfide or ascorbate. Besides, the cytochrome can also be reduced by
NAD(P)H in the presence of NAD(P)-reductases of T. roseopersicina, when ferredoxin of Spirulina
platensis or benzyl viologen are added to the reaction mixture. The cytochrome can act as an electron
donor (acceptor) for T. roseopersicina hydrogenase.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

429: Kostromina VP, Derkach OV, Symonenkova NV, Riechkina OO, Otroshchenko AO.
[Evaluation of the efficacy of a plant adaptogen (spirulina) in the pathognic therapy of primary
tuberculosis in children].
Lik Sprava. 2003 J ul-Aug;(5-6):102-5.
PMID: 14618819
pdf: Kostromina V 2003.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en ukrainien

The use of spirulina and its efficiency have been studied in a comparative aspect as a systemic
biocorrector, in a combined treatment of tuberculosis in 26 children. It has been ascertained that
application of spirulina as a pathogenetic means of remediation permits shortening the intoxication
syndrome regression time, reducing the frequency of adverse reactions in administering
antituberculous preparations.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial; Comparative Study

--------------------------------------------------------------------

430: Kotinskii AV, Chernukhina LA, Donchenko GV, Palivoda OM, Kostenko IuV, Stepanenko SP,
Palivoda KO.
[Effect of iodine and cobalt salts on content of biologically active substances in spirulina biomass].
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2004 Mar-Apr;76(2):112-6.
PMID: 15915721
pdf: Kotinskii A 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en russe

Production technology of iodinized spirulina biomass at vertical panel airlifted photobioreactor has
been developed. The influence of different concentrations of iodine ions at certain combinations with
cobalt ions on iodine-accumulative properties of spirulina has been studied. It has been shown that it
is possible to obtain spirulina biomass containing certain amount of organically bound iodine by
varying cobalt and iodine ions combinations and by staged addition of ions to incubation medium. This
technique of staged addition of iodine and cobalt salt allowed to adopt spirulina to their high amount in
the incubation medium, to increase spirulina productivity during growth, and to produce biomass with
large iodine content.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

431: Kruatrachue M, Rangsayatorn N, Pokethitiyook P, Upatham ES, Singhakaew S.
171
Histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of fish, Puntius gonionotus, fed on dietary
cadmium.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003 Sep;71(3):561-9.
PMID: 14567583
pdf: Kruatrachue M 2003.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

432: Kruip J , Karapetyan NV, Terekhova IV, Rogner M.
In vitro oligomerization of a membrane protein complex. Liposome-based reconstitution of trimeric
photosystem I from isolated monomers.
J Biol Chem. 1999 J un 25;274(26):18181-8.
PMID: 10373417
pdf: Kruip J 1999.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; photosystems.
rsum:

Many membrane proteins can be isolated in different oligomeric forms. Photosystem I (PSI), for
example, exists in cyanobacteria either as a monomeric or as a trimeric complex. Neither the factors
responsible for the specific trimerization process nor its biological role are known at present. In the
filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, trimers in contrast to monomers show chlorophyll
fluorescence emission at 760 nm. To investigate the oligomerization process as well as the nature of
the long wavelength chlorophylls, we describe here an in vitro reconstitution procedure to assemble
trimeric PS I from isolated purified PS I monomers. Monomers (and trimers) were extracted from S.
platensis with n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside and further purified by perfusion chromatography steps.
The isolated complexes had the same polypeptide composition as other cyanobacteria (PsaA-PsaF
and PsaI-PsaM), as determined from high resolution gels and immunoblotting. They were incorporated
into proteoliposomes, which had been prepared by the detergent absorption method, starting from a
phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidic acid mixture solubilized by octylglucoside. After the addition of
monomeric PS I (lipid:chlorophyll, 25:1), octylglucoside was gradually removed by the stepwise
addition of Biobeads. The 77 K fluorescence emission spectrum of these proteoliposomes displays a
long wavelength emission at 760 nm that is characteristic of PS I trimers, which indicates for the first
time the successful in vitro reconstitution of PS I trimers. In addition, a high performance liquid
chromatography analysis of complexes extracted from these proteoliposomes confirms the formation
of structural trimers. We also could show with this system 1) that at least one of the stromal subunits
PsaC, -D, and -E is necessary for trimer formation and 2) that the extreme long wavelength emitting
chlorophyll is formed as a result of trimer formation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

433: Kufer W, Scheer H.
Chemical modification of biliprotein chromophores.
Z Naturforsch [C]. 1979 Sep-Oct;34(9-10):776-81.
PMID: 160702
pdf: Kufer W 1979a.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biochimie; biliprotine.
rsum:

The reaction of biliproteins with sodium dithionite has been studied. The reagent is selective towards
the chromophores. In denatured phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, all three chromophores react to
form yellow "phycorubin", whereas only 1/3 of the chromophores react in native phycocyanin in a non-
statistical manner. From reversion experiments, it can be shown, that the thermodynamic stability of
the chromophores towards reaction with dithionite is increased in the native pigment. Similarly, native
phytochrome in its Pr form reacts only partially to a pigment absorbing at both 420 and 660 nm. The
same product is formed from native Pfr, indicating both a reversion to Pr and a partial reduction.
172

--------------------------------------------------------------------

434: Kufer W, Scheer H.
Studies on plant bile pigments, VII. Preparation and characterization of phycobiliproteins with
chromophores chemically modified by reduction.
Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1979 J ul;360(7):935-56.
PMID: 488917
pdf: Kufer W 1979.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biochimie; biliprotine.
rsum:

The reversible denaturation and reduction with dithionite has been studied for the phycobiliproteins, C-
phycocyanin (1) and allophycocyanin (2) from Spirulina platensis, and C-phycoerythrin (4) from
Fremyella diplosiphon (both cyanobacteria). By treatment with sodium dithionite, the chromophores
are selectively reduced at the central (C-10) methine bridge, producing pigments with bilirubinoid
(lambda max =418 nm from 1 and 2), and vinylpyrroloc (lambda max=300 nm from 4) chromophores.
The extent of reduction is dependent on the state of the protein. The chromophores of denatured
biliproteins are completely reduced at 0.5 mM dithionite. In the native pigments, dithionite
concentrations up to 0.5 mM lead only to partial reduction, thus forming products containing both
reduced and oxidized chromophores (e.g. "phycocyanorubins" from 1 and 2). The reduction is non-
statistical with respect to the different chromophores present in 1 and 4, the chromophores absorbing
at shorter wavelengths being preferentially reduced. Renaturation of the proteins containing reduced
chromophores is accompanied by their reoxidation. This oxidation is complete in the absence of
dithionite or at concentrations up to 0.5 mM. At higher dithionite concentrations, the reoxidation is
incomplete, and the products are spectroscopically identical to those obtained by reduction of the
native pigments at similar concentrations of reductant. The results are interpreted by a model in which
the protein is "transparent" to the reducing agent, dithionite. The difference in the extent of reduction of
the native and denatured pigments can only be due to thermodynamic (viz. stability) differences in the
susceptibility of the chromophores to reduction. Specifically, the (extended) chromophore present in
the native pigment is much more difficult to reduce than the chromophore (present in a cyclic
conformation) in the denatured pigment. The energetics of the process of refolding both the protein
and the chromophores are discussed.

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435: Kuhad A, Tirkey N, Pilkhwal S, Chopra K.
Effect of Spirulina, a blue green algae, on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in
rats.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;20(2):121-8.
PMID: 16573712
pdf: Kuhad A 2006.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis; mdecine; organes; reins; B.
rsum:

Gentamicin (GM), an aminoglycoside, is widely employed in clinical practice for the treatment of
serious Gram-negative infections. The clinical utility of GM is limited by the frequent incidence of acute
renal failure. Experimental evidences suggest that oxidative and nitrosative stress play an important
role in GM nephrotoxicity. Spirulina fusiformis is a blue green algae with potent free radical scavenging
properties. The present study was designed to investigate renoprotective potential of S. fusiformis,
against GM-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction. Spirulina fusiformis (500, 1000, 1500
mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 2 days before and 8 days concurrently with GM (100 mg/kg, i.p.). Renal
injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance and
serum nitrite levels. Renal oxidative stress was determined by renal malondialdehyde levels, reduced
glutathione levels and by enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Chronic GM
administration resulted in marked renal oxidative and nitrosative stress and significantly deranged
renal functions. Treatment with S. fusiformis significantly and dose-dependently restored renal
functions, reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced reduced glutathione levels, SOD and catalase
173
activities. The results of present study clearly demonstrate the pivotal role of reactive oxygen species
and their relation to renal dysfunction and point to the therapeutic potential of S. fusiformis in GM-
induced nephrotoxicity.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

436: Kulakova SM, Gogotov IN.
[Effect of oxygen and substrates for growth on the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of
microorganisms].
Mikrobiologiia. 1982 J an-Feb;51(1):21-6.
PMID: 6803110
pdf: Kulakova S 1982.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme.
rsum: en russe

The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in Azotobacter vinelandii, Citrobacter
freundii, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, Thiocapsa roseopersicina and Spirulina platensis is far
higher when the cultures are grown under the aerobic conditions. The activities of SOD and catalase
are higher in R. capsulata cells cultivated in a medium with glucose in the dark under the aerobic
conditions than in cells grown under the same conditions but in the light. R. capsulata grown in a
medium with glucose and T. roseopersicina cultivated in a medium with formate or pyruvate had
higher activities of SOD and catalase than R. capsulata grown in a medium with acetate and T.
roseopersicina cultivated in a medium with glucose. Irrespective of the growth conditions, the highest
activity of SOD was manifested by C. freundii while that of catalase by A. vinelandii 1. C. freundii and
T. roseopersicina contained both Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD whereas A. vinelandii and Rh. capsulata
contained only Mn-SOD. The SOD from R. capsulata was purified to a homogeneous state. Its
molecular weight is about 40,000 and it contains 1 Mn mole per mole of the enzyme.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

437: Kumar HD.
Management of nutritional and health needs of malnourished and vegetarian people in India.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2004;546:311-21.
PMID: 15584384
pdf: Kumar H 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: article de revue

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438: Kumar M, Kumar sharma M, Kumar A.
Spirulina fusiformis: a food supplement against mercury induced hepatic toxicity.
J Health Science 51(4) 424-430 (2005).
PMID: pas
pdf: Kumar M 2005.pdf
Key words: $liver, $mercuric-chlorid, $Spirulina-fusiformis, $lipid-reroxidation, $gluthione.
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S, B.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------

439: Kurdrid P, Subudhi S, Hongsthong A, Ruengjitchatchawalya M, Tanticharoen M.
Functional expression of Spirulina-Delta6 desaturase gene in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Mol Biol Rep. 2005 Dec;32(4):215-26.
PMID: 16328883
pdf: Kurdrid P 2005.pdf PAS
174
mots-cls article: $enzyme-reconstitution; $Saccharomyces-cerevisiae; $site-directed-mutagenesis;
$Spirulina-6-desaturase.
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Spirulina-acyl-lipid desaturases are membrane-bound enzymes found in thylakoid and plasma
membranes. These enzymes carry out the fatty acid desaturation process of Spirulina to yield gamma-
linolenic acid (GLA) as the final desaturation product. In this study, Spirulina-Delta(6) desaturase
encoded by the desD gene was heterologously expressed and characterized in Saccharomyces
cerevisiae. We then conducted site-directed mutagenesis of the histidine residues in the three
histidine boxes to determine the role of these amino acid residues in the enzyme function. Our results
showed that while four mutants showed complete loss of Delta(6)-desaturase activity and two mutants
showed only trace of the activity, the enzyme activity could be partially restored by chemical rescue
using exogenously provided imidazole. This study reveals that the histidine residues (which have
imidazole as their functional group) in the conserved clusters play a critical role in Delta(6)-desaturase
activity, possibly by providing a di-iron catalytic center. In our previous study, this enzyme was
expressed in Escherichia coli. The results reveal that the enzyme can function only in the presence of
an exogenous cofactor, ferredoxin, provided in vitro. This evidence suggests that baker's yeast has a
cofactor that can complement ferredoxin, thought to act as an electron donor for the Delta(6)
desaturation in cyanobacteria, including Spirulina. The electron donor of the Spirulina-Delta(6)
desaturation in yeast is more likely to be cytochrome b(5), which is absent in E. coli. This means that
the enzyme expressed in S. cerevisiae can catalyze the biosynthesis of the product, GLA, in vivo.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

440: Lahitova N, Doupovcova M, Zvonar J , Chandoga J , Hocman G.
Antimutagenic properties of fresh-water blue-green algae.
Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1994;39(4):301-3.
PMID: 7729766
pdf: Lahitova N 1994.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; m; B.
rsum:

The antimutagenic properties of whole fresh-water blue-green algae Aphanisomenon flos-aquae,
marketed under the commercial name "Alpha Sun" were tested using the Ames test. Simultaneous
addition of both algae and Nitrovin (a mutagen) to the test medium did not reduce the mutagenic
activity. On the other hand, addition of freeze-dried blue-green algae to the test medium 2-24 h before
the application of mutagen reduced its mutagenic activity.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

441: Lanfaloni L, Cappanna E, Gualerzi CO.
Isolation and characterization of a chlorate-resistant mutant of Spirulina platensis.
New Microbiol. 1994 Apr;17(2):133-40.
PMID: 8065270
pdf: Lanfaloni L 1994.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Three chlorate-resistant mutants of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were obtained by UV
irradiation and one of them (LL1) was further characterized for its nutritional requirements and for the
capacity to reduce nitrate in vivo and in vitro. The results indicate that mutation leading to chlorate
resistance is not due to inactivation of nitrate reductase but is most likely due to the loss of
permeability to chlorate and nitrate. The other two mutants seem to have properties similar to those of
LL1.

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175
442: Lanfaloni L, Trinei M, Russo M, Gualerzi CO.
Mutagenesis of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis by UV and nitrosoguanidine treatment.
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991 Sep 15;67(1):85-90.
PMID: 1778426
pdf: Lanfaloni L 1991.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The production of Spirulina platensis cells resistant to 8-azaguanine or beta-(2-thienyl)-DL-alanine
following mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and UV-irradiation is
described. The conditions for the mutagenesis were determined by monitoring cell viability and the
appearance of the two types of mutants as a function of the stage of growth of the tricomes and the
length and the conditions of the treatment. The optimal conditions for UV and MNNG mutagenesis
were found to be 1-3 min irradiation and 30 min incubation with 50 micrograms MNNG/ml of tricomes
derived from cultures entering stationary phase sonicated for 10 s and 5 s respectively. Under these
conditions beta-(2-thienyl)-DL-alanine-resistant mutants appeared at a frequency greater than or equal
to 10(-4) and greater than or equal to 10(-5) following UV- and MNNG-mutagenesis, respectively.
Mutants resistant to 8-azaguanine were found at a frequency approx. 10(-5) only after MNNG
mutagenesis. A few chlorate-resistant mutants were also obtained following UV treatment.

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443: Laquerbe B, Busson F, Maigrot M.
[Composition in mineral elements of 2 Cyanophycea, Spirulina platensis (Gom.) Geitler and Sp.
geitleri J . de Toni].
C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1970 Apr 27;270(17):2130-2.
PMID: 4987003
pdf: Laquerbe B 1970.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en franais

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444: Lawrence J F, Niedzwiadek B, Menard C, Lau BP, Lewis D, Kuper-Goodman T, Carbone S,
Holmes C.
Comparison of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, ELISA, and phosphatase assay for the
determination of microcystins in blue-green algae products.
J AOAC Int. 2001 J ul-Aug;84(4):1035-44.
PMID: 11501902
pdf: Lawrence J 2001.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme..
rsum:

More than 100 samples of blue-green algae products (consisting of Aphanizomenon, Spirulina, and
unidentified blue-green algae) in the form of pills, capsules, and powders were collected from retail
outlets from across Canada. The samples were extracted with 75% methanol in water and centrifuged
to remove solids. Aliquots of the extracts along with spiked blank sample extracts were sent to each
participating laboratory and independently analyzed for microcystins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA), protein phosphatase inhibition assay, and by liquid chromatography-tandem mass
spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after sample cleanup using C18 solid-phase extraction. The results
obtained by ELISA and LC-MS/MS agreed very well over a concentration range of about 0.5-35
microg/g. The colorimetric phosphatase results generally agreed with the other 2 methods. While the 2
biochemical assays measured total microcystin content compared with a standard of microcystin LR,
the LC-MS/MS method measured specific microcystins (LA, LR, RR, YR) using external standards of
these for identification and quantitation. Microcystin LR was found in all positive samples by LC-
MS/MS. Microcystin LA was the only other microcystin found in the samples analyzed. These 2
microcystins represent essentially all the microcystins that were present in the extracts. Otherwise, the
176
LC-MS/MS results would have been significantly lower than the results of the biochemical assays had
other unknown microcystins been present.

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445: Lee AN, Werth VP.
Activation of autoimmunity following use of immunostimulatory herbal supplements.
Arch Dermatol. 2004 J un;140(6):723-7.
PMID: 15210464
pdf: Lee A 2004.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the scientific basis of purported therapeutic effects and adverse effects
of herbal supplements continues to grow. Many herbal supplements are touted for their
immunostimulatory properties, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have supported this claim.
Although this explains their beneficial effects in preventing or curtailing disease, to our knowledge, no
immunostimulatory herbal supplements have been reported to exacerbate disorders of immune
system overactivity.
OBSERVATIONS: We describe 3 patients whose autoimmune disease onset and/or flares correlated
with ingestion of herbal supplements with proven immunostimulatory effects. Echinacea and the alga
Spirulina platensis are implicated in 2 patients' flares of pemphigus vulgaris, and a supplement
containing the algae Spirulina platensis and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was ingested by a third
patient days before both onset and a severe flare of dermatomyositis. The third patient showed
heterozygosity for a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter polymorphism (-308A), leading
to increased production of TNF-alpha, which may have predisposed her to developing
dermatomyositis.
CONCLUSIONS: Immunostimulatory herbal supplements may exacerbate preexisting autoimmune
disease or precipitate autoimmune disease in persons genetically predisposed to such disorders.
Increased production of TNF-alpha may play a role, although more research is needed to clarify the
mechanisms of such phenomena.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

446: Lee J B, Srisomporn P, Hayashi K, Tanaka T, Sankawa U, Hayashi T.
Effects of structural modification of calcium spirulan, a sulfated polysaccharide from Spirulina
platensis, on antiviral activity.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 J an;49(1):108-10.
PMID: 11201213
pdf: Lee J 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $calcium-spirulan; $sulfated-polysaccharide; $antiviral-activity; $HSV-1; $metal-
cation; $depolymerization.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
B: **Medicine, **Spirulina, **polysaccharides, **antiviral, **IV.
rsum:

Calcium ion binding with the anionic part of a molecule was replaced with various metal cations and
their inhibitory effects on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 were evaluated. Replacement
of calcium ion with sodium and potassium ions maintained the antiviral activity while divalent and
trivalent metal cations reduced the activity. Depolymerization of sodium spirulan with hydrogen
peroxide decreased in antiviral activity as its molecular weight decreased.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

447: Lee J B, Hayashi T, Hayashi K, Sankawa U, Maeda M, Nemoto T, Nakanishi H.
Further purification and structural analysis of calcium spirulan from Spirulina platensis.
J Nat Prod. 1998 Sep;61(9):1101-4.
PMID: 9748374
pdf: Lee J 1998.pdf
177
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

An antiviral sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), isolated from Spirulina platensis, was
subjected to further purification. Ca-SP was found to be composed of rhamnose, 3-O-methylrhamnose
(acofriose), 2,3-di-O-methylrhamnose, 3-O-methylxylose, uronic acids, and sulfate. The backbone of
Ca-SP consisted of 1,3-linked rhamnose and 1,2-linked 3-O-methylrhamnose units with some sulfate
substitution at the 4-position. The polymer was terminated at the nonreducing end by 2,3-di-O-
methylrhamnose and 3-O-methylxylose residues.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

448: Lee J S, Camilleri M, Zinsmeister AR, Burton DD, Kost LJ , Klein PD.
A valid, accurate, office based non-radioactive test for gastric emptying of solids.
Gut. 2000 J un;46(6):768-73.
PMID: 10807886
pdf: Lee J 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $stable-isotope; $breath-test; $gastric-emptying.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; instrumentation; gastric-monitoring.
rsum:

BACKGROUND: Current breath tests for measurement of gastric emptying of solids are expensive,
possibly inaccurate, and require cumbersome calculations.
AIMS: We wished to validate a simplified solid gastric emptying test using a [(13)C]Spirulina platensis
breath test for accurate results relative to scintigraphy.
SUBJ ECTS: Thirty healthy volunteers.
METHODS: We measured gastric emptying of egg containing [(13)C]S platensis and (99m)Tc sulphur
colloid by breath (13)CO(2) and scintigraphy over six hours. A generalised linear regression model
was used to predict t(1/2) and t(LAG) by scintigraphy from breath (13)CO(2) data. The model was
cross validated and normative data calculated for a prepacked [(13)C]meal.
RESULTS: Regression models using all breath data over six hours, for the first three hours, and for
samples at 75, 90, and 180 minutes ("reduced model") predicted t(1/2) and t(LAG) values similar to
scintigraphy (t(LAG) 43 (SD 12) min; t(1/2) 100 (20) min). Standard deviations of differences in t(1/2)
and t(LAG) between scintigraphy and the "reduced model" were both 10 minutes. Gastric t(1/2) for the
prepacked [(13)C]meal was 91 (15) min (10-90% range: 74-118).
CONCLUSION: The [(13)C]S platensis breath test and a simple formula using breath (13)CO(2) at
baseline, 90, and 180 minutes measured gastric emptying t(1/2) for solids with results that were
comparable with scintigraphy.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

449: Lee YK, Chew PF, Soh BS, Tham LY.
Enhancing phagocytic activity of hemocytes and disease resistance in the prawn Penaeus
merguiensis by feeding Spirulina platensis.
J Appl Phycol 15, No 4 (2003) 279-287.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lee Y 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Disease-resistance, $E-coli, $Hemocyte, $Immune-enhancement, $Penaeus-
merguiensis, $Prawn, $Salmonella-typhimurium, $Spirulina-platensis, $Vibrio-harveyi.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

Exposing the prawn Penaeus merguiensis to the bacteria Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli for an
hour or feeding the prawns with Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis (0.3% w/w feed) enhanced the
phagocytic activity of their hemocytes. Improvement of the phagocytic activity was primarily through
the activation of the hemocytes. The activated phagocytic hemocytes had a higher capacity to engulf
foreign agents, such as bacteria, and a higher rate of phagocytosis. The phagocytic enhancement
effect peaked on the fourth day of feeding with Spirulina. In the in vitro study, the granular cells from
prawns took 4560 min to complete the process of degranulation. Pre-exposure to Salmonella
178
typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis did not result in enhancement of phagocytic activity of hemocytes.
Only 10% prawns fed with Spirulina died in the first 14 days when challenged by V. harveyi at a
concentration of 1 x 10^4 CFUs mL1, while all control prawns (basal feed without Spirulina) died
within 14 days.

----------------------------

450: Lee YK.
Commercial production of microalgae in the Asia-Pacific rim.
J Appl Phycol 9, No 5 (1997) 403-411.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lee Y 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $Asia-Pacific, $microalgae, $producers, $locations, $production-area, $annual-
production, $products.
mots-cls Antenna: , d.
rsum:

There are around 110 commercial producers of microalgae in the Asia-Pacific region, with annual
production capacity ranging from 3 to 500 T. About nine-tenth of the algal cultivation plants are located
in Asia. The commercially cultivated microalgae include Chlorella, Spirulina, Dunaliella, Nannochloris,
Nitzschia, Crypthecodinium, Schizochytrium, Tetraselmis, Skeletonema, Isochrysisand Chaetoceros.
Most of the commercially produced algal biomass is being marketed as health food, in the forms of
tablets and capsules. Algae and their extract are also included in noodles, wine, beverages, breakfast
cereals and cosmetics.

----------------------------

451: Lehto KM, Lehto HJ , Kanervo EA.
Suitability of different photosynthetic organisms for an extraterrestrial biological life support system.
Res Microbiol. 2006 J an-Feb;157(1):69-76.
PMID: 16439102
pdf: Lehto K 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Life-support-system; $Photosynthesis; $Mars; $Microalgae; $Higher-plants.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospia-platensis, j.
rsum: article de revue

In the present era of intensive space and planetary research, efficient life support systems (LSSs) are
needed to maintain suitable living conditions when humans move into space, i.e. away from the
Earth's atmosphere. Thus far, such suitable conditions on various space flights and on the space
stations (Mir and the International Space Station) have been maintained solely via physical and
chemical means (transport of O2, H2O and food from the Earth, cleaning and recycling of air and
water). However, for long-duration missions to distant destinations, such as exploratory missions to
Mars, biological life support systems (BLSSs) may be needed to convert local CO2 and H2O to O2,
and to food. As on earth, this conversion process would need to be based on photosynthesis. Use of
higher plants and microalgae as BLSS organisms has been intensively studied. Here we review the
growth requirements of these two types of photosynthetic organisms, with particular attention to their
suitability for use in harsh Martian conditions, i.e. low temperatures, low atmospheric pressure, high
CO2 concentration, high UV radiation and dryness.

--------------------------------------------------------

452: Lemoine Y, Dang DK, Phan PA, Zabulon G, Thomas J C.
Influence of salinity on the growth rates and on pigment and protein contents of Spirulina maxima and
Spirulina platensis.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 77-87.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lemoine Y 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
179
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

453: Lonard J .
The 1964-65 belgian trans-saharan expedition.
Nature 1966 J an; 209: 126-128.
PMID: pas
Lonard J 1966.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Premire mention de la spiruline comme algue comestible riche en protine, connue sur les bords du
lac Tchad sous le nom de Dih.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

454: Levert J M, Xia J .
Modeling the growth curve for Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima, a versatile microalga for producing
uniformly labelled compounds with stable isotopes.
J Appl Phycol 13, No 4 (2001) 359-367.
PMID: pas
pdf: Levert J 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira, $cyanobacterium, $labelled-compounds, $microalga, $modeling-
growth-curve, $nitrogen, $Spirulina-maxima, $sulfur.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima, d.
rsum:

The paper presents a five-phase model to describe batch culture of Spirulina maxima under limitations
of light and nutrients nitrogen and sulfur. The general equation for the exponential, linear, decelerating
and stationary phases of the growth curve took into account that (i) the specific growth rate was
proportional to the local light intensity in the photobioreactor; (ii) light attenuation was due to cell's
absorption and reflection and observed the Lambert-Beer's law with a total absorption coefficient
(epsilon_T) that was the sum of absorption coefficient (epsilon_a) and reflection coefficient (epsilon_r);
(iii) the composition of the alga and its absorption epsilon_a changed with time and (iv) the specific
growth rate was influenced by nutrients of nitrogen and sulfur in the culture medium according to a
Monod's law. Two successive equations describing the death phase were proposed based on the
hypothesis that the death rate accelerated with the % PSC until it reached its maximum. From that
point the %PSC decreased and the death rate reduced. Our model fitted very well the cultures grown
in the photobioreactor developed in our laboratory.

----------------------------

455: Li B, Gao MH, Zhang XC, Chu XM.
Molecular immune mechanism of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis induces apoptosis in HeLa
cells in vitro.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2006 Apr;43(Pt 3):155-64.
PMID: 16316316
pdf: Li B 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a water-soluble protein pigment, isolated from Spirulina platensis, is of great
importance because of its various medical and pharmacological properties. In the present study, we
first investigated the effect of highly purified C-PC on growth and proliferation of HeLa cells in vitro.
The results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the number of cells that survived for
HeLa cells treated with C-PC compared with control cells untreated with C-PC. Further electron-
microscopic studies revealed that C-PC could induce characteristic apoptotic features, including cell
180
shrinkage, membrane blebbing, microvilli loss, chromatin margination and condensation into dense
granules or blocks. Agarose electrophoresis of genomic DNA of HeLa cells treated with C-PC showed
fragmentation pattern (DNA ladder of oligomers of 180-200 bp) typical for apoptotic cells. Flow-
cytometric analysis of HeLa cells treated with different concentrations of C-PC demonstrated an
increasing percentage of cells in sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. In addition, we found that C-PC could promote
the expression of Fas and ICAM-1 (intercellular cell-adhesion molecule 1) protein, while it held back
the Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphocytic-leukaemia proto-oncogene 2) protein expression. This suggested that C-
PC could induce the activation of pro-apoptotic gene and downregulation of anti-apoptotic gene
expression and then facilitate the transduction of tumoural apoptosis signals that resulted in the
apoptosis of HeLa cells in vitro. Caspases 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, and 10 were activated in C-PC-treated HeLa
cells, which suggested that C-PC-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. C-PC treatment of
HeLa cells also resulted in release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol that was
related to apoptosis of C-PC-treated HeLa cells.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

456: Li B, Zhang X, Gao M, Chu X.
Effects of CD59 on antitumoral activities of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Dec;59(10):551-60.
PMID: 16271846
pdf: Li B 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Phycocyanin; $CD59; $Hela-cells.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

The regulatory effect of phycocyanin (PC) from Spirulina platensis on cluster of differentiation 59
(CD59) gene expression of Hela cells and antitumoral mechanism of PC was investigated in this
study. PC was purified by hydroxylapatite (HA) and sephacrylHR-200 gel-filtration columns
chromatography. The molecular weight of PC was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The
CD59 cDNA was inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pALTER-MAX, and the recombinant
vector pALTER-MAX-CD59 was successfully constructed. By using cationic liposome (Lipfectamine-
2000)-mediated transfection method, the recombinant plasmid pALTER-MAX-CD59 and the selective
marker PcDNA were cotransfected into Hela cells and normal Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.
Stable positive cell clones were sorted out and disposed with different concentrates of PC. The
expression of CD59 protein was determined by in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and enzyme
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the effect of PC on the proliferation of Hela cells
was determined by MTT method and the expression of Fas protein was by immunohistochemistry.
Results showed that PC can promote the expression of CD59 protein in Hela cells, hold back it is
reproductions of Hela cells, and moreover, a dosage effect was found between them. Namely, with the
ascendance of PC concentration, the expression quantities of CD59 protein and apoptosis-inducing
Fas protein increased and the multiplication activity of Hela cells declined, whereas PC was of no use
to CD59 and Fas protein expression, and reproduction of normal CHO cells as well. Besides an
imaginable antitumoral molecular immune mechanism of PC was brought forward and discussed.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

457: Li D, Xie J , Zhao J , Xia A, Li D, Gong Y.
Light-induced excitation energy redistribution in Spirulina platensis cells: "spillover" or "mobile PBSs"?
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Feb 15;1608(2-3):114-21.
PMID: 14871488
pdf: Li D 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $C-PC; $APC; $PSI; $PSII; $State-transition; $Energy-transfer.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

State transitions induced by light and redox were investigated by observing the 77 K fluorescence
spectra for the intact cells of Spirulina platensis. To clarify if phycobilisomes (PBSs) take part in the
state transition, the contributions of PBSs to light-induced state transition were studied in untreated
cells and the cells treated by betaine which fixed PBSs firmly on the thylakoid membranes. It was
observed that the betaine-treated cells did not show any light-induced state transition. This result
181
definitely confirmed that the light-induced excitation energy regulation between the two photosystems
is mainly dependent on a spatial movement of PBSs on the thylakoid membranes, which makes PBS
cores partially decoupled from photosystem II (PSII) while PBS rods more strongly coupled with
photosystem I (PSI) during the transition from state 1 to state 2. On the other hand, an energy
exchange between the two photosystems was observed in both untreated and betaine-treated cells
during redox-induced state transition. These observations suggested that two different mechanisms
were involved in the light-induced state transition and the redox-induced one. The former involves only
a physical movement of PBSs, while the latter involves not only the movement of PBS but also energy
spillover from PSII to PSI. A model for light-induced state transition was proposed based on the
current results as well as well known knowledge.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

458: Li D, Xie J , Zhao Y, Zhao J .
Probing connection of PBS with the photosystems in intact cells of Spirulina platensis by temperature-
induced fluorescence fluctuation.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Mar 6;1557(1-3):35-40.
PMID: 12615346
pdf: Li D 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $C-phycocyanin; $Allophycocyanin; $Photosystem; $Thylakoid-membrane.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Temperature-dependent fluorescence for intact cells of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was
detected to search for the connection of the phycobilisome (PBS) with Photosystem I (PSI) and
Photosystem II (PSII). Some interesting results were obtained from the deconvoluted fluorescence
components of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), allophycocyanin (APC), PSI and PSII as well as the
fluorescence spectra of the intact cells at room temperature (RT=25 degrees C) and 0 degrees C. It
was observed that, compared to those at RT, both of the fluorescence components for PSI and APC
increased, whereas those for PSII and C-PC decreased at 0 degrees C with excitation at 580 nm, that
is, the fluorescence for C-PC is not synchronous with that for APC, and the fluorescence fluctuation for
PSI is not synchronous with that for PSII. On the other hand, the decrease in C-PC fluorescence is
synchronous with the increase in PSI fluorescence, and the increase in APC fluorescence is
synchronous with the decrease in PSII fluorescence. Therefore, it can be readily deduced that PBS
should be coupled not only with PSII through the terminal acceptors in the APC core but also with PSI
through C-PC in PBS rods at physiological condition, while at 0 degrees C, a migration of a PBS
makes the APC partially detached from PSII but the C-PC more efficiently coupled with PSI. The
results provide good evidences for "mobile PBS" model and "parallel connection" model but not for the
"spillover" model.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

459: Li DM, Qi YZ.
Spirulina industry in China: Present status and future prospects.
J Appl Phycol 9, No 1 (1997) 25-28.
PMID: pas
pdf: Li D 1997.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina, $industrial-production, $China.
mots-cls Antenna: , d, B.
rsum:

The Spirulina industry in China is developing rapidly as a national strategic programme. Currently,
there are more than 80 production factories, with a total annual production of more than 350 t dry
powder and total production area of over 10^6 m^2. Spirulina products are being used as food, forage
and medicine. The low unit area output and non-consistent product quality call for further research on
photosynthesis, strain selection and photobioreactor development, as well as product standardization
and quality assurance.

----------------------------

182
460: Li H, Li D, Yang S, Xie J , Zhao J .
The state transition mechanism-simply depending on light-on and -off in Spirulina platensis.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1757(11):1512-1519.
PMID: 17014821
pdf: Li H 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Energy-spillover; $Mobile-phycobilisome; $Oligomerization; $Photosystem-I;
$Photosystem-II; $State-transition.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

The state transition in cyanobacteria is a long-discussed topic of how the photosynthetic machine
regulates the excitation energy distribution in balance between the two photosystems. In the current
work, whether the state transition is realized by "mobile phycobilisome (PBS)" or "energy spillover"
has been clearly answered by monitoring the spectral responses of the intact cells of the
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Firstly, light-induced state transition depends completely on a
movement of PBSs toward PSI or PSII while the redox-induced one on not only the "mobile PBS" but
also an "energy spillover". Secondly, the "energy spillover" is triggered by dissociation of PSI trimers
into the monomers which specially occurs under a case from light to dark, while the PSI monomers will
re-aggregate into the trimers under a case from dark to light, i.e., the PSI oligomerization is reversibly
regulated by light switch on and off. Thirdly, PSI oligomerization is regulated by the local H(+)
concentration on the cytosol side of the thylakoid membranes, which in turn is regulated by light switch
on and off. Fourthly, PSI oligomerization change is the only mechanism for the "energy spillover".
Thus, it can be concluded that the "mobile PBS" is a common rule for light-induced state transition
while the "energy spillover" is only a special case when dark condition is involved.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

461: Li J H.
Recherches sur les applications et fonctions cliniques de la spiruline en Chine.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 120.
PMID: pas
pdf: Li J 2004.papier
mots-cls article: $spirulina, $clinical-function, $polysaccharide, $China.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

462: Li Y, Wang B, Ai XC, Zhang XK, Zhao J Q, J iang LJ .
Spectroscopic investigation on the energy transfer process in photosynthetic apparatus of
cyanobacteria.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2004 J un;60(7):1543-7.
PMID: 15147696
pdf: Li Y 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $Energy-transfer; $Photosystem-II; $Phycobilisome; $Cyanobacteria.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; photosystems.
rsum:

In this work, we employ cyanobacteria, Spirulina platensis, and separate their photosynthetic
apparatus, phycobilisome (PBS), thylakoid membrane and phycobilisome-thylakoid membrane
complex. The steady state absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and corresponding deconvoluted
spectra and picosecond time-resolved spectra are used to investigate the energy transfer process in
phycobilisome-thylakoid membrane complex. The results on steady state spectra show chlorophylls of
the photosystem II are able to transfer excitation energy to phycobilisome with Chla molecules
selectively excited. The decomposition of the steady state spectra further suggest the uphill energy
transfer originate from chlorophylls of photosystem II to cores of phycobilisome, while rods and cores
of phycobilisome cannot receive energy from the chlorophylls of photosystem I. The time constant for
the back energy transfer process is 18 ps.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
183

463: Li ZY, Guo SY, Li L, Cai MY.
Effects of electromagnetic field on the batch cultivation and nutritional composition of Spirulina
platensis in an air-lift photobioreactor.
Bioresour Technol. 2007 Feb;98(3):700-705.
PMID: 16581244
pdf: Li Z 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $Electromagnetic-field (EMF); $Air-lift-photobioreactor; $Batch-
cultivation; $Mechanism.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

Spirulina platensis was batch cultivated in a novel 3.5l magnetic air-lift photobioreactor with external-
loop on which 0-0.55T electromagnetic field (EMF) was imposed to investigate the EMF effects on the
algal growth and nutrition composition. At the same time, the correlative mechanism was discussed
mainly based on C, N, P uptake. It was found that, EMF has double-side effects on S. platensis
cultivation depend on EMF intensity. 0.25T EMF stress was found to be suitable for the algal
cultivation enhancement increasing the maximum cell dry weight by 22% in a time period two days
less than that of the control at 35 degrees C and 252 micromol photons m(-2)S(-1). In addition, the
nutritional composition of S. platensis was improved in both essential amino acids such as histidine
and trace elements Ni, Sr, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ca, Co and V. It was suggested it was possible to optimize
the cultivation process of S. platensis by imposing suitable weak EMF which may enhance the
nutrition assimilation e.g. C, N, P and minerals by S. platensis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

464: Li ZY, Guo SY, Li L.
Bioeffects of selenite on the growth of Spirulina platensis and its biotransformation.
Bioresour Technol. 2003 Sep;89(2):171-6.
PMID: 12699937
pdf: Li Z 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $Selenium; $Biotransformation; $Batch-culture.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

The bioeffects of selenium on the growth of Spirulina platensis and the selenium distribution were
investigated. S. platensis was batch cultured in Zarrouk medium containing increasing concentrations
of sodium selenite. The biotransformation characteristic of selenium was analysed by the
determination of the detailed selenium distribution forms. At 35 degrees C, 315.2 microEm(-2) x s(-1),
sodium selenite concentrations below 400 mg x l(-1) were found to stimulate algal growth, especially
in the range of 0.5-40 mg x l(-1). However, above 500 mg x l(-1) sodium selenite was toxic to this alga
with the toxicity being related to the sulfite level in the medium. S. platensis was found to resist higher
selenite by reducing toxic Se(IV) to nonsoluble Se(0). Selenium was accumulated efficiently in S.
platensis during cultivation with accumulated selenium increasing with selenite concentration in the
medium. It was demonstrated that inorganic selenite could be transformed into organic forms through
binding with protein, lipids and polysaccharides and other cell components. The organic selenium
accounted for 85.1% of the total accumulated selenium and was comprised of 25.2% water-soluble
protein-bound, 10.6% lipids-bound and 2.1% polysaccharides-bound selenium. Among the organic
fractions lipid possessed the strongest ability to accumulate Se (6.47 mg x kg(-1)). The 14.9%
inorganic selenium in S. platensis was composed of Se(IV) (13.7%) and Se(VI) (1.2%).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

465: Li ZY, Li YG, Guo SY, Li L, Zhang SL.
[Study of the factors of Cr(III) bioaccumulation on Spirulina platensis].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2000 J an;16(1):108-12.
PMID: 10883289
pdf: Li Z 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; biochimie; bioaccumulation.
184
rsum: en chinois

Some factors of Cr(III) bioaccumulation on Spirulina platensis were studied in detail. It was found that
the bioaccumulation of Cr(III) on Spirulina platensis involved two steps: rapid adsorption and slow
absorption. Chromic(III) compounds with weaker chemical bond had higher bioaccumulation
efficiency. Under the same algal cell concentration, Cr(III) bioaccumulation rosed up with Cr(III)
concentration. On the other hand, with Cr(III) concentration not changed, the total bioaccumulation of
Cr(III) on Spirulina platensis increased with algal cell concentration, but the Cr(III) bioaccumulation on
unit algae reduced. The study also showed that Spirulina platensis powder could bioaccumulate more
Cr(III) than fresh Spirulina platensis, pH is a quite important factor and more suitable pH for Cr(III)
bioaccumulation is 7. It was also proved that Cr(III) bioaccumulation benefited from the increase of
temperature and light intensity. Cations had either stimulation or inhibition effects on the Cr(III)
bioaccumulation on Spirulina platensis.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

466: Liber'Terre.
Spiruline au Mali (Tacharane) 2004.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 168-169.
PMID: pas
pdf: Liber'Terre 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

467: Lightner DV.
Possible toxic effects of the marine blue-green alga, Spirulina subsalsa, on the blue shrimp, Penaeus
stylirostris.
J Invertebr Pathol. 1978 Sep;32(2):139-50. .
PMID: 103972
pdf: Lightner D 1978.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-subsalsa; fundamental-biology; techniques-de-culture; toxicologie.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

468: Lignon O.
La production de phytoplancton: l'exprience de la socit Micro algues Provence.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 88.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lignon O 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

469: Lincoln EP, Crawford J J W, Wilkie AC.
Spirulina in animal agriculture.
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 109-115.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lincoln E 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
B : **Technology, **Spirulina, **nitrogen.
rsum:
185

----------------------------------------------------------

470: Liu B, Qian L.
[Determination of trace selenium in spirulina by continuous-flow hydride generation atomic absorption
spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 1999 Aug;19(4):610-2.
PMID: 15818972
pdf: Liu B 1999.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum: en chinois

--------------------------------------------------------------------

471: Liu J , Zhang X, Sui Z, Xiaohui Zhang X, Mao Y.
Cloning and characterization of c-phycocyanin operon from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis
FACHB341.
J Appl Phycol 17, No 2 (2005) 181-185.
PMID: pas
pdf: Liu J 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira, $cpc-operon, $in-vitro-PCR, $promoter-sequence, $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis, d.
rsum:

By using in vitro PCR method, C-phycocyanin operon of Arthrospira platensis FACHB341 was cloned
and characterized. The operon consists of 427 bp ussB, 519 bp cpcB gene, 111 bp igsB-A region, 489
bp cpcA gene, 184 bp ussH region and 357 bp cpcH gene. Promoter prediction and signal scan show
that there are putative promoter sequences and regulatory elements in ussB and ussH sequences.

---------------------------------

472: Liu XM, Zhang HQ.
[Effect of polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on hematopoietic cells proliferation, apoptosis and
Bcl-2 expression in mice bearing tumor treated with chemotherapy].
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2002 Aug;37(8):616-20.
PMID: 12567775
pdf: Liu X 2002.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en chinois

AIM: To evaluate the effect of polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis (PSP) on hematopoietic cell
proliferation, apoptosis and Bcl-2 expression in mice bearing tumor treated with chemotherapy.
METHODS: The model of chemotherapy for transplant solid tumor in mice was established. The
hematopoietic cell proliferation, apoptosis, Bcl2 expression and related cytokines were assayed by the
technique of culture of hematopoietic progenitor cell, fluoromicroscope and light microscope,
immunohistochemical method, and double antibody sandwich ELISA.
RESULTS: PSP significantly ameliorated CFU-GM proliferation inhibition and hematopietic cells
apoptosis induced by CTX. Moreover, PSP evidently increased the content of IL-1, IL-3, GM-CSF and
TNF-alpha in serum and Bcl-2 expression of hematopoietic cells.
CONCLUSION: PSP indirectly upregulated Bcl-2 expression of hematopoietic cells by promoting
endogenous cytokines secretion which may be one of the mechanisms, by which PSP enhanced
hematopoietic cell proliferation and inhibited its apoptosis in mice bearing tumor treated with
chemotherapy.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

473: Liu Y, Xu L, Cheng N, Lin L, Zhang C.
Inhibitory effect of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on the growth of human leukemia K562 cells.
186
J Appl Phycol 12, No 2 (2000) 125-130.
PMID: pas
pdf: Liu Y 2000.pdf
mots-cls article: $Bcl-2, $C-myc, $growth-inhibition, $G1-arrest, $K562-cells, $Phycocyanin,
$Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

The effect of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on the growth of human chronic myelogenous
leukemia-blast crisis K562 cells was studied bysemi-solid agar assay and cell viability measurement.
Phycocyanin significantly inhibited the growth of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50
value ofthe phycocyanin was 72.5 mg L^-1. After the K562 cells were cultured with phycocyanin for 6
days, flow cytometric assays showed that more K562 cells were blocked to progress through S-phase
and arrested at G1 phase. DNA fragmentation assay indicated that there was no ladder of DNA
fragments of approximately 200-bp multiples, indicating that apoptosis had not occurred. Western blot
analysis showed that Bcl-2 protein was expressed, but its level remained unchanged, whereas the
expression level of c-myc increased. These findings suggest that phycocyanin may be able to inhibit
the growth of K562 cells by pathways other than apoptosis, and that changed a expression pattern of
the c-myc protein may be involved in such inhibition.

----------------------------

474: Llama MJ , Serra J L, Rao KK, Hall DO.
Isolation and characterization of the hydrogenase activity from the non-heterocystous cyanobacterium
Spirulina maxima.
FEBS Lett. 1979 Feb 15;98(2):342-6.
PMID: 105936
pdf: Llama M 1979.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; instrumentation; contrle.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

475: Lodi A, Binaghi L, Solisio C, Converti A, Del Borghi M.
Nitrate and phosphate removal by Spirulina platensis.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003 Nov;30(11):656-60.
PMID: 14610655
pdf: Lodi A 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Biological-nitrogen-removal, $Abiotic-phosphorus-precipitation, $Spirulina-
platensis, $Thermodynamics.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; puration; organic-remouval.
rsum:

The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was used to verify the possibility of employing microalgal
biomass to reduce the contents of nitrate and phosphate in wastewaters. Batch tests were carried out
in 0.5 dm3 Erlenmeyer flasks under conditions of light limitation (40 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) at a
starting biomass level of 0.50 g/dm3 and varying temperature in the range 23-40 degrees C. In this
way, the best temperature for the growth of this microalga (30 degrees C) was determined and the
related thermodynamic parameters were estimated. All removed nitrate was used for biomass growth
(biotic removal), whereas phosphate appeared to be removed mainly by chemical precipitation (abiotic
removal). The best results in terms of specific and volumetric growth rates (mu=0.044 day(-1),
Qx=33.2 mg dm(-3) day(-1)) as well as volumetric rate and final yield of nitrogen removal (Q(N-NO3-
)=3.26 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Y(N-NO3-)=0.739) were obtained at 30 degrees C, whereas phosphorus
was more effectively removed at a lower temperature. In order to simulate full-scale studies, batch
tests of nitrate and phosphate removal were also performed in 5.0 dm3 vessels (mini-ponds) at the
optimum temperature (30 degrees C) but increasing the photon fluence rate to 80 micromol quanta
m(-2) s(-1) and varying the initial biomass concentration from 0.25 to 0.86 g/dm3. These additional
tests demonstrated that an increase in the inoculum level up to 0.75 g/dm3 enhanced both NO3- and
PO4(3-) removal, confirming a strict dependence of these processes on biomass activity. In addition,
187
the larger surface area of the ponds and the higher light intensity improved removal yields and kinetics
compared to the flasks, particularly concerning phosphorus removal (mu=0.032-0.050 day(-1),
Qx=34.7-42.4 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Q(N-NO3-)=3.24-4.06 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Y(N-NO3-)=0.750-0.879,
Q(P-PO4(3-))=0.312-0.623 mg dm(-3) day(-1), and Y(P-PO4(3-))=0.224-0.440).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

476: Lopes TM, Costa J AV, Trindage GS.
Differences in the sensibility of multi-drugs resistant (MDR) and non-MDR human tumor cells to
different concentrations of Spirulina platensis.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 124-125.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lopes T 2004.papier
mots-cls article: $human-tumor-cell, $P-glycoprotein, $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

477: Lu C, Vonshak A.
Effects of salinity stress on photosystem II function in cyanobacterial Spirulina platensis cells.
Physiol Plant. 2002 Mar;114(3):405-413.
PMID: 12060263
pdf: Lu C 2002.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, B.
rsum:

The changes in PSII photochemistry in Spirulina platensis cells exposed to salinity stress (0-0.8 M
NaCl) for 12 h were studied. Salinity stress induced a decrease in oxygen evolution activity, which
correlated with the decrease in the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (PhiPSII). Phycocyanin
content decreased significantly while chlorophyll content remained unchanged in salt-stressed cells.
Salinity stress induced an increase in non-photochemical quenching (qN) and a decrease in
photochemical quenching (qP). Analyses of the polyphasic fluorescence transients (OJ IP) showed that
with the increase in salt concentration, the fluorescence yield at the phases J , I and P declined sharply
and the transient almost levelled off at salt concentration of 0.8 M NaCl. The effects of DCMU on the
polyphasic rise of fluorescence transients decreased significantly. Salinity stress resulted in a
decrease in the efficiency of electron transfer from QA- to QB. The slope at the origin of the relative
variable fluorescence curves (dV/dto) and the relative variable fluorescence at phase J (VJ ) increased
in the absence of DCMU, but decreased in the presence of DCMU. The shape of the relative variable
fluorescence transients in salt-stressed cells was comparable to that of the control cells incubated with
DCMU. The results in this study suggest that salt stress inhibited the electron transport at both donor
and acceptor sides of PSII, resulted in damage to phycobilisome and shifted the distribution of
excitation energy in favour of PSI.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

478: Lu C, Zhang J .
Role of light in the response of PSII photochemistry to salt stress in the cyanobacterium Spirulina
platensis.
J Exp Bot. 2000 May;51(346):911-7.
PMID: 10948217
pdf: Lu C 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The role of light in the effect of salt stress on PSII photochemistry in the cyanobacterium Spirulina
platensis grown at 50 micromol m(-2) s(-1) was investigated. The time-course of changes in PSII
photochemistry in response to high salinity (0.8 M NaCl) incubated in the dark and at 30, 50 and 100
188
micromol m(-2) s(-1) was composed of two phases. The first phase, which was independent of light,
was characterized by a rapid decrease (20-50%) in the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry
(F:(v)/F:(m)), the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reaction centres
(F(1)(v)/F(1)(m)), photochemical quenching (q(P)), and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport
(Phi(PSII)) in the first 15 min, followed by a recovery of up to about 86-92% of their initial levels after 4
h of incubation. The second phase took place after 4 h, in which a further decline in the above
parameters occurred only in the light but not in the dark, reaching levels as low as 32-56% of their
initial levels after 12 h. Moreover, the higher incubation light intensity, the greater the decrease in the
above parameters. At the same time, Q(B)-non-reducing PSII reaction centres increased significantly
in the first 15 min and then recovered to the initial level during the first phase, but increased again in
the light in the second phase. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution activity decreased sharply by 70% in
the first 5 min, and then kept largely constant until 12 h. The changes in oxygen evolution activity were
independent of light intensity during both phases.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

479: Lu C, Vonshak A.
Photoinhibition in outdoor Spirulina platensis cultures assessed by polyphasic chlorophyll fluorescence
transients.
J Appl Phycol 11, No 4 (1999) 355-359.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lu C 1999.pdf
mots-cls article: $cyanobacterium, $photoinhibition, $photosystem-II, $polyphasic-fluorescence-
transient, $Spirulina platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d, B.
rsum:

Photoinhibition in outdoor cultures of Spirulina platensis was studied by measuring the polyphasic rise
of chlorophyll fluorescence transients, which provide information on the primary photochemistry of
PSII. The maximum efficiency of PSII photochemustry (Fv/Fm) declined in response to daily
increasing irradiance and recovered as daily irradiance decreased. The greatest inhibition (15%) in
Fv/Fm was observed at 12:00 hr which responded to the highest irradiance. The absorption flux, the
trapping flux, and the electron transport flux per PSII reaction center increased in response to daily
increasing irradiance and decreased as irradiance decreased. The daily change in the concentration
of PSII reaction centers followed the same pattern as Fv/Fm. However, no significant changes in the
probability of electron transport beyond QA (psi_o) were observed during the day. The results suggest
that the decrease in Fv/Fm induced by photoinhibition in outdoor Spirulina cultures was a result of the
inactivation of PSII reaction centers. The results also suggest that the measurement of polyphasic
fluorescence transients is a powerful tool to study the mechanism of photoinhibition in outdoor
Spirulina cultures and to screen strains for photoinhibition tolerance.

----------------------------

480: Lu C, Zhang J , Vonshak A.
Inhibition of quantum yield of PS II electron transport in Spirulina platensis by osmotic stress may be
explained mainly by an increase in the proportion of the QB-non-reducing PS II reaction centres.
Australian J ournal of Plant Physiology 25(6) 689-694.
PMID: pas
pdf: Lu C 1998.pdf PAS
mots-cls article: $chlorophyll-fluorescence; $cyanobacterium; $osmotic-stress; $PS-II; $QB-non-
reducing-PS-II-reaction-centres; $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, D.
rsum:

Modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and fluorescence induction kinetics were used to evaluate the PS
II photochemistry in Spirulina platensis exposed to osmotic stress (00.8 M mannitol). Osmotic stress
decreased the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PS II reaction centres (F_v/F_m) and
more significantly, decreased photochemical quenching (q_P). Osmotic stress also decreased the
maximal efficiency of PS II photochemistry (F_v/_Fm). There was no significant change in non-
photochemical quenching (q_N), indicating that the decreased F_/F_m was not due to an increase in
189
q_N. Analyses of the fast fluorescence induction kinetics indicated that osmotic stress caused a
significant increase in the proportion of the QB-non-reducing PS II reaction centres. Based on the
results in this study, we suggest that a substantial increase in the proportion of the QB-non-reducing
PS II reaction centres may be responsible for the decrease in q_P and F_'/F_m', of which both
resulted in the decrease in the quantum yield of PS II electron transport (\psi_PSII ).

--------------------------------------------------------

481: Lu HK, Hsieh CC, Hsu J J , Yang YK, Chou HN.
Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative
stress.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Sep;98(2):220-226.
PMID: 16944194
pdf: Lu H 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Algae; $Antioxidant; $Lactate-dehydrogenase; $Fatigue; $Malondialdehyde.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

The effects of spirulina supplementation on preventing skeletal muscle damage on untrained human
beings were examined. Sixteen students volunteered to take Spirulina platensis in addition to their
normal diet for 3-weeks. Blood samples were taken after finishing the Bruce incremental treadmill
exercise before and after treatment. The results showed that plasma concentrations of
malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased after supplementation with spirulina (P <0.05).
The activity of blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly raised after supplementation with
spirulina or soy protein (P <0.05). Both of the blood glutathione peroxidaes (GPx) and lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were significantly different between spirulina and soy protein
supplementation by an ANCOVA analysis (P <0.05). In addition, the lactate (LA) concentration was
higher and the time to exhaustion (TE) was significantly extended in the spirulina trail (P <0.05).
These results suggest that ingestion of S. platensis showed preventive effect of the skeletal muscle
damage and that probably led to postponement of the time of exhaustion during the all-out exercise.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

482: Lumsden J , Cammack R, Hall DO.
Purification and physicochemical properties of superoxide dismutase from two photosynthetic
microorganisms.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 J ul 8;438(2):380-92.
PMID: 1085167
pdf: Lumsden J 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme.
rsum:

Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) has been isolated and characterised from the blue-green alga
Spirulina platensis and from aerobically-grown Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, a purple, non-sulphur
bacterium. The former enzyme contains 1 gatom of iron and the latter 1 gatom of manganese per mol;
both enzymes have a molecular weight of 37 000-38 000, being composed of two non-covalently
joined subunits of equal size. Various spectral studies have been carried out including absorbance,
circular dichroism and electron spin resonance. Catalytic activity has been studied as a function of pH
and shows a decrease at alkaline pH values. The manganoenzyme is generally more stable to various
potentially denaturing conditions and is resistant to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. Amino acid
compositions and N-terminal residue determinations are presented.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

483: Lumsden J , Hall DO.
Soluble & membrane-bound superoxide dismutases in a blue-green algae (Spirulina) and spinach.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974 May 7;58(1):35-41.
PMID: 4364622
pdf: Lumsden J 1974.pdf PAS
190
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

484: Lyra C, Halme T, Torsti AM, Tenkanen T, Sivonen K.
Site-specific restriction endonucleases in cyanobacteria.
J Appl Microbiol. 2000 Dec;89(6):979-91.
PMID: 11123471
pdf: Lyra C 2000.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme.
rsum:

AIM: Planktic cyanobacteria were screened for endodeoxyribonucleases. Principal component
analysis (PCA) was employed to demonstrate a potential relationship between certain enzymes and a
group of cyanobacteria. The data were obtained from a data bank and this study.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Enzymes were partially purified using column chromatography.
Anabaena strains contained Asp83/1I (5'-TTCGAA-3'), Asp83/1II (5'-GGCC-3'), Asp90I (5'-ACRYGT-
3') and five isoschizomeric enzymes (5'-ATCGAT-3'). Aphanizomenon and Microcystis strains
contained ApcTR183I (5'-TGCGCA-3') and Msp199I (5'-CCGG-3'), respectively.
Planktothrix strains possessed Psc2I (5'-GAANNNNTTC-3'), Psc27I and Psc28I (5'-TTCGAA-3'). PCA
showed that the most common cyanobacterial endonuclease types were AvaII, AvaI and AsuII.
CONCLUSIONS: All planktic cyanobacteria studied contained restriction endonucleases. The defined
restriction endonucleases were isoschizomers of known enzymes. The Nostoc and the Spirulina
genera had an association, while the majority of the genera had no association with certain
endonuclease type(s).
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The defined enzymes in this study and the estimated
trend in the endonuclease type distribution allow more efficient avoidance of cyanobacterial restriction
barriers.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

485: Madhavi Sekharam K, Venkataraman LV, Salimath PV.
Structural studies of a glucan isolated from blue-green alga Spirulina platensis.
Food Chemistry 31, No 2 (1989) 85-91.
PMID: pas
pdf: Madhavi Sekharam K 1989.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

The acid-soluble polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina contained glucose, principally, with small
amounts of sulphate. The latter was removed by passing through a DEAE-cellulose column.
Methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, chromium trioxide oxidation, oligosaccharide and enzymatic
studies revealed the polymer to have an alpha-1,4 linked glucan backbone with frequent side chains
through alpha-1,6 linked glucosyl residues.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

486: Madhyastha HK, Radha KS, Sugiki M, Omura S, Maruyama M.
Purification of c-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its effect on the induction of urokinase-type
plasminogen activator from calf pulmonary endothelial cells.
Phytomedicine. 2006 Sep;13(8):564-9.
PMID: 16920511
pdf: Madhyastha H 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-fusiformis; $Blue-green-alga; $c-phycocyanin; $alpha-and-beta-subunits;
$uPA; $Fibrinolysis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis, A.
191
rsum:

c-Phycocyanin (c-pc), a blue coloured, fluorescent protein was purified from blue-green alga, Spirulina
fusiformis and its effect on fibrinolytic system in vascular endothelial cells was investigated.The c-pc
consisted of two subunits, alpha and beta, whose molecular masses were 16 and 17kDa, respectively.
N-terminal sequences of both subunits were well conserved compared with other blue green algal
phycobiliproteins. Fibrinolytic activity in the medium conditioned by calf pulmonary arterial endothelial
cells was measured by the fibrin plate method.The c-pc increased the fibrinolytic activity in dose- and
time-dependent manners. Fibrin zymographic studies indicated that c-pc-induced urokinase-type
plasminogen activator in the cells. These in vitro results suggest that c-pc from S. fusiformis is a
potent profibrinolytic protein in the vascular endothelial system.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

487: Madrid Y, Barrio-Cordoba E, Cmara C.
Biosorption of antimony and chromium species by Spirulina platensis and Phaseolus. Applications to
bioextract antimony and chromium from natural and industrial waters.
Analyst 123 (1998) 15931598.
PMID: pas
pdf: Madrid Y 1998.pdf
mots-cls article: $Chromium; $antimony; $Spirulina-platensis, $Phaseolus, $biosorption; $waters;
$atomic-absorption-spectrometry.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N; B.
rsum:

The ability of the two biological substrates, Spirulina platensis (a cyanobacterium) and Phaseolus (a
plant-derived material) to accumulate Sb and Cr species (SbIII, SbV, CrIII and CrVI) was evaluated.
Different parameters affecting accumulation were tested: pH, temperature, incubation time, amount of
biomass and analyte, presence of foreign ions and the influence of the oxidation state. The
experimental data were modeled using sorption isotherms and the corresponding sorption coefficients
of each species were calculated for both substrates. S. platensis and Phaseolus were suitable for the
accumulation of Sb and Cr species over a wide variety of experimental conditions and the
accumulation depended on the oxidation state of the analyte. S. platensis was applied to
preconcentrate Sb and Cr in river and sea-water samples. The detection limits of the electrothermal
atomic absorption spectrometric procedures obtained for Sb in river water (preconcentration factor 4)
and sea-water samples (preconcentration factor 40) were 0.9 and 0.09 mg/l, respectively, and those
for Cr were 0.1 mg/1 (preconcentration factor 10) and 0.05 mg/l (preconcentration factor 20),
respectively. The removal of chromium ions from a leather industrial waste water was also examined
using this substrate. S. platensiswas able to remove 97% of Cr from the waste water and therefore
proved to be an alternative for the reclamation and remediation of contaminated waters. The
vegetable substrate Phaseolus, is highly promising for speciation purposes at low analyte
concentrations.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

488: Masojidek J , Papacek S, Sergejevova M, J irka V, Cerveny J , Kunc J , Korecko J , Verbovikova
O, Kopecky J , Stys D, Torzillo G.
A closed solar photobioreactor for cultivation of microalgae under supra-high irradiance: basic design
and performance.
J Appl Phycol 15, No 2-3 (2003) 239-248.
PMID: pas
pdf: Masojidek J 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Chlorophyll-fluorescence, $Cyanobacterium, $Spirulina, $Heat-exchange, $High-
irradiance, $Linear-Fresnel-lense, $Non-photochemical-quenching, $Photoinhibition, $Productivity.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, d.
rsum:

An account is given of the setting up and use of a novel type of closed tubular photobioreactor at the
Academic and University Centre in Nove Hrady, Czech Republic. This "penthouse-roof"
photobioreactor was based on solar concentrators (linear Fresnel lenses) mounted in a climate-
192
controlled greenhouse on top of the laboratory complex combining features of indoor and outdoor
cultivation units. The dual-purpose system was designed for algal biomass production in temperate
climate zone under well-controlled cultivation conditions and with surplus solar energy being used for
heating service water. The system was used to study the strategy of microalgal acclimation to supra-
high solar irradiance, with values as much as 3.5 times the ambient value, making the approach
unique. The cultivation system proved to be fully functional with sufficient mixing and cooling, efficient
oxygen stripping and light tracking. Experimental results (measurement of the maximum
photochemical yield of PSII and non-photochemical quenching) showed that the cyanobacterium
Spirulina (=Arthrospira) platensis cultivated under sufficient turbulence and biomass density was able
to acclimate to irradiance values as high as 7 mmol photon m^2 s^1. The optimal biomass
concentration of Spirulina cultures in September ranged between 1.2 to 2.2 g L^1, which resulted in a
net productivity of about 0.5 g L^1 d^1 corresponding to a biomass yield of 32.5 g m^2 d^1
(based on the minimum illuminated surface area of the photobioreactor).

----------------------------

489: Makovkina LE, Mestechkina NM, Kuzhetsov EA, Mytuskii AA, Pshenova KV.
[Redox potentials of some metalloproteins].
Biokhimiia. 1978 Mar;43(3):564-7.
PMID: 207361
pdf: Makovkina L 1978.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology.
rsum: en russe

--------------------------------------------------------------------

490: Manen J F, Falquet J .
The cpcB-cpcA locus as a tool for the genetic characterization of the genus Arthrospira
(Cyanobacteria): evidence for horizontal transfer.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 May;52(Pt 3):861-7.
PMID: 12054250
pdf: Manen J 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Arthrospira, $cpcB-cpcA, $horizontal-transfer, $molecular-phylogeny.
mots-cls Antenna: , B.
rsum:

To investigate the genetic diversity of the genus Arthrospira and to compare it with other
cyanobacteria, sequences of 670 nt from the phycocyanin operon were determined for 23 natural,
cultivated or commercial strains of Arthrospira and compared with sequences from 20 other non-
Arthrospira cyanobacterial strains. The sequenced DNA fragment comprises the last 255 nt of cpcB,
the cpcB-cpcA spacer and the first 304 nt of cpcA. The resulting phylogenetic tree confirms that the
genus Arthrospira is not related to Spirulina. So far, cpcB-cpcA data suggest that the closest relative
of Arthrospira is Planktothrix. Based on this locus, the genus Arthrospira consists of three genetically
clustered lineages. However, the distribution of nucleotide substitutions indicates that these three
lineages are not the result of a simple cladogenesis characterized by the accumulation of independent
substitutions. Instead, the observed clustering is the result of horizontal transfers of blocks of
sequences. Analysis of the distribution of substitutions in the sequenced fragment indicates a point of
intragenic recombination close to the stop codon of cpcB. The capacity of exchange of genetic
material among strains probably explains why morphology and geographical origin do not correlate
with the cpcB-cpcA clusters. Nevertheless, this study shows for the first time that the genus
Arthrospira, represented here by cultivated and wild specimens, is clearly monophyletic. Moreover, the
cpcB-cpcA DNA fragment, comprising both highly and moderately variable regions, allows (1) a strict
differentiation of the taxon Arthrospira from other cyanobacteria (using the coding regions only) and
(2) the study of relationships inside Arthrospira (using both the coding and non-coding regions).

--------------------------------------------------------------------

491: Mani U, Sadliwala A, Iyer U, Parikh P.
The effect of Spirulina supplementation on blood haemoglobin levels of anaemic adult girls.
193
J Food Science Technol 37 (2000) 642-644.
PMID: pas
pdf: Mani U 2000.papier
mots-cls article: $spirulina, $haemoglobin, $anaemia.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of spray dried Spirulina
powder on blood haemoglobin levels in young anaemic girls of ages ranging from 18-22 years. They
were screened for their anthropometric measurements, clinical signs and symptoms related to
anaemia and blood haemoglobin levels. Blood haemoglobin levels less than 12 g/dl were used to find
the prevalence of anaemia. Diets of 20 anaemic girls were supplemented with 5 g of spray dried
Spirulina powder daily for a period of 30 days and the blood haemoglobin levels were estimated at the
end of the study period. Supplementation was carried out in two forms - in the form of syrup and in the
form of parathas. The prevalence of anaemia in the girls was 28.2%. The diets of these girls revealed
deficit intakes of calories and iron while the intakes of phytates and oxalates were found to be high. A
mean increase of 1.17 g/dl i.e., 10.33% in the blood haemoglobin levels was seen in all the anaemic
subjects after supplementing Spirulina tor 30 days. A mean increase in the blood haemoglobin levels
by 1.32 g/dl i.e., 11.65% was seen in those girls supplemented with Spirulina in the form of syrup,
while a mean increase of 0.88 g/dl i.e., 7.72% was seen in those supplemented with Spirulina as
parathas. This increase could be due to the absence of inhibitors of iron absorption - oxalates and
phytates in the syrup, which were otherwise present in the parathas. It was concluded that
supplementation of Spirulina had beneficial effect on the haemoglobin levels and could be effectively
used to combat iron deficiency anaemia.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

492: Maniu H.
The mutagenesis and temporal partial genetic mapping in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.
Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol. 1985 J ul-Sep;44(3):255-63.
PMID: 3938946
pdf: Maniu H 1985.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

--------------------------------------------------------------------

493: Manzini I, Peters F, Schild D.
Odorant responses of Xenopus laevis tadpole olfactory neurons: a comparison between preparations.
J Neurosci Methods. 2002 Dec 15;121(2):159-67.
PMID: 12468006
pdf: Manzini I 2002.pdf
mots-cls article: $Xenopus-laevis; $Olfactory-receptor-neurons; $Olfactory-mucosa-slice.
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; mtabolisme; processus-biophysiques.
rsum:

We used a slice preparation of the olfactory epithelium of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to record odorant
responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and compared these to odorant responses recorded
in isolated ORNs. The maximum recording time in the slice was considerably longer than in isolated
ORNs, which is essential when many odorants are to be tested. No odorant-induced responses could
be obtained from isolated ORNs recorded in the on-cell mode, while recordings in the slice (on-cell
and whole-cell) as well as previously reported perforated-patch recordings in isolated ORNs of the
same species () were successful, though qualitatively different. In the slice preparation, amino acids
as well as an extract from Spirulina algae always induced excitatory responses, while, in a previous
study on isolated ORNs, responses were either excitatory or inhibitory. The results of this study show
that ORNs obtained using different preparation techniques can give markedly different responses
upon the application of odorants. Our experiments indicate that the slice preparation combined with
the on-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique is the method of choice for testing many
odorants on individual ORNs.
194

--------------------------------------------------------------------

494: Mao TK, Van de Water J , Gershwin ME.
Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients.
J Med Food. 2005 Spring;8(1):27-30.
PMID: 15857205
pdf: Mao T 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $antioxidants; $blue-green-algae; $interleukin-4; $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: , B.
rsum:

Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary
supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. We have
previously shown that the in vitro culture of Spirulina with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
(PBMCs) modulated the production of cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a
Spirulina-based dietary supplement (Earthrise Nutritionals, Inc., Irvine, CA) on patients with allergic
rhinitis by assessing the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-2]
critical in regulating immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy. In a randomized double-blinded crossover
study versus placebo, allergic individuals were fed daily with either placebo or Spirulina, at 1,000 mg
or 2,000 mg, for 12 weeks. PBMCs isolated before and after the Spirulina feeding were stimulated with
phytohemagglutinin (PHA) prior to determining the levels of cytokine from cell culture supernatants.
Although Spirulina seemed to be ineffective at modulating the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-gamma
and IL-2), we discovered that Spirulina, administered at 2,000 mg/day, significantly reduced IL-4 levels
by 32% from PHA-stimulated cells. These results indicate that Spirulina can modulate the Th profile in
patients with allergic rhinitis by suppressing the differentiation of Th2 cells mediated, in part, by
inhibiting the production of IL-4. To our knowledge, this is the first human feeding study that
demonstrates the protective effects of Spirulina towards allergic rhinitis.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial
* Randomized Controlled Trial

--------------------------------------------------------------------

495: Maranesi M, Barzanti V, Carenini G, Gentili P.
Nutritional studies on Spirulina maxima.
Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1984;6(4):295-304.
PMID: 6442827
pdf: Maranesi M 1984.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

This study was designed to explore the nutritional value of proteins derived from algal biomasses of
genus Spirulina maxima, with a view to the possible use of such proteins in human alimentation.
Recently the use of such biomasses has commanded attention both as an alternative source of
alimentary protein and as a coadjuvant in diet treatment requiring a reduced caloric intake - this
because these substances seem to prolong gastric transit time and so produce a feeling of satiety.
Our research was conducted in young growing rats; it provided confirmation of the validity of Spirulina
as a protein source in terms of good weight gains by the test animals and freedom from adverse
effects; the same research, on the other hand, failed to confirm the effectiveness of these protein
materials in reducing caloric intake: throughout the test period, indeed, feed consumption (hence
caloric intake) was practically the same in the control lot and in animals receiving Spirulina protein.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

496: Margheri MC, Piccardi R, Ventura S, Viti C, Giovannetti L.
Genotypic diversity of oscillatoriacean strains belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina
determined by 16S rDNA restriction analysis.
Curr Microbiol. 2003 May;46(5):359-64.
195
PMID: 12732964
pdf: Margheri M 2003.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

Genotypic diversity of several cyanobacterial strains mostly isolated from marine or brackish waters,
belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina, was investigated by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA
restriction analysis and compared with morphological features and response to salinity. Cluster
analysis was performed on amplified 16S rDNA restriction profiles of these strains along with profiles
obtained from sequence data of five Spirulina-like strains, including three representatives of the new
genus Halospirulina. Our strains with tightly coiled trichomes from hypersaline waters could be
assigned to the Halospirulina genus. Among the uncoiled strains, the two strains of hypersaline origin
clustered together and were found to be distant from their counterparts of marine and freshwater
habitat. Moreover, another cluster, formed by alkali-tolerant strains with tightly coiled trichomes, was
well delineated.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

497: Marquez FJ , Sasaki K, Nishio N, Nagai S.
Inhibitory effect of oxygen accumulation on the growth of Spirulina platensis.
Biotechnology Letters 17, No 2 (1995) 225-228
PMID: pas
pdf: Marquez F 1995.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

The growth of Spirulina platensis was studied in a light-limited culture under various dissolved oxygen
(DO) concentrations. At high DO concentration, e.g. at 1.25 mM DO, the growth rate was decreased
up to 36 % compared with that of 0.063 mM DO. The retarded growth rate at high DO concentrations
seemed to be coupled with the degeneration of photosynthetic activity in terms of O2 evolution. Under
higher DO concentrations, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities tended to
increase, while the contents of photosynthetic pigment, such phycocyanin, carotenoid and chlorophyll-
a decreased distinctly.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

498: Marquez FJ , Nishio N, Nagai S, Sasaki K.
Enhancement of biomass and pigment production during growth of Spirulina platensis in mixotrophic
culture.
J Chem Technol & Biotechnol 62, No 2 (1995) 159-164.
PMID: pas
pdf: Marquez F 1995a.papier
mots-cls article: $heterotrophic-growth, $mixotrophic-growth, $glucose-consumption, $biomass-and
pigment-enhancement, $Spirulina-platensis.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, f, B.
rsum:

Spirulina platensis grew mixotrophically on glucose in the light, ehancing biomass and pigment
production. Under light-limited conditions, biomass production was enhanced by supplemental
microbial synthesis from heterotrophic metabolism of glucose. Biomass and photosynthetic pigment
production were increased 15-20-fold compared with those in autotrophic growth.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

499: Marty F, Coulon J , Busson F.
Incorporations de thymidine-3H, uridine-3H et leucine-3H dans lalgue bleue Spirulina platensis
(Gom.) geitler.
196
[Incorporation of 3H-thymidine, 3H-uridine and 3H-leucine in the blue alga Spirulina platensis (Gom.)
geitler].
C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1971 Apr 14;272(15):2021-4.
PMID: 4995635
pdf: Marty F 1971.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: article en franais

--------------------------------------------------------------------

500: Masaki R, Wada K, Matsubara H.
Isolation and characterization of two ferredoxin-NADP+reductases from Spirulina platensis.
J Biochem (Tokyo). 1979 Oct;86(4):951-62.
PMID: 500589
pdf: Masaki R 1979.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Two ferredoxin-NADP+reductases (FNRs I and II) [EC 1.6.7.1] were purified from a blue-green alga,
Spirulina platensis, by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-
Sephadex A-50 chromatography. FNRs I and II were both FAD-containing enzymes with molecular
weights of 33,000, and could photochemically reduce NADP+to the same extent in the presence of S.
platensis ferredoxin, using FNR-depleted membrane fragments of S. platensis. They had similar
physical and enzymatic properties, except for chemical properties such as the amino (N)-terminal
sequences and the patterns of their peptide maps. The significance of the presence of two FNRs in S.
platensis as as of the multiple forms found in other organisms is discussed.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

501: Mascher D, Paredes-Carbajal MC, Torres-Duran PV, Zamora-Gonzalez J , Diaz-Zagoya J C,
J uarez-Oropeza MA.
Ethanolic extract of Spirulina maxima alters the vasomotor reactivity of aortic rings from obese rats.
Arch Med Res. 2006 J an;37(1):50-7.
PMID: 16314186
pdf: Mascher D 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Aortic-rings; $Sucrose-fed-rats; $Endothelium; $Nitric-oxide; $Indomethacin; $L-
NAME.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; mdecine; organes; coeur; systme-cardio-vasculaire;
B.
rsum:

BACKGROUND: Aortic rings with endothelium excised from fructose-fed obese rats develop more
tension in response to phenylephrine and relax less in response to carbachol than corresponding rings
from lean rats. This altered vascular reactivity is prevented when Spirulina maxima is added to the
fructose-rich diet. In the present study the effects of a raw ethanolic extract of Spirulina maxima on the
vasomotor responses of aorta rings from sucrose-fed obese hypertensive rats were analyzed.
METHODS: The experiments were performed on aorta rings from sucrose-fed obese male rats. For
each experiment, a pair of rings from the same aorta (one with intact endothelium, the other without a
functional endothelium) was used. In this study we analyzed, in vitro, the effects of the ethanolic
extract of Spirulina maxima on the reactivity of the aortic rings to phenylephrine and to carbachol.
RESULTS: On rings with endothelium, the extract produced the following effects: a) a concentration-
dependent (0.06-1.0 mg/mL) decrease of the contractile response to phenylephrine; b) a rightward
shift and a decrease in maximal developed tension, of the concentration-response curve to
phenylephrine; c) a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted rings. These
effects persisted in the presence of indomethacin but were prevented by L-NAME. The extract had no
effect on the concentration-response curve of phenylephrine-precontracted rings to carbachol. On
endothelium-denuded rings the extract caused a significant rightward shift of the concentration
response curve to phenylephrine without any effect on maximal tension development.
197
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, in rings from obese rats, the extract, in addition to
increasing the synthesis/release of NO, also inhibits the synthesis/release of a cyclooxygenase-
dependent vasoconstrictor metabolite of arachidonic acid, which is increased in obesity.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

502: Materassi R, Tredici M, Balloni W.
Spirulina culture in sea-water.
J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 19, No 6 (J une 1984) 384-386.
PMID: pas
pdf: Materassi R 1984.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima; O.
rsum:

Laboratory experiments using small raceway ponds have shown that Spirulina maxima can be
adapted easily to grow in sea-water supplemented with nitrate, phosphate, bicarbonate, and Fe-
EDTA. To prevent precipitate formation, phosphate was supplied by diffusion through a dialysis
membrane; the amount of Na-bicarbonate added was low (100 ppm) and the pH was kept in the range
8.68.8 by bubbling CO2 into the culture. No significant differences have been noticed in productivity
or in the chemical composition of the biomass between cultures in sea-water and in the standard
bicarbonate medium. Cultures subjected to light/dark cycles of 12/12 h showed a higher respiration
rate in sea-water than in the bicarbonate medium. The higher weight loss in the sea-water medium in
the dark was counterbalanced by an increased synthesis of carbohydrates during the light period.

------------------------------------------------------------

503: Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair PP, Varghese C, Somanathan T, Amma BP, Amma NS,
Nair MK.
Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with Spirulina fusiformis.
Nutr Cancer. 1995;24(2):197-202.
PMID: 8584455
pdf: Mathew B 1995.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis.
rsum:

The blue-green microalgae Spirulina, used in daily diets of natives in Africa and America, have been
found to be a rich natural source of proteins, carotenoids, and other micronutrients. Experimental
studies in animal models have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Spirulina algae on oral
carcinogenesis. Studies among preschool children in India have demonstrated Spirulina fusiformis
(SF) to be an effective source of dietary vitamin A. We evaluated the chemopreventive activity of SF (1
g/day for 12 mos) in reversing oral leukoplakia in pan tobacco chewers in Kerala, India. Complete
regression of lesions was observed in 20 of 44 (45%) evaluable subjects supplemented with SF, as
opposed to 3 of 43 (7%) in the placebo arm (p <0.0001). When stratified by type of leukoplakia, the
response was more pronounced in homogeneous lesions: complete regression was seen in 16 of 28
(57%) subjects with homogeneous leukoplakia, 2 of 8 with erythroplakia, 2 of 4 with verrucous
leukoplakia, and 0 of 4 with ulcerated and nodular lesions. Within one year of discontinuing
supplements, 9 of 20 (45%) complete responders with SF developed recurrent lesions.
Supplementation with SF did not result in increased serum concentration of retinol or beta-carotene,
nor was it associated with toxicity. This is the first human study evaluating the chemopreventive
potential of SF. More studies in different settings and different populations are needed for further
evaluation.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial
* Randomized Controlled Trial

--------------------------------------------------------------------

504: Matsubara H, Wada K, Masaki R.
198
Structure and function of chloroplast-type ferredoxins.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1976;74:1-15.
PMID: 785973
pdf: Matsubara H 1976.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: ; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

Comparison of various chloroplast-type ferredoxin sequences, chemical and enzymic modifications,
reconstitution experiments, and fluorescence measurement of chloroplast-type ferredoxins have led to
the following conclusions.
1. Tyrosine, histidine, and tryptophan residues are not directly involved in the oxidation-reduction
mechanism of ferredoxins. The four indispensible cysteine residues in spinach ferredoxin which
constitutes a part of the iron-sulfur cluster are located at residues 39, 44. 47 and 77. Two out of six
cysteine residues in Spirulina ferredoxin could be easily modified with vinylpyridine without the loss of
reconstitutive ability i.e. the apoferredoxin could be converted to the holoform by the addition of iron
and sulfide.
2. Spinach ferredoxin was digested with carboxypeptidase A and the terminal alanine could be
removed without loss of the spectral properties of native ferredoxin. However, the removal of the
terminal three residues gave rise to the loss of reconstitutive ability.
3. The amino groups of spinach ferredoxin were modified by acetic anhydride and four residues were
acetylated. The acetylated preparation of ferredoxin had an unique spectrum. Upon the addition of
high concentration of ions the spectrum of this derivative resembled the spectrum of native ferredoxin.
Acetylferredoxin did not combine with ferredoxin-NADP reductase, but upon the addition of moderate
concentrations of cations, it did bind to this enzyme.

Publication Types: Review

--------------------------------------------------------------------

505: Mazo VK, Gmoshinskii IV, Zilova IS.
[Microalgae Spirulina in human nutrition].
Vopr Pitan. 2004;73(1):45-53.
PMID: 15049159
pdf: Mazo V 2004.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, spirulina-maxima, spirulina-fusiformis.
rsum: en russe, article de revue

Spirulina microalgae (Spirulina platensis, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina fusiformis) is considered as a
valuable additional food source of some macro- and micronutrients including high quality protein, iron,
gamma-linolenic fatty acid, carotenoids, vitamins B1 and B2. In spite of Spirulina chemical
composition varies widely when grown in open reservoirs its efficiency as an additional remedy in
treatment and prophylaxis of different diseases is proved in a variety of experimental and clinical trials.
During Spirulina cultivation in open reservoirs and especially in closed photobioreactors its biomass
may be additionally enriched with some trace elements such as iron, iodine, selenium, zinc, copper,
manganese and chromium in high bioavailable form. Said biomass is considered as a constituent of
new bioactive food supplements.

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506: Mazo VK, Gmoshinskii IV, Sokolova AG, Zorin SN, Danilina LL, Litvinova AV, Radchenko SN.
[Effect of biologically active food additives containing autolysate of baker's yeast and spirulina on
intestinal permeability in an experiment].
Vopr Pitan. 1999;68(1):17-9.
PMID: 10198958
pdf: Mazo V 1999.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe
199

Influence of bioactive food supplements (BFA) intake on intestinal barrier permeability to
macromolecules of polyethylene glycol 4000 was studied in rats with intestinal anaphylaxis and after
external gamma-irradiation. BFA studied included autolysed baker's yeast ("Vitasil") and edible algae
Spirulina platensis. Intake of complex additive Vitasil +Spirulina resulted in significant diminution of
permeability before irradiation and its partial normalization (24% decrease) after irradiation. Spirulina
additive intake led to practically complete normalization of permeability (1.84 times decrease) in
anaphylactic rats. It is concluded that Spirulina and Vitasil are promising BFA for organism general
resistance elevation.

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507: Medina M, Lara MA.
Eficiencia global en la conversin de energa solar en biomasa de una planta productora de
Arthrospira platensis (spirulina)
Avances en Energias Renovables y Medio Ambiente 9 (2005) pp 06.11-06.16.
PMID: pas
pdf: Medina M 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $spirulina, $estanques-de-produccion,$eficienca-fotosintetica.
mots-cls Antenna: arthrospira-platensis, S.
rsum:

La spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) es una microalga que se utiliza como un suplemento dietario en
alimentacin humana y animal. En el presente trabajo se calcula la eficiencia global de una planta de
produccin de spirulina, definiendo eficiencia global como el cociente entre la radiacin solar recibida
y la energa de la biomasa seca recolectada durante un perodo de 16 meses.

--------------------------------------------------------

508: Meesapyodsuk D, Reed DW, Cheevadhanarak S, Deshnium P, Covello PS.
Probing the mechanism of a cyanobacterial Delta9 fatty acid desaturase from Spirulina platensis C1
(Arthrospira sp. PCC 9438).
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 J ul;129(4):831-5.
PMID: 11435137
pdf: Meesapyodsuk D 2001.pdf
mots-cls article: $Fatty-acid-desaturase; $Kinetic-isotope-effect; $Mechanism; $Cyanobacterium;
$Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, arthrospira-platensis.
rsum:

The initial and rate determining step in the mechanism of fatty acid desaturases has been proposed to
be breakage of one of the C-H bonds at the site of the incipient double bond. This has been
investigated and supported for a number of eukaryotic fatty acid desaturases through the use of
kinetic isotope effect experiments with deuterated substrates. In order to probe the reaction catalyzed
by the cyanobacterial Delta9 desaturase and compare it to the eukaryotic desaturases, the desC gene
of Spirulina platensis, strain C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC 9438) was expressed in a desaturase mutant of
baker's yeast. Kinetic isotope effects were performed by culturing yeast transformants with deuterated
thia-substituted stearic acids. A large kinetic isotope effect was found for the 9 position, in qualitative
agreement with results from eukaryotic desaturases.

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509: Mendes RL, Reis AD, Palavra AF.
Supercritical CO2 extraction of gamma-linolenic acid and other lipids from Arthrospira (Spirulina)
maxima: Comparison with organic solvent extraction.
Food Chemistry 99, No 1 (2006) 57-63.
PMID: pas
pdf: Mendes R 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Gamma-Linolenic; $GLA; $Supercritical-fluid-extraction; $Arthrospira-maxima;
$Spirulina-maxima; $Carbon-dioxide.
200
mots-cls Antenna: Arthrospira-maxima; N.
rsum:

Freeze-dried biomass of Arthrospira maxima Setchell & Gardner was submitted to supercritical CO2
extraction using a flow type apparatus at a temperature of 50 C and a pressure of 250 bar. To
increase the yield in either lipids or GLA (gamma-linolenic acid), which is mostly contained in the
glycolipid fractions, a polar co-solvent (ethanol) was added to the CO2 and the corresponding
supercritical fluid extraction was carried out at temperatures of 50 and 60 C and at 250 and 350 bar.
The use of the co-solvent increased both lipid and GLA yields relative to the extraction with pure CO2.
On the other hand, the increase of pressure and temperature also had a positive effect on the
extraction of GLA. Supercritical extraction was compared with organic solvent extraction, regarding
lipid yields, fatty acid composition of total lipids and lipid classes, as well as the distribution of lipids by
their classes (neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids).

-----------------------------------------------------------------

510: Mendiola J A, J aime L, Santoyo S, Reglero G, Cifuentes A, Ibaez E, and Seorns FJ .
Screening of functional compounds in supercritical fluid extracts from Spirulina platensis.
Food Chemistry 102, No 4 (2007) 1357-1367.
PMID: pas
pdf: Mendiola J 2007.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis; $Supercritical-fluid-extraction; $Antioxidant-activity;
$Antimicrobial-activity; $DPPH; beta-Carotene-bleaching.
mots-cls Antenna: Spirulina-platensis; N.
rsum:

Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of Spirulina platensis were carried out in order to obtain
functional extracts with antioxidant and/or antimicrobial activities. The b-carotene bleaching method
and DPPH_ free radical-scavenging assay were used to determine the optimal extraction conditions
for antioxidant compounds. The best antioxidant extract was obtained in the first fraction when using
intermediate pressures and temperatures (220320 bar, 55 C), with CO2 plus 10% ethanol as
cosolvent, whereas higher pressures and temperatures (320 bar, 75 C) were needed when pure CO2
was used. Besides, antimicrobial activities of micro-algae extracts were tested against four different
microbial species, including a gram positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), a gram negative
bacterium (Escherichia coli), a yeast (Candida albicans) and a fungus (Aspergillus niger). The most
active fraction against all the microorganisms tested, was the one collected in the second fraction in
the experiment performed at 220 bar and 26.7 C with 10% of ethanol.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

511: Mendiola J A, Marin FR, Hernandez SF, Arredondo BO, Senorans FJ , Ibanez E, Reglero G.
Characterization via liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass
spectrometry of supercritical fluid antioxidant extracts of Spirulina platensis microalga.
J Separation Sci. 2005 J un;28(9-10):1031-8.
PMID: 16013830
pdf: Mendiola J 2005.pdf
mots-cls article: $SFE; $Antioxidants; $Spirulina-platensis; $LC-DAD; $LC-MS.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

Spirulina platensis microalga has been extracted on a pilot scale plant using supercritical fluid
extraction (SFE) under various extraction conditions. The extraction yield and the antioxidant activity
of the extracts were evaluated in order to select those extracts with both the highest antioxidant
capacity and a good extraction yield. These extracts were characterized using LC coupled to diode
array detection (DAD) and LC coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) with two different interfaces,
atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray (ESI) which allowed us to perform
tandem MS by using an ion trap analyzer. The best extraction conditions were as follows: CO2 with
10% of modifier (ethanol) as extraction solvent, 55 degrees C (extraction temperature) and 220 bar
(extraction pressure). Fractionation was achieved by cascade depressurization providing two extracts
with different activity and chemical composition. Several compounds have been identified in the
201
extracts, corresponding to different carotenoids previously identified in Spirulina platensis microalga
along with chlorophyll a and some degradation products. Also, the structure of some phenolic
compounds could be tentatively identified. The antioxidant activity of the extracts could be attributed to
some of the above mentioned compounds.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

512: Mendzhul MI, Lysenko TG, Shainskaia OA, Busakhina IV.
[Activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes in cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis].
Mikrobiol Z. 2000 J an-Feb;62(1):3-10.
PMID: 11300083
pdf: Mendzhul M 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum: en russe

The activity level and some physico-chemical properties of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle
(TCA cycle) and the associated enzymes isocitrate lyase and glutamate dehydrogenase of
cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis grown under illumination of 5000 lk in batch conditions, have been
studied. High activities of most of the studied enzymes except for alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
(alpha-KGDH) and succinate dehydrogenase have been estimated. In some cases the activities were
by an order higher than that of similar enzymes in other cyanobacteria. This reflects the
microorganism ability to synthesize intensively organic substances and first of all protein. Absence of
alpha-KGDH activity proves that TCA cycle of spirulina has a limited value for energy generation and
mainly performs the biosynthetic function.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

513: Menon VK, Varma AK.
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate sulphurylase from Spirulina platensis.
Experientia. 1979 J ul 15;35(7):854-5.
PMID: 113245
pdf: Menon V 1979.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

ATP-sulphurylase from an unicellular blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis was localized in the soluble
fractions of cell-free homogenate, and it was stable for over 3 weeks at -6 degrees C.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

514: Miao J ian Ren.
Novel and high productivity photobioreactor, specifically designed for the commercial production of
cyanobacterium Spirulina, green alga Haematococcus and other photophilic microalgae in general.
in L. Charpy et al. (eds.), CICSSD (2004) 36-39.
PMID: pas
pdf: Miao J 2004.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
rsum:

----------------------------------------------------------

515: Mikheiskaya LV, Ovodova RG, Ovodov YuS.
Polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis.
Chemistry of Natural Compounds 19, No 2 (1983) 127-131.
PMID: pas
pdf: Mikheiskaya L 1983.papier
mots-cls article:
202
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; m; B.
rsum :

A lipoglucan and a lipopolysaccharide have been isolated from an aqueous phenol extract of the cells
ofSpirulina platensis. The carbohydrate moiety of the lipopolysaccharide consists of residues of
rhamnose, glucose, 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octanic acid, and glucosamine. A 2,3-di-O-methylpentose
and a 2-O-methyl-6-deoxyhexose have been detected as minor components, and the presence of
galactose, mannose, and xylose residues in trace amounts is possible. The lipid component of the
biopolymers includes residues of glucosamine and of fatty acids: myristic, palmitic, and stearic. The
carbohydrate chain of the lipoglucan is constructed of 1,4-bound glucose residues. The side chains
are attached to the main chain by 1,6-glycosidic bonds. The polysaccharide component of the
liposaccharide is constructed mainly of rhamnose residues linked by 1,3- and 1,2-bonds and of
glucose residues linked by 1,4-bonds.

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516: Miladius K, Peiukonien M, Dadelien R.
Effect ofspirulina food supplement on blood morphological and biochemical composition in sportsmen.
Acta Medica Lituanica 11, No 1 (2004) 47-51.
PMID: pas
pdf: Miladius K 2004.pdf
mots-cls article: $sportsmen, $blood-picture, $food-supplements, $Spirulina.
mots-cls Antenna: , f, B.
rsum:

Objective: Highly active food supplements find an ever-growing application in sportsmens nutrition. Of
highest biological value are natural concentrates of optimally combined substances produced by
nature. One of the food supplements of this kind is dietary Spirulina produced by the Tianshi firm
(China). It is a most rationally balanced food supplement of a high biological value; it satisfies the
needs of the whole body and improves its immune system.
The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of the multicomponent natural food supplement
Spirulina on the physical development, blood morphological and biochemical picture of sportsmen.
Materials and methods: Investigations carried out on endurance-training sportsmen showed that a
14-d administration of Spirulina exerted a positive effect on blood morphological composition indices
and biochemical changes. Erythrocyte increment was more significant for the sportsmen whose initial
indices were low. Throughout the experiment, blood haemoglobin level increased on average by 1.42
g/l, white blood hematocrit showed a decreasing tendency. Spirulina administration was accompanied
by a leucocyte count upregulation tendency and positive changes in leukocyte formula. Leucograms
showed a marked leveling of the agranulocytesgranulocytes ratio.
Results and discussion: Analysis of the biochemical indices showed that during the whole
experimental period the mean values of the indices were within the recommended limits. Under the
effect of Spirulina intake, blood creatinine-kinase levels tended to increase and creatinine levels
showed a decreasing tendency (on average from 93.99 to 90.45 mmol/l); also, triglyceride and
bilirubin levels tended to decrease, while those of urea and uric acid increased. Most of the positive
changes in blood morphological and biochemical indices were still present two weeks after the
Spirulina intake was interrupted.

----------------------------------------------------------

517: Milano A, De Rossi E, Zanaria E, Barbierato L, Ciferri O, Riccardi G.
Molecular characterization of the genes encoding acetohydroxy acid synthase in the cyanobacterium
Spirulina platensis.
J Gen Microbiol. 1992 J ul;138(7):1399-408.
PMID: 1512571
pdf: Milano A 1992.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna:
rsum: spirulina-platensis

203
The enzyme acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHS), which catalyses the first common step in the
biosynthesis of isoleucine, leucine and valine, has been demonstrated to be present in Spirulina
platensis in two isoenzymic forms. The complete nucleotide sequences of the genes ilvX and ilvW
encoding these two enzymes have been determined. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of two
open reading frames, of 1836 and 1737 nucleotides for ilvX and ilvW, respectively. The predicted
amino acid sequences of the two isoenzymes, compared with the Synechococcus PCC 7942 AHS
enzyme and the large subunits of the Escherichia coli AHSI, II, III isoenzymes, revealed a notable
degree of similarity. A small subunit has not been identified for either of the S. platensis AHS
isoenzymes. Analysis by Northern blot hybridization demonstrated that the ilvX and ilvW genes are
transcribed to give mRNA species of approximately 2.15 kb and 1.95 kb, respectively.

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518: Minea R, Brasoveanu M, Grecu M, Nemtanu MR.
Preliminary studies on irradiated spirulina.
Rom J Phys Bucharest 51(12) 141145, 2006.
PMID: pas
pdf: Minea R 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-platensis, $irradiation, $EPR, $UV-Vis-spectroscopy, $antioxidant-activity.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis, S, B.
rsum:

In the last decades, a special attention is given to study different algae, especially to microscopic
ones. Spirulina is one of them being used both nutritive supplement and medicine. The aim of the
paper is to study the electron beam irradiated Spirulina by physical and biochemical methods. The
UV-Vis and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectra and antioxidant activity are presented for
Spirulina irradiated up to 80 kGy.

--------------------------------------------------------

519: Minkova KM, Tchernov AA, Tchorbadjieva MI, Fournadjieva ST, Antova RE, Busheva MCh.
Purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina (Arthrospira) fusiformis.
J Biotechnol. 2003 Apr 10;102(1):55-9.
PMID: 12668314
pdf: Minkova K 2003.pdf
mots-cls article: $Spirulina-(Arthrospira)-fusiformis; $C-phycocyanin; $Rivanol; $Purification.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis, arthrospira-fusiformis, arthrospira-maxima, spirulina-
maxima, B.
rsum:

C-phycocyanin was purified from Spirulina (Arthrospira) fusiformis by a multi-step treatment of the
crude extract with rivanol in a ratio 10:1 (v/v), followed by 40% saturation with ammonium sulfate. After
removal of rivanol by gel-filtration on Sephadex G-25, the pigment solution was saturated to 70% with
ammonium sulfate. After the last step of purification, C-phycocyanin had an emission and absorption
maxima at 620 and 650 nm, respectively and absorbance ratio A(620)/A(280) of 4.3, which are
specific for the pure biliprotein. Its homogeneity was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, yielding two bands of molecular masses 19500 and 21500 kDa,
corresponding to alpha and beta subunits of the pigment, respectively. The yield of C-phycocyanin
was approximately 46% from its content in the crude extract.

Publication Types: Evaluation Studies
* Validation Studies

--------------------------------------------------------------------

520: Mino Y, Loehr TM, Wada K, Matsubara H, Sanders-Loehr J .
Hydrogen bonding of sulfur ligands in blue copper and iron-sulfur proteins: detection by resonance
Raman spectroscopy.
Biochemistry. 1987 Dec 15;26(25):8059-65.
PMID: 3442645
204
pdf: Mino Y 1987.pdf
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; iron-sulphur-
proteins.
rsum:

The resonance Raman spectrum of the blue copper protein azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans
exhibits nine vibrational modes between 330 and 460 cm-1, seven of which shift 0.4-3.0 cm-1 to lower
energy after incubation of the protein in D2O. These deuterium-dependent shifts have been previously
ascribed to exchangeable protons on imidazole ligands [Nestor, L., Larrabee, J . A., Woolery, G.,
Reinhammar, B., & Spiro, T. G. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 1084] or to exchangeable protons on amide
groups which are hydrogen bonded to the cysteine thiolate ligands (a feature common to all blue
copper proteins of known structure). In order to distinguish between these two possibilities, a
systematic investigation of Fe2S2(Cys)4-containing proteins was undertaken. Extensive hydrogen
bonding between sulfur ligands and the polypeptide backbone had been observed in the crystal
structure of ferredoxin from Spirulina platensis. The resonance Raman spectrum of this protein is
typical of a chloroplast-type ferredoxin and exhibits deuterium-dependent shifts of -0.3 to -0.5 cm-1 in
the Fe-S modes at 283, 367, and 394 cm-1 (assigned to the bridging sulfurs) and -0.6 to -0.8 cm-1 in
the Fe-S modes at 328 and 341 cm-1 (assigned to the terminal cysteine thiolates). Considerably
greater deuterium sensitivity is observed in the Raman spectra of spinach ferredoxin and bovine
adrenodoxin, particularly for the symmetric stretching vibration of the Fe2S2 moiety at approximately
390 cm-1. This feature decreases by 0.8 and 1.1 cm-1, respectively, for the two oxidized proteins in
D2O and by 1.8 cm-1 for reduced adrenodoxin in D2O.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

--------------------------------------------------------------------

521: Min Thein.
Production of Spirulina in Myanmar (Burma).
in F. Doumenge, H. Durand-Chastee, A. Toulemont, "Spiruline, algue de vie / Spirulina, algae of life",
(Muse ocanographique, Monaco, 1993) 175-178.
PMID: pas
pdf: Min T 1993.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; E.
remarques: planches en couleur page 216-217.

----------------------------------------------------------

522: Miranda MS, Cintra RG, Barros SB, Mancini Filho J .
Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima.
Braz J Med Biol Res 1998;31:1075-9
PMID: 9777014
pdf: Miranda M 1998.pdf
mots-cls article: $Microalgae, $Antioxidant-activity, $Spirulina-maxima, $Phenolic-compounds,
$beta-carotene, $alpha-tocopherol.
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
B: **Technology, **Spirulina, **Carotenods, **activity, **antioxidant.
rsum:

Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential
nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and beta-carotene which are known to exhibit
antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a
Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro
and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and
without the extract at 37 degrees C. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of
oxidation) of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated
in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant
capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C. The production of
oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37 degrees C was measured in terms of
thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS) in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment,
205
the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group.
Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The
amounts of phenolic acids, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts.
The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and
in vivo systems.

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523: Misbahuddin M, Islam AZ, Khandker S, Ifthaker-Al-Mahmud, Islam N, Anjumanara.
Efficacy of spirulina extract plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-
controlled study.
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44(2):135-41.
PMID: 16615668
pdf: Misbahuddin M 2006.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: .
rsum:

BACKGROUND: Millions of people in Bangladesh, India, Taiwan, and Chile are consuming high
concentration of arsenic through drinking water, and thousands of them have already developed
chronic arsenic poisoning. There is no specific treatment. Some authors suggest the use of vitamins
and minerals for more than 6 months. The present placebo-controlled double-blind study was
conducted to evaluate effectiveness of spirulina extract plus zinc in the treatment of chronic arsenic
poisoning.
METHODS: Forty-one patients of chronic arsenic poisoning were randomly treated orally by either
placebo (17 patients) or spirulina extract (250 mg) plus zinc (2 mg) (24 patients) twice daily for 16
weeks. Each patient was supplied with arsenic-safe drinking water by installing a locally made water
filter at household level. Effectiveness of spirulina extract plus zinc was evaluated by comparing
changes in skin manifestations (clinical scores), arsenic contents in urine and hair, between the
placebo- and spirulina extract plus zinc-treated groups.
RESULTS: The concentrations of total arsenic in water (without filtration) of placebo- and spirulina
extract plus zinc-treated groups were 150.1 +/- 18.3 and 161.7 +/- 23.9 microg/l, respectively. Intake of
these high concentrations of arsenic lead to increased excretion of arsenic in urine (72.1 +/- 14.5
microg/l in placebo-treated group and 78.4 +/- 19.1 microg/l in spirulina plus zinc-treated group). After
2 weeks of using filtered water, there were significant reduction of both arsenic intake through water
and urinary arsenic excretion (8.3 +/- 3.6 microg/l and 18.4 +/- 7.3 microg/l in placebo group; 9.7 +/-
5.4 microg/l and 21.6 +/- 5.8 microg/l) in spirulina extract plus zinc-treated group. There was a sharp
increase in urinary excretion of arsenic (138 +/- 43.6 microg/l) at 4 weeks following spirulina plus zinc
administration and the effect was continued for another 2 weeks. Spirulina extract plus zinc removed
47.1% arsenic from scalp hair. Spirulina extract had no major adverse effect that required physician's
attention. The clinical scores (median) for melanosis before and after treatment with placebo was not
statistically significant (p >0.05), whereas in spirulina extract plus zinc-treated group it was statistically
significant (p <0.01). In cases of keratosis, the median clinical scores before and after treatment was
not statistically significant (p >0.05) in placebo-treated group. In spirulina extract plus zinc-treated
group, the clinical scores for keratosis before and after treatment was statistically significant (p <
0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Results show that spirulina extract (250 mg) plus zinc (2 mg) twice daily for 16
weeks may be useful for the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning with melanosis and keratosis.

Publication Types: Randomized Controlled Trial

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524: Mishima T, Murata J , Toyoshima M, Fujii H, Nakajima M, Hayashi T, Kato T, Saiki I.
Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated
polysaccharide derived from a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 1998 Aug;16(6):541-50.
PMID: 9872601
pdf: Mishima T 1998.pdf
mots-cls article: $adhesion; $calcium-spirulan; $invasion; $laminin; $metastasis.
206
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

We have investigated the effect of calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) isolated from a blue-green alga, Spirulina
platensis, which is a sulfated polysaccharide chelating calcium and mainly composed of rhamnose, on
invasion of B16-BL6 melanoma, Colon 26 M3.1 carcinoma and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells through
reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel). Ca-SP significantly inhibited the invasion of these tumor
cells through Matrigel/fibronectin-coated filters. Ca-SP also inhibited the haptotactic migration of tumor
cells to laminin, but it had no effect on that to fibronectin. Ca-SP prevented the adhesion of B16-BL6
cells to Matrigel and laminin substrates but did not affect the adhesion to fibronectin. The pretreatment
of tumor cells with Ca-SP inhibited the adhesion to laminin, while the pretreatment of laminin
substrates did not. Ca-SP had no effect on the production and activation of type IV collagenase in
gelatin zymography. In contrast, Ca-SP significantly inhibited degradation of heparan sulfate by
purified heparanase. The experimental lung metastasis was significantly reduced by co-injection of
B16-BL6 cells with Ca-SP. Seven intermittent i.v. injections of 100 microg of Ca-SP caused a marked
decrease of lung tumor colonization of B16-BL6 cells in a spontaneous lung metastasis model. These
results suggest that Ca-SP, a novel sulfated polysaccharide, could reduce the lung metastasis of B16-
BL6 melanoma cells, by inhibiting the tumor invasion of basement membrane probably through the
prevention of the adhesion and migration of tumor cells to laminin substrate and of the heparanase
activity.

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525: Misset O, Opperdoes FR.
The phosphoglycerate kinases from Trypanosoma brucei. A comparison of the glycosomal and the
cytosolic isoenzymes and their sensitivity towards suramin.
Eur J Biochem. 1987 Feb 2;162(3):493-500.
PMID: 3830152
pdf: Misset O 1987.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; biochimie-de-la-spiruline; enzyme.
rsum:

Trypanosoma brucei has two phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) isoenzymes, one is particle-bound and
localized in glycosomes while the other is present in the cytosol. The cytosolic isoenzyme (cPGK) was
900-fold purified from cultured procyclic trypanosomes by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on
phenyl-Sepharose followed by affinity chromatography on 2',3'-ATP-Sepharose and had a specific
activity of 275 units/mg protein. cPGK was compared with the purified glycosomal isoenzyme (gPGK)
from bloodstream-form trypanosomes as well as with the commercially available PGKs from yeast,
rabbit muscle and Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga. Like all other PGKs, cPGK was a monomeric
protein with a molecular mass of approximately 45 kDa similar to that of the PGKs from other
organisms but 2 kDa smaller than that of gPGK. Despite this difference in length and a great
difference in isoelectric point, the two trypanosome isoenzymes strongly resembled each other in
several respects. The kinetic parameters did not differ significantly from each other or from the PGKs
of other organisms. Both trypanosome enzymes resembled the enzyme from S. platensis in that they
had an almost absolute requirement for ATP, contrary to the enzymes from yeast and rabbit muscle,
which were capable of utilizing GTP and ITP also. This difference in substrate specificity may be
related to the amino acid substitutions, Trp 308----His and Ala 306----Glu in the adenine-binding site,
which are only found in the two Trypanosoma isoenzymes. Kinetic analysis showed that these
substitutions do not prevent binding of the ATP analogues, but probably prevent phosphoryl-group
transfer. Both isoenzymes displayed an activity optimum at pH 6.0-9.0 similar to that for the enzyme of
yeast. Both gPGK and cPGK were inhibited by the trypanocidal drug Suramin. This inhibition could be
described as competitive both with ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate with two inhibitor molecules binding
to one molecule of enzyme. The gPGK, however, was much more sensitive (Ki app. =8.0 microM) to
Suramin than either the cPGK (Ki app. =20 microM) or the enzymes from rabbit muscle (Ki app. =55
microM), yeast (Ki app. =167 microM) or S. platensis (Ki app. =250 microM). It is suggested that
positive charges on the enzyme's surface may play an important role in the potentiation of the binding
of the negatively charged Suramin molecule.

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207

526: Mitchell GV, Grundel E, J enkins M, Blakely SR.
Effects of graded dietary levels of Spirulina maxima on vitamins A and E in male rats.
J Nutr. 1990 Oct;120(10):1235-40.
PMID: 2213251
pdf: Mitchell G 1990.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-maxima.
rsum:

The effects of ingesting the alga Spirulina maxima on the storage and utilization of vitamins A and E
were investigated by feeding diets containing 0, 2.7, 10.7, 18.7 and 26.7% S. maxima to male rats for
6 wk. All diets contained 18% protein, which was contributed by S. maxima or by casein or by a
mixture of them. Growth results indicated that rats did not utilize the diets containing S. maxima as
well as the casein control diet (0% S. maxima) when levels were 10.7% or more of the diet. The
ingestion of S. maxima caused a significant increase in dry matter and chloroform-extractable crude
fat in the feces. A low level of 2.7% S. maxima caused a significant reduction in plasma, liver and
heart alpha-tocopherol levels. The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in these tissues showed a
marked decline with 10.7% S. maxima in the diet, followed by a lesser decline at higher levels. Liver
retinoid levels of rats increased when S. maxima was added to the diet, suggesting conversion of the
naturally occurring carotenoids in S. maxima to vitamin A. However, the plasma levels of retinol
decreased when S. maxima was fed at 10.7% or more. These data demonstrate that S. maxima can
significantly alter the storage and utilization of vitamins A and E.

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527: Mitsuhashi S, Fujimoto M, Muramatsu H, Tanishita K.
Effect of simple shear flow on photosynthesis rate and morphology of micro algae.
Acta Astronaut. 1994 J ul;33:179-87.
PMID: 11539519
pdf: Mitsuhashi S 1994.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis.
rsum:

The convective motion of micro algal suspension gives an advantageous effect on the photosynthetic
rate in the bioreactor, however, the nature of convective effect on the photosynthesis has not been
fully understood. The purpose of this study concerns the nature of photosynthetic rate in a well-defined
hydrodynamic shear flow of Spirulina platensis suspension, generated in a double rotating coaxial
cylinders. The double rotating coaxial cylinders was installed in the incubator chamber with the
controlled illumination intensity and temperature. Two kind of experiments, short and long term
experiments, were performed to evaluate the direct effect of shear flow on the photosynthetic rate. The
short term experiment indicates that the simple shear flow enables to augment the photosynthesis of
Spirulina suspension and simultaneously causes the cell destruction due to the excessive shear
stress. The long term experiment for 100 hours reveals that the growth rate and the morphology of
Spirulina is sensitive to the external fluid mechanical stimulus. The long term application of mechanical
stress on the algae may result in the adaptation of the photosynthetic function and morphology.

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528: Mittal A, Kumar PV, Banerjee S, Rao AR, Kumar A.
Modulatory potential of Spirulina fusiformis on carcinogen metabolizing enzymes in Swiss albino mice.
Phytother Res. 1999 Mar;13(2):111-4.
PMID: 10190182
pdf: Mittal A 1999.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fusiformis.
rsum:

208
The modulatory potential of Spirulina fusiformis was observed on the hepatic and extrahepatic
carcinogen metabolizing enzymes in Swiss albino mice at a dose of 800 mg/kg b.w. given orally. A
significant reduction in the hepatic cytochrome P-450 content was observed in the group treated with
Spirulina in comparison with the control group. The hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity was
induced significantly by Spirulina treatment. There was no change in the extrahepatic glutathione S-
transferase activity after the animals were fed with Spirulina.

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529: Mittal A, Kumar A, Rao AR.
Modulatory influence of Spirulina fusiformis on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced
papillomagenesis in the skin of mice.
Pharmaceutical Biology 36, No 5 (December 1998) 341-346.
PMID: pas
pdf: Mittal A 1998.papier
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-fudiformis, S.
rsum:

The chemopreventive properties of a Spirulina fusiformis (blue green algae) suspension in olive oil on
7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in female Swiss albino mice
are being reported. A significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, tumor burden and
cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated orally with Spirulina fusiformis
suspension continuously at pre-, peri- and post-initiation stages of papillomagenesis as compared to
the control group. Treatment of Spirulina fusiformis suspension by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in
a significant decrease in the cytochrome P-450 content of the liver ( p <0.01). Conversely, glutathione
S-transferase activity was observed to be significantly elevated as compared with the control group ( p
<0.1) following treatment with Spirulina fusiformis suspension.

--------------------------------------------------------

530: Miura S, Ichikawa Y.
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of adrenodoxin. Assignment of aromatic resonances
and evidence for a conformational similarity with ferredoxin from Spirulina platensis.
Eur J Biochem. 1991 May 8;197(3):747-57.
PMID: 2029904
pdf: Miura S 1991.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; photosynthse; ferredoxines.
rsum:

Bovine, porcine and sheep adrenodoxin, and the trypsin-resistant form of bovine adrenodoxin have
been studied by one- and two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Assignment of the resonances for
all the aromatic amino acids with resolved aromatic resonances have been made by correlating NMR
spectra with the amino acid sequences from various species. Slowly exchanging amide protons and
downfield shifted alpha-protons of His10 and Phe11 suggest possible involvement in beta-sheet
structure. The effects on the assigned resonances due to the specific spin-label with a nitroxide radical
at Cys95 have been analyzed on a two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectrum. The present results provide
evidence for a structural similarity with a model for the structure of adrenodoxin based on a sequence
alignment with that of Spirulina platensis ferredoxin, for which X-ray crystallographic data is available.
epsilon-Methyl groups of Met120 and Met122 have been assigned by comparing 1H-NMR spectra of
adrenodoxin with those of the trypsin-resistant form of adrenodoxin which is specifically cleaved at
Arg115. epsilon-Methyl groups of Met120 and Met122 have an exceptionally long longitudinal
relaxation time compared with those of valyl and leucyl methyl groups, suggesting that the COOH-
terminal peptide spanning over 13 amino acids rotates rather freely in the solvent.

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531: Miyake M, Takase K, Narato M, Khatipov E, Schnackenberg J , Shirai M, Kurane R, Asada Y.
Polyhydroxybutyrate production from carbon dioxide by cyanobacteria.
209
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2000 Spring;84-86:991-1002.
PMID: 10849853
pdf: Miyake M 2000.pdf PAS
mots-cls article:
mots-cls Antenna: spirulina-platensis; fundamental-biology; mtabolisme; processus-
biophysiques.
rsum:

Genetic characterization and enhancement of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation in
cyanobacteria were investigated for efficient PHB production from CO2. The genome DNAs in the
PHB-accumulating strains Synechococcus sp. MA19 and Spirulina platensis NIES46 retained the
highly homologous region to phaC of Synechocystis PCC6803, whereas low homology was detected
in the nonaccumulating strains Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 and Anabaena cylindrica NIES19.
Synechococcus sp. MA19, which accumulates PHB up to 30% of dry cell weight from CO2 as the sole
carbon source, was mutated by insertion of transposon Tn5 to enhance the PHB accumulation.
Genetic and physiological analysis of the mutant indicated that decreased phosphotransacetylase
activity could trigger an increase of acetyl coenzyme A leading to enhancement of PHB accumulation.
PHB synthase in Synechococcus sp. MA19 was probably attached to thylakoid membrane since PHB
granules were associated with pigments. A genetically engineered cyanobacteria retaining soluble
PHB synthase from Ralstonia eutropha accumulated pigment-free PHB granules, which is an
advantage for the purification of PHB.

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532: Mohan IK, Khan M, Shobha J C, Naidu MU, Prayag A, Kuppusamy P, Kutala VK.
Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by Spirulina in rats.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;58:802-808.
PMID: 16552571
pdf: Mohan I 2006.pdf
mots-cls article: $Cisplatin; $Nephrotoxicity; $Spirulina; $C-phycocyanin; $Antioxidant.
mots-cls Antenna: ; mdecine; organes; reins; B.
rsum:

Purpose: Cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with the increased generation of reactive
oxygen metabolites and lipid peroxidation in kidney, caused by the decreased levels of anti