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Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

1.1 Rate of Reaction


1. Chemical reaction = _________ mixed together under __________________

A + B C + D



Graph of amount of substance (mol) against time (minutes)





2. Rate of reaction = _________ of a chemical reaction

3. Methods of measuring reaction rates
Mass of substance
Concentration of substance
Volume of gas produced per unit of time
Changes in colour
Formation of precipitates

4. The rate of reaction can be expressed in
the average rate of reaction over a period of time, or
the rate of reaction at any given time



Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

1.2 Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction
(1) Surface area (particle size) of the solid reactant
Mg (ribbon/powder) (s) + H
2
SO
4
(aq) MgSO
4
(aq)

+ H
2
(g)
Smaller size > larger TSA > higher RoR

(2) Concentration of reactant
Mg (s) + 2HCl (diff conc.) (aq) MgCl
2
(aq) + H
2
(g)
Higher conc. > higher RoR

(3) Temperature
Zn (s) + H
2
SO
4
(diff temp.) (aq) ZnSO
4
(aq) + H
2
(g)
Higher temp. > higher RoR

(4) Pressure (only for reactions that involve gases)
N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g) NH
3
(g) ------ Haber process
Higher pressure > higher RoR

(5) Presence of catalysts
Catalyst = Substance that changes the __________________ but is
itself chemically Press/ure (for reactions involving gases)
Positive catalyst : ( ) RoR ; Negative catalyst ( ) RoR
2H
2
O
2
(aq) 2H
2
O (l) + O
2
(g)
With catalyst, reaction that occurs slowly > vigorous effervescence
Characteristics of catalysts
*_________ amount is required
*highly _________
*changes RoR ; does not change _________ of chemical reaction
*remain chemically _________ after the reaction
*physical appearance may change
*with poison, effectiveness decreased
*with promoter, increase reactivity and effectiveness
*some catalysts can catalyse several chemical reactions
Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

1.2.2 Applications of factors that affect rates of reaction
1. Combustion of charcoal
Combustion of charcoal = reaction of charcoal in excess oxygen to
produce carbon dioxide andn water
Heat energy is released during combustion >>
Large pieces, _______ TSA, _______ RoR, charcoal will not burn easily
Small pieces, _______ TSA exposed to air, RoR with oxygen _______

2. Storing food in refrigerators
Decomposition (decaying) of food = action of microorganisms
Room temp. = optimum temp for breeding of microorganisms
Food turns bad quickly at room temp.
At low temp, activities of bacteria are slowed down.
Food lasts longer, slow down rate of decaying reaction.

3. Cooking food in pressure cookers
Pressure cooker speeds up cooking
Higher pressure > water / oil boils at temp. higher than normal b.p.

4. Uses of catalysts in industry
Speed up RoR, same amount of products can be obtained in shorter time
Lower cost of production
Use small pellets of solid catalyst > larger TSA for catalytic reaction
Haber process : ammonia
Contact process : sulphuric acid
Ostwald process: nitric acid


Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

1.3 The Collision Theory
1. Kinetic theory of matter



All matter is made up of _________ , _________ particles
Particles are continually moving, have _______________

2. Collision theory


For a chemical reaction to occur, the reacting particles must:
*_________ with each other so that the breaking and formation of
chemical bonds can occur
*possess energy that is equal to, or more than the minimum energy
(__________________)
*collide in __________________
__________________ : collisions that are successful in producing a
chemical reaction (particles react to form new products)
__________________ : collisions that are unsuccessful in
producing a chemical reaction (particles collide but bounced back
without any changes)
Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

3. Activation energy

E
a
: __________________
H : __________________
__________________: minimum energy that the reactant particles
must possess during collisions for a chemical reaction to occur
*can be considered as __________________ that must be overcome
by the colliding particles to form product molecules
__________________ : reaction that absorbs heat
__________________ : reaction that releases heat

4. Correct orientation

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Relating the frequenct of effective collisions with factors influencing the
R.o.R

Collision theory two important factors that determine the RoR :
- Frequency of effective collisions
- Magnitude of activation energy

(1) Surface area
Smaller particle size = greater TSA exposed for reaction to occur
Frequency of collision > frequency of effective collision > RoR

(2) Concentration
Higher concentration = higher no. of particles per unit volume
Frequency of collision > frequency of effective collision > RoR

(3) Temperature
Increase temp. > particles absorb heat energy >
Kinetic energy of particles increase, thus
*reacting particles move faster
*the no. of reacting particles with the activation energy required for
the reaction increases
Frequency of collision > frequency of effective collision > RoR
Approximately, RoR doubles when temp. increases by 10
o
C

(4) Pressure
High pressure = smaller volume of gas
Gaseous molecules are packed closer >
higher no. of gaseous molecus per unit volume
Frequency of collision > frequency of effective collision > RoR

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction


(5) Catalyst
Chemical reaction = reactant particles collide with one another
With catalyst, reactant particles collide with catalyst and also with each
other
E
a
can be increased or decreased based on type of catalyst used
Thus, catalyst provide an ___________________________ for the
reaction to occur
Positive catalyst provide alternative route with _________ activation
energy
Thus, more reacting particles possess __________________ required for
the reaction
More reacting particles can overcome the lower E
a
required for effective
collisions
E
a
> frequency of effective collision > RoR

1.4 Practicing Scientific Knowledge to Enhance Quality of Life
1. Air bag nitrogen gas is released rapidly to expand the air bag
2. Machines speed up or slow down (microwave ovens & refrigerators)
3. Oxygen tents high conc. Of oxygen helps patients to breathe normally
4. Enzymes (biological catalysts) catalyse complex biochemical reactions
5. Overcome pollutions, food shortages, diseases