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Interpretation and Communication of Findings

Aysha Sulaiman Bajabaa
FSHS 908
Kansas State University
Spring, 2014



This study is guided by the research question: How kids identify the concept of peace,
and the findings from the seven interview transcripts that were analyzed, showed that there are
eight main themes identify kids concept of peace. This discussion process involves generating
the central story line that will provide insight into the phenomena at hand in a way that is engage
concise, and reflective of the key aspects of the experience being studied (Daly, 2007, p. 239).
Based on the eight themes, kids perception of peace was developed through learning and their
imagination about peace that reflected the environment around them (peace image). The
developed perception of peace strongly influenced kids attitude toward peace and their
understanding about its importance, which increase their awareness about the roles they can play
in supporting peace and the actions that help in achieving or ending peace.


Findings and Discussion
Peace image. As the childrens drawing tells a lot about their feelings, relationships
they have with people around, self-esteem, and intellectual problems (Best Kiddy, 2013, para
1), nowadays psychologists apply art-therapy as one of the best ways to determine the most
important characteristics about the kids they work with (Best Kiddy, 2013, para 2). Kids
drawings about peace reflected their imagination about peace based on their environment and
interaction with others in their daily life. One of participants indicated to location dimension
(America, all the world), different images (categories) of peace as revealed the peace image as
better relationship between people, help each other, happiness feeling, absence of war, having
fun, unity of people. Interviewee #5 (14 years /Male) expressed his view about peace as absence
of ware. As he said:
This represents (?) of those who died (?) and this represents the parties settling their
differences. This represents celebrations of people that the war is over.
Interviewee# 7 (13 years /Female) expressed her imagination of peace as no race differences, she
some people that are white are friends with some people that are black and the world is a
better place and they just dont fight just because of some peoples land and everyones
nicer to each other and theres no difference in people.
More than one participants represented peace as having better relation or getting along with
other. Interviewee# 2 (12 years /Female) said:
A girls asking a boy to play. All getting along. No arguments.
Interview#1 (15 years /Male) titled his drawing as The peace in America or the peace in the
world, whatever and he said:
These two right here [with speech bubble] are talking. And theyre saying, like, hi, my
name is and hi, my name is How are they feeling? Happy and joyful and not
warlike, and having fun. And this girl [right-hand side] is just standing there. Well, shes
waiting for her friend to come. Her friends at home. Well, on her way. And


Learning about peace. Participants sources for learning about peace included school
(books, teacher, and social studies book), news, family, past war, and conversation with parents.
Interviewees# (2,3,5,6&7) shared in school as a source, while interviewees# (5,6) added
conversation with parents as other source. However participant#1 didnt mention any source of
learning about peace. This indicates that while school plays role in increasing kids awareness
about peace, parents role in improving kids knowledge toward peace is more important. As I
realized from the role of those kids who mentioned having conversation with parents as will be
mentioned latter. Interviewee# 5 mentioned his learning about peace from school and direct
conversation with parents
Peace was a concept that I learned from my parents and through school.
And added:
.Yes, anytime something came up about war. Something endangering in the world we
talked about how to cherish what peace there is in the world. They said to cherish what
peace there is in the world and hope that people can get over their differences.
Interviewee# 6 mentioned her learning about peace from school and parents but she didnt have a
direct conversation:
Probably from school and a social studies book or something. Or like news and from my
parents I guess.
I dont think so because I think I already basically might have known what it was
and I just didnt really need to know too much about it. I just had some questions about
war and stuff.
Perception. Kids expressed their perception about peace through eight categories
including: be nice with others, better life, fighting is bad, get along with other, no difference
between people, no fighting, peace is a need, and positive feeling. From their responses, kids
have high recognition about peace as they perceived it beyond the absence of war and fighting to
be a need that is required for living together in a united community through building nice

relationship with other and having positive feeling moments like happiness, harmony, joyful, and
love. For example, Interviewee# 7 stated:
Its about being nice to each other and not fighting
And added:
It doesnt matter who you are or which family youre from

Interviewee# 6 stated:
just happy that there is peace
Interviewee# 4 mentioned:
First of all it is the opposite of war and theyre happy and they dont have like any issues
going on and theyre just normal and friendly. I would say thatI would sayYeah, I
would say peace is the opposite of war if you know what that was and that its when people
are happy and they get along together well.
Interviewee#1 briefly mentioned:
Just everybody getting along and having a good time

It is obvious there is a relationship between source of learning about peace, peace image, and
kids perception of peace. For example, interviewee# 1 didnt mention any source of learning
about peace neither having a conversation with parents nor learning from school and when he
was asked about why there is peace? He said How should I know? Im 15, and when he was
asked about what happen in peace? He replied Thats a tough one, which shows a very
shallow understanding peace. Also, his peace image was:
These two right here [with speech bubble] are talking. And theyre saying, like, hi, my
name is and hi, my name is Happy and joyful and not warlike, and having fun. And
this girl [right-hand side] is just standing there. Well, shes waiting for her friend to
come. Her friends at home.
His perception about peace was also very narrow, which agrees with his peace image mentioned

Its good. Its peaceful. Theres no fighting. Peace peace doesnt really count.
Harmony. Just everybody getting along and having a good time. Well, they dont have
to have a good time to be in peace, do they?
On the other hand, interviewees# 5 and 6 who had school as source to learn about peace, they
showed strong and thoughtful perception about peace which is also influenced by direct
conversation with parents and other sources. They also had a high awareness about peace in their
daily life as showed in their peace image. They mentioned their perception of peace as follows:
Interviewee# 5:
a time of not war
Interviewee# 6:
It is good for people and we need it. Some people know that war and fighting is bad. It
shows people happiness
I felt that when he said it is a time reflects strong feeling, which indicts to a great awareness
about making peace immediately in peoples life. Similarly, interviewee# 6 showed a thoughtful
perception about peace as she indicated to peace as a need not a pleasure we need it and
provided reasons for this need good for people war and fighting is badIt shows people
Attitude. In this theme, I found kids have positive and negative attitudes toward peace.
Positive attitudes includes (everybody knows is right, fighting against war, helps each other,
love each other, punish who start war, stupid to want war, support peace group, everybody
involve), while negative attitudes include (not involved with peace group, difficult to make
peace). This results showed that there were disagreement between kids attitude toward peace.
While interviewees# 1,2 & 4 had some positive attitude toward peace, they indicated not to be
involved with peace group.
Interviewee# 1 mentioned participation in peace group as:

Waste of my time
Interviewee# 2 replied as:
No, its just not me
Interviewee# 4 gave more explanation:
No. II wouldnt want to be involved in a peace group. I probably like to be involved
in an argument group. Trying to prove to people my point. Thats what I would like to
Their responses indicate that they have a misconception in the role of peace group. This might be
referred to their lack of knowledge of peace, especially all of them mentioned that they did not
have any conversation with their parents about peace.
Kids showed their highly positive attitude through actions, such as fighting against war,
punching who starts war, and helping people through involving in peace group. For example,
interviewee# 6 mentioned his involvement with peace group as:
Yeah.I would probably want to fight against war and stop it

Interviewee# 5 asserted that:
It would help people, I like to help people, it is something that I like to do

Interviewee# 7 added:
I would actually get whoever started it [war]

Inteviwee#5 emphasized that everybody should involve in making war:
Everybody, anybody who has heard about a war

Importance of peace. Findings from the analysis showed that kids mentioned various
categories focusing on having better community (community level importance) through nice
relationship where people have caring, forgiveness, happiness, and love (individual level
importance). Some participants had a wider view of the importance of peace to make the world a
better place (global level importance) where people live in unity with less worry and their life is

safe since violence and killing are absent. The main categories under this theme include: better
life, love, forgiveness, happiness, kinder, respect each other, unity, better world, caring about
other, get a long together, no reason for fight, save peoples life, less worry, change to better.
Interviewee#5 stated:
you dont worry about what it going to happen, about if you are going to die the next day
or what evil things might happen, because people are not dying in mass loads.., and
theres more thoughtfulness for other people
Interviewee#4 said:
People become happy. Theythey like thetheir like friends and they like their
neighbors and that kind of stuff

Interviewee#6 mentioned:
I guess that it shows people happiness and unity and that I dont think there is fighting
because peace is basically the opposite of fighting I think. Its just a good time I guess

Interviewee#2 stated:
So there wont be people going around shooting people
Kids role. Based on their perception of peace and understanding of its importance in
addition to the positive attitudes they showed, kids suggested very practical and action oriented
roles they could do in supporting peace. Showing high awareness and perception of peace that
resulted from knowledge built through helpful sources are reflected in having positive attitudes
toward peace and deep understanding of its importance not only in kids communities but for the
whole world. Therefore, it is not surprised to hear thoughtful role from kids to make peace in
their life. For example, the most thoughtful ideas in kids role came from the kids who had
strong perception and conversations with parents in addition to other sources of learning about
peace (interviewees# 5&6). Several categories under this theme were emerged including: be
example for other generation, being friends, teach others about peace, talk to people, do
volunteer, dont start fight, helps other, understanding each other, provide ideas to solve

Interviewee# 5 mentioned a very thoughtful role by being example for future generations:
Setting an example for future generations
Interviewee# 6 also mentioned a very powerful idea by emphasizing the need for planning for
peace not on the local level but in the world:
We should have plans for peace in the world. They can just do volunteer work or and
make their country a better place. Talk it out

Many kids mentioned talking to others including talking to people with authorities. For example,
Interviewee# 2, asserted talking to congress:
Id talk to Congress
How peace can be achieved. The data analysis revealed several views that could help in
achieving peace. These views can be clustered under three main ideas. First, idea focuses on
building good relations with others (be fair, being friends, decrease differences). This requires
having guiding skills (talk first, talk with people, start thinking in the right way, say nice word,
open minded, learn to like each other, reaction to good action, being model for children).
Finally, several actions can be clustered as wise actions to achieve peace in the case of war either
by avoiding fight from the beginning or establishing laws against violence group to stop war
(Avoid war, prevention fighting, stop war, not to start war, no person/group control the world,
make sure before war, , laws against violence group). For example:
Interviewee#6 stated:

I would try and be fair about different things to keep the peace. It can be when somebody
just saying a couple nice words to somebody else. I would outlaw war or something.

Interviewee#5 said:
Try to organize a ceasefire and peace talks with people and try to make laws against
countries going into taking over or groups of people just creating random violence

Interviewee#2 mentioned:
Instead of arguing they can learn to like each other
Interviewee#7 replayed to solve problem other than war:
Yeah. They could first talk and then go bomb everywhere when no one agreed with no
Ending Peace. The analysis findings indicated that there are two diminutions for kids
perspectives in ending peace. As some of them focused on ending peace within personal and
community (micro) level through weak relationship and arguing (Weak relationship, arguing).
Other participants viewed ending peace at macro level through establishing war (change leader,
killing others, start war). For example,
Interview#1 said:
When people dont get along and when they want to kill each other and stuff like that. Or
something not so bad as that
Interview#7 stated:
Afterafter like when another fight starts just because of nothing.

Based on grounded theory analysis, findings from this study found that kids built their
concept of peace through different dimensions starting by kids perception of peace that was
affected by their learning and imagination about peace. Kids perception and learning influenced
their attitude toward peace, their understanding of its importance and consequently shaped their
views in what roles they can play to support peace and actions can be taken to achieve peace or
actions that could hinder it. Kids responses throughout the various dimensions of peace concept
varied based on how each one look at these dimensions as some of them considered the local

level through relations with friends or the whole community members including people from
different cultures, while others looked at it within a wider vision to include the whole world
focusing on peace as opposite of war. In general, I found that kids environment, which appeared
in their peace image, and sources of learning about peace, especially direct conversation with
parents were important factors that provided them with a clear vision about peace and helped
them to show strong attitudes and roles in achieving peace without resorting to war.
What I learned?
It was a long road to reach communication of findings, which focuses on telling story that
I explored from the data analysis. I learned that although this step comes at the end of inquiry
process, it should start with the initial steps of data gathering and analysis because it isnt a
listing of main themes, rather it is a story telling that needs continuous efforts to decide what
parts of data should be included and what others should be excluded to form the final theoretical
explanation of the phenomena (Daly, 2007) . I found that there is overlap between axial coding
and selective coding in shaping the final phenomena through explaining the relationship, process,
and experiences with keeping participants perspectives (Scott & Howell, 2008). I benefited from
the codebook I created during the analysis stage to find and describe the central phenomena
through establishing relationships between themes. I also learned that the selective coding
requires a deeper thinking to refine, order, and relate themes with each other (Daly, 2007; Scott
& Howell, 2008). Writing memos was a very useful way to record my thoughts during the data
analysis process, which I utilized in communication findings, especially in making connections
between categories and themes, interpreting and comparing participants thought, and finding
unstated meaning (Charmaz, 2006; Daly, 2007). As a visual person, other technique I used is a
visual representation diagram to structure the phenomena under study. This diagram helped me

in the theoretical explanations of the story by focusing on the central phenomena and how
different themes can be interconnected (Scott & Howell, 2008). One very important technique I
used and helped me be focused during my analysis and interoperation is keeping the research
question in my mind and trying to relate any thought to it. I highly appreciate the resources of
readings that were given to us as I found them very helpful every time I need to learn more and
widen my understanding about specific issues I faced during the whole process.


Best Kiddy. (2013). Tips on analyzing your childrens drawings. Retrieved 4/27, 2014, Retrieved
from http://www.bestkiddy.com/children-drawing/
Charmaz, K. (2006). Memo-writing. Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through
qualitative analysis (pp. 72-95). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Daly, K. J. (2007). Analytical strategies. Qualitative methods for family studies and human
development (pp. 209-241). Los Angeles: CA: Sage.
Scott, W. K., & Howell, D. (2008). Clarifying analysis and interpretation in grounded
theory: Using a conditional relationship guide and reflective coding matrix. International
Journal of Qualitative Methods, 7(2), 1-15.