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Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go

National History Day


May 15, 2014
Annotated Bibliography

PRIMARY SOURCES
"Hiroshima until the Atomic Bomb." Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 07
Mar. 2014.
This paragraph offers me an explanation about what happened before the atomic bombing
that made a great impact in the history. This paragraph helps me understand the qualities
or the amazing things about Japan that time. It makes me like going back in time.
"Hiroshima Becomes a City." Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar.
2014.
This explanation talks to me about how Japans a fast developing country with a lot of
people in it. An inside scoop into an effective city system where the fiefdoms rice
warehouse had stood.
"The Fifth Division." Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2014.
An inside scoop into the preparation of war, with amazing armies, cavalries and a place
where trained soldiers are made. Well-trained soldiers that were prepared for a war that
was about to happen.
"The Ujina Army Transport Division." Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web.
8 Mar. 2014.
A division managed warehouses, docking facilities, and the Kanawajima Factory (for
shipbuilding and repair). It was responsible for the shipping of troops and military
provisions. It changes it names many times and finally ends with Army Transport
Division.
"Fifth Division Sent to Siberia." Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
Japan joined the United States and other nations in sending soldiers to Siberia.
Approximately one year after the first soldiers were dispatched in August 1918, the Fifth
Division left Ujina Port to serve in Baikal Province.
"The Ninoshima Quarantine." Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
The Ninoshima Quarantine was established to quarantine soldiers returning with
infectious diseases from the Sino-Japanese War.
"Hiroshima in the Showa Period and During the War." Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Following military orders, many Hiroshima factories shifted from consumer to military
production. Life grew increasingly austere, and many civilians were mobilized to serve at
the front or in military factories.
Manhattan Project. Atomic Bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. N.p., n.d. Web. 25
Apr. 2014. <http.//titlexp.weebly.com/manhattan-project.html>.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
A secretly developed project which aim to research and create Atomic Weapon was
approved by President Roosevelt in December 1941 (McBride).
Little Boy. Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2014
<http://titlexp.weebly.com/little-boy.html>
First nuclear weapon to be deployed in warfare. Little boy's destructive power is
approximately equivalent to 13-18 kilotons of TNT. Also the Enola Gay, an American B-
29 Super-fortress bomber nicknamed Enola Gay (named after the pilot's mother, Paul
Tibbets) were ordered to drop the "Little Boy" atomic bomb on Hiroshima by August 6,
1945 (Cheeks).

Fat Man. Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2014
<http://titlexp.weebly.com/fat-man.html>
Second nuclear weapon to be deployed in warfare. Compare to "Little Boy", "Fat Man"
has a stronger destructive power of 21 kilotons of TNT. Also the B-29 Fortress Bomber
named Bock's car which were ordered to drop "Fat Man" atomic bomb on Kokura in
August 9, 1945.
"Why Did the U.S. Develop the Bomb?."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web.
8 Mar. 2014.
In May 1943, the U.S. was planning to use the bomb not on Germany but Japan. The
following September, the U.S. and British leaders agreed to use the bomb against Japan.
After spring 1945, with Japan in an extremely weak position, the United States was
considering the following ways of bringing the long war to an end.
Outbreak of the Pacific War."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
In December 1941, Japan launched the Pacific War with an invasion of the Malay
Peninsula and a surprise attack on the U.S. military bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
Why Did the U.S. Decide to Drop the bomb on
Japan?."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Soviet Decision to Enter the War Against Japan."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
In February 1945, the leaders of the U.S., Great Britain, and the Soviet Union attended
the Yalta Conference.
Other Reasons for Dropping the Bomb."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d.
Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
After Germany's surrender, tension mounted between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
regarding the disposition of postwar Europe.
Why Was the Bomb Dropped on Hiroshima?."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
The U.S. began in spring 1945 studying targets for the atomic bomb. To ensure that the
effects of the atomic bombing.
Careful Consideration of Target."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8
Mar. 2014.
The Target Committee, comprised of military personnel and scientists, evaluated
potential targets from a military standpoint.
Air Raids against Target Cities Prohibited."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d.
Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
The U.S army bombed Tokyo around the year 1944 November. The US didnt only bomb
Tokyo but other major cities too in located in Japan. March the following year. On May
28, 1945, with other cities of equal size being bombed, air raids were prohibited in cities
selected.
Decision to Bomb without Warning."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8
Mar. 2014.
The U.S army decided to bomb Japan. By the approval of the U.S president, Truman, U.S
planned to bomb Japan with the atomic bomb. At May 1945, and at a meeting in June, the
Committee decided to bomb Japan without any warning, they decided to use the atomic
bomb against Japan, in the war.
Dropping Dummy A-Bombs."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
U.S army must have a different method if they wanted to bomb Japan with the A-bombs.
The U.S army trained in the desert and to make the training realistic they used
pumpkins and dropped them to some Japanese cities in July and early August. And
killing/injuring more than 1600 people
Hiroshima Chosen as First Target."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8
Mar. 2014.
The U.S army had 4-5 cities to bomb, and the first city that they planned to bomb was
Hiroshima because they had the Allied prisoner of-the-war camp. They decided to bomb
Japan on August 6. They had Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata or Nagasaki, but Niigata was
out of the list and Nagasaki was up next.
Good Weather Sealed Hiroshimas Fate.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d.
Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
The bombardier was ordered to conduct a visual bombing, the most reliable method at the
time. Before dawn on August 6, weather reconnaissance planes took off for Hiroshima,
Kokura, and Nagasaki from Tinian. The Enola Gay had the Atomic bombs, the second
bomber carrying observation equipment and the third with photographic equipments. At
8:15 a.m. the bombs were dropped.
Hiroshima in Ruins.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.)
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
After the bomb, everything was a mess. A bewildered site-with victim all around
different places. An instant of white heat, a powerful blast, and fire runs through the city.
Then, black rain pounds the fleeing, bewildered victims.
Japans Surrender.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
After the great bomb, Hiroshima and other places around the bombing site had a great
loss. Not wanting to lose anymore things, Japan finally made a decision to surrender. The
long war was finally over.
Hiroshima immediately after the A-bombing (1).Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
The city struggled a lot to gather enough manpower to dispose of the corpses, but many
remained in view.
Hiroshima immediately after the A-bombing (2).Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Doctors and nurses did all they could to provide treatment at hospitals and first-aid
centers, but medical supplies were in critically short supply.
Hiroshima immediately after the A-bombing (3).Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Several days after the A-bombing, thousands of children could be seen wandering alone
or in groups through the burnt ruins of the city.
Hiroshima immediately after the A-bombing (4).Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
At noon on August 15, 1945, those who had survived the war heard the Emperor's voice
on the radio. "...the enemy used a cruel new bomb..." Japan had surrendered
unconditionally to the Allied forces.
Radiation Investigations.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
From this evidence, the Japanese government deduced that the new bomb was atomic. On
or about August 8, a Japanese study team discovered that film in the X-ray room of the
Japan Red Cross Hospital had been exposed.
Signs of sruvival.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.)
Those who survived called the A-bomb pika-don. Pika referred to the flash of light. Don
was an onomatopoeic reference to the tremendous sound.
Truth of the A-Bomb.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
A verse from a short story by Tamiki Hara (1905-1951), writer and A-bomb survivor.
This is a human being?
Look how the atom bomb changed it.
Flesh swells fearfully.
All men and women lake one shape.

Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
First News Reports.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014
News reports were finally out. Although paper shortages during that period limited
newspapers to two pages, the August 7 announcement from the Imperial Headquarters
that Hiroshima had been attacked with a new kind of bomb was headlined in extra-large
print on August 8.
War, the A-bomb, and people.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
Hiroshima was an increasingly military city, deeply involved in the war effort. When the
American military dropped an atomic bomb on that city, not only did it lose all military
functions, it lost its entire urban infrastructure.
Recovery from Chaos.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.)
Hiroshima was destroyed by one atomic bomb, and there were rumors that plants and
trees would grow no more for 75 years or more. And recovery was impossible. There
were still survivors, and they lived but anxiously, and recovered but not fully. Some
survivors health was still in a bad shape but still could live.
Housing After the Bomb.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
After the bombing ended, people struggle to live a normal life with broken down
buildings everywhere. But still try rebuilding some of the buildings. So some of the
survivors lived in temporary houses.
The Bustling Black Market.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
After the war, there were black markets around Hiroshima/Japan. Though the
unauthorized sale of controlled substances was still forbidden, the end of the war saw
black markets springing up in front of Hiroshima Station and at major. A lot of people
were there trying to find food, clothing and other supplies.
A-Bomb Orphans.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
After the whole bombing, 20,000 children survived but their parents could not survive the
bombing. Cause they were trying to save their children from the air raid. But the parents
died and the children became orphans. 2,000-6,500 wanted to care and live with them but
the lost of the parents would not go away easily.
ABCC.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014
The ABCC or the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission were studying the effects of the
A-bomb in the human body. The ABCC was located in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In
1975, Japan and the United States agreed to share equally the operation and management
of the facility. The commission was reorganized and renamed the Radiation Effects
Research Foundation (RERF).
The Press Code.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
After its defeat, Japan was occupied by the Allied forces for approximately six years and
eight months. Hiroshima was placed under the governance of the British Commonwealth
forces. Occupation policies included a press code established in September 1945 that
provided for strict censorship of published and broadcast reporting. The Japanese people
only very slowly came to understand the devastation that had occurred and the
implications of atomic weapons.
-Air Classroom.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014
In Japan, people could see teachers and students studying diligently in the sun with desks,
chairs and straw mats that survived after the A-bomb. Open air classroom were really
common after the A-bomb.
Severe Housing Storage.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014
A lot of Hiroshima residents lost their homes. The rivers were washed away in the
Makurazaki Typhoon that fall. was decided that an area called Motomachi, formerly used
by the military, would become the site of ten long housing complexes designed to
provide temporary winter housing and transitional homes for returnees.
The First Peace Restoration Festival.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8
Mar. 2014
On August 5, 1946, led by the Federation of Neighborhood Associations with the support
of various civic groups, a Peace Restoration Festival was held on the grounds of what had
been Gokoku Shrine. "World Peace Begins in Hiroshima" was their slogan.
Recovery Downtown.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014
After the bombing, there were good signs of recovery to the city. Concrete, rocks, broken
pieces were all cleaned up and that time, everything was repairing.
A-Bomb Damage Continue.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
The damage to the human bodies done by the A-Bombs was still continuing. Japanese
research on A-bomb-related diseases was prohibited during the occupation but gradually
preceded after the country regained independence.
America Occupation of 1945-1952. Atomic Bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2014 <http://titlexp.weebly.com/american-occupation-of-1945-
1952.html>.
After the Japanese had accepted the declaration of Potsdam in August 14, 1945 the US
send Commander Douglas MacArthur to disarm the Japanese forces and prevent
any further weaponry production.
Post Atomic Bombing Frustration. Atomic Bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2014 <http://titlexp.weebly.com/post-Atomic-bombing-
frustration.html>.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
After the first atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, USA then bomb Hiroshima
again to make Japan surrender. Just like what Declaration of Potsdam had stated.
However, the Allied will only accept the unconditionally surrender. Three days after the
bombing on Hiroshima America dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Pressuring
the Emperor Hirohito to unconditionally surrender
Hiroshima Reborn.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Despite tremendous obstacles, efforts to rebuild lives and restore the city continued.
Encouragement came from overseas and from elsewhere in Japan. In 1949 a major step
was taken with the passage of the 'Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Reconstruction Law'.
The Peace Memorial City Reconstruction Law.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Restoration projects were often delayed by financial difficulties. The collective wisdom
of the people involved in these projects culminated in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial
City Reconstruction Law. This law resulted from the first referendum ever held in Japan.
Support from Overseas.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Hiroshima's recovery was aided by a great deal of assistance from overseas. For example,
in 1952 funds from the Hiroshima Prefecture Association of California helped build a
Children's Library shaped like a circular mushroom in Motomachi.
Hiroshima Restoration Exposition. Lets Look at the Displays. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 May
2014. < http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/frame/vist_fr1-
2.html>.
The first main roads and parks revealed the plan to reorganize Hiroshima on a grid of city
blocks. When the city's population and industry finally surpassed prewar levels in April
1958, Hiroshima held a restoration exposition.
"Nuclear Age." Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fvirtual%2FVirtualMuseum_e%2Fvisit
_e%2Fest_e%2Fpanel%2FA5%2F5001.htm>.)
The dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki ushered the world into the
nuclear age. With the appearance of nuclear weapons, humanity stands poised on the
brink of annihilation.
"Nuclear Weapons." Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fvirtual%2FVirtualMuseum_e%2Fvisit
_e%2Fest_e%2Fpanel%2FA5%2F5101.htm>.
Nuclear weapons are broadly divided into the device that triggers a nuclear explosion and
the part that carries the nuclear warhead. (The nuclear explosive device attached to the
missile or other delivery mechanism is typically called a "nuclear warhead.")
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
Evolution of Explosive Nuclear Devices. Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A5/5103.
htm>.
For a while after the end of World War II, only the US possessed atomic bombs.
However, the Soviet Union carried out a successful atomic bomb test in 1949. Around
1950, the US and the Soviet Union launched a race to see who could own the biggest
nuclear weapons.
"Evolution of Delivery Technologies." Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A5/5103.
htm>.
ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) were developed in the latter part of the 1950s.
The evolution of the technology for the delivery mechanisms known as missiles enabled
nuclear warheads to be carried longer distances with greater accuracy.
"Balance of Terror." Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A5/5104.
htm>.
The Soviet Union's successful atomic bomb test in 1949 signaled the end of the nuclear
monopoly, in which only the US possessed atomic bombs. President Truman ordered
development of the more destructive hydrogen bomb, and the US and the Soviet Union
began their extended arms race.
Balance of Terror 2." Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A5/5104_
2.htm>.
Because they each feared that the other possessed more powerful nuclear weapons than
their own, the US and the Soviet Union deployed nuclear weapons all around the world.
The plan during this period was for airplanes to carry the weapons to the target and drop
them.
"Balance of Terror 3." Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A5/5104_
3.htm>.
In military conflicts (including minor ones) with the potential of developing into nuclear
war, to prevent an unauthorized attack by chance or due to a mistake by someone in the
front-line command, a control system was put in place.
"Continuing A-bomb Damage." Nuclear Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A5/5105.
htm>.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
From creation to dismantling, a nuclear weapon emits radioactive contamination at every
stage. Massive contamination is reported at uranium mines, where the raw material is
harvested.
"Walking Toward Peace." Walking Toward Peace. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A6/6001.
htm >.
The damage done by the atomic bomb was just too terrible, giving rise to the deeply
rooted belief that nuclear weapons and humankind cannot coexist indefinitely. The idea
was, A-bomb's not allowed.
"The Prayer of Hiroshima." Walking Toward Peace. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A6/6101.
htm>.
Hibakusha say simply, "I met with the A-bomb." Perhaps they use this expression
because the event they "met with" defies description-an instant of massive destruction,
mind-numbing death and injury, and the grief of watching helplessly as family members,
relatives, friends, and neighbors died in agony.
"The Peace Memorial Ceremony and the Peace Declaration." Walking Toward Peace.
N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/panel/A6/6102.
htm>.
Each August 6, people gather to pray for the peaceful repose of the A-bomb victims, the
abolition of nuclear weapons, and the advent of peace. The Peace Memorial Ceremony is
held in front of the Cenotaph for the A-bomb Victims (Memorial Monument for
Hiroshima, City of Peace), and the mayor of Hiroshima delivers his Peace Declaration to
the world.
Dedication of the Register of the A-bomb Victims". Walking Toward Peace. N.p., n.d.
Web. 11 Apr. 2014. <http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/declaration/English/index.html>.
After the ceremony, the Register of the A-bomb Victims, containing new names of
victims whose deaths from the bomb have been confirmed during that particular year, is
returned to the stone coffin in the middle of the cenotaph.
National Movements to Ban A- and H-bombs. Protesting Nuclear Weapons Testing.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
When fallout contaminated the Fukuryu-maru No. 5 in the sea near the Bikini Atoll
(1954), a campaign to ban A- and H-bombs quickly spread from Hiroshima and Nagasaki
to all regions of Japan.
Protesting Nuclear Weapons Testing.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web.
8 Mar. 2014.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
Each time a nuclear test is carried out, the Hiroshima city government protests to the
government that conducted the test.
Nobuko Ohshitas Summer Uniform. Look At The Exhibits-The Main Exhibits. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 11 May 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/vit_ex_e/vit_ex1_e.ht
ml>)
Nobuko Oshita (then 13) was a first-year student at First Hiroshima Prefectual Girls High
School. She was exposed to the bomb at her building demolition work site and fled to
Koi.
Shigerus Lunchbox. Look At The Exhibits-The Main Exhibits. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May
2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/vit_ex_e/vit_ex4_e.ht
ml>.
Shigeru Orimen was a first-year student at Second Hiroshima Prefectural Junior High
School. He was exposed to the bomb at his building demolition work site at Nakajima-
shin-machi. His mother Shigeko searched for him desperately through the devastated
city, but failed to find him.
Geta (wooden clogs) that belonged
to first-year student Miyoko Look At The Exhibits-The Main Exhibits. N.p., n.d. Web. 11
May 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/vit_ex_e/vit_ex5_e.ht
ml>.
Miyoko (then, 13) was a first-year student at First Municipal Girls High School. She was
exposed to the bomb at her building demolition work site. Her body was never found, but
her mother found this wooden sandal three months later.
Belongings of Three Municipal Junior High School Students Look At The Exhibits-The
Main Exhibits. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May
2014.<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/frame/Virtual_e/visit_e/west.html>.
First and second-year students at Municipal Junior High School were exposed to the
bomb at their demolition work site in Koami-cho. Most of them died.
At the Peace Memorial Museum the clothes worn by three young victims are displayed as
a single unit.
The Atom Bomb: The End of World War II. The War: Nebraska Stories. N.p., n.d.
Web. 15 May 2014. < http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0800/frameset.html>.
Photographs taken with everyone being happy because the World War II has ended.
Everyone seemed joyful and thankful. Together they all celebrated the end of World War
II.
The Atom Bomb: Japan Surrenders The War: Nebraska Stories. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May
2014. < http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0800/frameset.html >.
Pictures photographed after Japan surrenders. We can see letters being signed, airplanes on the air
and mostly a lot of mess after the huge atomic bomb.
Omaha Morning World Herald. The Atom Bomb: The End of the War. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May
2014.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
Another primary source shown by the Omaha Newspaper. With the headline Nation
Celebrates End of the War; Today, Thursday Named holidays.
Schuyler Sun. The Atom Bomb: The End of the War. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.
Also a primary source published in the media of newspaper. With The headline War Ends;
Japanese Surrender. We think this kind of primary source is very halp, because we can use it as
evidence.
SECONDARY SOURCES
Letter of protesting. http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Based on the letter given by the governor, Matsui Kazumi and addressed to Mr. Barack
Obama, US president, on July 20, 2011, the letter was written about how the Japanese
helped people around the world and also US. Now the Japanese ask that US need or at
least try to stop nuclear weapons, or nuclear testing.
Mayor for Peace. Protesting Nuclear Weapons Testing. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
In the effort to bring about the abolition of nuclear weapons and the advent of world
peace, the mayor of Hiroshima started the World Conference of Mayors for Peace
through Inter-city Solidarity in 1982.
Overseas Exhibits of A-bomb Artifacts.Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d.
Web. 8 Mar. 2014.)
Artifacts from the atomic bombing lent to other countries are exhibited widely. Since
1983, artifacts have been displayed in the lobby of the United Nations headquarters in
New York City, where people gather from all over the world.
International Cooperation to Treat Hibakusha. Lets Looak at the Displays. N.p., n.d.
Web. 09 May 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/VirtualMuseum_e/frame/vist_fr12.html>.
In the spring of 1986, one of the largest nuclear power plant accidents in history occurred
in Chernobyl in the Soviet Union (now, Ukraine). Utilizing its experience in treating its
own hibakusha, Hiroshima began assisting the many Soviets exposed to radiation, and
initiated humanitarian aid and scientific exchange.
NGOs Active in the World."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
Roughly two million NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are said to be active
presently in human rights, peace, environmental, development, and various other issues.
"Continuing to Tell the Story."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
More than half a century after the bombing the survivors are aging, and we feel an
increasingly urgent need to pass on their A-bomb experiences to the young people who
will shoulder the next generation.
"Conveying the A-bomb Experience."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8
Mar. 2014.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
Some survivors of the A-bomb experience in Hiroshima have resolved to share their
experiences before, during, and after the A-bomb disaster with younger generations who
know nothing of war.
"Silent Witness."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.)
Forty years after the bombing, scarred A-bombed buildings began to disappear, needing
remodeling or replacement.
"The Worlds A-Bomb Dome."Http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
2014.
The A-bomb Dome is Hiroshima's symbol.
Its deterioration became marked around 1965, and some even demanded that it be
demolished.
Hibakusha Testimony VideosLets Looak at the Displays. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/VirtualMuseum_e/frame/vist_fr12.html>.
Hibakusha testimonies, coupled with photographs, memoirs and paintings, give a human
face to the tragedy of the A-bombing. Starting in 1986, the Hiroshima Peace Culture
Foundation initiated a project to record hibakusha giving testimonies on video.
Despictions of the Atomic Bombing Lets Look at the Displays. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May
2014. <http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/VirtualMuseum_e/frame/vist_fr12.html>.
Since directly after the bombing, the Hiroshima experience has spawned a great many
works that run the gamut of artistic pursuits: literature, film, music, theatre, and more.
These are inspired by a broad spectrum of experiences.
"Hiroshima Peace Memorial." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Feb. 2014. Web. 02
Apr. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiroshima_Peace_Memorial>.
Hiroshima Peace Memorial, commonly called the Atomic Bomb Dome or Genbaku
Dmu, in Hiroshima, Japan, is part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and was
designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996.
The Main Exhibits." Let's Look at the Displays. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/vist_fr_e.html>.
The area now known as Peace Memorial Park was previously an urban district called
Nakajima. During the Edo Era (1603-1868), it was a thriving commercial center where
goods coming up the rivers on boats were unloaded, then sold or sent elsewhere by land.
The main building displays A-bomb artifacts and materials designed to convey events
and conditions in Hiroshima specific to August 6, 1945.
You Decide: The Atom Bomb? N.d. The Fifties. Web. 25 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.learner.org/bibliographyofamerica/prog23/images/23_home_feature.jpg>.
A small picture but asks us a big question we need to rethink about. Should US really
drop the atomic bomb which killed many lives? Is President Trumans decision correct or
wrong?
World War II This Day In History. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014. <
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/atomic-bomb-is-dropped-on-hiroshima
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
>.
A look into the days being counted to the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and
other areas in Japan. Also the decision made and finally the end of world war II.
East Building. Lets Look at the Display. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2014.
<http%3A52F%2Fwww.
http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fframe%2FVirtual_e%2Fvisit_e%2Fest.html>.
The east building of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum shows 3 very important
buildings. The buildings were really damaged by the a-bombs attack.
Buildings Before and After the War. Lets look at the Displays-East Building. N.p., n.d. Web.
15 May 2014. <
http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/build/buildtop.html >.
It has been more than 400 years since a castle was built in Hiroshima. And there were towns
around the castle too.
Atomic Bomb Dome. Buildings Before and After the War. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr.
2014
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fvirtual%2FVirtualMuseum_e%2Fvisit
_e%2Fest_e%2Fbuild%2FA_dome.html%23>.
There was this building of a dome at the time of the A-bombs. It was built in 1915. It had
done really important roles too.

History of the Dome. Buildings Before and After the War. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2014
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fvirtual%2FVirtualMuseum_e%2Fvisit
_e%2Fest_e%2Fbuild%2FA_dome.html%23>.
A look into the history of the important building, The Atomic Bomb Dome. From April
1915 until May 1, 1989. A building which was used for trading, industry and also finally
fundraising to build it again, because it collapse, because of the atomic bomb.
Hiroshima City Hall. Building Before and After the War. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/build/cityhall.html>.
After the bombing the people gathered in front of the city hall not knowing what to do.
All the buildings were emptied for a fire lane so they all thought that it would be a safe
place, but the great fire spread before anyone could do anything. The city hall and the rest
of the city were on fire.
Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital. Building Before and After the War. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr.
2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/est_e/build/h_redcross.html>.
After the A-bomb, injured people trying to find for first-aid made their way to the
Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital, and later it turned into a relief station.
"Let's Look at the Special Exhibit." Let's Look at the Special Exhibit. N.p., n.d. Web. 13
Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/exhibit_e/exhi_fra_e.html>.
The books are really important and it is a good source of evidence. It explains a lot about
the time of the a-bomb attacks. It tells us some stories about how bad it was in Japan
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
when the U.S. attacked Japan with the a-bombs. Also what happened after the bombing?
Support from overseas, testimonies and many others. The books tell us a lot of useful and
good informations.
"A-Bomb Drawings by Survivors." Pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. Pcf.city.hiroshima.jp, n.d. Web.
6 Apr. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fframe%2FVirtual_e%2Fvisit_e%2Fw
est.html>.
Drawings by survivors who expressed sadness, scared, and other unbelievable things. A
scary yet beautiful and breathtaking picture.
"Charred Bodies of Mother and Child Lying in the Ruins of the Fire."A-Bomb Drawings
by Survivors. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/art_e/art01e.html>.
The bomb blast knocked the mother down, the child in her arms was thrown two meters
ahead and died.
"The Burned Skin on Both of This Man's Arms Was Peeling and Hanging." A-Bomb
Drawings by Survivors. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/art_e/art08e.html>.
The skin on both arms had peeled off and hung from his fingernails.
"The Enormous Pillar of Fire That Appeared after the Explosion of the Atomic Bomb."
A-Bomb Drawings by Survivors . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/art_e/art02e.html>.
As the tremendous pillar of fire whirled higher, the debris it sucked up sparkled in the
sunlight, at once horrifying and unspeakably beautiful.
"Many Who Entered the River to Escape the Fire Were Swept Away."A-Bomb Drawings
by Survivors.jp. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/art_e/art07e.html>.
A lot of people ran away from the fire to get to the riverbank. Unfortunately they ran out
of strength and jump to the river but they all were sinking down to the ground.
"As I Fearfully Crossed the Railroad Bridge, I Saw Red, Blue, Green, and Purple Corpses
Swollen Three or Four times Floating under It." A-Bomb Drawings by Survivors. N.p., n.d. Web.
6 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/visit_e/art_e/art10e.html>.
Drawing by Toshiko Kihara, a survivor who was in a group trying to evacuate from the
tremendous and unpredictable event that had just happened. Dead bodies were floating on
the sea, and the sight was nerve-racking.
1945." Exhibit Order. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fframe%2FVirtual_e%2Fvisit_e%2Fw
est.html>.
Day after day the Americans bombed the Japanese mainland. Hiroshima was the last
major city left untouched. Hiroshima was the political and economic heart of the
Chugoku Region and was a vital military base.
Gracia Gloria Irene, Kim Jeong Hwan, Jason Go
National History Day
May 15, 2014
"Damage by the Heat Rays." Exhibits Orders. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fframe%2FVirtual_e%2Fvisit_e%2Fw
est.html>.
Within 0.3 seconds the fireball high in the air grew to a diameter of more than 200
meters. The temperature reached 7,000 degrees Celsius. The big fireball made everyone
devastated when it reached the ground. Lots of people lost their family.
"The Fury of the Conflagration." Exhibits Orders. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/frame/Virtual_e/visit_e/west.html>.
When the atomic bomb broke out, houses at or near the hypocenter ignited all at once.
Flames leapt up quickly throughout the city. The rest of the day and into the night the city
burned as if to scorch the heavens.
"Damage by the Blast." Exhibits Orders. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/frame/Virtual_e/visit_e/west.html>.
The atomic explosion created a super-high pressure at the epicenter of several hundred
thousand atmospheres. The surrounding air expanded enormously, creating a tremendous
blast.
"Damage by Radiation." Exhibits Orders. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/frame/Virtual_e/visit_e/west.html>.
The defining characteristic of an atomic bomb that distinguishes it from any conventional
bomb is radiation, which greatly aggravated the damage to human bodies.
"Relief and Rescue Activities." Exhibit Order. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp%2Fvirtual%2FVirtualMuseum_e%2Fvisit
_e%2Fvist_fr_e.html>.
The atomic bomb destroyed the entire city. The prefectural government offices, City
Hall, the police stations, and all government buildings were destroyed, their functions
completely eliminated.