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Design & Detailing of Water

Retaining Structures
&
Precast Water Tank Floor
System
ESE
ESE
Tay
Tay
Ah
Ah
Ching
Ching
27 Feb 02
27 Feb 02
Contents

Introduction
Introduction

Design & Detailing Considerations


Design & Detailing Considerations

Types of Water Tanks, Usages & Design


Types of Water Tanks, Usages & Design
Guidelines
Guidelines

Erection of
Erection of
Precast
Precast
Ring Tank
Ring Tank

Design of Water Tank


Design of Water Tank

Ultimate Limit State Design
Ultimate Limit State Design

CP 65
CP 65

Serviceability Limit State Design
Serviceability Limit State Design

BS 8007
BS 8007

Precast
Precast
Water Tank Floor System
Water Tank Floor System
Water Retaining Structures
Water Retaining Structures

Swimming pool
Swimming pool

Basement wall / slab
Basement wall / slab

Retaining Walls
Retaining Walls

W
W
ater
ater
Tanks
Tanks

Wet riser tanks (suction tanks)
Wet riser tanks (suction tanks)

Roof tanks
Roof tanks
Design & Detailing
Considerations
Design Considerations

Design for Strength according to CP 65
Design for Strength according to CP 65

Special considerations for crack control
Special considerations for crack control
according to BS8007
according to BS8007

Max crack width
Max crack width

Max crack spacing
Max crack spacing

Min steel content
Min steel content
Detailing Considerations

Detailing follows usual rules for normal
Detailing follows usual rules for normal
structures.
structures.

Bars to be continuous, and sudden changes
Bars to be continuous, and sudden changes
in reinforcement ratios to be avoided.
in reinforcement ratios to be avoided.

No construction joint below specified highest
No construction joint below specified highest
water level shall be allowed (for water tanks).
water level shall be allowed (for water tanks).

The entire concrete tank below the water level
The entire concrete tank below the water level
shall be cast in one operation with partially
shall be cast in one operation with partially
hanged internal formwork (for water tanks).
hanged internal formwork (for water tanks).

Water
Water
-
-
stop to be used where construction
stop to be used where construction
joints are unavoidable. Bars to be
joints are unavoidable. Bars to be
continuous across the joints.
continuous across the joints.
Detailing Considerations

The tank roof and the portion above the water
The tank roof and the portion above the water
level shall be cast in second operation.
level shall be cast in second operation.

After passing the water test, the internal
After passing the water test, the internal
surface of the concrete tank shall be coated
surface of the concrete tank shall be coated
with approved type of
with approved type of
cementitious
cementitious
waterproofing coating before laying of tiles.
waterproofing coating before laying of tiles.

For the slab of water tank, ratio of length to
For the slab of water tank, ratio of length to
width
width

1.5 and the shorter span of the slab


1.5 and the shorter span of the slab
shall be 3.6m maximum.
shall be 3.6m maximum.
Detailing Considerations

The minimum area for main and distribution steel
The minimum area for main and distribution steel
is 0.35% for walls and slabs for deformed grade
is 0.35% for walls and slabs for deformed grade
460 reinforcement and 0.64% for plain grade 250
460 reinforcement and 0.64% for plain grade 250
bars.
bars.

The maximum spacing of bars shall be 300mm or
The maximum spacing of bars shall be 300mm or
the thickness of the section, whichever is the
the thickness of the section, whichever is the
lesser.
lesser.

Nominal cover of concrete for reinforcement
Nominal cover of concrete for reinforcement
should be not less than 40mm.
should be not less than 40mm.
Detailing Considerations
Waterstop
Cover to links >40mm
Construction Joint
Types of Water Tanks
Types of Water Tanks

CIS
CIS

Rectangular
Rectangular

Precast
Precast

Circular Tank
Circular Tank

Ring Tank
Ring Tank

Usage
Usage

Roof tanks
Roof tanks

Wet riser tanks for fire
Wet riser tanks for fire
-
-
fighting (>60m above
fighting (>60m above
GL, 22 sty & above)
GL, 22 sty & above)

Water tanks for domestic supply
Water tanks for domestic supply

Suction tanks (reserve tanks to pump water to
Suction tanks (reserve tanks to pump water to
roof tanks)
roof tanks)
Suction Tanks

Reserve tank to pump water to roof


Reserve tank to pump water to roof
tanks
tanks

Capacity depends on water demand


Capacity depends on water demand
for the block:
for the block:

< 22 stories
< 22 stories

no fire
no fire
-
-
fighting requirement
fighting requirement

> 22 stories
> 22 stories

fire
fire
-
-
fighting requirement
fighting requirement

Precast
Precast
circular tanks or rectangular
circular tanks or rectangular
in
in
-
-
situ
situ
tanks.
tanks.
Types of Water Tanks
Distribution System
Suction
tank
Pump
Outlets to DUs
1
st
storey
from pump
Building
(Domestic)
(Fire-fighting)
Roof Tanks
CIS Suction Tanks
Detailing
CIS Suction Tanks
Detailing
Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof)
Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof)
Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof)
1 3 months to
construct the CIS
water tank
Need to improve the site
productivity
Solution To precast
the water tank
Roof Water Tanks
Before 1985, roof tanks were made of stainless
steel or mild steel
RC water tanks were introduced in HDB in 1985
to replace SS & MS water tanks
< 20 sty precast circular water tanks
> 20 sty in-situ rectangular tanks
The precast segmental ring water tanks have
replaced the in-situ RC tanks for domestic use
since Jul 1999.
Precast Water Tanks
Precast Water Tanks
Precast Ring Water Tanks
There are basically two types of components,
the base and the body segments. A few of the
body segments will be stacked on top of each
other to form the height of the tank required.
The maximum height of the tank is 5.13m.
600
130
3700
1550
3830
1550
3520
3640
TYPE A
(3 rings)
600
130
3700
1550
5130
1300
1550
3520
3640
TYPE B (4 rings)
3700
130
1100
1300
2530
3520
3640
TYPE C
(2 rings)
Standardisation
Items Type A
(3 Rings)
Type B
(4 Rings)
Type C
(2 Rings)
Remarks
1) Sizing

- Total height
(including 130mm
thick cover)
- External diameter
(including 60mm
thick protrusion at
the joints)

- Weight of base
(including tiles)
- Weight of body
segments (including
tiles)
- Weight of cover
- Weight of empty
tank
- Weight of water tank
filled with water


3830mm


3640mm




7t

6.2t


3.7t
23.1t

48t



5130mm


3640mm




7t

6.2t (1550mm)
5.3t (1300mm)

3.7t
28.4t

65t




2530mm


3640mm




9.1t

5.3t


3.7t
18.1t

33t



Annex 1 and 2







Type C is used in buildings with 21
storeys where no fire fighting water
is required. Type A can also be
used if there is no height constraint.
But total volume of the tank shall be
considered when calculating the
no.of tanks required.


Standardisation
2) Min clear height from
soffit of water tank to
lowest point of main roof

2300mm 2300mm 2300mm

3) Min clearance
between tank & tank and
tank & wall
900mm 900mm 900mm Annex 4
4) Min clearance
between piping
connection & main water
tank suporting beam and
/or secondary cross
beams
100mm 100mm 100mm Annex 4
5 Range of Storey
heights of building
21-30 22-30 21 Beyond 30 storeys, this tank could
be used subject to discussion
between ARCH, SE and ME due to
different requirement for fire fighting
water.
3.7 ton
each
100
1350
Vol for
fire
fighting =
13.4m
3
Vol for DU
= 22.3m
3
370
6.2 ton
TYPE B
7 ton each
100
370
Vol for
DU =
15.7m
3
Vol for
fire
fighting
= 9.2m
3
TYPE A
9.1 ton
850
6.2 ton
100
370
TYPE C
Vol for
DU =
14.06m
3
5.3 ton
Standardisation
Standardisation
Design Guidelines

Concrete water tanks shall preferably rest directly
Concrete water tanks shall preferably rest directly
on column, whenever possible.
on column, whenever possible.

For case where it is not possible to place the
For case where it is not possible to place the
water tanks directly on columns, deep and broad
water tanks directly on columns, deep and broad
transfer beams shall be designed to carry the
transfer beams shall be designed to carry the
water tank loads to the nearest supports.
water tank loads to the nearest supports.

No roof shall be provided over the
No roof shall be provided over the
precast
precast
concrete water tanks.
concrete water tanks.

A working platform shall be provided at one side
A working platform shall be provided at one side
of the water tank, where there is a cat
of the water tank, where there is a cat
-
-
ladder.
ladder.
Design Guidelines

There must be sufficient clearance (>1500mm)
There must be sufficient clearance (>1500mm)
for the
for the
pipings
pipings
at the underside of the beam (to
at the underside of the beam (to
highlight to Architect early if there is a need to
highlight to Architect early if there is a need to
change the level of the water tank floor).
change the level of the water tank floor).

The sanitary pipe position shall be fixed as
The sanitary pipe position shall be fixed as
shown in the construction manual.
shown in the construction manual.
Section Through Tank
Typical Water Tank Layout
slab
slab slab slab slab
100mm
100mm
900mm
slab
Booster
pump room
2100mm
900mm
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Installation of base tank
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Placing of 1T10 around groove
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
1T10 and waterprooing strip in place
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Installation 2
nd
ring segment
Vertical T20 bars to
provide lateral restraint
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Installation of 3
rd
& 4
th
ring segments
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Installation of tank cover
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Preparation of non-shrink grout for grouting groove
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Pressure grouting of groove
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
Oozing out of grout indicates complete grouting
Erection of Precast Ring Tank
All grout outlet holes shall be plugged
Design of Water Tanks
Design Methods

Design Of Water Tanks
Design Of Water Tanks

Ultimate limit state (ULS)
Ultimate limit state (ULS)

CP65
CP65

Serviceability limit state (SLS)
Serviceability limit state (SLS)

BS8007
BS8007
Ultimate Limit State Design (CP 65)

Partial Safety Factor


Partial Safety Factor

f = 1.4 for load combinations (1) & (2)


f = 1.4 for load combinations (1) & (2)

f = 1.2 for load combinations (3)


f = 1.2 for load combinations (3)

Bending
Bending
k = M / k = M / f f
cu cu
*b*d *b*d
2 2
Z = Z = d(0.5+(0.25 d(0.5+(0.25 k/0.9) k/0.9)
1/2 1/2
) < 0.95d ) < 0.95d
A A
s s
= M / 0.87f = M / 0.87f
y y
* *
z z

Shear
Shear
v v = V / b*d < = V / b*d < v v
c c

Tension
Tension
F F
t t
= = k k
R R
* *

* h * r * h * r
A A
s s
> > F F
t t
/ 0.87f / 0.87f
y
1.2 (DL+Water Load+ WL)
1.4 DL + 1.4 Water Load
1.0DL + 1.4Water Load
Base slab
Wall
y
* For design of circular tanks, coefficient for bending
moment, shear force & tensile force refer to BS 5337.
Serviceability Limit State Design
(BS 8007)

Partial Safety Factor
Partial Safety Factor

f = 1.0 for all load combinations (1), (2) & (3)


f = 1.0 for all load combinations (1), (2) & (3)

Triangular Stress Block
Triangular Stress Block

Plane sections remain plane after bending
Plane sections remain plane after bending

Stresses in the steel and concrete are proportional to
Stresses in the steel and concrete are proportional to
the strains
the strains

The concrete is cracked up to the neutral axis, and
The concrete is cracked up to the neutral axis, and
no tensile stress exists in the concrete below it
no tensile stress exists in the concrete below it
Serviceability Limit State Design

Cracks cannot be avoided in RC structures
Cracks cannot be avoided in RC structures

Limit crack widths
Limit crack widths

0.2 mm for severe or very severe exposure
0.2 mm for severe or very severe exposure

0.1 mm for critical aesthetic appearance
0.1 mm for critical aesthetic appearance

Allowable steel stresses (deformed bars)
Allowable steel stresses (deformed bars)

100 N/mm
100 N/mm
2 2
for design crack width of 0.1mm
for design crack width of 0.1mm

130 N/mm
130 N/mm
2 2
for design crack width of 0.2mm
for design crack width of 0.2mm

Crack width calculation
Crack width calculation

Minimum reinforcement
Minimum reinforcement

Spacing of reinforcement
Spacing of reinforcement

Check reinforcement provided against BS 8007
Check reinforcement provided against BS 8007
Serviceability Limit State Design
h
b
d
A
s
x
z
2x/3
F
cc
F
st

cc

st
f
cc
Section Stress Strain
Neutral
Axis
For equilibrium of forces :
F
cc
= F
st
0.5bxf
cc
= A
s
f
st
E
c
= f
cc
/
cc
; E
s
= f
st
/
st

st
= (d-x)
cc
/x 0.5bxE
c

cc
= A
s

s
E
c
(d-x)
cc
/x

e
= E
s
/E
c
A
c
(x/2) =
e
A
s
(d-x)
A
c
= bx
A
c

e
A
s
Transformed Section
x
d-x
For equilibrium of forces :
0.5bx
2
=
e
A
s
d -
e
A
s
x
0.5bx
2
+
e
A
s
x -
e
A
s
d = 0
x = {-
e
A
s
+/- [(
e
A
s
)
2
+ 2b
e
A
s
d]
1/2
}/b
Moment of resistance :
M = F
cc
z = F
st
z
M = 0.5bxf
cc
(d-x/3) = A
s
f
st
(d-x/3)
Crack Width Calculation - Flexural
3a
cr

m
1 + 2(a
cr
- c
min
)/(h-x)
Maximum surface crack
width at any point, w
max
=

m
=
1
-
2
a
cr
= the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain
(surface of the nearest longitudinal bar)

m
= the average concrete strain,
allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone
c
min
= the minimum cover to the tension steel
h = the overall depth of the member
x = the neutral axis depth

2
=
b
t
(h-x)(a`-x)
3E
s
A
s
(d-x)
b
t
= the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel

1
= the apparent strain
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm,
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm,

2
=
1.5b
t
(h-x)(a`-x)
3E
s
A
s
(d-x)
Due to stiffening effect
of the concrete
a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered
Crack Width Calculation - flexural
x
a`
h
b
t

2
a
cr
c
min

m
=
1
-
2

1
= the apparent strain

2
=
b
t
(h-x)(a`-x)
3E
s
A
s
(d-x)
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm,
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm,

2
=
1.5b
t
(h-x)(a`-x)
3E
s
A
s
(d-x)
b
t
= the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel
a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered
Crack Width Calculation - flexural
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm at the soffit,
x
a`
h
b
t

2
a
cr
c
min

m
=
1
-
2

1
= the apparent strain
3a
cr

m
1 + 2(a
cr
- c
min
)/(h-x)
Maximum surface crack
width at any point, w
max
=

m
< 0 indicates that the section is uncracked
x
a`
h
b
t

2
a
cr
c
min
a
m
c
min

2
=
b
t
(h-x)(a`-x)
3E
s
A
s
(d-x)

2,h
=
b
t
(h-x)
2
3E
s
A
s
(d-x)
Constant value w
max
= 3a
m

m
Maximum crack width occurs at midway between the bars
w
min
= 3c
min

m
Minimum crack width occurs immediately below the bar
Crack Width Calculation - Tension
Maximum surface crack width, w
max
= 3a
cr

m
=
1
-
2
a
cr
= the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain
(surface of the nearest longitudinal bar)

m
= the average concrete strain,
allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone

2
=
2b
t
h
3E
s
A
s

1
= the apparent strain = F
t
/(E
s
A
s
)
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm,
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm,

2
=
b
t
h
E
s
A
s
F
t
F
t
h = the overall depth of the member
b
t
= the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel

m
< 0 indicates that the section is uncracked
Crack Control (Immature conc.)

Due to effects of :
Due to effects of :

Drying shrinkage
Drying shrinkage

Thermal contraction
Thermal contraction

Minimum reinforcement for crack distribution
Minimum reinforcement for crack distribution

Critical steel ratio,
Critical steel ratio,

crit crit
= 0.0035
= 0.0035

prov prov
>=
>=

crit crit
where
where

prov prov
=
=
A
A
s s
/A
/A
c c
Crack Control (Immature conc.)

Crack spacing
Crack spacing

s
s
max max
= (
= (
f
f
ct ct
/
/
f
f
b b
)(
)(

/2
/2

prov prov
)
)

f
f
ct ct
/
/
f
f
b b
= 1.6/2.4 = 0.67
= 1.6/2.4 = 0.67

f
f
ct ct
-
-
the tensile strength of the concrete
the tensile strength of the concrete

f
f
b b
-
-
the average bond strength between concrete
the average bond strength between concrete
and steel
and steel

-
-
the size of the reinforcing bar
the size of the reinforcing bar

Spacing of reinforcement
Spacing of reinforcement

Bar spacing not exceed 300mm or thickness of the
Bar spacing not exceed 300mm or thickness of the
section, whichever is the lesser
section, whichever is the lesser

For welded fabric reinforcement, bar spacing not exceed
For welded fabric reinforcement, bar spacing not exceed
1.5 times the thickness of the section
1.5 times the thickness of the section
Check Reinforcement Provided -
Bending & Tensile Force (SLS)

Allowable steel stresses
Allowable steel stresses

fy
fy
= 100 N/mm
= 100 N/mm
2 2
for 0.1mm crack width
for 0.1mm crack width

fy
fy
= 130 N/mm
= 130 N/mm
2 2
for 0.2mm crack width
for 0.2mm crack width

Moment of resistance
Moment of resistance

M =
M =
F
F
st st
z
z
=
=
A
A
s s
f
f
st st
(d
(d
-
-
x/3)
x/3)

f
f
st st
= M/[A
= M/[A
s s
(d
(d
-
-
x/3)]
x/3)]

Tensile force due to hydrostatic loading
Tensile force due to hydrostatic loading

f
f
st st
= F
= F
t t
/A
/A
s s
References

Reinforced Concrete Design
Reinforced Concrete Design

W. H. Mosley & J. H.
W. H. Mosley & J. H.
Bungey
Bungey

Reinforced and
Reinforced and
Prestressed
Prestressed
Concrete
Concrete

F. K. Kong & R. H. Evans
F. K. Kong & R. H. Evans

Reinforced Concrete Design to BS 8110
Reinforced Concrete Design to BS 8110

A. H. Allen
A. H. Allen

Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous
Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous
Liquids
Liquids

R. Cheng
R. Cheng

Design of Liquid
Design of Liquid
-
-
Retaining Concrete Structures
Retaining Concrete Structures

R. D. Anchor
R. D. Anchor
Precast Water Tank Floor
System
Precast Water Tank Floor System

Precast
Precast
all elements above the main roof
all elements above the main roof

With effect from 15 Apr 1999
With effect from 15 Apr 1999

Precast
Precast
components
components

Water tank beam
Water tank beam

Pilot project
Pilot project
-
-
Sembawang
Sembawang
N5 C4 & C5
N5 C4 & C5

Tender date
Tender date
-
-
26 Sep 1997
26 Sep 1997

Water tank floor slab
Water tank floor slab

70 mm
70 mm
thk
thk
non
non
-
-
prestressed
prestressed
plank
plank

Not for booster pump room floor
Not for booster pump room floor
Precast Water Tank Floor System

Column stump
Column stump

For normal
For normal
precast
precast
water tanks
water tanks

Splice sleeve connection
Splice sleeve connection

1500 mm length
1500 mm length

PCF1 (300x400)
PCF1 (300x400)
-
-
4T25 (s)
4T25 (s)

PCF2 (300x500/600)
PCF2 (300x500/600)
-
-
4T25 (s)
4T25 (s)

PCF3 (200x600)
PCF3 (200x600)
-
-
3T28 (s)
3T28 (s)

PCF4 (300x500/600)
PCF4 (300x500/600)
-
-
3T28 (s)
3T28 (s)
Precast Water Tank Floor System

Screen wall
Screen wall

Pilot project
Pilot project
-
-
Sengkang
Sengkang
N3 C13
N3 C13

Design Instruction Sheet :
Design Instruction Sheet :
DR/P
DR/P
-
-
SW1/311
SW1/311

100 mm
100 mm
thk
thk
wall
wall

150x300 stump at both ends of the wall
150x300 stump at both ends of the wall

2T16 splice sleeves
2T16 splice sleeves
Precast Water Tank Floor System
Precast Water Tank Floor
Precast Water Tank Floor
Precast Water Tank Floor