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CHAPTER 2. LINEAR SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS


Written by: Sophia Hassiotis
Revised on January 2013

The simplest model in applied mathematics is a system of linear equations such as:
2x
1
+4x
2
=2
4x
1
+11x
2
=1
A hand-calculation to obtain the two unknown parameters gives x
1
=3and x
2
=-1.

These are also the equations of two straight lines in the form x
2
=mx
1
+b
o
where m is the
slope, and b
o
is the intercept at axis x
2
. Here the equations for the two lines are:
x
2
=-0.5 x
1
+0.5
x
2
=-0.3636 x
1
+0.0909

The plot of these lines is given here. Their intercept is point (3,-1).



Figure 2.1 Intersection of two lines

>>x1=0:1:5;
>>x2=-0.5*x1+0.5;
>>x3=-0.3636*x1+0.0909;
>>plot(x1,x2,x1,x3),title('two intercepting lines'),...
>>xlabel('x1'),ylabel('x2')

In matrix form these equations are written as:
)
`

=
)
`

1
2
11 4
4 2
2
1
x
x

OR
A x = b
2

Given matrix A and vector b, We can solve for the unknown vector x using Matlab as:
x=A\b (if b is a column vector) or x=b/A (if b is a row vector)

Example:
A=[2 4;4 11];
If we input b as a row vector, the calculations are as follows:
b=[2 1];
x=A\b (note that b is the transpose of b, therefore it is a column vector)
Answer: x =
3.0000
-1.0000
or
>>x=b/A'
Answer: x =
3.0000 -1.0000
If we input b as a column vector, the calculations are as follows:
>>b=[2;1];
>>x=A\b
x =
3.0000
-1.0000
The coordinate (3,-1) is the intersection of the two lines and the solution for the linear
system.

Equations are called homogeneous if b=0; inhomogeneous if b not equal to 0.

A nxn homogeneous system of linear equations has either 1) a unique solution (the trivial
solution, x=0) if its determinant is non-zero or 2) an infinite number of solutions if its
determinant is zero.

Inhomogeneous equations may be consistent (have one or an infinity of solutions) or
inconsistent (have no solution). The solution can be unique for a nonsingular set of
equations or non-unique for a singular set of equations. For example, the equations
shown above are two lines that intercept at a point. They represent an inhomogeneous,
consistent system of equations. Since matrix A is nonsingular, the solution is unique.
3

Figure 2.2 Solutions of Inhomogeneous equations

A set of two equations will have infinity of solutions if they represent the same vector or
will have no solution if they represent parallel vectors as seen in Figure 2.3(a).

In another example lets take an equation of a plane in the x
1
,x
2
,x
3
space: ax
1
+bx
2
+cx
3
=d.
We plot three such equations as plane S1, S2 and S3 in Figure 2.3b. The intersection of
these planes is the solution of these three equations. The three planes can 1) intercept at a
point (consistent solution, unique); 2) intercept at a line or represent the same plane
(consistent, any of an infinity of solutions will solve the equations); or 3) they may never
intercept at a common point, line, or plane (inconsistent, there is no solution).



Figure 2.3 Graphical representation of Inhomogeneous equations
4


Most linear systems have more unknowns than the two or three represented graphically in
Figure 2.3. Before attempting to solve a linear system of equations you should first ask if
the system has a solution, and if the solution is unique. We can check our equations by
checking the rank of a matrix. The rank is the number of independent rows (or columns)
in the matrix. If you view each row (or column) as a vector, the set of vectors is linearly
independent if none of them can be expressed as a linear combination of any other.




KEY THEOREM: Consider the inhomogeneous equations Ax=b where A is mxn.
Exactly one of the following possibilities must hold:
(i) If the rank of the augmented matrix [A b] is greater than the rank of A, the
system of equations is inconsistent (have no solution).
(ii) If the rank of [A b] is equal to the rank of A, this being equal to the number of
unknowns, then the equations have a unique solution.
(iii) If the rank of [A b] is equal to the rank of A, this being less than the number
of unknowns, then the equations have infinitely many solutions.



Next, we will investigate how Matlab handles these cases. First, we will investigate the
existence of solutions for a square matrix A. Then we will discuss least-squares solutions
in over-determined systems (more equations than unknowns) and then we will introduce
unconstrained and constrained optimal solutions in the case of under-determined systems
(more unknowns than equations).
5
1Systems with as many equations as unknowns, m=n (square
matrices)

Case i. Rank(a,b)>rank(a). System is inconsistent. A solution does not exist.

A=[1 -2 3;1 -2 3;-1 3 -7]
A =
1 -2 3
1 -2 3
-1 3 -7
b=[1 3 0]
b =
1 3 0
rank([A b'])
ans =
3
rank(A)
ans =
2
x=A\b'
Warning: Matrix is singular to working precision.
x =
Inf
Inf
Inf
det(A) %Note singular A will have a determinate of zero
ans =
0

Note that MATLAB does not give a solution to this set of equations since they are
inconsistent.


Case ii. Rank(a,b)=rank(a)=number of unknowns. A unique solution exists.

A=[1 -2 3;1 2 3;-1 3 1]
A =
1 -2 3
1 2 3
-1 3 1
b=[1 3 0]
b =
1 3 0
rank([A b'])
ans =
6
3
rank(A)
ans =
3
x=A\b'
x =
1.6250
0.5000
0.1250
det(A)
ans =
16




Case iii: rank(a,b)=rank(a)<number of unknowns. Infinity of solutions exist.

A=[1 -2 3;1 0 3;-1 3 -3]
A =
1 -2 3
1 0 3
-1 3 -3
b=[1 3 0]
b =
1 3 0
rank([A b'])
ans =
2
rank(A)
ans =
2

x=A\b'
Warning: Matrix is singular to working precision.
x =
Inf
Inf
Inf
det(A) %Note singular A will have a determinate of zero
ans =
0

Note that Matlab does not give a solution to these equations although they are consistent
and have an infinity of solutions.

7


2Least Squares: Systems with more equations than
unknowns, m>n

Example 1: Minimize the norm || Ax-b ||
2

A system with more equations than unknowns (A has more rows than columns) is called
over-determined.

As an example, an over-determined set of equations results when attempting to fit the
data from a laboratory experiment. Lets first fit the data of Table 2.1 with a straight line
of the form z=my+b
o
where m is the slope and bo is the z-intercept.

Table 2.1 Data to fit
y z
1 1
3 2
4 3
5 3

If each point were exactly part of the line, then each of the following equations would be
satisfied exactly.
z=m(y)+b
o
1=m(1)+b
o
2=m(3)+b
o
3=m(4)+b
o
3=m(5)+b
o
or, in the matrix form Ax=b

=
)
`

(
(
(
(

3
3
2
1
1 5
1 4
1 3
1 1
o
b
m

Solving in Matlab for the unknown vector x (note, x
1
=m, x
2
=b
o
)

>>A=[1 1;3 1;4 1;5 1]; b=[1 2 3 3];
>>x=A\b'
x = 0.5429
0.4857
This gives an equation for the line as: z=0.5429 y +0.4857

In such cases as the one above, it is impossible to solve Ax=b exactly. The best we can
do is to make Ax not equal but as-close-as-possible to b by minimizing the norm
(magnitude) of a vector that represents the error Ax-b. Namely, weminimize the
8
quadratic || Ax-b ||
2
, where the symbol || v ||
2
represents the square of the magnitude of
vector v and it is equal to v
T
v. The solution for x which minimizes the error is the least-
squares solution to Ax=b. We can express this mathematically as:

Find vector x that minimizes the norm || Ax-b ||
2


Expanding the norm as

(Ax-b)
T
(Ax-b)=x
T
A
T
Ax-2A
T
bx +b
2


and setting the derivative with respect to x to zero we obtain:

2A
T
Ax - 2A
T
b = 0.
From here we find
A
T
Ax= A
T
b
and
x=(A
T
A)
-1
A
T
b

The matrix inv[(AA)]*Ais called the pseudoinverse.

In Matlab we can solve the same over-determined systems by using the definition for
pseudoinverse:
>>A=[1 1;3 1;4 1;5 1]; b=[1 2 3 3];
>>x=inv(A'*A)*A'*b'
x =
0.5429
0.4857

or by using the pseudo-inverse operator pinv

>>x=pinv(A)*b'
x =
0.5429
0.4857

For a non-square mxn matrix, if rank(A) =min(m, n), then A is full rank . If
rank(A)<min (m,n), then A is rank deficient and does not have unique solutions. In the
example above, rank(A)=2 which is equal to the number of columns, n. If A were rank
deficient, then we would not find a unique solution using the different methods
introduced above.

Lets use the same method to fit data to a quadratic. Assume that the data of Table 2.1 is
best fitted by a quadratic of the form: z=cy
2
+dy+e. In this case, if each point were exactly
part of the quadratic curve, each of the following equations would be satisfied exactly:
1=c(1)
2
+d(1)+e
9
2=c(3)
2
+d(3)+e
3=c(4)
2
+d(4)+e
3=c(5)
2
+d(5)+e
or, in the matrix form Ax=b


Solving in Matlab for the unknown x

>>A=[1 1 1;9 3 1;16 4 1;25 5 1];b=[1 2 3 3];
>>x=A\b'
x = -0.0455
0.8091
0.2000

This gives an equation for the quadratic curve as: z=-0.0455y
2
+0.8091y+0.2

Matlab has its own solvers to fit data with different polynomials. For example, try the
statement polyfit(y,z,n) which fits y-z data with a polynomial of degree n such that
p(y)=p
1
y
n
+p
2
y
n-1
++p
n
y+c

>>y=[1 3 4 5];z=[1 2 3 3];
>>p1=polyfit(y,z,1)
ans =
0.5429 0.4857
>>p2=polyfit(y,z,2)
ans =
-0.0455 0.8091 0.2000

To see how well the polynomials fit the data, evaluate each polynomial at the data points
and plot the results.

>>f1=polyval(p1,y);
>>f2=polyval(p2,y);
>>plot(y,z,'o',y,f1,'-',y,f2,'-.'),xlabel('y'),ylabel('z')

Note that these examples are used here merely to illustrate the theory behind least
squares. MATLAB has many functions that can be used to fit data that are more suited to
such a task.
1 1 1
9 3 1
1 6 4 1
2 5 5 1
c
d
e

1
2
3
3
10

Figure 2.4 Fit of data with a straight line and with a polynomial curve


11
3Unconstrained and Constrained Optimization: Systems
with fewer equations than unknowns, m<n

A system that has more unknowns than equations is an under-determined system and it is
solved as an optimization problem. In these cases a unique solution does not exist. We
can find one by introducing an objective function and constraints.

Example 1: Unconstrained Optimization
In this example, solve the set of equations for the four unknown values of x

5x
1
+2x
2
+3x
3
+4x
4
=1
-5x
1
+3x
2
+2x
3
+7x
4
=2

Infinity of solutions exist. We can find unique solutions if we introduce an objective
function. For example, of all possible solutions x, we could be seeking the one with the
smallest magnitude. This is an example of an unconstrained optimization problem that
can mathematically be stated as:

Find x that minimize the norm of the solution: ||x||
2


In Matlab we solve with the \ operator
A=[5 2 3 4; -5 3 2 7];
b=[1 2];
x=A\b
x =
-0.0182
0
0
0.2727

we can also try solving with the pseudoinverse
y=pinv(A)*b
y =
-0.0402
0.0879
0.0798
0.1965

lets calculate the norms:
norm(x)
ans = 0.2733
norm(y)
ans = 0.2331

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The first solution solves the problem. The pseudo-inverse solves the problem also. In
addition, the pseudo-inverse minimizes the norm of the vector ||x||
2
.

Example 2: Minimize the norm ||Ax-b|| subject to x>=0 --Constrained Optimization

This problem arises when we have more unknowns than equations (under-determined)
but we need a solution within constraints. For example, solve the following equations, but
make sure that the solution is always positive.
Solve:

5x
1
+2x
2
+3x
3
+4x
4
=1
-5x
1
+3x
2
+2x
3
+7x
4
=2
subject to: x
i
>=0.

In Matlab we use the routinelsqnonneg to solve this problem. It finds the least-squares
solution subject to the constraint that all solutions must be nonnegative.

A=[5 2 3 4; -5 3 2 7];
b=[1 2];
x=lsqnonneg(A,b) %[used to be nnls(a,b)(non-negative least squares)]
x =
0
0
0
0.2769

Matlab has an optimization toolbox that provides routines that solve different
optimization problems. We will investigate two more routines, fmincon and fminsearch.
13
Example 3: Optimal design of a rectangular beam using Matlab

Use optimization to design a beam for bending and shear. In this example, the bending
moment M, and the shear force V are given. The objective is to choose the lightest
rectangular section that will carry the load and not surpass the strength of the material.
Remember that the bending and shear stresses are calculated by:
I
My
= , and
It
VQ
= .
For a rectangular section of dimensions w x h , we can rework these expressions as
2 / h y = ,
12
3
wh
I = , and
I
Vh
8
2
= .

Lets assume that the strength of the material in tension is 30ksi and in shear it is 5ksi.
Also, let us choose from sections with width w between 2 and 10 inches and height h
between 6 and 20 in. In addition, let us restrict the aspect ratio of h/w between 1.5 and
2.5.

In essence, we are solving the optimization problem:
Minimize w * h
Subject to: My/I <30 ksi
Vh^2/8I <5 ksi
2<w<10
6<h<20
1.5<h/w<2.5

We are dealing with a multivariable minimization problem (both, w and h are variables)
with nonlinear inequality constraints. The Matlab routine fmincon seems appropriate to
solve this problem.

First re-write the constraints in the form c(x) 0:

My/I <30 becomes: 6*M/(x(1)*x(2)^2)-30
Vh^2/8I <5 becomes: 12*V/(8*x(1)*x(2))-5
2<w<10 becomes: x(1)-10
-x(1)+2
6<h<20 becomes: x(2)-20
-x(2)+6
1.5<h/w<2.5 becomes: x(2)/x(1)-2.5
-x(2)/x(1)+1.5]
Then follow the appropriate steps as directed by Matlab to create your subroutine.




14
Step 1: Write an M-file objfun.m for the objective function.

function f=objfun(x)
%function used for optimal design of beam section. Here,we are minimizing the function
f=w*h. Assign x(1)=w and x(2)=h
f=x(1)*x(2);

Step 2: Write an M-file constraints.m for the constraints.

function [c,ceq]=constraints(x)
%inequality constraints for beam Design Optimization
M=1200;V=300;
c=[6*M/(x(1)*x(2)^2)-30;12*V/(8*x(1)*x(2))-5;x(1)-10;-x(1)+2;x(2)-20;
-x(2)+6;x(2)/x(1)-2.5;-x(2)/x(1)+1.5];
%equality constraints
ceq=[];
Step 3: Invoke constrained optimization routine.

%beam optimization main program
M=1200;V=300;x(1)=6;x(2)=6;
x0=[6 6];%starting guess
options=optimset('Algorithm','active-set');
[x,fval]=fmincon(@objfun,x0,[],[],[],[],[],[],@constraints,options)
The solution x produced with function value fval is
x =
7.3181 12.2983

fval =

90.0000

The optimal solution is given by w=7.3 and h=12.298. The product w x h is 90.0
15
Example 4: Minimize the energy of a system

In most linear systems, the energy of the system can be expressed as a quadratic.
Equilibrium is defined as the position vector x that minimizes the energy of the system.
In other words, if x is a vector of the system displacements, the solution for x is the
equilibrium position. We are thus looking for the x that minimizes the energy E(x)
E(x) = b x Ax x
T T

2
1

If A is positive definite, then the quadratic is minimized at the point x that satisfies Ax=b.

To minimize the energy E(x), take the derivative with respect to x and set it to zero.
Namely, dE/dx=0. When we perform this we get Ax-b = 0.

As an example, lets assume that there exists a system whose total energy E(x) is written
as:

| | | |
(


=
8
7
2 1
2
1
3 3
3 5
2 1 ) (
2
1
x x
x
x
x x x E

To minimize E(x) set dE/dx
1
=0 and dE/dx
2
=0. Please perform these operations and
show that we recover the set of equations Ax=b. The vector x that solves this set of
equations is the one that minimizes the energy of the system.

A is a square positive definite matrix. We can use Matlab to solve for x using x=A\b.
Here, x =
7.5000
10.1667

Lets Plot the quadratic with Matlab
%this plots a 3d plot of a quadratic; energy of two springs
xa=-10:0.2:20;
xb=-10:0.2:20;
k1=2;
k2=3;
[x1,x2]=meshgrid(xa,xb);
E=0.5*k1*(x1.^2)+0.5*k2*(x2-x1).^2-7*x1-8*x2;
meshc(x1,x2,E),xlabel('x1'),ylabel('x2'),zlabel('E')
pause
contour(x1,x2,E,100),xlabel('x1'),ylabel('x2'),zlabel('E')
pause
%plot Ax=b with the countour plot
A=[k1+k2 -k2;-k2 k2];b=[7 8];
x=A\b'%solving the equations
x4=7/5+3/5*xa;%creating data to plot the lines
x5=-8/3+xa;
plot(x4,xa,x5,xb),xlabel('x1'),ylabel('x2')
16






Notice that the energy is at a minimum at an (x1,x2) of (7.5,10.2).
17


This is a graph of the two lines in Ax=b. Notice the intersection points at ( 7.5,10.2).

Instead of solving the equations either algebraically or graphically, we can allow an
optimization algorithm to find the minimum of the energy. For this problem we will use
the routine f mi nsear ch which finds the minimum of a scalar function of several
variables, starting at an initial estimate. This is an unconstrained nonlinear optimization.

To use the optimization tools in Matlab, create a function to be minimized.
function E=energyoptimization(v)
%to used in an optimization search towards the minimization of energy
%quadratic
k1=2;k2=3;
x1=v(1);
x2=v(2);
E=(0.5*k1*(x1.^2)+0.5*k2*(x2-x1).^2-7*x1-8*x2);

Then, use the search algorithm fminsearch to find the minimum. Here, we start the
search at the point (x1,x2)=(5,5).
>>v=[5 5];
>>a=fminsearch(@energyoptimization,v)
a =
7.5000 10.1666
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
x1
x
2
18

The minimum is found at (7.5,10.2).

We have shown that we can obtain the solution (vector x) by 1) finding the minimum of
the energy (Principle of Minimization of Energy) either graphically or using optimization
algorithms, or 2) by solving the equilibrium equations (Newtonian Mechanics).

A geometric interpretation of the system that we just solved is given below. Take two
masses suspended on two springs. Lets find the equilibrium position of the masses by
either, minimizing the energy of the system or by satisfying the equations of equilibrium.

1--Minimize the Energy of the System

Total Energy E =Strain Energy in the spring (U) Potential Energy of the Mass (P)
where,
U= k1 x1^2 + k2 (x2-x1)^2
P =7x1 +8x2

The energy can then be written as

E= k1 x1^2 + k2 (x2-x1)^2 -7x1 -8x2

To find the position x that minimizes the energy of the system, take the derivative of E
with respect to x and solve for x.

E/x1=0: k1 x1 k2 x2 +k2 x1 7 =0

E/x2=0: k2 x2 k2 x1 8 =0

These two equations can be placed in a matrix form as:

19


A x = b


2--Satisfy the equations of equilibrium, SFx=0:

Using the free-body diagram, we can write the equations of equilibrium of the two
masses as:

-k1 x1 +k2 (x2 x1) +7 =0
-k2 ( x2 x1) +8 =0

These equations can also be presented in matrix form as:



A x = b


Therefore, minimizing the total energy of the system or solving Newtons equation of
equilibrium results in the same solution for the displacement of the masses (the unique
displacement vector x that places the system in equilibrium)


20

Homework 3:

Label each set of equations as homogenous/inhomogenous, consistent/inconsistent
and solve using MATLAB

1) x 2y+3z=10
-x-2y+3z=20
x+3y-7z =30

2) x 2y+3z=1
x+2y+3z=1
-x+3y+z =1

3) x 2y+3z=0
x +3z=4
-x+3y-3z =0

Solve the equations.

1) 3 x +5 y 3 z +5 =0
x +3 y - 10=0
7 x 7 y 7 z +10=0
5 x 8 y + z +3 =0
x +2 y +5 z =0

2) 2x

+5y-3z=10
5 x +y +5z=-5

3) 2x

+5y-3z=10
5 x +y -5z=20 where x,y,z >0




21
Homework 4:

Fit the following data with 4 different polynomials. Plot your results. Can you fit
a higher-order polynomial? Would you need to? What is a possible material with this
stress-strain curve? Write down the simplest form of an equation that describes your data.

Strain Stress (psi)
0 0
0.0002 950
0.0004 1,900
0.0006 2,300
0.0008 2,500
0.0010 3,200
0.0012 3,300
0.0014 3,500
0.0016 3,700
0.0018 3,850
0.0020 4,000
0.0022 3,800
0.0024 3,600
0.0026 3,500
0.0028 3,400
0.0030 3,300
0.0032 3,200
0.0034 2,800
0.0036 2,500




22

Homework 5: Optimal Design of a Truss

Write an optimization algorithm in Matlab to design for the minimum area of each
member of the truss given below. Use sections with a circular cross-sectional area. Use
an allowable stress
all
of 36ksi and a Youngs Modulus E of 29,000ksi.

Note that an axial force F may cause yielding. The stress due to an axial force is F/A
where A is the area of the truss member.

A compression loading may cause buckling. The stress due to bucking is =F
cr
/A where
F
cr
=(
2
/l
2
)EI in which l is the length of the truss member and I is the moment of inertia of
the round section.

You should check your allowable stress against both, 1) yielding and 2) buckling to
design for the area of each truss member.






23
Appendix A

Matlab Examples Using Unconstrained and Constrained Minimization.
These examples were taken directly from Matlab/Help/Optimization/Introduction
MATLAB Example(1): fminunc--- Unconstrained Minimization
Consider the problem of finding a set of values [x
1
, x
2
] that solves

(4-16)
To solve this two-dimensional problem, write an M-file that returns the function value. Then,
invoke the unconstrained minimization routine fminunc.
Step 1: Write an M-file objfun.m.
function f =objfun(x)
f =exp(x(1))*(4*x(1)^2+2*x(2)^2+4*x(1)*x(2)+2*x(2)+1);
Step 2: Invoke one of the unconstrained optimization routines.
x0 =[-1,1]; % Starting guess
options =optimset('LargeScale','off');
[x,fval] =fminunc(@objfun,x0,options)

This will produce the following output

x =
0.5000 -1.0000

fval =
3.6609e-015

MATLAB Example(2): fmincon---Nonlinear Inequality Constraints
If inequality constraints are added to Equation 4-16, the resulting problem can be solved by the
fmincon function. For example, find x that solves

(4-57)
subject to the constraints
x
1
x
2
x
1
x
2
1.5,
x
1
x
2
10.
Because neither of the constraints is linear, you cannot pass the constraints to fmincon at the
command line. Instead you can create a second M-file, confun.m, that returns the value at both
24
constraints at the current x in a vector c. The constrained optimizer, fmincon, is then invoked.
Because fmincon expects the constraints to be written in the form c(x) 0, you must rewrite your
constraints in the form
x
1
x
2
x
1
x
2
+1.5 0,
x
1
x
2
10 0.
(4-58)
Step 1: Write an M-file objfun.m for the objective function.
function f =objfun(x)
f =exp(x(1))*(4*x(1)^2 +2*x(2)^2 +4*x(1)*x(2) +2*x(2) +1);
Step 2: Write an M-file confun.m for the constraints.
function [c, ceq] =confun(x)
% Nonlinear inequality constraints
c =[1.5 +x(1)*x(2) - x(1) - x(2);
-x(1)*x(2) - 10];
% Nonlinear equality constraints
ceq =[];
Step 3: Invoke constrained optimization routine.
x0 =[-1,1]; % Make a starting guess at the solution
options =optimset('Algorithm','active-set');
[x,fval] =...
fmincon(@objfun,x0,[],[],[],[],[],[],@confun,options)
After 38 function calls, the solution x produced with function value fval is
x =
-9.5474 1.0474
fval =
0.0236


25
Appendix B

Using the Curve Fitting Tool
Find relevant information at the MATLAB HELP, data fitting (Interactive Curve Fitting)
>>x=[1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10];
>>y=[5 8 6 0 2 6 8 1 5 3];
>>plot(x,y)




MATLAB allows you to fit 1) a polynomial, 2) exponential, 3) Fourier, 4) Gausian, 5) Power, 6)
Sum of Sine Functions and 7) Weibull. It also allows you to input your own function.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
26
Example 1. Fit a Polynomial
>>cftool %opens the Curve Fitting Tool
ChooseData

Choose the x and y data vectors


Create data set and Close

Choose Fitting and then, New Fit, Type of fit polynomial, 5
th
Degree Polynomial, Apply
27



28
Example 2. Fit Sum of Sin Functions
Choose Fitting and then, New Fit, Type of fit polynomial, 5
th
Degree Polynomial, Apply


In-class work
Fit the data
e=[0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05]
s=[0 500 900 1200 950 600 ]