Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 47

ABB Inc.

2013
Craig L. Stiegemeier; ABB TRES Transformer Remanufacturing & Engineering Services; August 20, 2013
ABB Red TIE Series - Pomona
Transformer failure modes
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 2
Transformer Failure Modes
Agenda
Definition of a transformer
Primary Causes of Transformer Failure
Balancing the three leg stool
Thermal degradation
Dielectric withstand
Mechanical performance
Causes of insulation system degradation
Identification of failure vulnerabilities including key
transformer components
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 3
Transformer Failure Modes
Definition of a transformer
IEC 60076-1
A Static piece of apparatus with two or more windings
which, by electromagnetic induction, transformers a
system of alternating voltage and current into another
system of voltage and current usually of different values
and at the same frequency for the purpose of
transmitting electrical power.
IEEE C57.12.80
A static device consisting of a winding, or two or more
coupled windings with or without a magnetic core for
introducing mutual coupling between electrical circuits.
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 4
Transformer Failure Modes
Fundamental laws of a transformer
Maxwell 2
nd
Law (N
o
2 - induction law )
U
i
= - N d / dt or converted to
U
i
= 4.44 f N B A
Fe
or U
1
/ U
2
= N
1
/ N
2
where:
U
i
r.m.s value of the induced voltage [ v ]
f frequency [ Hz ]
N number of turns
B peak value of the magnetic induction [ T ]
A
Fe
section of the iron core [ m
2
]
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 5
Transformer Failure Modes
General fundamental of a transformer
HV Winding
LV Winding
Electrical Voltage applied to
the HV winding
Magnetizes the Core
And the voltage is induced
into the LV winding
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 6
Transformer Failure Modes
Magnetic Coupling between coils and secondary EMF
Transformer Failure Modes
Core Form Transformer
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 7
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 8
Transformer Failure Modes
Stresses Acting on Power Transformers
Mechanical Stresses
Between conductors, leads and windings due to
overcurrents or fault currents caused by short circuits and
inrush currents
Thermal Stresses
Due to local overheating, overload currents and leakage
fluxes when loading above nameplate ratings; malfunction
of cooling equipment
Dielectric Stresses
Due to system overvoltages, transient impulse conditions
or internal resonance of windings
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 9
The fault current is
governed by:
Open-circuit voltage
Source impedance
Instant of fault onset
Displacement of current
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
In the case of external
short-circuits, the first
peak of the fault current
through the transformer
will increase to a
multiple of the rated
current
Transformer Failure Modes
Magnetic field lines
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 10
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 11
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
A short circuit gives rise to:
Mechanical forces
Temperature rise
The transformer must be designed so
that permanent damage does not take
place
Electromagnetic forces tend to increase
the volume of high flux
Inner winding to reduced radius
Outer winding towards increased
radius
Winding height reduction
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 12
Inner
winding
Outer
winding
Radial forces inwards
compressive stress
Radial forces outwards
tensile stress
Fmean
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
Effect of the radial forces on windings
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 13
Inner
winding
Outer
winding
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
Radial forces result in:
Buckling for inner windings
Increased radius for outer windings
Spiraling of end turns in helical winding
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 14
Axial short circuit forces accumulate towards winding mid-height
The radial
component of
the leakage
flux creates
forces in axial
direction
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
Effect of the axial forces on windings
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 15
B B Fax
Fax
B B F
ax
Fax
Axial imbalance
will create extra
axial forces
The forces tend
to increase the
imbalance
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers Axial
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 16
Failure mode Spiraling:
Characteristic failure mode for
inner and outer winding
Failure mode Buckling:
Characteristic failure
mode for inner winding
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers - Radial
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 17
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
Two examples showing buckling of inner windings
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
Another example of buckling of the inner windings
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 18
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 19
Axial force failure modes:
Collapse of winding end support
Tilting of winding conductors
Telescoping of windings
Bending of cables between spacers
Damage of conductor insulation
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 20
Failure mode
Conductor tilting
Failure mode
Bending of cables
Failure mode
Collapse of end support
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 21
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
Axial forces cause:
Mechanical withstand of insulation material
Risk for tilting
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Stresses in Power Transformers
Example for axial forces
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 22
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 23
Transformer Failure Modes
Short-Circuit Failure
Unit Auxiliary Test Transformer Failure
Internal High Speed Film Camera Footage
ABB Inc.
Originally taken by The General Electric Company at
Pittsfield, Massachusetts
ABB Inc. 2013 - Slide 24
Movies should be screened in the
grey area as featured here, size
proportion 4:3. No titles should be
used.
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 25
Transformer Failure Modes
Risk: Short Circuit Forces & Stresses
Through faults are often the cause of
transformer failures
Many older designs have insufficient
margin for todays fault currents
Loose coils due to aging can cause
failures
Normal aging can cause brittle
insulation and increased failures
Even brief overloading may cause
significant aging
Oxygen in the oil can double the
aging rate
Moisture in the insulation increases
aging rate 2-5 times depending on
the amount of moisture
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 26
Transformer Failure Modes
Mechanical Risk: Short Circuit Forces & Stresses

Figure 3. Results of the Short-Circuit Strength Design Analysis used in a Life Assessment Study
HV Radial
(Hoop)
HV Axial
(tipping or
crushing)
LV Radial
(Buckling)
LV Axial
(tipping or
crushing)
LTC
Winding
Radial
(Buckling)
LTC
Winding
Axial
(tipping)
Design #1
Design #2
Design #3
Design #4
Little Risk of Failure
Slight Risk of Failure
High Risk of Failure
D
e
s
i
g
n

M
a
r
g
i
n

ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 27
Transformer Failure Modes
Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers
Loading is primarily limited by highest permissible temperatures in
the transformer, especially within the windings
Temperature limits are based on:
Expected lifetime
The risk for oil vaporization
Permissible temperatures are generally expressed as temperature
rises above ambient
Ambient temperature is in turn defined by current standards
24 hour ambient temperature average 30 C
Maximum ambient 40 C
In accordance to Standards:
Winding temperature rise 65 K
Top oil temperature rise 65 K
Hot spot temperature rise 80 K
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 28
Winding hot spot
Top oil rise
hot spot factor
Winding average rise
Copper over winding oil gradient
Ambient
Winding
Temperature
Bottom oil
Copper over tank oil gradient
Transformer Failure Modes
Winding Temperature Rise and HS Calculation
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 29
Transformer Failure Modes
Thermal Risk: Intensive aging
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 30
Transformer Failure Modes
Thermal Risk: Intensive aging
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 31
Transformer Failure Modes
Degree of Polymerization - DP
Degree of polymerization is a measure of the number of
intact chains in a cellulose fiber. It provides an indication of
the ability of the transformer insulation to withstand
mechanical force (due to through-faults, etc).
Cellulose Fiber Chain
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 32
Transformer Failure Modes
Factors affecting DP and Measurement Method
The DP of the insulation is affected by the following
conditions:
Moisture content
Acidity of the oil
Oxygen content
Temperature
The DP is measured by viscosity measurements according
an ASTM method after dissolving the paper samples in
cupriethylene diamine solvent.
Paper samples must be taken from enough different
areas in a transformer in order to get a profile of
deterioration of the cellulose
When combined with detailed design knowledge,
measurements in one area of the transformer can give
information on the condition of paper in inaccessible
areas of the windings.
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 33
0.1
1.0
10.0
100.0
1000.0
10000.0
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Temperature [
o
C]
L
i
f
e

E
x
p
e
c
t
a
n
c
y

(
y
e
a
r
s
)
Dry & Clean (Insuldur)
Acidic Oil (Insuldur)
1% Water Content (Insuldur)
3-4% Water Content (Insuldur)
Transformer Failure Modes
Life Expectancy Based on DP and Other Factors
It is assumed that the DP of transformer insulation is approx. 1,000 at the start of life and approx.
200 at the end of life. This graph shows the expected life of thermally upgraded insulation
(Insuldur) under various conditions:
For long insulation life expectancy, it is important to keep the insulation dry, keep acidity
and oxygen concentration of oil low and provide good cooling for insulation
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 34
Transformer Failure Modes
Thermal Stresses in Power Transformers
Life Expectancy Based on DP and Other Factors
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 35
Transformer Failure Modes
Dielectric Stresses in Power Transformers
Overvoltage integrity
Overvoltages can be divided into two classes:
Continuous
Transitory
Continuous overvoltage is related to the core and its
magnetization (normal 50Hz or 60 Hz stresses)
Transitory overvoltage refers to intermittent stresses
placed on the insulation system, usually at much higher
levels than the power frequency stresses
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 36
Lightning and switching impulse
surges are called Transients
because their duration is short.
The frequencies are much higher
than the power frequency (60 Hz
here) operation frequency.
Transient calculations are used to
find the time dependent distribution
of transient voltages, applied on the
line terminals, over the windings.
Transformer Failure Modes
Dielectric Stresses in Power Transformers
Transient Voltages
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 37
Winding
Win-
ding
length
Voltage
Winding oscillation
Transformer Failure Modes
Dielectric Stresses in Power Transformers
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 38
2 D field plots
can be used to
check the
design of the
main insulation
2 D Field Plot
Transformer Failure Modes
Dielectric stresses - Main insulation design
Transformer Failure Modes
Dielectric stresses failure - Main insulation design
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 39
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 40
Field distribution over the barriers and
HV-LV windings
CAD-model
FLC evaluation
Transformer Failure Modes
Analysis of Bushing Failure
525 kV unit assumed bushing failure
Simulation showed electric stress was greatest on the paper
insulation around the shield ring
Used simulation to redesign insulation barriers
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 41
Transformer Failure Modes
What we know
Top transformer failures (78%) (from Doble):
43% winding insulation
19% bushings
16% tap changers
Other areas of concern:
Pollution, dust & debris affecting bushings &
cooling systems
Cooling System inefficiency
COPS Tank elevation
Specific issues:
Streaming Electrification
Nitrogen Gas Bubble Evolution
Blocking / GE Mark II Clamping
Shell Form Rewedging
GE Type U Bushings
Transformer Failure Modes
De-energized tap changer
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 42
Transformer Failure Modes, grounding of the active part
Hot metals gassing
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 43
Core Clamp grounding point
Core clamp grounding to
tank
Transformer Failure Modes - Thermal Scan Value
Loose Bushing Terminal Connection
When there is a loose connection at the terminal from the
bushing to the bus work, it will lead to overheating of the
bushing top terminal when under load.
The thermograph will show the bushing terminal as hot, while
the body of the porcelain will show normal temperatures.
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 44
Transformer Failure Modes - Thermal Scan Value
Blocked Oil Flow in Radiators
In case of a malfunction that stops or restricts the flow of oil
through a radiator, this will show up on an infrared scan.
The image will reveal dim areas where the oil flow is restricted
and brighter areas where normal oil flow is taking place
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 45
ABB Inc. 2013
Slide 46
Transformer Failure Modes / Diagnostic Techniques
Highly Effective On-line Actions are Best
PROBLEMS DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
SERVICE CONDITIONS
OF THE EQUIPMENT
[1]
PROVEN
EFFECTIVENESS
[2]
MECHANICAL
1. Excitation Current
2. Low-voltage impulse
3. Frequency response analysis
4. Leakage inductance measurement
5. Capacitance
OFF-S
OFF-S
OFF-S
OFF-S
OFF-S
M
L
H
M/H
H
THERMAL
GAS-IN-OIL ANALYSIS
6. Gas chromatography
7. Equivalent Hydrogen method
ON
ON
H
M
OIL-PAPER DETERIORATION
8. Liquid chromatography-DP method
9. Furan Analysis
ON
ON
M/H
M/H
HOTSPOT DETECTION
10. Invasive sensors
11. Infrared thermography
ON
ON
L
H
DIELECTRIC
OIL ANALYSIS
12. Moisture, electric strength, resistivity, etc.
ON M
13. Turns ratio OFF-S L
PD MEASUREMENT
14. Ultrasonic method
15. Electrical method
ON
ON
M/H
M/H
16. Power Factor and Capacitance
17. Dielectric Frequency Response
OFF-S
OFF-S
H
H
ABB Service Handbook for Transformers, Table 3-1, Page 72
[1] OFF-S = equipment out of service at site, OFF-L = equipment out of service in laboratory, ON = equipment in service
[2] H=High, M=Medium, L=Low