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EEG 100 – Report 1- Circuit Theory I

Objective:
Learn how to use the multimeter to measure the voltage and the current and
resistance, and apply Ohm's Law and hoe to use this law to determine the
resistance of resistors, finally found the relationship between them.

Part one: Voltage and Current in DC Circuits:


Discussion and Conclusion:

1- How did the voltage across the Lamp (Vbc) compare the dc source (battery)
voltage? Explain.
It is mostly the same because it crosses the same node so the voltage across
the lamp (Vab) is equal to the source voltage, because we have only a parallel
resistance in the circuit, so the voltage drop on the resistance will be equal to
the voltage source.

2-What happened to the current reading when the lamp was disconnected at
node b?
The current reading was zero, because the circuit becomes open, so there is no
current across the circuit, that mean the electrons stop moving toward the
lamp, and the electrons back to their random motion.

3- What happened to the voltage reading (Vbc) when the lamp was disconnected
at node b? Explain.
The voltage reading in that case will remains the same so it was equal to the
source voltage because there is no resistance, this mean the electric charge
does not have to be in motion for an electrical potential to exist, it's measured
the energy required to move a unit charge through an element.

4- What happened to the current (I) when the dc source (battery) voltage was
reduced to zero?
The current is zero, because there is no potential difference ( voltage) in the
wires so the current would not flow through, also the current depend on the
voltage ( Vα I) this mean the voltage doesn't depend on the current to exist.

5- What happened to the current reading when the dc source (battery) was
changed to 6V? How did the current reading in step 5 compare with the current
reading in step 1? Explain.
The current reading changed and had been decrease compare to step 1 ,that
happened because of the direct proportional between the voltage and the
current " While the voltage increase the current will increase ", and if the
voltage decrease the current will decrease too" , and V is directly proportional
to I (Vα I).
6-What happened to the current and voltage readings when the dc source
(battery) leads were reversed? How did the current and voltage readings in step
6 compare with the reading in step 1? Explain.

The reading when the terminals were reversed is the same in magnitude but with
a different sign ( in negative compare to step 1 ) which means that the
electrons are moving from lower potential to the highest potential because we
have reversed the polarity of the multimeter , also the current moving in the
opposite way from ( - ) to (+)

9- Describe the difference between the way to connect a voltmeter to a circuit


and the way to connect an ammeter to a circuit .What precaution must be taken
when connecting an ammeter to a circuit? Explain.
The voltmeter is connected in parallel with the branch, while the ammeter is
connected in series with the branch.

Part two: Ohm's Law Resistance:


Plot the value of the Iab for each voltage (Vab) from table 1 in step 4 and draw
the V-I characteristic curve.
Iab(mA) 0.03 9.03 18.10 27.24 36.44 45.72
Vab(volt) 0 2 4 6 8 10

Replace step 7 for the values in table 2 in step 6.


Iab(mA) 0.1 4.27 8.55 12.83 17.13 21.44
Vab(volt) 0 2 4 6 8 10
Calculate the value of each resistor based on the slope of the V – I
characteristic curves plotted in steps 7 and 8. Record the calculated resistance
values on the curve plots:

From table1 graph:


Slope=R1=∆V/∆I =

From table 2 graph:


Slope=R2=∆V/∆I =

Discussion and Conclusion:


1-How did the calculated value of R2 compare with the value of R2 compare with
the value of R2 measured in step 1 ?For a constant voltage in steps 2-4,what
happened to the current (lab)
The value of R2 compare with R2 measured is the same.The current decreased
when the resistance was increased because from ohm's law (I = V/R) , so the
current is inversely proportional to the resistance ( R α 1/I) this becomes
from more opposition from element to let the current across it.

2- for a constant resistance in step 5 ,What happened to the current (Iab) when
the voltage was increased ? Explain.
When the voltage was increased the current was increased too, this come from
the directly proportional VαI ( from ohm's Law v= IR),we can say that the
current is a result for the voltage; because if there is voltage there will be
current , and if not there won't be current.

3- Do the V-I characteristics plotted in steps 7 and 8 indicated whether the


resistors are linear or nonlinear? Explain.
The plotted graph (V vs I) indicates that the V-I characteristics were linear,
because the equation is from the first order as a straight line..the resistance is
constant other hand the voltage and current are directly proportional .

4- How did the resistance values calculate from the slope of the V-I graphs
compare with the measured resistance values in step 1? What is the
relationship between the resistance and the slope?
The resistance values calculated from the graphs compare with the measured
are approximately equal , the resistance is equal to the slope because the graphs
plots are straight lines.