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2.0 Offshore Structure in Malaysia.

Basically the Malaysia have been divided to two regions, they are Terengganu-
Pahang area and Sarawak-Sabah area. The depth of sea between two regions are different
also, the Terengganu- Pahang area the sea water depth is about 100m average which is
consider as shallow. Meanwhile the Sarawak Sabah area some of the sea water depth is
more than 1000m, therefore the offshore structure in the two regions is slightly different.
Most of the offshore structures in Terengganu-Pahang are using Jacket or Jackup.
For example for the Damar, Jerneh, Semangkok oil field are basically using Jacket
structure. Meanwhile for the Bekok, Tapis are using the Jackup structure. But for the
Berantai field, the Floating Production Storage and Offloading have been used, this is
because that particular have a lot of marginal oil field and not suitable for fix structure on
the consideration of the cost. These types of offshore structure have been use is because
the sea water in that region is shallow and is more economical base on the Front End
Engineering and Design (FEED).
For the Sarawak-Sabah region, some of the areas the sea water are very deep, therefore
the jacket structure is not suitable for it. Therefore there are a lot of difference types of
offshore structure in that region. For example the Gumusut kakap, Siakap North-Petai,
oil field have been using the semi sub as the offshore production platform this is because
the sea water are deep. Meanwhile for the Malikai oil field, the Tension Leg Platform
(TLP) has been used and it was the first TLP ever build in Malaysia. The TLP have been
selected by the Shell is because from the FEED due to the high capabilities to support
heavy weight at reasonable cost and the depth of the TLP is 565m high and 110km
offshore the Sabah state. For the Kikeh oil field of Sabah, since the sea water depth is
more than 1000m, the Spar own by Technip have been build and is the first one ever
installed outside the Gulf of Mexico. It is significantly to show that the deep water are
suitable for the structure that are floating because there are flexible and can withstand for
heavy wave load than fix structure.
Therefore due to the consideration of sea water depth and cost to be build, the
structures of each region are different but the decision making is based on the FEED
report