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Investment assets

Question 4
a. Since a long-term bonds rate seems to be more delicate to interest rate than short-term
one (Bodie et al., 2010), Bond D with the biggest Macaulays duration, has the greatest
price sensitivity to interest rate changes.
b. According to Bodie et al. (2010), Fabozzi (2010) and Choudhry (2001) the bond rates
percentage shift is relative to varied duration as formula:

Thus, for a 1% decrease per year in yields would result in a rise in Bond Ds rate of
14.212% and a rise in Bond Es rate of 5.329%.
c. Bonds being more convex will achieve more than losing in rate whilst there is yield
fluctuation (Fabozzi, 2010). Hence, Bond D being the most convex compared with other
bonds gets the biggest non-proportional capital return and capital loss characteristic.
d. In case there is a corresponding descending change in the yield bend, the whole form of
the bonds arc stayed the same. That is to say the Macaulays duration, varied duration
and convexity of such bonds stay the same (Choudhry, 2001). Thus, with the usage of the
above mentioned outcomes, Bond D should be chosen for investment whilst desired
yields reduce in the upcoming time due to some below causes:
The largest duration, the smallest interest price hazard (Bodie et al., 2011). Likewise,
altogether with the largest varied duration, if the price goes down by the similar sum
along the whole maturity, the Bond Ds rate will rise with the largest sum causing the
largest capital profit.
Convexity ranks as the second-order degree of interest price hazard. Bond D seems to be
more curved than any other bonds hence it will benefit much more a rise in rate than any
other kinds at any price decrease.
e. Whilst targeted yield rise in the upcoming day by the similar sum through the whole
maturities, it is better to choose Bond F as a rise in yield will result in the least reduction
in rate the portfolio hence the portfolios debit and the interest hazard is the most minor.
f. Connection between maturity and bonds rate sensitivity to interest price variations:
Duration acts as a tool for measuring a bonds rate sensitivity to interest price variations
hence the connection between maturity and bonds rate sensitivity to interest price
variations is the connection between maturity and Macaulays duration. The durations of
zero-coupon bonds with the inclusion of Bond B and Bond F are the same as their time to
maturity, which stay at 4 years and 3 years correspondingly.
For coupon bonds, at the similar price, bonds rate sensitivity to interest price variations
raise with the maturity time. After that, bonds with long maturity turn out to be bonds
with high-duration, in other words, bonds with longer maturity mean bonds with higher
rate sensitivity. For instance, Bond A, Bond C and along with the similar price of 9
percentage, Bond C with larger maturity (5 years) is better rate sensitivity to interest price
variations (Bond Cs duration stays at 4.24 years whilst that of Bond A stays at 3.531
years). Likewise, Bond D gets better rate sensitivity to interest price variations than Bond
E owing to much more time to maturity.
g. Connection between coupon price and bonds price sensitivity to interest price variation
is as below:
Bonds with the similar duration to maturity, and the similar YTM, in case the coupon
price is smaller, hence then rate sensitivity to interest price of the bond will be much
better. Regarding Bond A and Bond B, due to the fact that Bond B acts as a zero coupon
bond that is smaller coupon price than Bond A (9 percentage coupon), the rate sensitivity
to interest price variations of Bond B becomes bigger than Bond A.
Question 2
a. As per Fabozzi (2010), convexity is a tool for measuring a bonds rate variations since
the interest price variations, thus, convexity supports the measurement and management
of the sum of market hazard of a bonds portfolio of. Generally speaking, bonds with
bigger curve achieve much more in rate whilst yield to maturity decrease than they fail
whilst interest price raise. Therefore, a portfolio with good convexity would assist
investors to gain much more capital profit than smaller convexity (Bodie et al., 2011).
After that, investors who are open to the acceptance of smaller yields to the purchase of a
convexity portfolio.
Indeed, whilst convexity of a portfolio rises, the portfolios schematic hazard raises. If
desired market yield varies just a bit, which is to say small interest rate instability then
bonds with great as well as small convexity provide nearly the similar rate for a certain
minor variations in price. Therefore, the benefit of being owner of better-convexity bonds
does not have much difference from smaller convexity one, whilst the hazard happens to
be higher. On the contrary, in case investors hope for extensive interest price instability,
greater convexity bonds would possibly vend at a much smaller price than smaller
convexity bonds as smaller convexity stands for smaller hazard. As a result, it is difficult
for the confirmation that investment in large convexity portfolio often means
b. A bullet portfolio will always outperform a barbell portfolio with the same dollar
duration if the yield curve steepens.
A bullet portfolio means a portfolio with the inclusion of a wide range of bonds with
maturities ranging from short-term to long-term. In addition, bullet portfolios bonds
happen to be non-callable and cant be released in advance by the issuer hence they must
give a payment of comparatively small price of interest due to the issuers revealing to
interest-rate hazard (Investopedia, 2013). A bullet bond is more hazardous than a callable
bond as the issuers reimburse their duties on one sole date rather than a sequence of less
reimbursement duties ranging in some dates. Meanwhile, a bond portfolio holdings in
pretty short-term as well as very long-term maturities is classed as barbell portfolio.
Barbell portfolio gives the permission for one part of the portfolio to gain high margins
whilst the other ratio makes the hazard smaller.
The measurement of dollar duration of a portfolio is via the variation of the bonds rate to
the certain shifts of profits. Therefore, whilst margin curve gets steeper, the portfolio
duration raise and after that Dollar duration becomes bigger. That is to say, for a certain
variation in profit, rate sensitivity to interest price variations gets a significant fluctuation
(Fabozzi, 2010). Consequently, a bullet portfolio, which is the similar dollar duration
with barbell portfolio, would get more variation in rate as the similar variation in price
due to bigger duration and then there will be more hazard. Regarding targeted interest
price reduction, the bullet portfolio possibly vends at larger rate, yet if the interest seems
to raise, the barbell portfolio will outdo the bullet portfolio. Therefore the above
declaration is not correct.

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