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Passage A: Barbarians at tlre Gatet I H
I Dod, i, ln- mdll. er^ocr rl 6 ld l lood io;r r -nd tlra bdo'l \\opr d,gouProl {Rur'q ppooh h raol' i.
.,i t. orLroq
ilu,ry ol
flurry baggy .omr'dt p. nl.. lJLpl o-'d.arrdsldno
comDal panis,sKalenoa.os, llrc) \'/e
anq s,d!,s. ,,,cy rliJnomanI,olcnngpdrweanno
5L.c !P d nu|,c,,,rEurn,v P,lrL, rYEd lre !t
a in the other' she brustEs pa51 a man in a
, :r,.1, OKr'iV, tme rnasazine in one hand and lal1e S
vantees,"arrying
biseLa cap who is tatking on his Moiorota c€lphone abour rhe Martin scorsese illm lre .aw
lastnight'It,sastandardAmericansceneonlylhisisn.tAmerica.it'sBriiain'l.l]esccnecouldbeplayed5
our in;ny one of dozens of cities: Budapesl or B€rlin, ifnot Bosota or Bord--e:i1 i""
M"'ir' -v*"*
H
'/ A\ unn/drpdqol,al\uierpol\.! lTerLan' rrtuenr rs Li-lodLalv fiPrcFdFnlFd rnl'm ol ir\v"'l
Lnr
u^o "qu"ni,nparEll'\:ld in lr{n orrs;rFm'rrdou' rmpa'1 lrommusrl'lledrr Ihrola\liood
"*p.
t-ni,no" ro ilrcrir,,,e.nd \porl, lhp Amancan id'a i\ spreddng ine'orabl/ The.Us h-s L^ ome l\' S
n,o;r D;w. rlut e ir lh- s ortd lodd) . .- drnFretu" rs lr,at mod.m imppn.tisn. i\ (! u, al. no' T:'irdry. ,0 F
- * *-"-
"mDi,
l/oreouer. moa.rn r- nnoloSy fling', ulLLriF lo Fv.r) co'n.t of Iln glob. wih blndrnq spead lf il loor 1$o
,' .ir"""'"i"'t.,ro""c.puu["toi'"cl,NoflhAm'ricall,Fl"le\rhiltromJltslinlrmb{-'l'lpGnLelound
reek (and
in Gre"l' torcs.':.1;::.lit:t'!t";:Tj[;i;"iil;,r;;;;;,J"
Japan esel storc'
nd Japanese) \aithi.
within -""
'''" davs l h'"';'
avs The ol "McDomination'
e€ o{ h"s aanived
"M bominalion" has Ei
I G (a s d
:*'. , .. ,) F
r- .. 3 Amencan uurtural domrnshor, rolps a rolatrraidn !trFJr lo divprsit) i'1sidrqg\?gsline-.rordj,lnsple{,1 | .
l,he
cullurP will in'vrlsbry creale
create d
a qlobdr
global dyslodJ
dyslopis, drvod
devod ol xngursnc orversrty
al rh'\ .r 'vr
tn mts
orvelsrty ln 'nr .
I
ll, 'of Amencan popular
or Ameican r,opuldr cuhure '6ill inevitably F
E?
lhe Ddrne LulpFls hdv' lon! be:n llr^ U\udl \u_P"l': Hollywood poPuldr music and ld<l lood B
wlr:-h a[ reddt- Laad. homoq^r 'ou- I,oo,.tr a< srrp-rvinSll fi,ralloY at a Di)ne/ o€doon .nd
-r,'r h.,nlr \rnJ.v 2s chew;na orm ln ta\r,ion s'''v.r, drrb, ud:qu!'ou' irrodu'1s li}.p l'vijcans ond our
.',r."- ii, ,:.r.''r.oa-'i.in " nasBurgnrIinrrJndl'4cdonards$lrclrserverh F
lod ler As . r€ Jh ol ll'eiJ p va.i\" d l ^rni' rcus oflucn " U'F wo'ld irr which \a' lir'e i\ b"or 'inu ?0 Fl
t...s D:rlu(esau. and imbu d wr,' ld.1 lo al Loiou, l larylthe'.. ll e unq]ue le\l,vals and rile5 lh.r ln L'
pr(I41va, ull'a,rrv
pa! I ;1ve I ium anity its ru lo.ic a nd ethnolosical varielv are on ihe verse of exlinction'
rLs foll - 6

4 L4cDomination Poses other pedls Local industdes are trulv endangered because of Us oligoPol@
F
slrch as Holt) v;od. For insrance in 2ooo, the European union handed out 1 billion eurcs to slrbsid-P,e
I tr'opcr nrn' indu | vFn ll ,'l ly :uhp lulOrilish lJm rr dL-lD rr4 no a]nlrol ovrr drslrrLul'on E
'1 'lrv
whi"hi-3ho1l.nl|l;'yinlr.l"l,dolrhFHollywoodmdjoE'Al.ldlcdd.nqcri50l.consoliddlionolll
''
Lommurinlions Indu\|,/ inlo c Ipr Lonq'omprale5 su.h d AOl-Tinewamer' Disnav cnd NPws
Corporaiion, which mea;s thattbe "irfojai!*nent" gen€Eted for slobal consumpt-Dn lreadv alwavs comcs
Iom an \,.nGn par t4.'.r^ ne lop lhr"p AT^,r-n mlr\r' "oml"1:6 rP!'rd.3nd. dirrit'ul^ 8' -^ H
p-rcpnlo ll'pmu\i rrll. w rld. ^nrLJrino ll'dlra all\rnq lr'4 ong oig o'dl; alionloll'F'lun'
.5']Paladoximllv'thevervnatlonthatexto|slibemldemocracyandfreedomofchoicethemostseemsto
' #::";fl;;;;'"Liliiiil s: everv amerLn emor:on cv'ry Am^ricrn r^erins €.v'ry F
Amerr.-an im3g" i\ copvrighrFd
"*'
il 'i""'0,. ol a lFw ownrr_ who Ldl' g'eai plea\ure{an'l prolrr)
Lh^ h3nd, Ircnr [.
i
mdrl:n! leople and p'oducls in clcry Lq r^r ol rlre laoricl wiih llrcir brand in the namc of'ft"p"
ddc and
globlli.aton. rt.n por,r,cer , ,,rruiei in *r"i'"t ," r"' reaching n' Japln and lhe Plrilrppit^s 3r'bcins tt
G
iranslomeo by lhe iersonalityirjven Amedcan modcl. F
6U.s.c.ntro{ofclmfiunicalionchannelsalsomakesitinevitablelhati{sideologicalmessaqeswill such as
become far more entrenched thao those of previou! cmpirei lts dominance of le'lrnologies
(13 of ihe top 1; lnteflret fitms are Americao' number 14 is British) means E
satellile TV and the lnterne{
people- ofthe wodd Such 40
tllat, increasinqly, America monopolizes ald moul{s ths socio culluralview -oet
cyL'er imperiatism is, of course. irtv ou"tt"o Lv tt'e ou"*helming dontinancc of
English on the Wodd
Wilc Web - a medium {tal slickly sp read:. {lF Arnerican manim to milligr,rs r
tl]
7 lndced,lhe mai6 and most alanning differcnce bei\\€en tbe c1rltoral spreacl of previous empkes and the
preseni pervasiveness of America-na is the intportance of teclnology The lelephone' the lnlernet'
ielevision and film, did not exisl in ancient Greece or the t,'loogol emPir.e.
gqcause oi this' Amencan ou$
.oouldldltuledocsnotnler.l/renle5enlalEnsiloryandlditlylnno.UoUspl|et0menonLUtd\Fryg.av.
i;;ii#;i;hf ;ilil"iiv Jn;,i""-r,,rr"x"v r'r.r-r!e ano pruto as universar icons iYhirsi permaDentrv
consisnint Michelangelo and Plato to their qtaves

Adapred lrom rn 2,000 vearc, wirr the world r.nrembil;IH;;1'i;y#H::,";31 I

iI
i. r

\ r,\\i '
passage B: opcn (he Door to clobarisation
r.,i i ..i.)...t-).
1 Jhe gare: ofrhe v/odd are g,oaning shul- From nralble balmnies and over the airwaves, demagogues ,._r'a .l I

' . d crynqwrilL lo"Jr anl LUtl! ps And lrad lror :rl vdlup\ Sdlpl l^s. llrp Inlam, r. and iumLo ,rts cr.y the '
conlagion. For,nany p-opl. "fo eign" h"s b^6m. d:y,onya ro d"nq.. it,rq, nor tn-Lr.tIm. ,

-.,r.1,i hislory that chanls of nataonalism have been heard, but those echoing around the wortd today aro unique -
ji; a ihey come in hosliie reaction tothe deluge of globaligalion that is perceived to be engulfing our planer. 5

2 Criiiqslbf globalization arsue that the process of slobaliaiion will lead to a slripping away of ideniiry and a
rcple9sivg Orwellian wodd. On a planel of 6 billion people, tbis is, of course, an impossibitiry. More
importantly, the decline of cullural distinclions may be a measure of the progress of civilization, a tangibte
sisn ofeypanding liberty and increasing individuality-l

3 Samuel Hontinglon, in'Tne C/asi of Civilisalions', predicts that fulure conllicts will o.cur atonq culurat l0
fault lines, which is prcciselywhere war has so ofien erupied in the past. Even a casual exam;nation ofthe
history of conflict explaios why a threat to one's culture can become a rhreal 10 one's God or one's
anceslorc and therefore,lo onet core idenliny- This inlerlrmatory lo.mola has been used tojustity many of
humdnih/s wo'sr acls ftom gFnoridn lo rplgiou, p-rseLulion and llrc coionial subiusdlion ot 'rntprio{"
rl!es. In tlris Ietard, lln homos.nizrns innuedr- ol olob.lizd'ion whrrh rre mosl olren dndemned by tl14 l:
new nationalisls and by cultural protectionists are actually posiiive; globalization promotes integ€tion and
lhe removal not only of cultural bariers but of many ollhe negative dimensions of culture lhat lead to acls
ot t iLal b- bariry.

4 The fact thai the United Stales domnrates 0re globaltraffic in iofonnation and ide3s has also been seen as
- injqqitous. This is both a mistaken and myqpic view. Many of the U,S. i.leats that get t.ansmited in the 20
process, such as individual ri!,thls, freedom of speech and respect for women, are in facr entightened and
emancipating and local cuitures a.e enhanced. Some countdes charge that Anrerican "values. are
'conupting' their people ln iact, mosl ofthe govemmenis that asaressivelv seek to restrict the material
thal reacher their citizens have a more corup{ ulterior motive their explicit objectave is to kecp out
American and otheralien politicalviews, nrores; and, as it is called in some pads of rhe Middle East, hcws 25
pollulion" to mainlain their own despoiic control Thanldully, srich governments are the heirs ot King
Canute, the m),ihical monarch who set his throne al the sea's edge and commanded the waves to go
ba trt d.
r
5 Manv also contend thal it is
'1\r'r!r''
di{ejJeful lo usa the opportlrnities created by the global informalion revoluiion
to promote Amencan qrliure over others, b{rt lhal kind of reasoning is as dangorous as rr rs wrong." _3p
Ame.ican cullure is an amalganr of influences and approaches from around llre world. lt is melded l!' '
consciously in many cases - into a social medium thal allows individu?l lreedoms and culiurcs to thrive.
The Uniled Slates should not hesitate to promote her values and vision for {he world- Using the tools of the
lnformafion Age to do so isthe nost Deaceful, powertuland r€asonable means ofso doing-

6 lt is in the economic and political interests of ttte vr'orld to move toward a common language; toward 35
common telccommuricalions, saf€ty, and qualily slanddrds, to become li)rl'ed by television, radio, and )
music and lo develop commoo values. lo an effort lo be polite or politiq Americans should nol deny the
facl that of all the nations in the history of the wodd, thei$ is the most just, lhe mosl tolelanl, the most
willing io constantly reassess and improve itself, and the best modetforthe future.

7 The developmcnt of a y/orld in which rc fault lines separating nations are bridged by shared inierests is in40
everyone's interesl !ryhelher we accept all$re argumenls o{ []untinglon or no{, vr'e must recognize that tho
greaier ile cultural valrre gaps in the wodd, thl: mo.e lik€ly it is that confiici will ensue, Repression js noi
defensible, whetherthc tmdition from which il springs is Confucian, Judeo4hristian, or lslam. Successful
, mulricultuElsociclies sircl a5lhc United Slates are built on the idea thattolerance is crucialto socialwell
being and thrt both into{erance and a heighiened emphasis on cultuml distinctions threaien integralion, 45
' The critical prerequisite fff gaining tlrc oitimum benefils of global iniegralion is to understand which
. I c'rltur3l attribules can aod shoold be tolerated - and, indeed, pronroted - and which ara the qlluFs thatwill
, become fautt tin* -i].
Adapted flonr 'ln P€ise o{ Cullu€l I'nperialism? Effects ol Globalisation on Cullure by David Rothkop
Forcirt Polic| Jrne 22 1997
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