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passage l: Amy Bruckman wriles

1 Cybersp€ce is not Disneyland. lt's nct 3 polished, perfect place built by p.ofessional
des;gners for
the public to obedienlly wait on line to passively experience. ft is rnore'tiie a nnge._p"inti-ng
Everyone is making things, there's paint everywhere, and most works only a parent
would love.
Here and,there, works emerge lhat most people would agree are achieverients
of note.
variety of work reflects ihe.diversity of participants. An-d everyone woutJ agree, the The ric"tr
process and the ability for self expression matter more than lhe p;oduct. creaiive s

On the n€i, everyone- is becoming an arlist.. On the World Wide Web, millions of people
constructing multimedia self-portraits on lhej. home pages. people aOorn tne;r are
nome pages wiii
photos of themselves and their pets, lists of their.favou;te things (web
sites, restauranls, ptaces
to rollerblade), and news aboui iheir lives. Each home page iJan expression of self.
Tne at ti tO
rhe self podrair has never been so popular

The lnternet is a community of aatists with own rituars, rules for incrusion and excrusion from
lhe conrmunity, and standards for what constilures
'ts good work. of course ihe traditionar arrs
made up of many overlapping artistac communities. The net is fertite
:::". ,1u. .:l*uy:. leen of
protrleration a mynad of such artislic communities and culiures. As the number
or { ommun[Les Increases, more people ate able to ftnd a group lhat suits t5
I gave -a lalk on this subject at the 1995 Ars Etect.onica in Linz, Austria. During the questions
period, an arlist stood up and delivered a long, indignant speech_
How can you call ordinary
people "a(ists"? Adisrs' he said, hord a fundamenra|y differeni rerationship
with iociety. Their jo6
is to be critlcal of the broader culture-to commeni on it from a unique perspective.
would you call someone who does science expenments in their basemdnt on
Besides, 20
"scientist"? My answer was an unequivocal yes_ ,iscience. is just Saturdays a
a way of seetng the world, and
the world woutd be a better place if more people saw themselvLs n.
People are flocking to computer nebrorks nol for a more convenient way to find
siock quotes and
movie aeviews, but to send email to friends and relalives, to partici'atJ in discussions
of issues, 25
to expaess who they are on home pages, people come to the net to parficipaL
anr; create, not to
receive in{ormation Dassive!),. 'The lnformation Superhighway. is a misnomer.
It is not aboLlt
information; it is aboui community, participation, and creatlon. -

Tools for individuar artistic creation have rong been widery avairabre-,in industriarized
p€per and pdints, pape_r.and pencil, wood and chisels, are aiiordahle
to everyonF. as is ddequ.le 30
lree time lo use them. I he tools and the opporlunily f or anistic ct eaLion have long
e <islpd, bul a, e
not used as often as they could be, The missing ingredient that lhe net contnbutes
is audience.
People design home pages not to look at alone, bul to present themseives to the wortd. Having
an audience motivates creation.
Most home pages don't get looked at by very many peopre-but a few friends
and reratives is 35
:Ti-91 ll: the concept of having.a potentia y large audience that matters. And white having an
audrence rs an essentiar erement in motivating creation, it's the individuals creative processlhat
Jnatters more than the product. The main benefit is to the creator, not the viewer, but the vjewer is
slill an essential element

The net is not a place for 'professionals. to publish and the masses to
merelv download. Online, 40
b:loming an arlrst; everyone is a creator. Ihe networ;\ is pro!idrnq new opporluniliL.
:^v-e?-::'e ls
lor sell erprersion, and demands a new ktnd of ar|sl: the artisli; instigaror, someone !!ho
inspires other people to be creative by settrng a positive u"u-jf"
providing others with tools, conlext, and support_ That support
,itn in"i, own work, and
can be technical, aestheiic, or
emotional--encouraging others to believe in their own capabitiijes ancl take
the risk of trying to 45
make somF I'lo pprsonally mpJninglu.

Cyberspace is not Disneyland, ll is not a place to wait on line to see the virtual pirates of the
Caribbean. li's a piace to bui'ci your own pirates, your own Caribbean, your own seJf ponrall. vour
family history, your animation demo, your ihoughtful essay, your silty poem. Online. it is ttue you
can download paintings from lhe Louvre--bul much more inleresting is lhe fact that you can 50
upload your own. Or better yet, inspire others lo do so.

Passage 2: Neil postman writes.....

Did lraq invade Kuwait because cf a lack ol information? lf a hideous war should ensue between
lraq and the U,S., will ;t happen because of a lack of information? If children die of starvation._.
does it occua because oi a lack of information? Does racism_.. exist because of a lack ol
information? lf !/oui chiidren misbehave and bring shame to your family, does it happen because
of a lack of information? lf someone in your family has a mentat breakdown, will it happen
because of a lack of informaiion?
-,.what ails us, what causes us lhe mosl mlsery and pain... has nothing to do with the son oi
information made accessible by computers. The computer and ils information cannot answer any
of the fundamenlal questions we need to address to make our lives more meaningful ani
humane. The iomputer cannol provide an organizing moral framework... tt cannot piovide a
means of understanding why we are here or why we fight each othea or why decency eltrdes us 10
so oflen, especially when we need it the most. The computer is, in a sense, a magnifiaent ioy that
distracts us faom facing what we mosl needed to confront -- spirilual emptiness, knowledge of
ourselvas, usable conceptions of the past and future.

I Does one blame the computer for this? Of course not_ ll is, after all, only a machine. But it is
presented to us, with trumpets blarjng_.. as a technological messiah.Through the computer, lhe 15
heralds say, we will make education better, religion bettea, politics beter, our minds betier __ best
of all, ourselves better. This is, ot colrse, nonsense, and only ihe young or the ignorant or the
foolish could believe it. I said a moment ago that computers are not to blame foa lhis. And that is
true, at least in the sense that we do not blame an elephant fcr ils huge appetite or a stone for
being hard or a cloud foi hiding the sun. That !s their nature, and we expect nothing different from 20
them. But the computer has a nature, as well. True, it is only a machine but a ma;hine designed
to manipulate and generate information. That is what computers do, and therefore they have an
agenda and an unmistakable message.

I The message is that through more and more information, more convenienfly packaged, more
swiftly delivered. we wlll flnd solutions to our problems. And so aI the brillia;t yotrnglmen and
women, believing this, create ingenious things for the computer to do, hopinq that in this wav. we
will become wiser and more decent and more noble. And who can blame lhem? By becoming
masters of this wondrous technology, they will acqijire prestige and power and some will even
become famous. ln a world populated by people who believe that through more and more
informaiion, paradise is attainable, the computer scientist is king. But I maintain thal all ofthis is a
monumenial and dangerous waste of human talent and energy. lmagine what might be
accomplished if this talent and energy were tumed 10 philosophy, to theology, to the ;ds, to
imaginative iiterature oi to education? Who knows what we could learn fro-m such people _
perhaps why there are Wars, and hunger, and homelessness and menlal illness and anger.

5 As thjngs stand now, the geniuses of compute. technology will give Lls Slar Wars', and tell us ihat
is the ansu/er to nuclear war. They will give us artificial intelligence, and te us that this is the way
to self-knowledge. They will give us instantaneous global communicaiion, and tell us this is the
way io mutual understanding-_. Bui that is only the way of the technician, the fact_mongerer, the
information junkie, and the technological idiol.

'saielllte defence system designed to shoot down nuctea. missites befo.c they reach theirtarqei.
NYJC 2004

Reao Fassage 1 and ihen answer ihe followjng questions below.

From Paragraph 1:
1a. ldentify the two phrases that the author uses to illuskate her concept of
cyberspace. [1]

'1b. How does she use the phrases to develop the concepl of cyberspace? 12]

From Paragraph 2
2. ln your own words, identify two ways by which people express ihemselves on their
homepages? I2l

From Paragraph 3-8:

3. According to the author, how does cyberspace encourage the "creative process"
and "self expression"? Summarize your answer in not more than 120 words. [8]

From Paragraph 9l
4 ldentafy the author's attitude towards uploading. Justify your answer [2]

Read Passage 2 and then answer the questions belou

5. What poini is the author trying to make by listing a series oJ questions in the
opening paragraph? I1l

From Paragraph 3:
6a. ldeniify the imagery used to describe how we perceive the compLrter [1]

6b. Why is this an inaccurate description of the computer? I2l

From Paragraph 4:
7a. According lo the auihor, what is lhe "message" (line 22) that computerc put forth?

7b. Why is it "dangerous" (line 29) to believe in this message? [11

From Paragraph 5:
B. According to the author, who is the "technica! idiof? [1]

From both passages:

9. Give the meaning of each of the tollowing words as they are used in the passage.
You may write the answer in a word or a shod phrase. [5]

a. adorn
b. myriad
c. Unequivocal
d. misnomer
e- eludes
Lewis Thomas writes.._
Among the most important eihical dilemmas journaiisis face today are problems 10 do v/ith ihe
publlc's right lo know. Joumalists often coniront conflicting responsibilities in this regard: on
one side is the journalist's human relaiionship wilh the subject or source, and her duty not to
exploil people or treat them contemptuously. The dLrties on the other side are more difilcull to
descrilre, or even to identify. Journalists sometimes speak of their obligation to ie a story as
they see il, or their obligation 10 the truth or to the public interest. Or lhey talk about.the
public's right to know. lndeed, the Society of Professional Journallsts asserts that the public,s
right to know is "the dverriding mission of the mass media" and that "journalisls must be free
of obligalion 10 any inleresls other lhan" promoiion oi this right.

Clearly, however, there can be no general right to know a righi to know anything and 10
everyihing. The queslion is what factors are relevant to decidlng wheiher information
damaglng to an individual ought to be published. ln the fllm Absence of Malice, a crime
suspecl's friend provides an alibi for him to a reporter, claiming the suspecl accompanied her
to an arboftion during the time when ihe crime was being committed The friend is emotionaliy
unstable and a devout Catholic, and commiis suicide when the slory, including her name, ts 15
published the next day in the local newspaper The reporter ctairns thai the credibility of the
soLrrce, in which another innocent person's repulation is at stake, depended on printing the
woman's name. Another example is that of a prominent conservalive businessman
vacationlng on Florida when his hotel burns down. The wire seruice s1ory lists hirrr arno g
those who escaped uninjured and identiiles the holel as a gay resort. The businessman
threalens suicide if his name is published in ihe story run by his hometown newspaper.
llli.)rld the newspaper publish the story as it is, or without his name, or omitting the gay
3ngle? Or should it killthe story?

To decide such cases, several issues are retevani: the importance of the sloryi the likellhoocl
and nlasnilude of harm to the individual; the retevance of the disputecl information io the story 25
(car titlr story be usefully tolci without it?) and, finally, the extent to which the person rn
questlon has chosen the limelighl or is rcsponsibte for finding himsetf in it. Each of these
queslions may be difficult to answer.

When we complicaie the iss!e by asking about the appropriateness of reporting ostensibly
lrri\/ate behaviorrr (such as sexual aclivity) of a public olficial or publjc flgure, the questions
bccome even more difficult. We may agree that the answer to the question "When should
repoftei3 viiite about the private lives of publc afficiats?,'is ,,When the behaviaur is relevant ta
thei ftlness fot office." BUI agreement about when that condition fulfilled is diffjcult to
achieve. There is profound disagreement jn Western society about whether, 's or to what exieni,
a per:jon's private character, and character flaws, reveal something signiflcant about his
abiljty to lead and to govern.

Nothing is simplified by the iact that the pubticiiy journalists create by their reports radica y
changes the public environmeni and may therefore atso alter the answer io the fjtness
question So, for example, one might believe that a political leader's sexual peccadilloes are
not in and of themselves relevant to his fitness for office. However, once these become public
knowledge or the object of public obsession, what was fomerly private behaviour can no
longer be considered as such_ When US presidenls Franklin Roosevelt and John Kennedy
carded on with women who were not their wives, it was not public knowledge at leasl par y
because journalists of the time chose to exercise discretion about what lhey knew. Some
might siill argue that these indiscrelions were not only moralflaws but that th;y undermined 45
tha presidents' public success and greatness_ But unless their sexLral escapade; inlerfered in
a direct way - say, by taking up too much time or distracting lhe men from jmportant public
b!:iin,'s it is implausible to maintain that such acts, unknown to the public, could be
ielevrnt lo evaluating their public success. We may wish lor a kind of moral unity in the
Lrniverse according lo which all the virtues go together and all the vices do 1oo _ but, alas, 50
there is no necessary connection bet\,r'een privale morality and public greainess.

Unlike lheir predecessors, contempo€ry journatrsjs have cho;en 1() report on the sexual
activilies of polilicians. So they must assume responsibility for their own considerable role not
only in helping to determine the course of historicat evenls, bul also in making some things
lrue that mighl no1 have otherwise been irue - such as wheiher a polilician's sexLlal practices
are relevant to his ab;liiy to lead

Of course, journalists and news organizations are likely to argue ihal, as long as other
journalists cover these issues, they have little choice but to reporl them ii they hope to remain
in business. The competitive pressures defense is widespread- lt is also quite persuasive. At
the very least, even if only one media outlet reported a seamy story (one ihal would have
remained unknown in earlier times), once reported such stories often take on a life of their
own that make ii hard forjournalists to ignore them.
'lhus iar, we have considered journalisiic practjces thal overslep the bounds these
generally suggest behaviour that is harmful or offensive to someone covered by ihe media.
Bul they can also include praclices that offend audiences, such as the use of profanity or the
publication oi shocking pictures ln some cases, we may find both at once:lhe photographer

newspaper readers or ihe viewing audience. Perhaps lhen, lhe right to know needs lo be
balanced againsl the possible harm that can be caused by such reporls

Yel it can be argued that the more common problem confronting journalists is not ihe belrayal /0
of sources and subjects bul rather the opposite: a too cozy relationship in whlch both
joumalist and source have an interest in remaining on good terms, even ai the cost of other
values tfrat are supposed io serue. To be eifective in their respeciive positions, the journalist
needs the source, especially when the solrrce is a politician, public olfcial, or some oiher
figure with an endurlng role and the pohtician or public official needs the journalist. But such 75
syrnbioiic relationships can endanger the journalist's role as t.uth-seeker and walchdog of the
public interest This lension between the joLrrnalists need lo cultivale sources and the
impodance of delachment from them can result in a profound conflici of interest and a bias in
the way in which evenls are reported or, equally important, noi reported

Adapted f,otn ltledia Ethics nACanpdnion to llpplied Ethics. R(; I;rct.V C H. rlrellnan
kd ) 2A05 Bht.kvell Publi.tl nE Lkl.

pApER 2 (50 marks)

Read the passage and then answer all the question.: -hich follow belor,v. Note that up to flfteen
marks will be given for the quality and accuracy of your use of English throughout this paper.

Note: When a question asks for an answer lN YOUR OWN WORDS AS FAR AS pOSStBLE
and you select the appropriate material from the passage for your answer, you must still use
your own words to express it. Little credit can be given to answers which only copy words or
phrases from the passage.

1. ln paragraph '1, what is ihe ethical dilemma or conflict confronting journalists today?
Answer in your own words as far as possible. [2rnl

2a. What issues in paragraph 3 must be considered before decjding on what to publish? Answer .
in your own words as far as possible. l4ml

2b. How dc'the examples in paragraph 2 illustrate any 2 of ihe issues you have identified above?
Answer in your own words as far as possible. I2ml

3. ln paragraph 4, what is the disagreement in Western society? Answer in your own words as
far as possible. [2m]

4 Explain the author's attitude in his choice of the word .obsession' in line 41 [2m]
5a. Explain in your own words as far as possible what the writer means by .We may wish for a
kind of moral unity in the universe" (line 49) I2ml
5b. "We may wish for a kind of moral unity in the universe... but alas..." What is the author
implying v/ith reference to the words in bold? [1m]

6- Why do the journalist and the public figure need each other in order .to be effective in their
respective posiiions' (line 73)? Answer in your own words as far as possible. I2mJ

7. The passage discusses the media's insistence on the public,s right to know.What are the
potentially harmful effects of this? Summarise in no more than 110 words, using material from
paragraphs 2 to B. Use your own words as far as possible. lTml
B- Give the meaning of the following words as they are used in the passage. you may write your
answer in one word or a shod phrase. Isml
(a) overriding (line B)
(b) fitness (line 40)
(c) undermined (line 45)
(d) implausible (line 48)
(e) symbiotic (line 76)
10. The writer explores the potentia'ly harmfut elfects ofjournalism arising from the public,s right
to know. To whai extent shoutd people in yodr country have the righi to know? Justiiy your
answer with reference to the ideas in the text and to your own ideas and experience.