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ENGL Writing in Discipline Assignment #1

November 12, 2013


1. Define researc.
> In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering
of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. -Martyn Shuttleworth
> Research is a process of steps used to collect and analye information to increase
our understanding of a topic or issue. -!reswell
> the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to
establish facts and reach new conclusions. -"#ford $ictionary
2. Different Types of Research
Quantitative and Qualitative
Quantitative research is the collecting of ob%ective numerical data. &eatures are
classified and counted, and statistical models are constructed to analye and e#plain the
information that has been gathered. Some of the tools used for this type of research
include 'uestionnaires that are given to test sub%ects, e'uipment that is used to measure
something and databases of e#isting information. (he goal of 'uantitative research is to
compile statistical evidence, so the 'uestionnaires used in this method typically include
yes-or-no 'uestions or multiple-choice 'uestions rather than open-ended 'uestions such
as essay 'uestions.
)nlike 'uantitative research, 'ualitative research is sub%ective and seeks to describe
or interpret whatever is being researched. Instead of numbers, this type of research
provides information in the form of words or visual representations. It relies on the
researcher to observe, record and what happens, such as participants* answers to open-
ended 'uestions, sub%ects* behavior or the results of e#periments. Case studies are
common e#amples of 'ualitative research.
Observational and Experimental
"bservational research is the collection of information without interference or input
from the researcher. It is the e#amination of things as they naturally or inherently are. (he
researcher simply observes, measures or records what occurs. (hat information is then
analyed and used to draw conclusions.
(his is in contrast with e#perimental research, in which the researcher sets the
parameters or conditions and is able to change them to determine their effects.
+#perimental research often occurs in laboratories but can occur anywhere. It merely
re'uires the researcher to be able to control one or more conditions of the e#periment.
(his method helps researchers understand how certain variables , the different aspects
or conditions that can change , can affect whatever it is they are studying.
Basic !pplied and Developmental
-hen the purpose of research is simply to reveal or discover what is true, it can be
called basic research. (his type of research involves e#ploring that which is not known or
understood. !pplied research is taking what is already known and looking for ways to
use it, such as to solve problems. $evelopmental research is similar to applied research
but focuses on using what is already known to improve products or e#isting technology
or to create something new.
". Characteristics of #ood Research
Vigorous: seeks to look at all avenues surrounding the problem in
order to conduct a thorough investigation

Systematic: identifies & labels variables, investigates relationships
between variables, data is collected, hypotheses are evaluated


Reductive: Research takes individual events & uses them to
establish general relationships

ogical: research design allows the investigator to draw
reasonable conclusions
Replicable: Research process is recorded enabling others to test
the findings

!b"ective: #s not effected by the researchers own views, beliefs or
what they might want to find from the study
$. #oals % &urposes of Research