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TITTLE: Production of Breads DATE OF EXPERIMENTS: 22.08.

According to Murano (2003), Bread is the product of baking dough from a mixture of flour,
water, salt, yeast and other ingredients. Wheat flour is often used for the production of bread.
This is because wheat flour has higher protein content and quality than other flour. The protein
content in flour contributes to different loaf volume and texture of the bread. In addition,
increasing the protein content of flour can increased the loaf volume and resulted in softer
bread (Maleki & Hoseni, 1980) .Besides, flours of high protein content often yield bread with
good quality.
On the other hand, the quality of the bread can be indicates by the internal and
characteristic of the bread. With the correct mixing, absorption and fermentation both high and
low protein flour can produce a good shape of the bread. Meanwhile, high quality flour with
high protein content can yield high volume of loaf due to more gluten in the flour. (Maleki &
Hoseni, 1980). Darker crust colour of bread can indicate the usage of high protein flour. This is
because of Maillard browning reaction and larger volume can increases surface area resulting in
faster surface temperature build up allowing more caramelization and browning. (Chullen,
Besides that, crumb colour for the bread is usually white or creamy. Creamy colour is
obtained by using low protein flour. Meanwhile, air cell that is more even is consider as high
quality of bread. In contrast, the springiness of the bread is also depends on the usage of low or
high protein flour as the amount of gluten play an important role in order to measure the
springiness of the bread (Maleki & Hoseni, 1980). High quality bread is springier than low
quality bread as it used high protein flour. Moreover, the eating quality of the bread may assist
with the indication of bread quality as it may attract the sensory attributes of the customer.

There are some method of bread assessment that is used in food industry to determine
the characteristic and the quality of the bread. For example, loaf specific volume can be
measured by using rapeseed displacement. Crust and crumb colour was measured with a
Minolta Chroma meter. Meanwhile, a texture analyser was used to assess crust and crumb
characteristics. In addition AACC two-stage drying method can be used to measured loaf
moisture besides protein content of the breads was measured by the Leco method and dietary
fibre content can be measured by the AOAC procedure (Chullen, 1998). Last but not least, the
professional trained panelist was also used in industry to measure the quality of the bread.
Raw Material Formulation 1 Formulation 2 Formulation 3
Normal flour 1000 g 1000 g 1000 g
Sugar 200 g 200 g 200 g
Salt 10 g 10 g 10 g
Shortening 100 g 50 g 100 g
Egg 100 g 100 g -
Skimmed milk 50 g 50 g -
Instant yeast 20 g 20 g 20 g
Water 400 mL 400 mL 400 mL

To learn the processing method for bread making


The flour was sieved and placed in mixing bowl
The yeast was prepared by adding 50 g of sugar and 200 mL of warm water for dough mix.
The yeast was allowed to activate for 15 minutes
The dough was leaved for 1 hour for the first fermentation.
The dough was covered by using muslin cloth
The baking oven was pre heated to 180 C
The dough was knock back for 15 minutes and the dough was divided into
The baking pan was prepared by slightly greasing it
The dough portion was placed in baking pan and leaved for final fermentation for 1 hour,
The dough was covered with muslin cloth
The dough in oven at temperature 180 C for 15 to 20 minutes was baked
The baking pan from the oven was removed and the bread was allowed to cool on a rack
From the experiment, we need to determine the processing method for bread making
by using 3 formulations. Every formulation was varies from the usage of eggs, skimmed milk
and the amount of the ingredients used. The colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall
acceptance of the product were observed besides the ratio volume and weight of the bread
was calculated. On the other hand, the processing method and ingredients used in the
production of bread was learnt in order to yield high quality of bread that satisfy the needs of
the consumer and sensory attributes.
Every formulation yield different production of bread in terms of texture, ratio of
volume/weight and sensory attributes. For example, formulation 1 and 2 contain higher
amount of shortening than formulation 2. According to Bethany (2013), Shortening is any type
of solid fat used to prevent the formation of a gluten matrix in baked goods besides used to
keep them soft after baking. On the other hand, formulation 3 does not contain egg and
skimmed milk while formulation 1 and 2 contain both ingredients. Eggs in bread can help the
dough to rise and the fats from the yolk help to tenderize the crumb and lighten the texture.
Moreover, the purpose of adding milk to bread can make the bread more tender and sweeter
(Stephan, 2012).
In this experiment, the flour was firstly sieved in order to loosen up flour that has been
sitting around in storage for a long time, aerating it and give lighter texture to the bread
(Stephan, 2012). Then, the yeast was prepared by addition of sugar as yeast nutrients need for
growth and warm water that not exceed 40 C where it was an optimum temperature for the
yeast to activate. According to National Food Science Institute (2009), yeast is a living organism
that produces carbon dioxide gas that enables bread to rise. On the other hand, the type of
yeast that was used in this experiment is instant yeast besides the yeast was leaved for 15
minutes in order to activate. Then, other ingredients such as flour, salt, sugar was mixed to
form dough.

Through the production of bread, the bread was weighed besides the volume of the
bread was measured by using rapeseed displacement method. For formulation 1, ratio of
volume per weight was calculated and results in 14.87 mL/g. Meanwhile, formulation 2 and 3
show 7.87 mL/g and 2.80 mL/g respectively. Formulations 1 show the highest ratio of volume
per weight because the bread was leaven and contain more air cell in it. Meanwhile, bread that
use formulation 3 results in the lowest ratio of volume per weight because of the bread was
slightly compact than other formulation. In addition, formulation 1 and 2 has proper mixing
ingredients as it yield better ratio volume per weight than formulation 3.
Through sensory attributes, formulation 1 and 2 show golden brown in colour while
formulation 3 results in pale brown. The bread in formulation 3 was not properly cooked as it
results in pale brown in colour. On the other hand, the texture of formulation 1 was softer than
formulation 2 but the springiness was not present. Besides, formulation 2 was soft but the
springiness was also not present. Meanwhile, formulation 3 results in slightly clumping feel.
Formulation 1 was softer than other formulation because they contain higher amount of
shortening than other formulation as shortening provide softer texture to the bread.
On the other hand, aroma of formulation 1 results in yeast and bun odour as the
proofing period was too long. While, formulation 2 have similar aroma to commercial bun that
was marketed in the industry. For formulation 3, humid aroma can be observed as the bun was
not thoroughly cooked. In contrast, the taste of the bun for formulation 1 was same to the
commercial bun in industry. Besides, formulation 2 and 3 results in sweet taste and less sweet
respectively. Bread in formulation 3 results in less sweet in taste because of no milk was added
to this formulation. Lastly, for overall acceptance all formulation was acceptable but
formulation 1 was preferable.

In this experiment, there are some sources of error that we did that may affect the
accuracy of the results during conducting the experiment. For example, the ingredients are not
weighed properly as excess ingredients such as salt may contribute to too little volume of the
bread. Besides, not enough addition of flour can contribute to coarse texture of bread was
produced. To minimize these errors various precautions should be taken such as, three
consecutive of weighing samples were carried out to eliminate the errors of the handlers.
Besides, make sure right proportions of ingredients are added so that accurate results and
better sensory attributes can be achieved.

In conclusion, ratio volume per weight for formulation 1, 2 and 3 results in 14.87 mL/g , 7.87
mL/g and 2.80 mL/g respectively. In sensory attributes, all formulation was acceptable but
formulation 1 was more preferable.

1. What are the functions of yeast in bread making
The functions of yeast in bread making are to supply carbon dioxide gas which inflates the
dough during proofing and the early stages of baking. Besides that, yeast can contribute to
dough maturity or development. In addition, yeast can improve the flavour of the bread.
2. List the factors that affect the quality of bread
The factors that affect the quality of bread:
Flour: If the gluten was not develop enough and the bread was not rise properly it can
contributes to poor volume of bread besides too little flour that was added caused the course
texture of bread produced
Yeast: Heavy texture of the bread is produced when the time for yeast to grow was lack
besides too little yeast can cause poor volume of bread. In contrast, bread with too great
volume results when too much yeast is used.
Salt: When there is too little salt, yeast grows too fast and the gluten structure will not support
the bread besides too little salt causes the bread to fall and makes the texture too dense or
Preservatives: Addition of calcium propionate helps to extend the shelf life of the bread.

(n.d.), What's the point of sifting flour?, Retrieved from
G. Stephen Jones, (2012), Bread Making Ingredients, Retrieved from
Murano, P.S. (2003) Understanding Food Science and Technology, Belmont:
Wadsworth/Thomson Learning Inc.
M. Bethany., (2013), What is Shortening?, Retrieved from
National Food Service Management Institute, (2009), Preparing Yeast Breads, Retrieved from

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