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Seismic Inversion

Pre and Post Stack


Carlos Cobos
September 2010
Outline
What is Seismic Inversion?
Vertical Resolution
Low Frequency Model Estimation
Post Stack Seismic Inversion
Pre Stack Seismic Inversion
Observations
Outline
What is Seismic Inversion?
Vertical Resolution
Low Frequency Model Estimation
Post Stack Seismic Inversion
Pre Stack Seismic Inversion
Observations
What is Seismic Inversion?
Seismic inversion is the process of
converting seismic reflection data
into seismic impedance (volumetric
rock properties).
Seismic Inversion Classification
Seismic
Inversion
Deterministic
Stochastic
Band Limited Inversion
Generalized Linear Inversion
Sparse Spike
Parametric (Gaussian)
Non-Parametric
Post-Stack
(Single)
Pre-Stack or
Elastic
(Simultaneous)
Post-Stack
(Single)
General Seismic Inversion Work Flow
Low Frequency
Model
Seismic
Data
Wavelet
Extraction
Inversion
QC Impedance
Data
Seismic Inversion Limitations
Vertical Resolution: The vertical resolution
of the seismic impedance is limited by the
bandwidth of the input seismic data.
Low Frequency Model: The accuracy of
the calculated impedance volume is
affected by artifacts in the low frequency
model.
Outline
What is Seismic Inversion?
Vertical Resolution
Low Frequency Model Estimation
Post Stack Seismic Inversion
Pre Stack Seismic Inversion
Observations
Vertical Resolution
A typical deterministic inversion exhibits
a vertical resolution of approximately
/4. At a frequency of 30 Hz and
assuming a P-wave velocity of 9000 ft/s,
the tuning wavelength (/4) is 75 ft.
Vertical Resolution
1 20 Hz Ricker Wavelet
2 30 Hz Ricker Wavelet
3 40 Hz Ricker Wavelet
4 60 Hz Ricker Wavelet
5 80 Hz Ricker Wavelet
Inverted with Generalized
Linear Inversion
1 20 Hz Ricker Wavelet
2 30 Hz Ricker Wavelet
3 40 Hz Ricker Wavelet
4 60 Hz Ricker Wavelet
5 80 Hz Ricker Wavelet
Original Seismic Data
Central Frequency: 30 Hz
Average Velocity: 12500 ft/sec
Vertical Resolution: 104 ft
High Resolution Spectral Inversion
Central Frequency: 310 Hz
Average Velocity: 12500 ft/sec
Vertical Resolution: 10 ft
Original Seismic Data
Central Frequency: 30 Hz
Average Velocity: 12500 ft/sec
Vertical Resolution: 104 ft
High Resolution Spectral Inversion
Central Frequency: 310 Hz
Average Velocity: 12500 ft/sec
Vertical Resolution: 10 ft
Outline
What is Seismic Inversion?
Vertical Resolution
Low Frequency Model Estimation
Post Stack Seismic Inversion
Pre Stack Seismic Inversion
Observations
Low Frequency Model
Due to the band limited nature of the
seismic data, seismic inversion cannot find
a unique solution. Therefore, two types of
data are needed for the inversion process:
the seismic data and a low impedance
model that constrains the possible
solutions.
Low Frequency Model
Low frequency models are derived from well log
data, NMO or pre-stack time migrated velocities.
Low frequency models generated from well log data
are influenced by the amount of wells and the
interpolation algorithm used for the model creation.
On the other hand, seismic velocities models are, in
many cases, too smooth for a high resolution
inversion process.
Raw Dense Interval Velocities
Interval Velocities
After Spatial Smoothing
Interval Velocities After REVEL
Interval Velocities After REVEL
with Seismic Overlay
Outline
What is Seismic Inversion?
Vertical Resolution
Low Frequency Model Estimation
Post Stack Seismic Inversion
Pre Stack Seismic Inversion
Observations
General Inversion Process
Relative
Impedance Trace
Absolute
Impedance Trace
Wavelet
Reflectivity Trace
Seismic Trace
Synthetic Trace
Low Frequency
Model
High Resolution Velocity Model
Post Stack Inversion Generalized
Linear Inversion
[m*g]/[cc*sec]
High Resolution Post Stack Inversion
Generalized Linear Inversion
[m*g]/[cc*sec]
Post Stack Inversion Generalized
Linear Inversion
[m*g]/[cc*sec]
High Resolution Post Stack Inversion
Generalized Linear Inversion
[m*g]/[cc*sec]
Outline
What is Seismic Inversion?
Vertical Resolution
Low Frequency Model Estimation
Post Stack Seismic Inversion
Pre Stack Seismic Inversion
Observations
Why Pre-Stack Inversion?
1. The seismic inversion process is better
constrained if S-wave information is
included into the minimization process.
2. Information carried by a pair of seismic
attributes is typically more robust than
the information obtained by a single
seismic attributes.
Why Pre-Stack Inversion?
0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.2
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
11000
Probability Density
V
p

[
f
t
/
s
e
c
]
0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.2
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
Probability Density
V
s

[
f
t
/
s
e
c
]
0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
Probability Density
B
u
l
k

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

[
g
r
/
c
c
]
0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.2
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
x 10
4
Probability Density
A
c
o
u
s
t
i
c

I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
Sands-Shales Elastic Properties
AVO Intercept-Gradient Statistic
Success
Rate
Brine
Success
Rate
Gas
Success
Rate
Shale
Success
Rate
Total
Information
Entropy
Intercept 0.52 0.84 0.54 0.61 0.33
Gradient 0.47 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.30
Inter-Grad 1 1 1 1 1.09
Why Pre-Stack Inversion?
1 2 3 4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Ro G Rp Rs AI EI Ip Is
Information Carried By single
Attribute
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
R0-G
Rp-Rs
AI-EI
Ip-Is
Information Carried By Pair of
Attributes
Fusions Flow for High Resolution
Simultaneous Absolute Impedance Inversion
BRAVO
TM
REVEL
TM
Low Frequency Models
P-Impedance S-Impedance
Reflectivity Sections
P-Reflectivity S-Reflectivity
High Resolution
Reflectivity Sections
P-Reflectivity S-Reflectivity
High Resolution
Impedance Sections
P-Impedance S-Impedance
Rock Properties Analysis
Rock Properties Analysis
Outline
What is Seismic Inversion?
Vertical Resolution
Low Frequency Model Estimation
Post Stack Seismic Inversion
Pre Stack Seismic Inversion
Observations
Observations
1. The combination of high resolution velocity
residual analysis and high resolution spectral
inversion coupled with seismic inversion
engines improve the accuracy and vertical
resolution of the final absolute impedance
volume.
2. Simultaneous elastic inversion is the most
robust deterministic inversion method because
it is better constrained by the inclusion of S-
wave information into the minimization
process.