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rotating rectifier with several diodes per arm in parallel.

A pilot exciter machine with permanent pole magnets


was chosen as a power supply for the main exciter
machine.


Figure 7 - Brushless Exciter for EPR Generator
A four-loop controller was chosen as an automatic
voltage regulator (AVR). This four-loop controller was
chosen to permit the dynamic behavior of the excitation
system to fulfill the client specification. In addition to
the generator terminal voltage, controller loops for the
generator speed, electrical and mechanical power, and
pole angle limiter were included.
The client specification defined several different failure
cases and a widely spread grid. One of these required
cases was to operate the generator at rated active power
and 35% of rated MVAR in the underexcited range.
This operation point corresponds to a rotor angle of 90
o
.
At this operation point, the stator end zones and the
stability of the generator at the grid are the main design
challenges. The end zones of the EPR generator have
been designed to permit this operation point, even at the
required 90% voltage mentioned earlier in this paper. In
regard to stability, traditional AVRs would limit the
generator to a significantly smaller MVAR value; the
four-loop controller permits this operation point.
One of the more challenging additional requirements
was to survive the loss of one of three grid connection
lines, each with 80% reactance. With the four-loop
controller it is possible to ensure the generator operation
within the specified limits and to return the generator to
its reference value within 5 seconds.
RAILWAY TRANSPORT OF COMPONENTS
Among the most challenging requirements in the
customer specifications was the requirement to design
all generator components to accommodate railway
shipping constraints imposed by the French railway
system, Socit Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais
(SNCF) and the French railway transport company,
Socit de Transports Spciaux Industriels (STSI).
Meeting requirements for railway transport on the SNCF
railway system with STSI transport cars and tooling
required especially careful attention to the size and
weight of the wound stator core and fabricated steel
frame, the largest and heaviest generator component.
Separate shipment of the section of the frame designed
to house the hydrogen coolers and hydrogen compressor
(at left end of stator in Figures 1, 2, 4 and 5) allowed the
length of the main stator section to be limited to 11
meters, as illustrated in Figure 8. The authors
Company has used this practice for many years to
accommodate shipping size and weight constraints.
Also, careful attention to the weights of the wound core
and fabricated frame has led to a design that meets the
size and weight constraints imposed by SNCF and STSI.
Design of these components has been guided by finite
element analysis of all loads imposed by railway
transport and hydrogen pressurization. As suggested by
Figure 8, it is possible to ship the EPR generator stator
with STSI transport cars on SNCF railways.

Figure 8 - Railway Transport of EPR Generator Stator
The SNCF railway-loading gauge shown in Figure 9
strongly influenced the frame cross-section design. For
example, the flat sides of the frame shown in Figures 1
and 2 were introduced to permit the stator to fit within
the 4.15m width limit specified in this loading gauge.
Also, the special narrowed and raised shape of the
bottom of the frame near the terminal box adapter was
designed to meet loading gauge requirements imposed
by clearances to railway station platforms. Those