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Literature Review:

Total quality management (TQM) is a philosophy and presents a business structure that
companies should implement to attain organizational excellence. Implementing TQM is
actually a succession or a series of pertinent quality initiatives within the on the whole
``continuum of quality initiatives that enhances business performance and in helping
fabricate high quality products in meeting the ever changing demands and needs of the
customers (Yusof & Aspinwall, 2001). Meeting customer satisfaction, increasing profits and
reducing losses to a minimum level can be attained through the application of modern quality
philosophies and principles such as Total Quality Management (TQM). Understanding the
tools and techniques of TQM is considered to be significant in order to get useful results. A
better understanding is required to investigate the current status of TQM implementation.
Implementation of TQM is a management decision that requires many considerations such as
companys operations, strategy, staff and customers. It has been shown that a commitment to
TQM is essential for industrys top management to floor level employees to compete against
competitors. There is a need for properly documented study and project survey on how TQM
can be properly implemented in manufacturing companies in the KSA and to find out the
level of awareness of these companies in conducting TQM. Understanding the tools and
techniques of TQM is considered to be significant in order to get useful results. A better
understanding is required to investigate the current status of TQM implementation (Rahman
& Attar, 2010). Quality improvement has become a considerable force throughout the world.
Although methods to improve and manage quality are numerous, it can be said that TQM is a
critical determinant in the success of manufacturing organizations and critical success factors
for implementing total quality management are: Education and Training, Supplier quality
management, Employee Empowerment, Vision and Plan statement, Recognition and Reward
and Customer Focus (Arshida & Agil, 2013). Although, TQM is a well-established field of
study for business excellence the success rate of TQM implementation is not very high. The
major reason for TQM failure is owing to the tendency to look at TQM as tool and not as a
system therefore, managers should understand what TQM is all about and the most important
critical success factors that drive the successful implementations of (Mallur, Hiregoudar, &
Soragaon, 2012). TQM is seen as having enormous potential to respond to the challenges. It
can be applied as a means for improving student / staff morale, increasing productivity and
delivering higher quality services to both internal and external customers. And TQM is
becoming popular among developed and developing countries in the world today. Total
quality management is a holistic approach and consist three essential components.
1. Customer focus
2. Employees involvement, and
3. Continuous improvement.
TQM involves a paradigm shift in the mindset of the entire organization. This can be
achieved through systematic and strategic training of all the employees. Hence, TQM
Involves high cost, effort and time (Mishra & Pandey, 2013).
International trade in textiles and clothing has played an important role in the development
process of many countries and has also facilitated their integration in to the world economy.
In the Developed Countries, the process of industrialization and subsequent prosperity in a
way commenced with the mechanization of textile production in the early19th Century. In the
Developing Countries, on the other hand, the sector has come to occupy an important place in
terms of its contribution to national output, employment and exports. Developing countries as
a group, account for more than one half of world exports of textiles and clothing. The history
of textile is as old as that of human civilization. The oldest recorded in the 6th and 7th
century BC using fiber comes with the invention of flax and wool fabric. Various benefits felt
by implementation of QMS / ISO. Any specific statistical data is not found about
implementation of Six Sigma in Indian Textile Industry. Both the QMS / ISO practices and
Six Sigma have their own benefits but if they both are implemented they complements each
other and the results are improvement in overall productivity. Integration of QMS / ISO and
Six Sigma practices is the need of Indian Textile Industries business improvement (More &
Pawar, 2013). the impact of TQM practices on quality performance, business performance
and organizational performance of Pakistani manufacturing firms located in six big industrial
cities is significant (Hassan, Mukhtar, Qureshi, & Sharif, 2012). The proponent of Total
Quality Management (TQM) approach like Deming, Crosby and Juran advocated that
implementation of quality management philosophy helps the companies to achieve the higher
levels of quality and performance. On the other hand, the review of literature indicates that very
little effort has been made to investigate the implementation of quality and excellence initiatives
in the textile sector of Pakistan. It seems that Pakistani textile industry has not prepared itself to
face such type of severe competition. This might be the reason that these companies are unable to
compete, even with the South Asian countries on the dimensions of performance like timely
delivery, consistency and reliability, innovation and quality of their products. This indicates that
without making fundamental changes in their management approach and emphasizing on quality
management these textile companies cannot get their decent share from the international market.
However organizations seem aware of the importance of quality management system but just
limiting themselves to the implementation of ISO 9000, quality management system rather than
moving beyond the concepts of quality control and quality assurance. The effective
implementation of ISO 9000 certification should consider as the mid way towards the
implementation of advanced systems and models of TQM like EFQM Excellence model and Six
Sigma (Shafiq, 2012). Textile Sector of Pakistan is facing intense competition.
In this turbulent business environment, quality is being considered a key strategic factor
achieving business excellence and sustaining competitive advantage. However, to achieve
high business excellence & performance, successful implementation of Total Quality
Management Practices is the peak prerequisite. For attaining superior performance and
competitive advantage, particular TQM dimensions such as process management, leadership,
employee fulfillment, customer focus, learning, internal/external cooperation and continuous
improvement play a very important role. Managers should promote these practices in their
organizations because it does not only improve the firm performance but also it is a valuable
source to gain competitive advantage. Thus, managers should have to implement TQM
practices across all the departments of the organization. Also there is a need to develop
organizational culture that boost learning environment, collaboration and possession of latest
market knowledge (Hassan, Nawaz, Shaukat, & Hassan, 2014).

RESEARCH QUESTION:

Do TQM practices affect the product & service quality performance of Pakistani Textile
Sector (Nishat Mills Ltd.)?
Do TQM practices affect the operational efficiency of Pakistani Textile Sector (Nishat Mills
Ltd.)?
Do TQM practices affect the financial performance of Pakistani Textile Sector (Nishat Mills
Ltd.)?
Do TQM practices affect the employee and customer gratification of Pakistani Textile Sector
(Nishat Mills Ltd.)?
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the application of TQM constructs such as
1. customer focus
2. learning
3. continuous improvement
4. leadership
5. employee fulfillment
6. cooperation and
7. process management
on firms performance dimensions i.e. product & service quality, operational efficiency,
financial performance, employee & customer gratification in the Textile Sector of
Pakistan.
OBJECTIVE:
The TQM conjecture of how and why TQM works is a paramount matter for the firms
survival, competition, quality and improvement. So, with the findings of this study, managers
can easily come to a decision that in accordance with their organizational context, which one
of the TQM dimensions is required to bring business excellence. Therefore, this study will
help managers to inspect the reverberations of TQM constructs on firm business excellence.

HYPOTHESES:
H1: There is a positive relationship between seven TQM dimensions and product/service
quality.
H2: There is a positive relationship between seven TQM dimensions and operational
efficiency.
H3: There is a positive relationship between seven TQM dimensions and financial
performance.
H4: There is a positive relationship between seven TQM dimensions and employee
satisfaction
H5: There is a positive relationship between seven TQM dimensions and customer
satisfaction.

METHODOLOGY:
The study combines two qualitative and quantitative methods. Two methods shall be used to
collect the data; namely, a survey questionnaire that is based on seven critical success factors
and semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire is aimed to identify critical success factors
of TQM implementation in Nishat Mills Ltd. while the interview method is mainly used to
support the findings and to have a better understanding of the implementation of TQM in
Nishat Mills Ltd.
A total of 50 copies of the questionnaire shall be distributed to the targeted employees
working within Nishat Mills Ltd. Five-point Likert scales (strongly disagree, disagree,
neutral, agree, strongly agree) will be used in the questionnaire.
The questionnaire will be developed in such a way so that it helps to obtain maximum
information and perceptions with regard to managements practices on TQM, the
implementation of numerous quality initiatives, how the process of implementation is
conducted, the benefits of TQM and problems that company faces as well as the factors that
contribute to the success of TQM. Besides interviews will be made from the documents
supplied by company, and short visits at the plant shall be made.



References:
Arshida, M. M., & Agil, S. O. (2013). CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR TOTAL
QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN THE LIBYAN IRON AND
STEEL COMPANY. 254-259.
Hassan, M. u., Mukhtar, A., Qureshi, S. U., & Sharif, S. (2012). Impact of TQM Practices on
Firms Performance of Pakistans Manufacturing Organizations. International Journal of
Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 232-259.
Hassan, M. U., Nawaz, M. S., Shaukat, S., & Hassan, S. (2014). An Empirical Assessment of
TQM Dimensions and Their Relationship with Firm Performance: Evidence from the Textile
Sector of Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal , 696-705.
Mallur, S. B., Hiregoudar, N. L., & Soragaon, B. (2012). A Comparative Study of Importance
and Practices of CSFs of TQM Practices and Their Impact on Performance of North
Karnataka SMEs Manufacturing Sectors: A Survey Result. International Journal of
Engineering and Innovative Technology , 97-108.
Mishra, P., & Pandey, A. (2013). Barriers in implementing total quality management in
Higher Education. Journal of Education & Research for Sustainable Development , 1-11.
More, S. S., & Pawar, M. S. (2013). Performance Improvement of Textile Sector by
Implementing Quality Six Sigma (QSS). International Journal of Application or Innovation
in Engineering & Management , 352-357.
Rahman, A., & Attar, M. T. (2010). Implementation of TQM in Manufacturing Industries in
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 1-8.
Shafiq, M. (2012). IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND
BUSINESS EXCELLENCE FRAMEWORKS IN PAKISTANI TEXTILE COMPANIES.
Journal of Quality and Technology Management , 11-23.
Yusof, S. M., & Aspinwall, E. (2001). Case studies on the implementation of TQM in the UK
automotive SMEs. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management , 722-743.