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MOVING FROM PEDAGOGY TO ANDRAGOGY

(Adapted and Updated from Hiemstra, R, ! "is#o, $ (%&&'( Individualizing instruction "an Fran#is#o)
*osse+,$ass(
T-ere is .itt.e do/0t t-at t-e most dominant form of instr/#tion in E/rope and Ameri#a is peda1o1+, or 2-at
some peop.e refer to as dida#ti#, traditiona., or tea#-er,dire#ted approa#-es A #ompetin1 idea in terms of
instr/#tin1 ad/.t .earners, and one t-at 1at-ered moment/m 2it-in t-e past t-ree de#ades, -as 0een d/00ed
andra1o1+ T-e p/rpose of t-is reso/r#e pie#e is to pro3ide t-e interested reader 2it- some 0a#41ro/nd
information re1ardin1 0ot- instr/#tiona. forms
T-e peda1o1i#a. mode. of instr/#tion 2as ori1ina..+ de3e.oped in t-e monasti# s#-oo.s of E/rope in t-e
Midd.e A1es Yo/n1 0o+s 2ere re#ei3ed into t-e monasteries and ta/1-t 0+ mon4s a##ordin1 to a s+stem of
instr/#tion t-at re5/ired t-ese #-i.dren to 0e o0edient, fait-f/., and effi#ient ser3ants of t-e #-/r#- (6no2.es,
%&78( From t-is ori1in de3e.oped t-e tradition of peda1o1+, 2-i#- .ater spread to t-e se#/.ar s#-oo.s of
E/rope and Ameri#a and 0e#ame and remains t-e dominant form of instr/#tion
Peda1o1+ is deri3ed from t-e Gree4 2ord 9paid,9 meanin1 #-i.d p./s 9a1o1os,9 meanin1 .eadin1 T-/s,
peda1o1+ -as 0een defined as t-e art and s#ien#e of tea#-in1 #-i.dren In t-e peda1o1i#a. mode., t-e tea#-er
-as f/.. responsi0i.it+ for ma4in1 de#isions a0o/t 2-at 2i.. 0e .earned, -o2 it 2i.. 0e .earned, 2-en it 2i..
0e .earned, and if t-e materia. -as 0een .earned Peda1o1+, or tea#-er,dire#ted instr/#tion as it is #ommon.+
4no2n, p.a#es t-e st/dent in a s/0missi3e ro.e re5/irin1 o0edien#e to t-e tea#-er:s instr/#tions It is 0ased on
t-e ass/mption t-at .earners need to 4no2 on.+ 2-at t-e tea#-er tea#-es t-em T-e res/.t is a tea#-in1 and
.earnin1 sit/ation t-at a#ti3e.+ promotes dependen#+ on t-e instr/#tor (6no2.es, %&78(
Up /nti. 3er+ re#ent.+, t-e peda1o1i#a. mode. -as 0een app.ied e5/a..+ to t-e tea#-in1 of #-i.dren and ad/.ts,
and in a sense, is a #ontradi#tion in terms T-e reason is t-at as ad/.ts mat/re, t-e+ 0e#ome in#reasin1.+
independent and responsi0.e for t-eir o2n a#tions T-e+ are often moti3ated to .earn 0+ a sin#ere desire to
so.3e immediate pro0.ems in t-eir .i3es Additiona..+, t-e+ -a3e an in#reasin1 need to 0e se.f,dire#tin1 In
man+ 2a+s t-e peda1o1i#a. mode. does not a##o/nt for s/#- de3e.opmenta. #-an1es on t-e part of ad/.ts,
and t-/s prod/#es tension, resentment, and resistan#e in indi3id/a.s (6no2.es, %&78(
T-e 1ro2t- and de3e.opment of andra1o1+ as an a.ternati3e mode. of instr/#tion -as -e.ped to remed+ t-is
sit/ation and impro3e t-e tea#-in1 of ad/.ts $/t t-is #-an1e did not o##/r o3erni1-t In fa#t, an important
e3ent too4 p.a#e some t-irt+ +ears a1o t-at affe#ted t-e dire#tion of ad/.t ed/#ation in Nort- Ameri#a and, to
some e;tent, e.se2-ere as 2e.. Andra1o1+ as a s+stem of ideas, #on#epts, and approa#-es to ad/.t .earnin1
2as introd/#ed to ad/.t ed/#ators in t-e United "tates 0+ Ma.#o.m 6no2.es His #ontri0/tions to t-is s+stem
-a3e 0een man+ (%&<=, %&7', %&78> 6no2.es ! Asso#iates, %&78(, and -a3e inf./en#ed t-e t-in4in1 of
#o/nt.ess ed/#ators of ad/.ts 6no2.es: dia.o1/e, de0ate, and s/0se5/ent 2ritin1s re.ated to andra1o1+ -a3e
0een a -ea.t-+ stim/.ant to some of t-e 1ro2t- of t-e ad/.t ed/#ation fie.d d/rin1 t-e past t-irt+ +ears
T-e first /se of t-e term 9andra1o1+9 to #at#- t-e 2idespread attention of ad/.t ed/#ators 2as in %&?7, 2-en
6no2.es, t-en a professor of ad/.t ed/#ation at $oston Uni3ersit+, introd/#ed t-e term (t-en spe..ed
9andro1o1+9( t-ro/1- a @o/rna. arti#.e In a %&<' 0oo4 (a se#ond edition 2as p/0.is-ed in %&7'( -e defined
t-e term as t-e art and s#ien#e of -e.pin1 ad/.ts .earn His t-in4in1 -ad #-an1ed to t-e point t-at in t-e %&7'
edition -e s/11ested t-e fo..o2in1) 9 andra1o1+ is simp.+ anot-er mode. of ass/mptions a0o/t ad/.t
.earners to 0e /sed a.on1side t-e peda1o1i#a. mode. of ass/mptions, t-ere0+ pro3idin1 t2o a.ternati3e
mode.s for testin1 o/t t-e ass/mptions as to t-eir :fit: 2it- parti#/.ar sit/ations F/rt-ermore, t-e mode.s are
pro0a0.+ most /sef/. 2-en seen not as di#-otomo/s 0/t rat-er as t2o ends of a spe#tr/m , 2it- a rea.isti#
ass/mption (a0o/t .earners( in a 1i3en sit/ation fa..in1 in 0et2een t-e t2o ends9 (6no2.es, %&7', p 8A (
T-e andra1o1i#a. mode. as #on#ei3ed 0+ 6no2.es is predi#ated on fo/r 0asi# ass/mptions a0o/t .earners, a..
of 2-i#- -a3e some re.ations-ip to o/r notions a0o/t a .earner:s a0i.it+, need, and desire to ta4e
responsi0i.it+ for .earnin1)
% T-eir se.f,#on#ept mo3es from dependen#+ to independen#+ or se.f,dire#tedness
B T-e+ a##/m/.ate a reser3oir of e;perien#es t-at #an 0e /sed as a 0asis on 2-i#- to 0/i.d .earnin1
A T-eir readiness to .earn 0e#omes in#reasin1.+ asso#iated 2it- t-e de3e.opmenta. tas4s of so#ia.
ro.es
8 T-eir time and #/rri#/.ar perspe#ti3es #-an1e from postponed to immedia#+ of app.i#ation and from
s/0@e#t,#enteredness to performan#e,#enteredness (%&7', pp 88,8=(
Andra1o1+ as a #on#ept and set of ass/mptions a0o/t ad/.ts 2as a#t/a..+ not ne2 to 6no2.es: pop/.ariCation
of t-e term Anderson and Dindeman (%&B<( -ad first /sed t-e 2ord in t-e United "tates 3ia a p/0.is-ed
pie#e, a.t-o/1- "te2art (%&7?a, %&7?0( notes t-at Dindeman apparent.+ e3en /sed t-e term as ear.+ as %&B?
$roo4fie.d (%&78( s/11ests t-at Anderson and Dindeman dre2 /pon t-e 2or4 of a German a/t-or of t-e
%&B':s, E/1ene Rosensto#4 Ho2e3er, Da3enport and Da3enport (%&7=( assert t-at t-e 2ord 2as first #oined
in %7AA 0+ 6app, a German tea#-er
"e3era. E/ropean #o/ntries, s/#- as H/n1ar+, Po.and, and Y/1os.a3ia, a.so -ad /sed t-e term prior to %&?7
H/n1arian ed/#ators, for e;amp.e, p.a#e tea#-in1 and .earnin1 2it-in an o3era.. s+stem #a..ed
9ant-ropo1o1+9 ("a3i#e3i#, %&7%( T-is s+stem is s/0di3ided into peda1o1+ (dea.in1 2it- +o/t- ed/#ation(
and andra1o1+ (#on#erned 2it- ad/.t ed/#ation( T-ere is some 3ariet+, too, in t-e app.i#ation of re.ated
terms "ome #o/ntries /se ad/.t peda1o1+, one (t-e "o3iet Union( /ses t-e term a/to dida#ti# amon1 ot-ers
to refer to ad/.t ed/#ation a#ti3ities, and a fe2 #o/ntries /se andra1o.o1+ to refer to andra1o1i#a. s#ien#e
(6no.., %&7%, p &B(
O/tside of Nort- Ameri#a t-ere a#t/a..+ are t2o dominant 3ie2points) 9 one 0+ 2-i#- t-e t-eoreti#a.
frame2or4 of ad/.t ed/#ation is fo/nd in peda1o1+ or its 0ran#-, ad/.t peda1o1+ and t-e ot-er 0+ 2-i#-
t-e t-eoreti#a. frame2or4 of ad/.t ed/#ation is fo/nd in andra1o1+ as a re.ati3e.+ independent s#ien#e
t-at in#./des a 2-o.e s+stem of andra1o1i# dis#ip.ines9 ("a3i#e3i#, %&7%, p 77(
6no2.es in des#ri0in1 -is parti#/.ar 3ersion of andra1o1+ asso#iated it 2it- a 3ariet+ of instr/#tiona.
s/11estions and -e, too, detai.ed ro.es of fa#i.itation for instr/#tors and ta.4ed a0o/t 2a+s of -e.pin1 .earners
ma;imiCe t-eir .earnin1 a0i.ities His ear.+ 2or4 2it- andra1o1+ and s/0se5/ent interpretation of t-e
.earnin1 pro@e#ts resear#- 0+ To/1- (%&<7( and ot-ers .ed to a %&<= p/0.i#ation on se.f,dire#ted .earnin1
2-ere -e pro3ides a 3ariet+ of in5/ir+ pro@e#ts and .earnin1 reso/r#es on t-e topi#
6no2.es (%&<=( offered some reasons for -is e3o.3in1 s#-o.ars-ip in t-e area of se.f,dire#ted .earnin1 One
immediate reason 2as t-e emer1in1 e3iden#e t-at peop.e 2-o ta4e initiati3e in ed/#ationa. a#ti3ities seem to
.earn more and .earn t-in1s 0etter t-en 2-at res/.ted from more passi3e indi3id/a.s He noted a se#ond
reason t-at se.f,dire#ted .earnin1 appears 9more in t/ne 2it- o/r nat/ra. pro#ess of ps+#-o.o1i#a.
de3e.opment9 (%&<=, p %8( 6no2.es o0ser3ed t-at an essentia. aspe#t of t-e mat/ration pro#ess is t-e
de3e.opment of an a0i.it+ to ta4e in#reasin1 responsi0i.it+ for .ife
A t-ird reason 2as t-e o0ser3ation t-at t-e man+ e3o.3in1 ed/#ationa. inno3ations (nontraditiona. pro1rams,
Open Uni3ersit+, 2ee4end #o..e1es, et#( t-ro/1-o/t t-e 2or.d re5/ire t-at .earners ass/me a -ea3+
responsi0i.it+ and initiati3e in t-eir o2n .earnin1
6no2.es a.so s/11ested a more .on1,term reason in terms of indi3id/a. and #o..e#ti3e s/r3i3a.) 9 it is
tra1i# t-at 2e -a3e not .earned -o2 to .earn 2it-o/t 0ein1 ta/1-t, and it is pro0a0.+ more important t-an a..
of t-e immediate reasons p/t to1et-er A.3in Toff.er #a..s t-is reason :f/t/re s-o#4: T-e simp.e tr/t- is t-at
2e are enterin1 into a stran1e ne2 2or.d in 2-i#- rapid #-an1e 2i.. 0e t-e on.+ sta0.e #-ara#teristi#9
(6no2.es, %&<=, p %=(
It is t-is a0i.it+ to #arr+ o/t indi3id/a. .earnin1 .on1 after t-e stim/.ation of some a#ti3it+ .i4e a #.ass or
2or4s-op is #omp.eted t-at 2e 0e.ie3e res/.ts from indi3id/a.iCin1 t-e instr/#tiona. pro#ess (Hiemstra !
"is#o, %&&'(
6no2.es and t-e andra1o1i#a. mo3ement as some refer to it, -as not 0een 2it-o/t #riti#s Ear.son (%&7&(
s/mmariCes some of t-e #on#erns man+ peop.e -a3e -ad a0o/t 6no2.es at times Cea.o/s promotion of
andra1o1+ Fe.ton (%&&=( 0ro/1-t to1et-er fo/r ot-er #o..ea1/es 2-o s-are in 3ario/s 2a+s a more radi#a.
p-i.osop-+ of ad/.t ed/#ation T-e+ present se3era. ar1/ments a1ainst aspe#ts of andra1o1+ and se.f,
dire#ted .earnin1
Ho2e3er, it is #.ear t-at andra1o1+ and Ma.#o.m 6no2.es -a3e 0ro/1-t #onsidera0.e attention to t-e ad/.t
ed/#ation fie.d as a separate fie.d d/rin1 t-e past t-ree de#ades App.ied #orre#t.+, t-e andra1o1i#a. approa#-
to tea#-in1 and .earnin1 in t-e -ands of a s4i..ed and dedi#ated fa#i.itator #an ma4e a positi3e impa#t on t-e
ad/.t .earner Appendi; A pro3ides a 0i0.io1rap-+ t-at #ontains man+ of t-e referen#es de3oted to
andra1o1+ and Ma.#o.m 6no2.es
REFERENEE" AND REDATED "OUREE"
Anderson, M D, ! Dindeman, 6 E (%&B<( Education through experience Ne2 Yor4) For4ers Ed/#ation
$/rea/
$roo4fie.d, " (%&78( T-e #ontri0/tion of Ed/ard Dindeman to t-e de3e.opment of t-eor+ and p-i.osop-+ in
ad/.t ed/#ation Adult Education, 34, %7=,%&?
Ear.son, R (%&7&( Ma.#o.m 6no2.es) Apost.e of andra1o1+ Vitae Scholasticae, 8(%(, B%<,BA8
Da3enport, *, ! Da3enport, * A (%&7=( A #-rono.o1+ and ana.+sis of t-e andra1o1+ de0ate Adult
Education Quarterly, 35, %=B,%=&
Hiemstra, R, ! "is#o, $ (%&&'( Individualizing instruction "an Fran#is#o) *osse+,$ass
6no.., * H (%&7%( Professiona.iCation in ad/.t ed/#ation in t-e Federa. Rep/0.i# of German+ Demo#rati#
Rep/0.i# In A N E-arters (Ed(, Coparing adult education !orld!ide (pp &',%'7( "an Fran#is#o)
*osse+,$ass
6no2.es, M " (%&?7( Andro1o1+, not peda1o1+G Adult "eadership# $%, A=',A=B, A7?
6no2.es, M " (%&<=( Sel&'directed learning Ne2 Yor4) Asso#iation Press
6no2.es, M " (%&7'( (he odern practice o& adult education (re3ised and /pdated( E-i#a1o) Asso#iation
Press (ori1ina..+ p/0.is-ed in %&<'(
6no2.es, M (%&78( (he adult learner) A neglected species Ho/ston) G/.f P/0.is-in1
6no2.es, M " (%&7?( *sing learning contracts "an Fran#is#o) *osse+,$ass
6no2.es, M, ! Asso#iates (%&78( Andragogy in Action+ Applying odern principles o& adult education
"an Fran#is#o) *osse+ $ass
"a3i#e3i#, DM (%&7%( Ad/.t ed/#ation s+stems in E/ropean "o#ia.ist #o/ntries) "imi.arities and
differen#es .n A N E-arters (Ed(, Coparing adult education !orld!ide (pp A<,7&( "an Fran#is#o)
*osse+,$ass
"te2art, D F (%&7?a( Adult learning in Aerica) Eduard lindean and his agenda &or li&elong learning+
Ma.a0ar, FD) 6rie1er P/0.is-in1
"te2art, D H (%&7?0( Perspe#ti3es "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 0(=(, B
To/1-, A (%&<7( Ma@or .earnin1 efforts) Re#ent resear#- and f/t/re dire#tions Adult Education, 18, B=',
B?A
Fe.ton, M R (Ed( (%&&=( In de&ense o& the li&e!orld) Critical perspectives on adult learning A.0an+,
NY) "tate Uni3ersit+ of Ne2 Yor4 Press
APPENDIH A
ANNOTATED $I$DIOGRAPHY OF "OUREE" REDATED TO ANDRAGOGY
Anderson, M D,! Dindeman, E E (%&B<( Education through experience Ne2 Yor4) For4ers Ed/#ation
$/rea/

o In t-is 2or4 t-e a/t-ors pro3ide an interpretati3e trans.ation of .iterat/re des#ri0in1 t-e fo.4
-i1- s#-oo. s+stem in German+ T-e+ in#./ded a se#tion entit.ed, 9Andra1o1+,9 and
des#ri0e some tea#-in1 met-ods /sed 0+ t-e fo.4 -i1- s#-oo. tea#-ers Anderson:s ro.e 2as
primari.+ t-at of trans.ator 0e#a/se m/#- of t-eir so/r#e materia. 2as in German
$eder, H, ! Earrea, N (%&77( T-e effe#ts of andra1o1i#a. tea#-er trainin1 on ad/.t st/dents: attendan#e
and e3a./ation of t-eir tea#-ers Adult Education Quarterly, 38, <=,7<

o T-e a/t-ors e;amine t2o -+pot-eses 2it- an e;perimenta. desi1n) (a( andra1o1i#a..+ trained
tea#-ers of ad/.ts 2i.. -a3e -i1-er rates of st/dent attendan#e in t-eir #.asses t-an tea#-ers
not trained in andra1o1+ and (0( st/dents 2i.. e3a./ate more positi3e.+ andra1o1i#a..+,
trained ad/.t ed/#ation tea#-ers t-an tea#-ers not trained in andra1o1+ T-e treatment 2as
fo/nd to -a3e a positi3e affe#t on attendan#e 0/t not on st/dent e3a./ations
$o+er, D D (%&78( Ma.#o.m 6no2.es and Ear. Ro1ers) A #omparison of andra1o1+ and st/dent,#entered
ed/#ation "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 2(8(, %<,B'

o He s/11ests t-at t-ere are #ommona.ities 0et2een t-e t2o a/t-ors: #on#epts For e;amp.e,
0ot- assert t-at t-eir t-eories are separate and distin#t from traditiona. ed/#ation In addition,
-/manism is some2-at fo/ndationa. to 0ot- #on#epts Ro1ers #omes at -is ideas from a
ps+#-ot-erap+ 0a#41ro/nd and tends to 0e more indi3id/a. and sma.. 1ro/p oriented He
emp-asiCes interpersona. and sma.. 1ro/p d+nami#s 6no2.es: e;perien#e 0ase is in
informa. and #ontin/in1 ed/#ation pro1rams and tends to 0e more s/pporti3e of 1ro/p and
.ar1er or1aniCationa. perspe#ti3es He emp-asiCes pro1ram de3e.opment
$ro#4ett, R G, ! Hiemstra, R (%&&%( Sel&'direction in adult learning) .erspectives on theory# research#
and practice Ne2 Yor4) Ro/t.ed1e

o In t-is 0oo4 t-e a/t-ors des#ri0e 3ario/s aspe#ts of se.f,dire#tion in ad/.t .earnin1 In#./ded
is #onsidera0.e mention of andra1o1+ as a fo/ndationa. notion In#./ded, too, is an ear.ier
3ersion of t-is annotated 0i0.io1rap-+
$roo4fie.d, " D (%&78( T-e Eontri0/tion of Ed/ard Dindeman to t-e De3e.opment of T-eor+ and
P-i.osop-+ in Ad/.t Ed/#ation Adult Education Quarterly, 34, %7=,%&?

o In tra#in1 some of t-e #ontri0/tions of Dindeman, $roo4fie.d points o/t t-at Dindeman, 2-o
/ndertoo4 (2it- Mart-a Anderson( an interpretati3e trans.ation of t-e fo.4 -i1- s#-oo. in
German+, first /sed t-e term 9Andra1o1+9 in t-eir %&B< mono1rap-, Education (hrough
Experience
$roo4fie.d, " D (%&7?( *nderstanding and 3acilitating Adult "earning "an Fran#is#o) *osse+,$ass

o $roo4fie.d presents an entire #-apter des#ri0in1 and ana.+Cin1 andra1o1+, in 2-i#- -e


de.ineates 3ario/s a/t-ors 2-o -a3e in some 2a+ e3a./ated or #riti5/ed andra1o1+ He a.so
presents se3era. #ase st/dies of andra1o1+ in pra#ti#e
$roo4fie.d, " (%&7<( "earning 4eocracy) Eduard "indean on adult education and social change
Fo.fe0oro, Ne2 Hamps-ire) Eroom He.m

o $roo4fie.d p/..s to1et-er a n/m0er of Dindeman:s 2ritin1s and adds some s+nt-esiCin1
#-apters He in#./des materia. from t-e Anderson and Dindeman (%&B<( dis#/ssion of
andra1o1+ and spe#/.ates as to -o2 Dindeman:s interpretation of andra1o1+ mi1-t -a3e
inf./en#ed -is .ater 2ritin1s
$ro2n, H F (%&7=( Datera. t-in4in1 and andra1o1+) Impro3in1 pro0.em so.3in1 in ad/.t-ood "i&elong
learning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 8(<(, BB,B=

o Datera. t-in4in1, a.so referred to as s+ne#ti#s, #reati3e t-in4in1, and #on#ept/a.iCation, is


defined as a restr/#t/rin1 of t-e 4no2.ed1e a person a.read+ -as to 0rin1 a0o/t ne2 ideas
and insi1-ts T-e a/t-or s/11ests t-at .atera. t-in4in1 #an 0e in#orporated into t-e
andra1o1i#a. pro#ess as a me#-anism to promote pro0.em,so.3in1 a0i.ities
Eand+, P E (%&7%( 5irrors o& the ind) .ersonal construct theory in the training o& adult educators
Man#-ester Mono1rap-s %? Man#-ester) Department of Ad/.t and Hi1-er Ed/#ation, Uni3ersit+ of
Man#-ester

o He p.a#es andra1o1+ 2it-in 2-at -e #a..s t-e prin#ip.e of se.f,dire#tion He #ompares


6no2.es to Geor1e 6e..+, a ps+#-o.o1ist, 2-o s/11ested t-at interpretation of t-e f/t/re is
2-at dri3es a person to see4 4no2.ed1e
Ear.son, R A (%&<&( T-e time of andra1o1+ Adult Education, 36, =A,=<

o He s/11ests t-at E.ias: atta#4 on andra1o1+ does not 1i3e m/#- #reden#e to t-e notions of or
possi0i.ities for ad/.t se.f,dire#ted .earnin1 He s/pports t-e notion of fa#i.itatin1 t-e #apa0.e
ad/.t .earner He f/rt-er fee.s t-at 0ot- a p-i.osop-i#a. and po.iti#a. meanin1 for andra1o1+
m/st 0e de3e.oped
E-ristian, A E (%&7A( A #omparati3e st/d+ of t-e andra1o1i#a.,peda1o1i#a. orientation of mi.itar+ and
#i3i.ian personne. (Do#tora. dissertation, O4.a-oma "tate Uni3ersit+( 4issertation A-stracts International,
44, '?8Aa

o T-e resear#-er de3e.oped t-e s#a.e for t-is st/d+, desi1ned to meas/re t-e p/rpose of
ed/#ation, nat/re of .earners, #-ara#teristi#s of .earnin1 e;perien#e, mana1ement of .earnin1
e;perien#e, e3a./ation, and re.ations-ips of ed/#ator to .earners and amon1 .earners T-e
instr/ment 2as adapted from 2or4 0+ Had.e+ and 6er2in (annotated in t-is 0i0.io1rap-+(
Mi.itar+ s/0@e#ts 2ere s-o2n to 0e .ess peda1o1i#a. t-an #i3i.ians
Eonti, G * (%&7=( Assessin1 tea#-in1 st+.e in ad/.t ed/#ation) Ho2 and 2-+ "i&elong "earning) An
,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 8(7(, <,%%, B7

o A.t-o/1- not an arti#.e to dea. dire#t.+ 2it- t-e s/0@e#t of andra1o1+, t-e a/t-or des#ri0es
-is de3e.opment of PAD", t-e Prin#ip.es of Ad/.t Dearnin1 "#a.e, 2-i#- identifies different
tea#-in1 st+.es, in#./din1 some t-at in#orporate some of t-e andra1o1i#a. #on#epts
Eo/rtena+, $, ! "te3enson, R (%&7A( A3oidin1 t-e t-reat of 1o1+mania "i&elong "earning) (he Adult
7ears, %(<(, %',%%

o T-e+ ta.4 a0o/t a.. t-e efforts to .a0e. instr/#tion of 3ario/s 1ro/ps of indi3id/a.s 0+ some
sort of 91o1+9 T-e+ s/11est t-at t-e distin#tions 0et2een 3ario/s 1ro/ps are not 1reat
eno/1- to 2arrant a .a0e. and #ertain.+ not 1reat eno/1- to ta.4 a0o/t t-ere 0ein1 or t-e need
for a re.ated t-eor+ T-e+ 0e.ie3e t-at appropriate pro1ram de3e.opment prin#ip.es are 2-at
is important
Eranton, P (%&7&( .lanning instruction &or adult learners Toronto) Fa.. ! T-ompson

o T-e a/t-or pro3ides in E-apter One a des#ription of 2-at s-e refers to as some prin#ip.es of
ad/.t .earnin1 Andra1o1+ and t-e inf./en#e of 6no2.es is des#ri0ed as a stron1 inf./en#e
on ad/.t ed/#ation pra#ti#e on pa1es ?,&
Eross, 6 P (%&7%( Adults as learners "an Fran#is#o) *osse+,$ass

o Eross presents -er 3ie2s on t-e stren1t-s and 2ea4nesses of t-e andra1o1i#a. #on#ept "-e
0e.ie3es it is #.oser to a t-eor+ of tea#-in1 t-an to a t-eor+ of .earnin1
Da.oisio, T, ! Firestone, M (%&7A( A #ase st/d+ in app.+in1 ad/.t .earnin1 t-eor+ in de3e.opin1 mana1ers
(raining and 4evelopent 8ournal, 32(B(, <A,<7

o T-e a/t-ors ta.4 a0o/t andra1o1+ as a too. for t-e Ameri#an Mana1ement Asso#iations:
Eompeten#+ Pro1ram, a non,traditiona. approa#- to 1rad/ate mana1ement ed/#ation T-e
andra1o1+ ass/mptions and pro#ess e.ements are /sed to des#ri0e t-e operation of t-e
pro1ram
Dar4en2a.d, G D, ! Merriam, " $ (%&7B( Adult education) 3oundations o& practice Ne2 Yor4) Harper
! Ro2, P/0.is-ers

o T-e a/t-ors des#ri0e andra1o1+ in some #apa#it+ se3era. times t-ro/1-o/t t-eir 0oo4 T-e+
p.a#e andra1o1+ 2it-in a #onte;t of se.f,dire#ted .earnin1 in t-eir attempt to -e.p t-e no3i#e
reader 0etter /nderstand t-e fie.d, its terms, and its s#-o.ars
Da3enport, *, III (%&7<( Is t-ere an+ 2a+ o/t of t-e andra1o1+ morassI "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o&
.ractice and /esearch, $$(A(, %<,B'

o T-e a/t-or s/11est t-at a 2a+ to dea. 2it- a.. t-e de0ate and dis#/ssion a0o/t andra1o1+ is
to redefine t-e term and 0ase its e3o.3in1 /nderstandin1 on empiri#a. resear#-
Da3enport, *, ! Da3enport, * A (%&7=( A #-rono.o1+ and ana.+sis of t-e andra1o1+ de0ate Adult
Education Quarterly, 35, %=B,%=&

o -e a/t-ors des#ri0e t-e de0ate and dia.o1/e t-at -a3e de3e.oped re1ardin1 andra1o1+ d/rin1
t-e past se3era. +ears, in#./din1 some of t-e dissertations on t-e s/0@e#t Eonsidera0.e spa#e
is de3oted to t-e de0ate in Adult Education t-at 2as -e.d o3er a se3era. +ear period and to
t-e 3ario/s 91o1+9 terms t-at -a3e 0een de3e.oped T-e+ s/11est t-at it is time 2e mo3e
0e+ond de0ate to resear#-
Da3enport, * III, ! Da3enport, * A (%&7=( Andra1o1i#a., peda1o1i#a. orientations of ad/.t .earners)
Resear#- res/.ts and pra#ti#e re#ommendations "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch,
0(%(, ?,7

o T-e a/t-ors des#ri0e some of t-e re#ent resear#- efforts 0+ peop.e st/d+in1 andra1o1i#a.,
peda1o1i#a. orientation of ad/.ts A 3ariet+ of pra#ti#e imp.i#ations for ad/.t ed/#ators are
presented
Da3enport, * III, ! Da3enport, * A (%&7=( 6no2.es or Dindeman) Fo/.d t-e rea. fat-er of Ameri#an
andra1o1+ p.ease stand /p "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 0(A(, 8,?

o In t-is arti#.e t-e a/t-ors point o/t t-at not on.+ did Dindeman (and Anderson( first
introd/#e t-e term 9andra1o1+9 in Ameri#an ed/#ationa. .iterat/re, t-e 2or4 of Dindeman
appears to -a3e p.a+ed an important fo/ndationa. ro.e in 6no2.es: de3e.opment of
andra1o1i#a. prin#ip.es and pro#ess e.ements T-e+ s/11est t-at Dindeman s-o/.d 0e seen as
t-e spirit/a. fat-er and 6no2.es as t-e prote#ti3e fat-er 2-o pop/.ariCed t-e term
Da+, E, ! $as4ett, H 6 (%&7B( Dis#repan#ies 0et2een intentions and pra#ti#e) Ree;aminin1 some 0asi#
ass/mptions a0o/t ad/.t and #ontin/in1 ed/#ation International 8ournal o& "i&elong Education, $, %8A,%==

o T-e a/t-ors #riti#iCe t-e 9andra1o1+9 notion and s/11est t-at andra1o1+ is not a t-eor+ of
ad/.t .earnin1, 0/t is an ed/#ationa. ideo.o1+ rooted in an in5/ir+,0ased .earnin1 and
tea#-in1 paradi1m T-e+ 0e.ie3e 6no2.es: #on#eption of peda1o1+ -as 0een in#orre#t.+
#on#ei3ed
E.ias, * D (%&<&( Andra1o1+ re3isited Adult Education, 10, B=B,B==

o He ta4es t-e 3ie2 t-at t-e promoters and defenders of andra1o1+ -a3e not pro3en t-eir #ase
and t-at t-ere is no so/nd 0asis for a distin#tion 0et2een andra1o1+ and peda1o1+ He a.so
fee.s t-at t-e s.o1an 9andra1o1+ not peda1o1+9 is a 2e.. intentioned, 0/t inade5/ate, attempt
to en-an#e t-e professiona.iCation of ad/.t ed/#ation He s/11ests t-at andra1o1+ and
peda1o1+ mere.+ represent t2o different approa#-es to t-e ed/#ation of #-i.dren and ad/.ts
E.ias, * D, ! Merriam, " (%&7'( .hilosophical &oundations o& adult education H/ntin1ton, NY) Ro0ert E
6rie1er P/0.is-in1 Eompan+

o T-e+ p.a#e 6no2.es into a 1ro/pin1 .a0e.ed 9-/manisti# ad/.t ed/#ators9 T-e+ s/11est t-at
andra1o1+ is 0asi#a..+ a -/manisti# t-eoreti#a. frame2or4 app.ied primari.+ to ad/.t
ed/#ation
Fis-er, * E, ! Podes#-i, R D (%&7&( From Dindeman to 6no2.es) A #-an1e in 3ision International
8ournal o& "i&elong Education, 8, A8=,A=A

o T-e arti#.e #ompares 6no2.es and Dindeman in re.ations-ip to t-e primar+ p/rpose of ad/.t
ed/#ation T-e+ #on#./de t-at 6no2.es and Dindeman are 5/ite different in terms of t-e
pro#ess of .earnin1 ea#- espo/ses T-e+ 0e.ie3e 6no2.es: fo#/s is on t-e effe#ti3eness of
indi3id/a. means and initiati3e, 2-ereas Dindeman:s stress 2as on so#ia. #ommitment and
t-e importan#e of /nderstandin1 .earnin1 2it-in a so#ia. #onte;t
Ge.fand, $, ! Asso#iates (%&<=( An andra1o1i#a. app.i#ation to t-e trainin1 of so#ia. 2or4ers 8ournal o&
Education &or Social 9or:, $$(A(, ==,?%

o T-e a/t-ors present a dis#/ssion of -o2 andra1o1i#a. prin#ip.es #an 0e /sed in so#ia. 2or4
trainin1 T-e+ -i1-.i1-t some resear#- findin1s t-at s/pport 3ario/s of t-e andra1o1i#a.
prin#ip.es
God0e+, G E (%&<7( Applied Andragogy) A practical anual &or the continuing education o& adults
Eo..e1e Par4) Penns+.3ania "tate Uni3ersit+

o God0e+ de3e.oped a man/a. for /se in trainin1 2or4s-ops 2-ere parti#ipants are s-o2n
-o2 to app.+ andra1o1i#a. #on#epts G/idan#e is pro3ided on -o2 a 3ariet+ of
tea#-in1Jtrainin1 met-ods #an 0e /ti.iCed
Griffin, E (%&7A( Curriculu theory in adult and li&elong education Dondon) Eroom He.m

o Griffin presents a se#tion in t-e 0oo4 des#ri0in1 andra1o1+ He a.so presents some 3ie2s on
t-e .imitations of andra1o1+ and .aments t-at 6no2.es does not a##o/nt for #r/#ia.
distin#tions 0et2een t-e indi3id/a. p/rposes and so#ia. #onse5/en#es of .earnin1
Gr/00s, * E (%&7%( A st/d+ of fa#/.t+ mem0ers and st/dents in se.e#ted mid2estern s#-oo.s of t-eo.o1+ to
determine 2-et-er t-eir ed/#ationa. orientation is andra1o1i#a. or peda1o1i#a. (Do#tora. dissertation,
Indiana Uni3ersit+( 4issertation A-stracts International, 41, ''==a

o T-e Ed/#ationa. Orientation K/estionnaire and Ed/#ationa. Orientation "#a.es (see Had.e+(
2ere /sed in t-is st/d+ Fema.e fa#/.t+, fa#/.t+ in t-e pastora. ministries, and fa#/.t+ in t-e
re.i1io/s ed/#ation areas 2ere si1nifi#ant.+ more andra1o1i#a..+,oriented Fema.e and
+o/n1er st/dents a.so 2ere more andra1o1i#a..+,oriented
Had.e+, H (%&<=( De3e.opment of an instr/ment to determine ad/.t ed/#ators: orientations) Andra1o1i#a. or
peda1o1i#a. (Do#tora. dissertation, $oston Uni3ersit+( 4issertation A-stracts International, 35, <=&=a

o T-e 9Ed/#ationa. Orientation K/estionnaire9 in#orporates si; attit/dina. dimensions of an


ad/.t ed/#ator:s ro.e) P/rposes of ed/#ation, nat/re of .earners, #-ara#teristi#s of .earnin1
e;perien#e, mana1ement of .earnin1 e;perien#e, e3a./ation, and re.ations-ips of ed/#ator to
.earners and amon1 .earners A se#ond instr/ment, 9Ed/#ationa. Orientation "#a.es,9 2it-
si; 0ipo.ar meas/res, 2as desi1ned to e;amine predi#ti3e 3a.idit+ of t-e first instr/ment A
fa#tor ana.+sis determined ei1-t fa#tors, in#./din1 peda1o1i#a. orientation, andra1o1i#a.
orientation, and se.f,dire#ted #-an1e amon1 t-em
Hartree, A (%&78( Ma.#o.m 6no2.es:s t-eor+ of andra1o1+) A #riti5/e International 8ournal o& "i&elong
Education, 3, B'A,B%'

o Hartree ana.+Ces 6no2.es: 2or4 and pro3ides 0ot- a #riti5/e and some #riti#ism He
proposes for ad/.t ed/#ators a #riti#a. reform/.ation of andra1o1+
Hiemstra, R (%&<?( "i&elong learning Din#o.n, Ne0ras4a) Professiona. Ed/#ators P/0.i#ations Reprinted
0+ HiTree Press, $a.d2ins3i..e, Ne2 Yor4, %&78

o Hiemstra presents andra1o1+ as an e3o.3in1 t-eor+ area He s/11ests a 1reat dea. more
resear#- 2i.. 0e re5/ired to 0rin1 s/pport for and a f/..er /nderstandin1 of t-e emer1in1
area
Hiemstra, R (%&7=( LRe3ie2 of Andragogy in action; Applying odern principles o& adult learning<+
"i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 0(A(, BA,B=

o In addition to re3ie2in1 t-e 0oo4, Hiemstra introd/#es t-e reader to some of t-e de0ate t-at
-as s/rro/nded andra1o1+ in Nort- Ameri#a ad/.t ed/#ation .iterat/re
Hiemstra, R (%&7<, Ma+( Coparing andragogy in t!o cultures) (anzania and the *nited States Paper
presented at Eomparati3e Ad/.t Ed/#ation) An Internationa. Eonferen#e, O;ford, En1.and

o Hiemstra des#ri0es a Trainin1 and R/ra. De3e.opment pro@e#t in TanCania sponsored 0+ t-e
U" A1en#+ for Internationa. De3e.opment for 2-i#- -e ser3ed as an e;terna. e3a./ator
T-e pro@e#t -ad 0een desi1ned, in part, aro/nd andra1o1i#a. #on#epts He #ompares t-e
pro@e#t a#ti3ities 2it- a United "tates e;amp.e and s/11ests se3era. simi.arities
Ho.mes, M R (%&7'( Interpersona. 0e-a3iors and t-eir re.ations-ip to t-e andra1o1i#a. and peda1o1i#a.
orientation of ad/.t ed/#ators Adult Education, 3$, %7,B&

o A resear#- pie#e in 2-i#- t-e a/t-or demonstrates some positi3e re.ations-ips 0et2een
andra1o1i#a. orientations and per#ei3ed effe#ti3e interpersona. 0e-a3iors
Hop4ins, M A (%&7A( An ana.+sis of n/rse ed/#ators: ed/#ationa. orientation) Andra1o1i#a. or
peda1o1i#a. (Do#tora. dissertation, Vir1inia Po.+te#-ni# Instit/te and "tate Uni3ersit+( 4issertation
A-stracts International, 44, ''8Aa

o In t-is st/d+ t-e Had.e+ Ed/#ationa. Orientation K/estionnaire 2as /ti.iCed to meas/re t-e
orientation of n/rse ed/#ators T-e s/0@e#ts 2ere fo/nd peda1o1i#a..+ oriented to2ard
ed/#ation
Ho/.e, E O (%&<B( (he design o& education "an Fran#is#o) *osse+,$ass P/0.is-ers

o Ho/.e des#ri0es in a #o/p.e of .o#ations in t-e 0oo4 t-at -e #an:t a##ept t-e notion t-ere are
rea. differen#es 0et2een +o/t- and #-i.dren 2arrantin1 a s#ien#e of andra1o1+ He a.so
des#ri0es t-e E/ropean and ot-er roots of t-e term
In1a..s, * D (%&<A( A trainer=s guide to andragogy (Re3 Ed( Fas-in1ton, D E) U " Department of
Hea.t-, Ed/#ation, and Fe.fare

o T-e a/t-or de3e.oped a 2or40oo4 for /se in 2or4s-ops or #o/rses desi1ned to -e.p staff
mem0ers in so#ia. ser3i#e a1en#ies /nderstand and app.+ andra1o1i#a. prin#ip.es A 3ariet+
of e;er#ises, te#-ni5/es, and app.i#ation s/11estions are in#./ded
*a-ns, I F (%&<A( LRe3ie2 of 5odern practice o& adult educationM Adult Education, 14, <B,<8

o A fair.+ strai1-t,for2ard re3ie2, a.t-o/1- a .itt.e more #riti#a. of t-e te#-ni#a. aspe#ts of t-e
0oo4 t-an 2as T-ornton (annotated in t-is 0i0.io1rap-+(
*ar3is, P (%&78( Andra1o1+ ,, a si1n of t-e times Studies in the Education o& Adults, $%(O#to0er(, AB,A7

o *ar3is pro3ides some so#io.o1i#a. e;p.anation of 2-+ andra1o1+ 0e#ame pop/.ar He


#ontends andra1o1+ emer1ed at a time 2-en t-e str/#t/res of so#iet+ 2ere #ond/#i3e to t-e
a##eptan#e of ne2 ideas He 0e.ie3es it is an e;pression of t-e romanti# #/rri#/./m
*ones, G E (%&7B( An ana.+sis of t-e andra1o1i#a.,peda1o1i#a. orientation of se.e#ted fa#/.t+ at O4.a-oma
"tate Uni3ersit+ (Do#tora. dissertation, O4.a-oma "tate Uni3ersit+( 4issertation A-stracts International,
43, B=?&a

o T-e Ed/#ationa. Orientation K/estionnaire 2as /ti.iCed 2it- se.e#ted fa#/.t+ tea#-in1 at
.east B=N of t-e time T-ere 2as a si1nifi#ant differen#e amon1 departments, 0+ se;, 0+ t-e
time spent off,#amp/s 2or4in1 on e;tension or ser3i#e pro@e#ts, and 0+ t-e n/m0er of +ears
of tea#-in1 e;perien#e in -i1-er ed/#ation
6atC, E A (%&<?( T-e 0e.ief in andra1o1+ and t-e de3e.opment of se.f,a#t/a.iCation (Do#tora. dissertation,
$oston Uni3ersit+( 4issertation A-stracts International, 3%, <%B&a

o T-is st/d+ 2as desi1ned to determine 2-et-er e;trinsi# .earnin1 (0e.ief in andra1o1+( or
intrinsi# .earnin1 (de3e.opment of se.f,a#t/a.iCation( do o##/r in t-e same .earnin1
e;perien#e T-e p/rpose 2as to in3esti1ate 2-et-er a parti#/.ar andra1o1i#a. pro#ess of
tea#-in1 2as effe#ti3e in t-e 1ro2t- of parti#ipants: 0e.iefs in andra1o1+ and in t-eir
de3e.opment of se.f,a#t/a.iCation T-e Ed/#ationa. Orientation K/estionnaire 2as /ti.iCed
$e.ief in andra1o1+ in#reased t-ro/1-o/t t-e .earnin1 e;perien#es 0/t t-e de3e.opment of
se.f,a#t/a.iCation did not in#rease
6er2in, M A (%&<&( T-e re.ations-ip of se.e#ted fa#tors to t-e ed/#ationa. orientation of andra1o1i#a..+,
and peda1o1i#a..+,oriented ed/#ators tea#-in1 in fo/r of Nort- Earo.ina:s t2o,+ear #o..e1es (Do#tora.
dissertation, Nort- Earo.ina "ate Uni3ersit+( 4issertation A-stracts International, 46, '?%'a

o T-e st/d+:s p/rpose 2as to determine if st/dents per#ei3ed differen#es 0et2een t-e tea#-in1
0e-a3ior of andra1o1i#a..+, and peda1o1i#a..+,oriented ed/#ators T-e Ed/#ationa.
Orientation K/estionnaire 2as adapted and /sed to determine t-e t2o 1ro/ps of ed/#ators
and to determine st/dent t+pes "t/dents of andra1o1i#a..+,oriented ed/#ators per#ei3ed t-at
t-eir instr/#tors pro3ided more st/dent in3o.3ement and #o/nse.in1 and .ess #ontro. o3er
t-eir #.ass t-an st/dents of peda1o1i#a..+,oriented ed/#ators did of t-eirs Andra1o1i#a..+,
oriented ed/#ators tended to 0e 2omen and in 1enera. ed/#ationa. pro1rams (rat-er t-an in
3o#ation pro1rams(
6er2in, M A (%&7%( Andra1o1+ in t-e #omm/nit+ #o..e1e Counity College /evie!, 0(A(, %B,%8

o He des#ri0es -o2 andra1o1i#a. te#-ni5/es 2ere /sed in a #omm/nit+ #o..e1e


#omm/ni#ations #o/rse He desi1ned a 5/estionnaire t-at meas/res a st/dent:s per#eptions
of an instr/#tor:s 0e-a3ior T-e instr/ment 2as /sed pre and post t-e ed/#ationa. e;perien#e
to -e.p st/dents t-in4 a0o/t t-eir o2n ro.e as tea#-ers
6no2.es, M " (%&?7( Andro1o1+, not peda1o1+G Adult "eadership, $%, A=',A=B, A7?

o In a##eptin1 t-e De.0ert E.ar4 A2ard in %&?<, 6no2.es .aid o/t -is andro1o1i#a. (as -e
spe..ed it t-en( #on#epts He refers to it as a te#-no.o1+, introd/#es se.f,#on#ept of t-e ad/.t,
e;perien#e of t-e ad/.t, time perspe#ti3e, and pro0.em #entered ed/#ation as differentiatin1
fa#tors, and s/11ests some of t-e te#-no.o1i#a. (tea#-in1( imp.i#ations, s/#- as #.imate,
needs dia1nosis, p.annin1 pro#ess, m/t/a. se.f,dire#ted in5/ir+, and e3a./ation
6no2.es, M " (%&?7( Ho2 andra1o1+ 2or4s in .eaders-ip trainin1 in t-e 1ir. s#o/ts Adult "eadership, $2,
%?%,%?B, %&',%&8

o 6no2.es des#ri0es -o2 -e tested t-e andra1o1i#a. #on#epts 2it- a .eader trainin1 pro1ram
for t-e Gir. "#o/ts pro1ram T-is #ase st/d+ report o/t.ines t-e steps /sed and an ana.+sis of
t-e fina. res/.ts
6no2.es, M " (%&<'( 5odern practice o& adult education) Andragogy versus pedagogy E-i#a1o) Fo..ett
P/0.is-in1 Eompan+, Asso#iation Press

o In t-is first 3ersion of t-e 0oo4, 6no2.es .a+s o/t t-e premise of andra1o1+ as an art and
s#ien#e of tea#-in1 ad/.ts as opposed to 2-at is /sed to tea#- #-i.dren T-e 0oo4 initiated
.ots of de0ate, dia.o1/e, and #-an1e in terms of instr/#tiona. approa#-es
6no2.es, M " (%&<A( (he adult learner) A neglected species Ho/ston) G/.f P/0.is-in1 Eompan+

o In a presentation of 3ario/s .earnin1 t-eories and tea#-in1 approa#-es, 6no2.es s.ots in t-e
andra1o1i#a. mode.
6no2.es, M (%&<=( Sel&'directed learning Ne2 Yor4) Asso#iation Press

o A.t-o/1- andra1o1+ is mentioned on.+ a 3er+ fe2 times in t-is .itt.e 0oo4, 6no2.es a#t/a..+
is /ti.iCin1 -is andra1o1i#a. prin#ip.es and pro#ess e.ements as 1/ides in de3e.opin1 t-e
3ario/s in5/ir+ pro@e#ts and .earnin1 reso/r#e s/11estions t-ro/1-o/t
6no2.es, M (%&<&( Andra1o1+ re3isited part II Adult Education, 36, =B,=A

o 6no2.es s/11ests t-at -e made a mista4e in s/0tit.in1 5odern .ractice o& Adult Education
as >Andragogy versus .edagogy9 He s/11ests t-at t-e tit.e s-o/.d -a3e 0een 9From
Peda1o1+ to Andra1o1+9 and t-at -is ass/mptions s-o/.d -a3e 0een presented on a
#ontin//m Ho2e3er, -e fee.s t-at some ser3i#e #ame o/t of t-e dia.o1/e and de0ate t-at
2as esta0.is-ed A #a3eat is presented) T-at an ideo.o1i#a. peda1o1/e 2o/.d 2ant to 4eep a
.earner dependent t-ro/1-o/t t-e .earnin1 sit/ation 2-ereas a tr/e andra1o1/e 2o/.d 2ant
to do e3er+t-in1 possi0.e to pro3ide t-e .earner 2it- 2-ate3er fo/ndationa. #ontent needed
and t-en en#o/ra1e a se.f,dire#ted pro#ess of f/rt-er in5/ir+
6no2.es, M " (%&7'( 5odern practice o& adult education) 3ro pedagogy to andragogy Re3ised and
/pdated E-i#a1o) Fo..ett P/0.is-in1 Eompan+, Asso#iation Press

o In t-is re3ised edition, 6no2.es re#o1niCes t-e #onsidera0.e de0ate t-at too4 p.a#e sin#e t-e
%&<' 3ersion 2as p/0.is-ed and approa#-es andra1o1+ as an a.ternati3e tea#-in1 and
.earnin1 approa#- One t-at re.+ies on t-e fa#t t-at ad/.ts are #apa0.e of se.f,dire#ted
.earnin1, as are man+ +o/t-, 0/t t-at a person /ti.iCin1 andra1o1+ as an approa#- 2i..
attempt to mo3e t-e .earner to independent .earnin1 as 5/i#4.+ as possi0.e
6no2.es, M (%&78( (he adult learner) A neglected species (Ard ed(, Ho/ston) G/.f P/0.is-in1

o In t-is 0oo4 6no2.es dis#/sses andra1o1+ 2it-in t2o different #-apters, in terms of
re3ie2in1 -is or1aniCin1 #on#epts, tea#-in1, and p/0.i#ation, and its /se in HRD settin1s
6no2.es, M ", ! Asso#iates (%&78( Andragogy in action) Applying odern principles o& adult learning
"an Fran#is#o) *osse+,$ass

o T2o #-apters 0+ 6no2.es (introd/#tion and #on#./sion( and A? se.e#tions 2ritten 0+ =B


a/t-ors, fi3e or1aniCationa. representati3es, and some 9asso#iates9 2it-in se3en ot-er
#-apters 1ro/ped a##ordin1 to instit/tiona. settin1s ma4e /p t-is 0oo4 T-e 3ario/s se#tions
are #ase st/d+ reports of -o2 andra1o1+ or some 3ariations of it -as 0een /sed
6no2.es, M " (%&7&( (he a:ing o& an adult educator) An auto-iographical ?ourney "an Fran#is#o)
*osse+,$ass

o In t-is a/to0io1rap-+, 6no2.es tra#es -is #areer and t-e de3e.opment of -is ideas Of
parti#/.ar interest to readers see4in1 information on andra1o1+ is a #-apter on -o2 6no2.es:
ideas -a3e e3o.3ed o3er t-e +ears Here, -e presents -is #/rrent #on#ept/a.iCation of si;
ass/mptions #omprisin1 t-e andra1o1i#a. mode. and in#./des a dis#ssion on some of t-e
2riters 2-o -a3e inf./en#ed -is t-in4in1 in re#ent +ears
6n/dson, R " (%&<&( H/mana1o1+ an+oneI Adult Education, 10, B?%,B?8

o He promotes -/mana1o1+ as a t-eor+ of .earnin1 t-at ta4es into a##o/nt t-e differen#es
0et2een peop.e of 3ario/s a1es as 2e.. as t-eir simi.arities It is a -/man t-eor+ of .earnin1
as opposed to a t-eor+ of #-i.d, ad/.t, or e.der.+ .earnin1 T-e a##/m/.ation of e;perien#e,
for e;amp.e, is a .ife.on1 pro#ess t-at needs to 0e #onsidered in ed/#ationa. p.annin1
6n/dson, R " (%&7'( An a.ternati3e approa#- to t-e andra1o1+Jpeda1o1+ iss/e "i&elong "earning) (he
Adult 7ears, 3(7(, 7,%'

o 6n/dson s/11ests t-at rat-er t-an ar1/e t-e stren1t-s and 2ea4nesses of andra1o1+ or
peda1o1+ 0ased on ass/mptions a0o/t 2-et-er or not ad/.ts and #-i.dren are different, 2e
/se a .a2 of identit+ (definin1 2-at is meant 0+ 0ein1 a #-i.d independent of 2-at is meant
0+ 0ein1 an ad/.t( and a t-eor+ of emer1en#e (2e emer1e into ad/.t-ood 0ased on
e;perien#es 2e -ad as a #-i.d( He s/11ests, t-erefore, t-at 9-/mana1o1+9 rep.a#e 0ot-
peda1o1+ and andra1o1+ He .i4ens t-is to a 9-o.isti#9 approa#- to ad/.t ed/#ation
6omisin, D, ! Go1niat, D (%&7<( Andra1o1+, ad/.t e;pe#tations, and internationa. pro1rams Continuing
@igher Education, 35(%(, %A,%=

o T-e a/t-ors des#ri0e -o2 andra1o1i#a. #on#epts 2ere /sed to de3e.op internationa. fie.d,
0ased e;perien#es
6/.i#-, * (%&<=( LRe3ie2 of Er!achsenen-ildung) Ein&uhrung in die andragogi: (Han0/#- der
Er2a#-senen0i.d/n1, $and %( (Ad/.t Ed/#ation) Introd/#tion to Andra1o1+ Hand0oo4 of Ad/.t Ed/#ation,
Vo./me %(M Adult Education, 15, %A<,%A7

o T-is 9internationa.9 pie#e is referen#ed -ere @/st to note t-at t-ere is .iterat/re a3ai.a0.e from
t-ro/1-o/t t-e 2or.d re.ated to t-e 2ord or notion of andra1o1+
De0e., * (%&<7( $e+ond andra1o1+ to 1ero1o1+ "i&elong "earning) (he Adult 7ears, $(&(, %?,%7, B8,B=

o He s/11ests t-e e;isten#e of s/ffi#ient data s/pportin1 t-e need for 1ero1o1+ and ad3o#ated
t-at it s-o/.d 0e st/died as a t-eor+ He s/11ests, f/rt-er, t-at t-e #on#epts im0/ed 2it-in
andra1o1+ ma+ 0e appropriate on.+ /p to #ertain sta1es of de3e.opment #-rono.o1i#a..+
De2is, D H (%&7<( LRe3ie2 of 5odern practice o& adult education) Andragogy versus pedagogyM Adult
Education Quarterly, 32, %B',%BB

o A retrospe#ti3e re3ie2 of t-e 0oo4 presented in a spe#ia. 0oo4 re3ie2 feat/re of -istori#a.
.andmar4s for t-e fie.d of ad/.t ed/#ation
Dindeman, E E (%&B?( Andra1o1i4) T-e met-od of tea#-in1 ad/.ts 9or:er=s Education, 4, A7

o T-is is t-e first 4no2n /se of t-e term andra1o1+ in Nort- Ameri#an .iterat/re Dindeman, in
a one,para1rap- arti#.e, des#ri0ed -o2 Professor E/1en Rosensto#4 of t-e Fran4f/rt
A#adem+ of Da0or #oined a ne2 2ord) Andra1o1i4 He mentioned t-at andra1o1+ is t-e tr/e
met-od 0+ 2-i#- ad/.ts 4eep t-emse.3es inte..i1ent a0o/t t-e modern 2or.d
Dondon, * (%&<A( Ad/.t ed/#ation for t-e %&<':s) Promise or i../sionI Adult Education, 14, ?',<'

o In t-is essa+ re3ie2 of 5odern .ractice o& Adult Education, Dondon ta.4s a0o/t some of t-e
ro.es ad/.t ed/#ators mi1-t p.a+ in t-e <':s Ho2e3er, -e s/11ests t-at 6no2.es: 0oo4 is
.ar1e.+ a te#-ni#a. 0oo4 2-i#- #on3e+s a 4ind of te#-ni#ism in referrin1 to ad/.t ed/#ators
He des#ri0es a pro0.em 2it- t-e %&<' 3ersion in t-at t-ere is not an effe#ti3e 2a+ of
trans.atin1 t-e a/t-or:s dis#/ssion into an+ 4ind of effe#ti3e ana.+sis of -o2 ad/.t ed/#ators
#an /ti.iCe t-e presentation of needs into pro1rammin1 2-i#- 2i.. -e.p ad/.ts #onfront
3ario/s #riti#a. pro0.ems fa#in1 so#iet+ He fee.s 2e need more t-an @/st met-ods and
te#-ni5/es to rea..+ -e.p ad/.t ed/#ators #onfront some of t-e ma@or iss/es of o/r time He
0e.ie3es 2e ma+ need more radi#a. approa#-es to ed/#atin1 ad/.ts, rat-er t-an t-e
9sameness9 of t-e te#-no.o1+ imp.ied in 6no2.es: 0oo4
M#E/..o/1-, 6 O (%&<7( Andra1o1+ and #omm/nit+ pro0.em so.3in1 "i&elong "earning) (he Adult
7ears, 1(B(, 7,&, A%

o He des#ri0es andra1o1+ as a pro#ess, a s#ien#e of tea#-in1 ad/.ts, and as a profession He


sa+s t-at t-e andra1o1ist 0e.ie3es t-at 4no2.ed1e is t-e e5/a.iCin1 fa#tor amon1 peop.e and
t-at peop.e #an #ome to 94no29 eno/1- t-ro/1- an andra1o1i#a. pro#ess to 0e a part of
#omm/nit+ pro0.ems so.3in1
M#6enCie, D (%&<<( T-e iss/e of andra1o1+ Adult Education, 12, BB=,BB&

o Uti.iCin1 an aristote.ian approa#- (#.assi#a.(, a p-enomeno,.o1i#a. approa#-, and t2o


s+..o1ies, M#6enCie pro3ides some p-i.osop-i#a. s/pport for andra1o1+
M#6enCie, D (%&<&( A response to E.ias Adult Education, 10, B=?,B?'

o He maintains t-at ad/.ts and #-i.dren are #ardina..+ different 0+ 3irt/e of different modes of
0ein1,in,t-e,2or.d, t-at ad/.ts and #-i.dren e;-i0it different modes of e;istin1, t-at t-ese
modes ma+ 0e identified t-ro/1- p-enomeno.o1i#a. ana.+sis, and t-at t-e e;istentia.
differen#es 0et2een ad/.ts and #-i.dren re5/ire a strate1i# differentiation of ed/#ationa.
pra#ti#e He maintains a notion t-at 6no2.es: #ontrast 0et2een andra1o1+ and peda1o1+
remains a /sef/. 0/t initia. effort to e;p.i#ate an approa#- to ed/#ation t-at is re.ated
spe#ifi#a..+ to ad/.t .ife
M#Ternan, E * (%&<8( Andro1o1i#a. ed/#ation in t-e -ea.t- ser3i#es Adult "eadership, 13, %A?, %87

o He pro3ides a des#ription of -o2 some prin#ip.es of ad/.t ed/#ation 2ere /ti.iCed in


instit/tin1 a ne2 master:s de1ree pro1ram in t-e -ea.t- ser3i#es area T-e a/t-or #on#./des
2it- t-e notion t-at t-eir attempt mi1-t 0e a promisin1 mode. for t-e re#on#i.iation of
andro1o1+ and peda1o1+
Merriam, " $ (%&7<( Ad/.t .earnin1 and t-eor+ 0/i.din1) A re3ie2 Adult Education Quarterly, 32, %7<,
%&7

o "-e presents an assessment and ana.+sis of t-e .iterat/re re.ated to ad/.t .earnin1 "-e
des#ri0es andra1o1+ as a 9t-eor+9 0ased on ad/.t #-ara#teristi#s "-e a.so presents a
s/mmar+ of some of t-e #riti#ism t-at andra1o1+ as a t-eor+ area -as re#ei3ed
Merriam, " $ (%&77( Findin1 +o/r 2a+ t-ro/1- t-e maCe) A 1/ide to t-e .iterat/re on ad/.t .earnin1
"i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, $$(?(, 8,<

o Merriam presents some 1/ide.ines and ideas for or1aniCin1 t-e ad/.t .earnin1 .iterat/re to
aid one:s se.e#tion and readin1 Andra1o1+ is presented and des#ri0ed in t-e arti#.e an one of
se3era. t-eories t-at attempts to e;p.ain t-e p-enomenon of ad/.t .earnin1
Me+er, " (%&<<( Andra1o1+ and t-e a1in1 ad/.t .earner Educational Aerontology, 1(B(, %%=,%BB

o T-is arti#.e identifies t-e 0asi# #on#epts and str/#t/res of peda1o1+ and andra1o1+ as
tea#-in1,.earnin1 strate1ies for a1in1 ad/.ts Andra1o1+ is depi#ted as a re.e3ant
parti#ipator+ ad/.t ed/#ation te#-ni5/e /sef/. for a1in1 ad/.ts
MeCiro2, * (%&7%( A #riti#a. t-eor+ of ad/.t .earnin1 and ed/#ation Adult Education, 31, A,B8

o MeCiro2 presents 2-at -e #a..s a #-arter for andra1o1+, and s/11ests t-at andra1o1+, 9as a
professiona. perspe#ti3e of ad/.t ed/#ators, m/st 0e defined as an or1aniCed and s/stained
effort to assist ad/.ts to .earn in a 2a+ t-at en-an#es t-eir #apa0i.it+ to f/n#tion as se.f,
dire#ted .a+men9 He presents %B a#tions -e 0e.ie3es ad/.t ed/#ators m/st #arr+ o/t
Ne2ton, E " (%&<'( Andra1o1+) Understandin1 t-e ad/.t as .earner 8ournal o& /eading, 16, A?%,A?A

o He 0e.ie3es t-at #/rri#/./m s-o/.d 0e timed to 0e in step 2it- de3e.opmenta. tas4s as t-e
indi3id/a. en#o/nters t-em to ma4e f/.. /se of t-e tea#-a0.e moment T-e re5/irements and
demands of t-e present sit/ation and aspirin1 ro.es in rea. .ife m/st dominate and s/persede
a.. ot-er #onsiderations in andra1o1+
Nottin1-am Andra1o1+ Gro/p (%&7A( (o!ard a developental theory o& andragogy (Ad/.ts)
Ps+#-o.o1i#a. and Ed/#ationa. Perspe#ti3e No &( Nottin1-am, En1.and) Department of Ad/.t Ed/#ation,
Uni3ersit+ of Nottin1-am

o T-e Nottin1-am 1ro/p -as some2-at reinterpreted 6no2.es: andra1o1i#a. #on#epts in terms
of t-eir 0e.iefs a0o/t ad/.ts and ad/.ts: a0i.ities to t-in4 #reati3e.+ and #riti#a..+ in .earnin1
settin1s T-e 0oo4.et pro3ides des#riptions of met-ods, se3era. feat/res of a tea#-in1 and
.earnin1 pro#ess, and some sta1es of #o/rse de3e.opment #entered aro/nd t-eir notions
a0o/t #riti#a. t-in4in1 T-e Nottin1-am 1ro/p a.so report t-at t-e+ 0e.ie3e A.e;ander 6app,
a German tea#-er, first /sed t-e 2ord andra1o1+ in %7AA to des#ri0e t-e ed/#ationa. t-eor+
of P.ato
Peterson, E H, Ad4ins, D, TC/4, R, ! "#ott, M (%&7%( Ad/.t pro0.em so.3in1 trainin1) An e;perimenta.
in3esti1ation of andra1o1i#a. #o/nse.in1 te#-ni5/es .roceedings o& the (!enty'second Annual Adult
Education /esearch Con&erence (pp %=&,%?A( De6a.0, ID

o T-e a/t-ors dre2 /pon a3ai.a0.e .iterat/re to de.ineate a #o/nse.in1 pro#ed/re #onsistent
2it- andra1o1i#a. prin#ip.es and a .ife span de3e.opment perspe#ti3e T-e+ t-en e;amined
t-e effe#ts of imp.ementin1 s/#- pro#ed/res and determined t-at peop.e #an 0e -e.ped to
en-an#e t-eir o2n pro0.em so.3in1 a0i.ities and se.f,#onfiden#e
Peterson, D A (%&7A( 3acilitating education &or older adults "an Fran#is#o) *osse+,$ass

o Peterson des#ri0es andra1o1+ in #onte;t 2it- o.der .earners He s/11ests 2-ere an


/nderstandin1 of o.der ad/.ts as .earners interse#ts 2it- 3ario/s andra1o1i#a. #on#epts He
a.so s/11ests 2a+s andra1o1+ #an 0e app.ied 2it- o.der .earners
Podes#-i, R D (%&7<( Andra1o1+) Proofs or premises "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and
/esearch, $$(A(, %8,%<, B'

o T-e a/t-or e;p.ores t-e de0ate t-at -as #ontin/ed a0o/t andra1o1+ d/rin1 t-e past de#ade
and /r1es ad/.t ed/#ators to 0e #on#erned a0o/t t-e t+pe and nat/re of resear#- t-at is
#arried o/t a0o/t t-e topi#
Podes#-i, R (%&7<( Dindeman, 6no2.es and Ameri#an indi3id/a.ism .roceedings o& the (!enty'eighth
Annual Adult Education /esearch Con&erence (pp %&=,B''( Daramie, FY) Uni3ersit+ of F+omin1,
Eonferen#es and Instit/tes

o In ana.+Cin1 t-ese t2o indi3id/a.s, Podes#-i s/11ests t-at Dindeman:s andra1o1+ is re.ated
p-i.osop-i#a..+ to rep/0.i#an indi3id/a.ism, 2-ereas 6no2.es: andra1o1+ is #onne#ted
so#io.o1i#a..+ to /ti.itarian indi3id/a.ism
Podes#-i, R D, ! Pearson, E M (%&7?( 6no2.es and Mas.o2) Differen#es a0o/t freedom "i&elong
"earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 0(<(, %?,%7

o T-e a/t-ors ta.4 a0o/t 6no2.es: /pdated 3ie2s of freedom and se.f,dire#ted .earnin1 in -is
more re#ent 2ritin1s a0o/t andra1o1+ T-e+ s/11est t-at 6no2.es is per-aps o3er.+
dependent on t-e a0i.it+ of a.. peop.e to a##ept indi3id/a. freedom in .earnin1
Pratt, D D (%&78( Andra1o1i#a. ass/mptions) "ome #o/nter int/iti3e .o1i# .roceedings o& the (!enty'&i&th
Annual Adult Education /esearch Con&erence (pp %8<,%=A( "+ra#/se, NY) Printin1 "er3i#es, "+ra#/se
Uni3ersit+

o Pratt re3ie2s t-e e3o./tion of t-e #on#ept of andra1o1+ and e;amines some of t-e
distortions and ass/mptions t-at -a3e emer1ed T2o andra1o1i#a. ass/mptions (ad/.ts as
se.f,dire#ted .earners and s-ared a/t-orit+ for de#ision,ma4in1( are e;amined
Pratt, D D (%&77( Andra1o1+ as a re.ationa. #onstr/#t Adult Education Quarterly, 38, %?',%<%

o T-e a/t-or s/11ests t-at andra1o1i#a. pra#ti#e s-o/.d a#4no2.ed1e and a##ept of its .earners
0ot- se.f,dire#tedness and its o03erse, dependen#+ "e3era. .earner and tea#-er 3aria0.es are
des#ri0ed and some fi1/res depi#tin1 re.ations-ips are pro3ided
Ra#-a., * (%&7A( T-e andra1o1+,peda1o1+ de0ate) Anot-er 3oi#e in t-e fra+ "i&elong "earning) (he Adult
7ears, %(&(, %8,%=

o Ra#-a. s/11ests t-at ad/.t ed/#ators ma+ -a3e 0e#ome too en1rossed in t-e fie.d:s @ar1on
and /ti.iCes 9andra1o1+9 as a dis#/ssion term He notes -o2 #on#epts .i4e 9se.f,dire#ted
.earnin19 -a3e sp/n off from t-e p-i.osop-i#a. /nderpinnin1s re.ated to andra1o1+
"a3i#e3i#, D M (%&7%( Ad/.t ed/#ation s+stems in E/ropean "o#ia.ist #o/ntries) "imi.arities and
differen#es In A N E-arters and Asso#iates, Coparing adult education !orld!ide "an Fran#is#o) *osse+,
$ass

o T-e a/t-or introd/#es t-e reader to t-e term 9ant-ropo1o1+9 a term t-at H/n1r+ /ti.iCes to
#o3er 0ot- andra1o1+ and peda1o1+ He a.so des#ri0es -o2 3ario/s ot-er #o/ntries in t-is
re1ion /se some form of andra1o1+
"a3i#e3i#, D M (%&77, Ma+( Conceptions o& andragogy in di&&erent countries) Coparative
considerations Paper presented at t-e %&77 "t/d+ "eminar) Eomparati3e Resear#- in Ad/.t Ed/#ation,
Rome, Ita.+

o "a3i#e3i# tra#es t-e roots of andra1o1+ to Gree4 p-i.osop-+ /p t-ro/1- t-e 2or4ers:
mo3ement in t-e .ast t2o #ent/ries Its 1ro2t- in Eastern E/rope in t-e ear.+ part of t-is
#ent/r+ is des#ri0ed He a.so re.ates andra1o1+ to t-e so#ia. s#ien#es and ma4es a p.ea for
more #omparati3e st/d+ efforts
"a3i#e3i#, D (%&7&( Eon#eptions of andra1o1+ in different #o/ntries) Eomparati3e #onsiderations In M
Di#-tner (Ed(, Coparative research in adult education) .resent lines and perspectives (pp ?=,<B( Vi..a
Fa.#onieri, '''88 Fras#ati, Roma, Ita.+) Eentro E/ropeo De.. Ed/#aCione

o "a3i#e3i# presents t-e roots and -istori#a. de3e.opment of t-e #on#ept of andra1o1+ 1oin1
0a#4 to 6app T-e present sit/ation in terms of /se of t-e #on#ept is presented and -e
in#./des some dis#/ssion on t-e .in4a1es 0et2een andra1o1+ and ot-er s#ien#es
"-eridan, * (%&7?( Andra1o1+) A ne2 #on#ept for a#ademi# .i0rarians /esearch Strategies, 4(8(, %=?,%?<

o A #ase is made for -o2 andra1o1i#a. #on#epts and pro#ed/res #an 0e /ti.iCed 0+ a#ademi#
.i0rarians to -e.p meet t-e man+ needs of .earners and to -e.p t-em in /sin1 3ario/s
information reso/r#es "e3era. re#ommendations and s/11estions are pro3ided
"-eridan, * (%&7&( Ret-in4in1 andra1o1+) T-e #ase for #o..a0orati3e .earnin1 in #ontin/in1 -i1-er
ed/#ation Continuing @igher Education, 32(B(, B,?

o T-e a/t-or des#ri0es #o..a0orati3e .earnin1 and #ooperati3e .earnin1 efforts amon1 st/dents
t-at is reported to 0e 1ainin1 2ide a##eptan#e in -i1-er ed/#ation toda+ Eo..a0orati3e
.earnin1 is p/rported to para..e. andra1o1i#a. pro#ed/res in man+ 2a+s
"te2art, D F (%&7?( Perspe#ti3e "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, 0(=(, B

o "te2art pro3ides some s/11estions as to 2-+ Anderson and Dindeman did not /se t-e term
9andra1o1+9 after t-eir mention of it in %&B<
"te2art, D F (%&7<( Adult learning in Aerica) Eduard "indean and his agenda &or li&elong education
Ma.a0ar, F.orida) Ro0ert E 6rie1er P/0.is-in1 Eompan+

o "te2art 2rites a masterf/. 0io1rap-+ of Ed/ard Dindeman, #onsidered 0+ man+ in t-e


United "tates as t-e fat-er of s#-o.ar.+ 2or4 in ad/.t ed/#ation E-apter 7, entit.ed 9F-at
Ad/.t Ed/#ation Means) Dis#o3erin1 and Redis#o3erin1 t-e Eon#ept of Andra1o1+,9
des#ri0es t-e inter#onne#tedness 0et2een Dindeman:s t-in4in1 a0o/t ad/.t ed/#ation and
m/#- of 2-at andra1o1+ -as #ome to represent He tra#es t-e -istor+ of DindemanOs /se of
t-e term andra1o1+ in %&B? and %&B<
"/anma.i, E (%&7B( T-e #ore #on#epts of andra1o1+ (Do#tora. dissertation, Tea#-ers Eo..e1e, Eo./m0ia
Uni3ersit+( 4issertation A-stracts International, 41, 88<%a

o Uti.iCin1 t-e #-arter for andra1o1+ o/t.ined 0+ *a#4 MeCiro2, "/anma.i de3e.oped an
9Andra1o1+ in Pra#ti#e In3entor+9 and administered it to a 1ro/p of ad/.t ed/#ation
professors He 0e.ie3es t-at t-ere is a #onsens/s re1ardin1 t-e ma@or #on#epts /sed in t-e
andra1o1i#a. pro#ess
Tennant, M (%&7?( An e3a./ation of 6no2.es: t-eor+ of ad/.t .earnin1 International 8ournal o& "i&elong
Education, %, %%A,%BB

o He dis#/sses and e3a./ates a n/m0er of t-emes 2-i#- persist e;p.i#it.+ or imp.i#it.+


t-ro/1-o/t 6no2.es: 2ritin1s, in#./din1 t-e #on#ept of se.f,a#t/a.iCation, t-e differen#e
0et2een #-i.d and ad/.t .earners, and t-e #.ini#a. mode. inf./en#e of Ear. Ro1ers and
A0ra-am Mas.o2 He ar1/es for a #.earer arti#/.ation of se3era. /nder.+in1 tenets and ta4es
iss/e 2it- t-e notion t-at ad/.t .earnin1 is different from #-i.d .earnin1
Terr+, E F (%&77( Usin1 andra1o1+ to foster mora. de3e.opment of ad/.ts 2it-in t-e instit/tiona. #-/r#-
"i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice and /esearch, $1(B(, 8,?

o T-e a/t-or 0e.ie3es t-at t-e nat/re of andra1o1+ is s/#- t-at it #an pro3ide an appropriate
3e-i#.e for fa#i.itatin1 mora. de3e.opment 2it- a #-/r#- settin1 "-e re.ates andra1o1i#a.
pro#ess e.ements #.ose.+ 2it- t-e pro#ess re5/ired for mo3ement t-ro/1-o/t t-e 3ario/s
sta1es of mora. de3e.opment T-e importan#e of fa#i.itation is des#ri0ed
T-orne, E H, ! Mars-a.., * D (%&7=( Mana1eria.,s4i..s de3e.opment) An e;perien#e in pro1ram desi1n
.ersonnel 8ournal, 55(%(, %=,%<, A7

o T-e a/t-ors des#ri0e -o2 andra1o1+ #an 0e adapted to an ind/stria. settin1 T-e+ des#ri0e
-o2 to #reate an en3ironment in 2-i#- a mana1ement s4i..s de3e.opment pro1ram #an
operate
T-ornton, * A (%&<A( LRe3ie2 of 5odern practice o& adult education) Andragogy versus pedagogyM Adult
Education, 14, <',<B

o A fair.+ strai1-t,for2ard and positi3e re3ie2 of t-e 0oo4


Tra3is, A Y (%&7=( Andra1o1+ and t-e disa0.ed ad/.t .earner "i&elong "earning) An ,ni-us o& .ractice
and /esearch, 8(7(, %?,%7, B'

o T-e a/t-or s/11ests -o2 andra1o1i#a. prin#ip.es #o/.d 0e /ti.iCed 2it- disa0.ed ad/.t
.earners "e3era. des#ripti3e ta0.es are in#./ded
Farren, E (%&7&( Andra1o1+ and N F " Gr/ndt3i1) A #riti#a. .in4 Adult Education Quarterly, 30(8(,
B%%,BBA

o Farren #ompares t-e ideas of NF" Gr/ndt3i1 2it- t-ose of 3ario/s Ameri#an ad/.t
ed/#ation t-in4ers, parti#/.ar.+ as t-ose t-in4ers -a3e addressed t-e #on#ept of andra1o1+
Farren s/11ests t-at 2-i.e Gr/ndt3i1 -as 0asi#a..+ 1one /nread in Nort- Ameri#a, -is ideas
-a3e -ad a ma@or inf./en#e on ad/.t ed/#ation in t-is #onte;t, .ar1e.+ d/e to t-e .e1a#+ of
Ed/ard Dindeman He s/11ests t-at t-e 0asi# ideas of Gr/ndt3i1 essentia..+ para..e.
6no2.es: ass/mptions of andra1o1+
Yeo, G (%&7B( :E.der1o1+: a spe#ia.iCed approa#- to ed/#ation for e.ders "i&elong "earning) (he Adult
7ears, 5(=(, 8,<

o "-e re#ommends a ne2 91o1+,9 e.der1o1+, defined as a spe#ia.iCed approa#- to ed/#ation


for e.ders "-e 0e.ie3es t-at e.der1o1+ 2o/.d -e.p tea#-ers of o.der ad/.ts to 0e#ome more
effe#ti3e "-e pro3ides a n/m0er of instr/#tion,re.ated strate1ies
Yon1e, A D (%&7=( Andra1o1+ and peda1o1+) t2o 2a+s of a##ompaniment Adult Education Quarterly,
35, %?',%?<

o In t-is arti#.e, Yon1e ta.4s a0o/t -o2 dis#/ssions of andra1o1+ re3o.3in1 aro/nd .earnin1
and tea#-in1 are 0ot- ne#essar+ and #onf/sin1 "ome important differen#es 0et2een a
sit/ation of andra1o1+ and peda1o1+ are presented
Va##a, R T, ! Fa.4er, * E (%&7'( Andra1o1+) T-e missin1 .in4 in #o..e1e readin1 pro1rams "i&elong
"earning) (he Adult 7ears, 3(?(, %?, B8,B=

o T-e a/t-ors ta.4 a0o/t -o2 andra1o1i#a. ass/mptions and approa#-es #an 0e /sed to tea#-
readin1 to in#omin1 #o..e1e st/dents
Van A..en, G H (%&7B( Ed/#ationa. attit/des in a state s+stem of #omm/nit+ #o..e1es Counity College
/evie!, $6(B(, 88,8<

o Usin1 t-e Ed/#ationa. Orientation K/estionnaire, an instr/ment de3e.oped to meas/re


attit/des a.on1 an andra1o1i#a.,peda1o1i#a. #ontin//m, attit/des of #omm/nit+ #o..e1e
fa#/.t+ and st/dents 2ere fo/nd to fit 2e.. to1et-er and to fa.. near t-e midd.e of t-e s#a.e
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
Note) T-e o##asiona. spe..in1 of andra1o1+ as 9andro1o1+9 is as it 2as fo/nd in t-e so/r#e For an
e;p.anation of t-e spe..in1 3ariations, see 6no2.es (%&7'(
Ret/rn to t-e ad/.t ed/#ation pa1e
Ret/rn to t-e -ome pa1e