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Bibliography
Primary Sources
An Act to define and protect the institution of marriage, H.R. 3396, 104th Cong., 2d Sess.
(1996).
The Defense of Marriage Act was a bill that dictated that marriage was exclusively
between a man and a woman, completely ruling out homosexuals. This bill was ruled
unconstitutional in 2013, marking a pivotal moment in the ongoing fight for the human
rights of homosexuals. This was helpful to me because it showed me a struggle the
homosexual community faced and eventually defeated.

Altman, Dennis. The Homosexualization of America: The Americanization of the Homosexual.
New York City, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1982.
Following the Stonewall Riots and the subsequent advancement of the homosexual rights
movement, homosexuals made a large leap forward to further join the ranks of the
predominantly heterosexual American society as equals. This book details how
homosexuals have started to started to be treated less as abnormalities and more as
American citizens that deserve equal rights. This book helped me see how the Stonewall
Riots directly affected the homosexual population of the United States.

"Arrest Reports from the 1969 Stonewall Uprising." The New York Times.
http://documents.nytimes.com/arrest-reports-from-the-1969-stonewall-uprising#p=1.
These are police reports from the night of the Stonewall Riots that detail the actions taken
by the homosexuals taking responsibility to gain their human rights after police raided the
Stonewall Inn. The charges include shoving and kicking a police officer, throwing
objects at the police officers, among others. These police reports helped me see how the
homosexuals fought back at Stonewall, and why this riot in particular was so
revolutionary to the homosexual civil rights movement. I used these reports as extra
information to access on my website.

Boys Beware. Sid Davis Productions - Unified School District and the Police Department of
Inglewood, California, 1955.
In the 1950s in the United States, homosexuals were portrayed sexual perverts with the
intent of persuading little boys to provide them sexual favors. This film was an
educational film put out as a tool to educate the boys of Inglewood, California. This
video helped me see how homosexuals were portrayed in the media in the 1950s and
1960s; since the media reflects the general mindset of the country, this video shows me
how homosexuals were completely excluded in the society of America in the 1950s and
1960s. I used a portion of this clip in the Homosexual Exclusion portion of my website.






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"Brown v Board of Education of Topeka." N.d. PDF.
The monumental ruling in the court case Brown v Board of Education of Topeka sparked
the beginning of the end of the mistreatment and denial of rights of the minority groups
of America. This is the document which proclaimed the results of the trial. This
document helped me see how the rights movements of America, including the
homosexual rights movement, began.

CBS Reports. "The Homosexuals." CBS. First broadcast March 7, 1967. Hosted by Mike
Wallace. Written by Mike Wallace, William Peters, and Harry Morgan.
This is a 1967 television report detailing the "dangers" of homosexuality. This video
accurately represents the rejection of homosexuals carried out by society during the
1960s. I used a clip of this video in the Homosexual Exclusion page on my website. This
video helpedme see how and why homosexuals were excluded during the 1960s, creating
the environment of an imminent rising up by the homosexuals.

Change.gov. "Civil Rights." Agenda. Accessed February 25, 2014.
http://change.gov/agenda/civil_rights_agenda/.
This website details the initiatives the Obama Administration is planning to take to
advance the civil rights of all Americans. This includes advancing the civil rights of
homosexuals. This website helped me see how the homosexuals taking responsibility to
take matters from the heterosexuals' hands to theirs helped gain their civil rights, even
today.

Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, Employment of Homosexuals and
Other Sex Perverts in Government, S. Rep. No. 81-241, 2d Sess. (1950).
The United States dicriminated against homosexuals during the period of the Cold War,
due to lies spread about homosexuals being unable to keep secrets and highly probable to
be spies for Communist Russians. This is a Senate report on homosexuals in the
government; this was made as part of an effort to rid the United States government of
homosexuals. This helped me see how homosexuals were denied rights by the United
States government.

Cory, Donald Webster. The Homosexual in America: A Subjective Approach. N.p.: Greenberg,
1955.
Multiple sources of media were released previous to the Stonewall Riots that furthered
the mindset that homosexuals were abnormal and should be outcast from society. This is
a book studying homosexuality. This book showed me how homosexuality was
perceived previous to the Stonewall riots and the homosexual rights movement.

Exec. Order No. 10450, 3 C.F.R. (1953).
This is an executive order proclaimed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower that prohibited
the hiring ofany known homosexual to any government employment position and
commanded the firing of any person discovered to be homosexual in any government
position. This was a measure taken during the Red Scare and accompanying fear of
homosexuals being spies for the enemy. This executive order helped me understand the
drastic measures taken for the advancement of national security during the Cold War.
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"FBI Records Regarding Sex Offenders Foreign Intelligence; Sex Degenerates and Sex
Offenders; Sex Perverts in Government Service." N.d. PDF.
Homosexuals were frequently considered to be a source of downfall for the American
government; this prejudice resulted in multitudes of investigations on homosexuals in
government and multitudes of subsequent firings. This is a collection of letters and
documents created by the Federal bureau of Investigation during the Red Scare of the
Cold War. These documents helped me understand how even the highest rankings of the
United States government participated in the fear and resulting persecution of
homosexuals during the period known as the Lavender Scare.

Ford, Celellan Stearns, and Frank Ambrose Beach. Patterns of Sexual Behavior. N.p.: Harper,
1952.
Previous to the Stonewall Riots, homosexuals were widely studied and evaluated, due to
the fact that homosexuality was widely considered an illness and a crime. This is a book
detailing "abnormal" sexual behaviors, such as homosexuality. This book helped me see
how homosexuals were persecuted previous to the Stonewall Riots.

Gavzer, Barnard. "Homosexuals Taking More Militant Stand for Their Civil Rights." Eugene
Register-Guard (Eugene, OR), June 29, 1970.
To commemorate the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall Riots, homosexuals
organized events to keep fresh in the minds of homosexuals a moment when their
community fought back. This is a newspaper article of how homosexuals began taking a
stand for their rights and holding the United States government responsible on the date of
commemoration for the Stonewall Riots. This article helped me see who the Stonewall
Riots aided the fight for homosexual civil rights.

Gay Activists Alliance. D.C. Plainclothes Police Are Still Entrapping Homosexuals Senselessly -
It's Time to Stop. Washingotn D.C.: n.p., 1972.
Police remained a source of harassment for homosexuals even following the Stonewall
Riots. This is a flier that gives some facts about how it is not the homosexuals that
deserve the harassment they are receiving. This helped me see how homosexuals began
taking a more public stand to regain their rights.

. Gay Activists Alliance to Walter Washington, January 1975.
The Gay Activists Alliance fought multiple battles to help advance the rights of
homosexuals. This is a letter to to mayor Walter Washington concerned about his
endorsement of police violence against homosexuals. This helped me understand how
effective the catalyzed homosexual rights movement, and how the Stonewall Riots
affected homosexual activism.






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. "Teacher Awareness Seminar." Paper presented at Washington D.C.
Homosexuality and teaching positions have long been conflicting, as people did not want
homosexuals anywhere near their children. This is a seminar put on by the Gay Activists
Alliance detailing the future conduct of homosexuals in teaching fields. This helped me
see how the homosexuals were gaining their rights to be protected from workplace
discrimination.

Lemert, Edwin M. Social Pathology: A Systematic Approach to the Theory of Sociopathic
Behavior. New York City, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1951.
Previous to the homosexual rights movement's efforts to change these, views on
homosexuality ranged from homosexuality being a sexual deviation to homosexuality
being a mental illness. This book detailed homosexuality as being an issue of
psychological illness. This book helped me see how the most reputable fields in America
took the front on the fight to stop homosexuality in America previous to the Stonewall
riot's contribution to catalyze the homosexual rights movement.

Lisker, Jerry. "Homo Nest Raided, Queen Bees Are Stinging Mad." New York Daily News (New
York City, NY), July 6, 1969.
This newspaper article detailed the Stonewall Riots days after they occurred. The
Stonewall Riots occurred amidst a time of rapid social change in the United States during
the civil rights movement. The homosexuals were one group fighting for their human
rights during this movement. The Stonewall Riots were an important movement in the
homosexuals' fight for rights. This newspaper article gave me a valuable insight into the
riots.

Lodi News-Sentinel (Lodi, CA). "A Spy Is a Spy." September 8, 1967.
One of the main charges against homosexuals during the Cold War was their fabricated
potent susceptibility to being spies. Homosexuals were often thought to be highly subject
blackmail and, subsequently, spying. This is a newspaper article detailing the different
forms a spy could take during the Cold War. This helped me better understand how
homosexuals were unfairly prejudiced against during the Cold War.

McCarthy, Joe. McCarthyism: The Fight for America. New York City, NY: Devin-Adair
Company: Publishers, 1952.
Senator Joe McCarthy spearheaded the campaign held during the Cold War that outlined
homosexuals as threats to national security. This is a book written by the senator himself
detailing his plans for helping the country not to succumb to the clutches of
Communism. This book helped me see how strong the fear of Communism was during
the Cold War and why so many people bought into the unjust persecution of
homosexuals during that time.





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"McCarthyism and the Cold War - Diplomatic Security in the 1950s." U.S. Department of State.
Accessed February 10, 2014. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/176702.pdf.
During the 1950s, McCarthyism was a popular tactic used to incriminate
homosexuals. Homosexuals were highly persecuted because they were thought of as
generally being spies for the Russians and physically incapable of keeping secrets during
a time of heightened fear of spying. This article helped me understand McCarthyism and
how homosexuals were persecuted during the Cold War.

McNeil, Marshall. "State Dept. Firing Perverts on Its Payroll." The Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburgh,
PA), March 16, 1950.
Homosexuals were often fired from government positions due to the fear that they could
expose government secrets to Russian spies during the Cold War. This is a newspaper
article chronicling the firing of homosexuals in the government. This article helped me
see how severethe prejudice against homosexuals was during the Cold War and how
pungent McCarthyism was.

National Parks Service. "Workforce Diversity." U.S. Department of the Interior.
http://www.nps.gov/diversity/stonewall.htm.
This website told about the location of the Stonewall Inn. Located in the heart of the
homosexual community known as Greenwich Village, the area was an area very prime
for the homosexual community to rise up for their rights; there were many instances in
Greenwich Village where the rights of homosexuals were not respected. Greenwich
Village was one area that was subject to the urbanization of America and the subsequent
creation of niches for minorities, including homosexuals. In turn, this area was
dominantly homosexual, so the heterosexuals became subject to the whims of the
majority homosexual population. This website helped me understand these points and
that Greenwich Village was a prime area for an uprising to commence the homosexual
rights movement.

NYC Pride. "Today, as the Struggle for Gay Rights Continues." About Heritage of Pride.
http://www.nycpride.org/about/.
In the year following the Stonewall Riots, homosexual pride parades commenced to
commemorate the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. These occurred in major
cities across America, including New York City. This website was the website for the
New York City homosexual pride parade, an event that has been seen annually since
1970. This website gave me information about homosexual pride parades that followed
the Stonewall Riots and information on the ongoing struggle of the homosexual
community for their civil rights.

Ogdensburg Jounral (Ogdensburg, NY). "Congress Studies Tale of Perverts in Government."
May 20, 1950.
Homosexuals were persecuted largely in their employment; they were particularly
persecuted if they held employment in government positions. This article shows how
homosexuals were not given equal employment opportunities previous to the Stonewall
Riots. This article helped me see how employment opportunities to homosexuals have
changed since previous to the Stonewall Riots and today.
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The Open Mind. "Homosexuality: A Psychological Approach." CUNY TV. First broadcast 1956.
This is a television broadcast from 1956 of a discussion between two psychologists on
the effects of homosexuality on human psychology and society. It helped me understand
that homosexuals were thought of as somewhat inferior to the dominant heterosexual
society. I compared this to actions after the Stonewall Riots, and I saw the contrast of the
domination of the homosexuals by heterosexuals with the homosexual community taking
responsibility for their rights after the Stonewall Riots. I used a clip from the
introduction to this video in the Homosexual Exclusion portion of my website.

Parker, William. Homosexuals & Employment. N.p.: n.p., 1970.
Immediately following the Stonewall Riots, homosexual pride and activism was on the
rise;these resulted in the advancement of rights and the swaying of public opinion
towards tolerance of homosexuals. This is a book detailing how the homosexual rights
movement is beginning to take ground. This book helped me learn about the immediate
effects of the Stonewall Riots.

"President Obama - Gay Marriage: Gay Couples 'Should Be Able to Get Married' - ABC News
Exclusive." YouTube. Video file, 07:42. Posted by ABC News, May 9, 2012. Accessed
February 12, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQGMTPab9GQ.
In 2012, President Barack Obama became the first president of the United States to
officially affirm his support for the legality of same-sex unions. This video is a news
report by ABC News of that affirmation. This video helped me see that this was a
revolutionary move in the changing public view of homosexuality, seeing as the president
of the United States is one of the most powerful social figures in the United States. This
is representative of the changing mindsets of Americans on the topic of homosexuality. I
used a portion of this video in The Public View page on my website.

"Refugees from Amerika." N.d. PDF.
Following the Stonewall Riots, homosexuals felt a need to band together and organize a
community to hold the United States responsible to grant the rights for
homosexuals. This is a manual detailing homosexual liberation to follow on the footsteps
of the now-catalyzed movement for the advancement of the rights of homosexuals. This
helped me see how homosexuals reacted immediately to the Stonewall Riots.

"Repeal of Defense of Marriage Act." Video file. C-SPAN. http://www.c-
span.org/video/?302625-1/repeal-defense-marriage-act.
the Defense of Marriage Act was recently repealed, allowing homosexuals to serve
openly in the armed forces. This video is of the presentation by Congress on the decision
to repeal a portion of the act. This video gave me valuable insight on one of the most
recent examples of the advancements of the rights of homosexuals.






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SF Pride. "History of Pride." San Francisco Pride. http://www.sfpride.org/heritage/.
In the year following the Stonewall Riots, 1970, to commemorate the riots, many
homosexual pride parades were held all over the country. This website is of the San
Francisco homosexual pride parade; it included multiple valuable pictures and history of
homosexual pride parades. This website helped me see the effect Stonewall had on the
homosexual community just one year after.

Smith, Howard. "Full Moon Over the Stonewall." The Village Voice (New York City, NY), July
3, 1969.
This newspaper article is from the point of view of a news reporter on the scene at the
beginning of the Stonewall Riots.The Stonewall Riots were one of the first riots by
homosexuals to actually be violent. The riots including the throwing of multiple
projectiles and the damaging of property primarily in the forms of vandalism such as
graffiti. This article helped me learn about how the riots played out, and it also gave me
a valuable first-hand account of the riots.

Society of Medical Psychoanalysts, and Irving Bieber. Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study.
New York City, NY: Basic Books, 1962.
The medical and academic fields of America headed the front for respected homophobia
in America. This is a book detailing a psychological study of the minds of
homosexuals. This book helped me see how homophobia was respected previous to the
Stonewall Riots and how the most respectable fields in America lead the charge of
homophobia.

The Stonewall Inn. "The Historic Stonewall Inn." The Stonewall Inn "Where Pride Began".
http://www.thestonewallinnnyc.com/StonewallInnNYC/HISTORY.html.
This is the official website of the Stonewall Inn, the homosexual bar that is still running
today. This website gave me valuable information on the riots themselves, and also
about efforts becoming of the riots that helped advance the homosexual rights
movement. This website was helpful in my initial understanding of the Stonewall Riots
as well as their impacts on history.

"STONEWALL RIOTS (CQ00674)." F.I.L.M. Archives. Video file, 00:46. Accessed January
30, 2014. http://fastimages.net/films/clip.jsp?id=57361.
This is a video of the Stonewall Riots themselves. There is little official documentation,
such as video or photographs, of the Stonewall Riots. This is one of the few sources of
media taken from the Stonewall Riots; it is a video clip of the riots themselves. Other
protests held previously had been peaceful and had been carried out in an attempt to gain
respect. This was the first particularly violent riot; its intensity was important to its
importance and significance. This video was helpful in me understanding what the
homosexuals did to fight back against the police on that night, and that these actions were
so different than actions taken previously. I used a portion of this clip in my website to
illustrate the riots themselves and to help the viewer of my website understand the actions
homosexuals took against the police on that night, and that these actions differed from
others previous.

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St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, FL). "McCarthy May Be in Key Spot in Probe of Federal
Employment of Perverts." May 21, 1950.
Senator Joseph McCarthy, during the Cold War, organized the persecution of select
groups in the United States to head his fight against the spread of Communism. This is
an article telling about how Senator McCarthy persecuted homosexuals as potential
spreaders of Communism. This article helped me see how McCarthyism persecuted
homosexuals and took away their rights.

St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, FL). "Senate Okehs Investigation of Perverts." June 8,
1950.
Homosexuals holding employment in government positions were persecuted, especially
during the era of the Cold War; homosexuals were thought to be incapable of holding
secrets and highly susceptible to bribes and spies. This is a newspaper article telling
about an inquiry into homosexuals in the government. This article helped me see how
homosexuals were prejudiced against during the Cold War period. I used this article to
illustrate that fact.

. This division may be cited as the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes
Prevention Act., H.R. 2647, 111th Cong., 1st Sess. (2009).
The Matthew Shephard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act is an example of
the continuing fight for homosexual human rights. Due to the passing of this law, the
legal charge of hate crime can entail crimes based on motivations of gender identity or
sexual preference. This bill helped me see how the human rights of homosexuals
continue to be advanced. I used this full text in my website.

To prohibit employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity., S.
815, 113th Cong., 1st Sess. (2013).
The legality of discrimination in the workplace is still an issue for the homosexual
community. Currently, there is no law in place at the federal level to prohibit workplace
discrimination based on sexual preference or gender identity, but this bill is going
through the legal process. This bill gave me an example of an issue that still plagues the
homosexual community. I used the full text of this bill in my website, and I also quoted a
portion of it.

To provide for the repeal of the Department of Defense policy concerning homosexuality in the
Armed Forces known as Dont Ask, Dont Tell., S. 4023, 111th Cong., 2d Sess.
(2010).
The Don't Ask Don't Tell Act was an act that prohibited homosexuals from serving
openly in the military; in 2010, this act was repealed, allowing homosexuals to serve
openly in the military. This is the text of the repeal of the Don't Ask Don't Tell Act. This
showed me how strong the homosexual community remains today in their united fight to
gain their human rights. I put the text of this bill into my website.



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Truscott, Lucian, IV. "Gay Power Comes to Sheridan Square." The Village Voice (New York
City, NY), July 3, 1969.
This is a newspaper article written directly after the endings of the Stonewall Riots
detailing the events of those nights. The Stonewall Riots ultimately catalyzed the
homosexual rights movement. This was one of the first events of the homosexual
community fighting back against the dominant society of heterosexuals. This newspaper
helped me understand how the Stonewall Riots were different and important.




















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Secondary Sources
After Stonewall the Making of a Gay and Lesbian Community. Produced by John Scagliotti,
Janet Baus, and Dan Hunt. 1999. New York City, NY: First Run Features, 2010. DVD.
This movie told about how the Stonewall Riots commenced the beginning of the
homosexual rights movement in the United States. Following Stonewall, activists groups
began, and parades and rallies were held. These were done in effort to show that the
homosexuals were gaining their human rights back. This video showed me how
homosexuals reacted to the Stonewall Riots, and how their reactions sparked the
homosexual rights movement that is still going on today.

Alsenas, Linas. Gay America: Struggle for Equality. New York City, NY: Amulet, 2008.
This book told about how ever since European influences set foot on North America,
homosexuals have been persecuted there. The Christian teachings brought by the
Europeans colonizing the Americas were responsible; these beliefs remained active until
the Stonewall Riots, when they started to recede. This book gave me information about
homosexuals struggling through the persecution in the United States from the beginning.

Arriola, Elvia. Videoconference interview by the author. March 24, 2014.
Professor Elvia Arriola is a professor of law at the Northern Illinois University College of
Law. She is licensed to practice law in Illinois, New York, and Texas; she teaches
Constitutional Law, Family Law, Gender and the Law, Sexuality and the Law, and a
scholarship seminar: Women, Law and the Global Economy. She has also taught Civil
Rights Litigation, Professional Responsibility, Contracts, Federal Courts and Domestic
Violence at the Norther Illinois University. This interview helped me very much in
understanding my topic, and gave me valuable information on the Stonewall Riots,
preceding events, and current changes in laws relating to homosexuality. I used audio
clips and quotes sporadically throughout my website.

Ball, Carlos A. From the Closet to the Courtroom Five LGBT Rights Lawsuits That Have
Changed Our Nation. Queer Action. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, n.d.
According to this book, the law has long been a source of persecution of homosexuals;
now that the Stonewall Riots and subsequent events have advanced homosexual rights,
lawsuits have abounded as reactions to inequalities homosexuals face and further
advancements of homosexual rights. This book gave me examples of some of these
lawsuits, and their help on advancing homosexual rights.

Before Stonewall the Making of a Gay and Lesbian Community. Produced by John Scagliotti.
Directed by Greta Schiller and Robert Rosenberg. 1985. New York City, NY: First Run
Features, 2010. DVD.
This film told about the homosexuals' long history of persecution and exclusion. In the
United States, this was especially prevalent through popular opinion widely intolerant of
homosexuality; this popular opinion created an oppressive environment for homosexuals
previous to the Stonewall Riots and the homosexual rights movement. This video gave
me a view of the environment created for homosexual previous to the Stonewall Riots
and the homosexual rights movement.
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Boswell, John. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western
Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press, 2009.
This book told about how the beginning of the persecution of homosexuals was onset by
the expansion of the teachings of the Christian religion. The Christian religion taught
that homosexual practices were immoral and condemned through the religion. This book
detailed the Christian expansion's relation to the beginning of the social and legal
persecution of homosexuals, and was helpful in my understanding of the beginnings of
the suppression of homosexuals.

Bullogh, Vern L., and John Dececco. Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in
Historical Context. New York City, NY: Routledge, 2002.
According to this book, homosexuals were widely persecuted in the United States
previous to the homosexual rights movement. A select few homosexuals stood up for
their human rights and fought for them amidst disrespect, persecution, and absence of
consideration. This book gave me insight into the world of homosexual activism
previous to the Stonewall Riots.

Carter, David. Stonewall: the Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution. New York City, NY: St.
Martin's Press, 2004.
This book showed how the Stonewall Riots were integral in the commencement of the
homosexual rights movement. Their exact history is fairly unsure, however. This book
collected information from various accounts to give a definitive history of the Stonewall
Riots. This book was very helpful in my understanding of the Stonewall Riots. This
book also gave me information on the events that followed the Stonewall Riots such as
homosexual activism and homosexual pride events.

City University of New York. "New York City (NYC) Stonewall Inn Riot - 1969." NYCdata.
http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/disasters/riots-stonewall.html.
This website provided a basic description of the Stonewall Riots as well as their
immediate impacts on history. The Stonewall Inn had some previous run-ins with the
law before the Stonewall Riots, often coinciding with raids by police. After the
Stonewall riots, there were multiple homosexual pride parades, including one that
remains ongoing today on Christopher Street, where the Stonewall Inn is located. This
website was helpful in my initial understanding of the Stonewall Riots. This website also
offered me a picture of the Stonewall Riots; in the picture is a group of men resisting
police and fighting back.






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Davis, Kate, and David Heilbroner, dirs. American Experince: Stonewall Uprising. Screenplay
by David Carter and David Heilbroner. PBS, 2011. Accessed January 30, 2014.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/stonewall/player/.
This movie gave a general overview of how the Stonewall Riots were an important
catalyst to the homosexual rights movement and the subsequent gaining of human rights
for the homosexual population of the United States. There are multiple events leading up
to the Stonewall Riots, and there were multiple events that followed. The Stonewall
Riots were sparked by the taking of homosexuals' human rights, and the homosexual
rights movement came from the riots. The riots represented the responsibility the
homosexuals would begin taking for their own lives, rather than continuing to let the
heterosexual society dictate their lives. This movie was very helpful in my understanding
of the Stonewall Riots and their impacts on history as well as their actions as a spark for
the homosexual rights movement. This movie also gave me insight on what led up to the
Stonewall Riots and the environment homosexuals were subject to previous to the
homosexual rights movement.

Duberman, Martin. Stonewall. New York City, NY: Plume, 1994.
This book told how the Stonewall Riots were integral in the advancement of homosexual
rights in the United States. They represented that the homosexual population did not want
the heterosexuals to further dictate their human rights. The homosexuals wanted their
human rights back, so they rioted against the police that attempted to raid the Stonewall
Inn. This book helped me understand how the Stonewall Riots helped the homosexuals
band together as a community to fight and regain their rights.

Eskridge, William, Jr. Telephone interview by the author. May 10, 2014.
William Eskridge, Jr.is a professor at the Yale Law School, where he teaches Sexuality,
Gender, and the Law,among many other courses. Mr. Eskridge set aside time for me to
ask him several questions relating to homosexuality both today and during the period of
the Stonewall Riots. This interview helped me better understand the effects of the
Stonewall Riots on the homosexual rights movement and the effects of the homosexuals
rights movement on the rights of homosexuals.

Faderman, Lillian. Telephone interview by the author. May 14, 2014.
Lillian Faderman is an expert historian, author, and scholar on homosexuality,
particularly lesbian history. Mrs. Faderman answered several questions I had regarding
homosexuality both previous to the Stonewall Riots, a major catalyst the homosexual
rights movement, and how that movement continues to go on to this day. This interview
helped me understand why the Stonewall Riots were so important.

Fashion Institute of Technology - State University of New York. "Timeline." Queer Fashion
History. Accessed January 27, 2014. http://sites.fitnyc.edu/depts/museum/queer-fashion-
history/timeline.html.
Homosexuals have had a history that has represented acceptance turning into
exclusion. That exclusion is slowly taking a turn back to acceptance;that turn was
catalyzed by the Stonewall Riots. This is a very helpful timeline of homosexual
history. This timeline has helped me visualize the importance of my topic.
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Foster, Thomas A., ed. Long Before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early
America. New York City, NY: New York University Press, 2007.
This book mentioned how the people who colonized North America were mostly
intolerant of homosexual practices. Homosexuals were subject to persecution of both
legal and social roots in early America. This book gave me information on the
persecution homosexuals in early America faced.

, ed. Long Before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early America. New
York City, NY: New York University Press, 2007.
This book mentioned how the people who colonized North America were mostly
intolerant of homosexual practices. Homosexuals were subject to persecution of both
legal and social roots in early America. This book gave me information on the
persecution homosexuals in early America faced.

40 Years After Stonewall. Produced by John J. Coghlan. 2009.
The Stonewall Riots have had a profound effect on the advancement of the human rights
of homosexuals in the United States. They incited the homosexuals to become a
community and band together to take responsibility for the rights they had been denied
previously. This film tells about how the Stonewall Riots have affected the homosexual
rights movement. This video helped me see the effects of the homosexual rights
movement and how the Stonewall Riots incited the homosexuals of the United States to
take responsibility upon themselves by inciting court battles and fighting for their rights
in rallies and organizations.

Gates, Gary J. "How Many People Are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender ?" Williams
Institute. http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-How-Many-
People-LGBT-Apr-2011.pdf.
Today there are many citizens of the United States that are homosexual today that still
fight for civil rights. This document gives an explanation of today's homosexual
population in the United States. This document helped me see why the fight for
homosexual rights is still going on today and how much of America is still affected by
the homosexual rights movement and continue to take responsibility for their human
rights.

Halsall, Paul. "Documents from the 1969 Furor." Fordham University.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/1969docs.asp.
During the Stonewall Riots, multiple leaflets and other sources of propaganda were
spread by the rioters as an effort to spread the word for their cause and gain support
within Greenwich Village. This website has the text of several of those leaflets, one of
which I quoted in the main event section of my website. This website helped me
understand how the Stonewall Riots affected the homosexual population and helped me
see how immediate the effect of the stonewall Riots was on the homosexual community.


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Harms, William. "Americans move dramatically toward acceptance of homosexuality, survey
finds." UChicagoNews. Last modified September 28, 2011.
http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/09/28/americans-move-dramatically-toward-
acceptance-homosexuality-survey-finds.
Ever since the Stonewall Riots and the inception of the homosexual rights movement,
public opinion on homosexuality has been progressively becoming more and more
accepting of homosexuals. This article details the shift in the mindset of the general
population of the United States from exclusion of homosexuals to inclusion of
homosexuals. This article helped me see how the Stonewall Riots affected popular
opinion, and subsequently the acceptance in the leniency on the rights of homosexuals. I
used two charts that were used in this article in my website.

Harris, Matt. Interview. Pueblo, CO. March 29, 2014.
Dr. Matt Harris teaches U.S. History I, Historiography, America to 1787, Early America
to 1763, The New American Nation, 1763-1830, Directed Study for the MA Prelim
Exam, and Thesis Research and the Colorado State University - Pueblo campus. Dr.
Harris gave me information on the Stonewall Riots and the exclusion of homosexuals
previous to the Riots. He also helped me understand how the homosexual rights
movement continues to advance the human rights of homosexuals in America.

Hoffman, Martin. The Gay World: Male Homosexuality and the Social Creation of Evil. New
York City, NY: Basic Books, 1968.
Homosexuality was often seen as a problem that plagued society for the worse. This is a
book that detailed why homosexuality is a problem for the society of the United
States. This book helped me understand how homophobia was fueled by America's most
respected scientific and medical fields.

Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/.
The human rights campaign is the modern-day front for the homosexual civil rights
movement. They are large advocates for the advancement of the civil rights of
homosexuals, and are a prime example of how the homosexual community continues to
take responsibility to fight for their basic human rights. This website helped me learn
about modern day issues; it also gave me information about the history of the
homosexual civil rights movement and how homosexuals continue to assume
responsibility to gain their rights.

Johnson, David K. The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the
Federal Government. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
The Cold War and the accompanying fear of the spread of Communism brought on the
persecution of any groups even slightly associated with Communism; the groups
persecuted were often done so without a plethora of valid evidence but, rather, fear and
rumors. This book outlined the persecution of homosexuals, especially in the federal
government, during the Cold War. This book helped me set the stage for a movement by
homosexuals to end the unfair discrimination of people with sexual preferences or gender
identities that didn't fit social norms.

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Katz, Jonathan. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. N.p.: Crowell,
1976.
After the Stonewall Riots, homosexuals began to gain nation-wide attention to their
cause. This book is one of the examples of the attraction to the homosexuals of the
United States following the Stonewall Riots and the subsequent widening of the
homosexual rights movement. This book helped me understand the history of
homosexuals previous to the Stonewall Riots, and how homosexuals started holding the
United States government responsible for the denial of the rights of homosexuals
immediately following the Stonewall Riots.

"LGBTQ Civil Rights: A Global Perspective." Old Dominion University.
http://ww2.odu.edu/ao/preview/pdfs/LGBT%20Timeline%20For%20Website.pdf.
This website detailed the recent history of homosexuality. The civil rights of
homosexuals have been taken since the Christian expansion, commencing the beginning
of the period of oppression of homosexuals by the society dominated by
heterosexuals. This oppression became particularly prevalent in the 1800s when people
were being given rights; during this time, homosexuals were not given their civil
rights. This is a timeline of the civil rights of homosexuals; it was very helpful in seeing
how the fight for civil rights by homosexuals has developed since the mid-1800s.

Miller, Neil. Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present. Boston, MA:
Alyson Books, 2006.
This book showed how homosexuals faced social and legal persecution throughout the
world for along period of time. The history of definitive persecution of homosexuals
beings in the mid-1800s. This book detailed the history of the lives homosexuals were
forced to lead and how rights were taken from homosexuals since this time period.

Mucciaroni, Gary. Same Sex Different Politics. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press,
2008.
This book told about how homosexuality has had a long history of run-ins with the
law. Homosexuals were often unfairly subject to certain laws so they could be
persecuted for certain practices that were not normally illegal, but homosexuals were
specially persecuted for. Following Stonewall and the subsequent advancement of
homosexual rights, unfair treatments of homosexuals were subject to multiple political
discussions and decisions. This book gave me information on these political discussions
and decisions.









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Myers, JoAnne. Historical Dictionary of the Lesbian and Gay Liberation Movements. Lanham,
MD: Scarecrow Press, 2013.
The Stonewall Riots were the spark for the homosexual rights movement and the
beginning of homosexuals taking responsibility to fight for the rights that had been taken
from them. This movement forever changed the civil rights of homosexuals in
America. This book detailed the homosexual rights movement, including information
from the beginnings to the current situation of it. This book helped me understand the
homosexual rights movement, and its timeline helped me visualize exactly how the
Stonewall Riots catalyzed an entire movement of the homosexual community to take
responsibility for their civil rights.

New York Public Library. "1969: The Year of Gay Liberation." Exhibitions. Accessed March 8,
2014. http://web-static.nypl.org/exhibitions/1969/year.html.
This is a website detailing gay liberation immediately following the Stonewall Riots
including the organizations formed after Stonewall and the first pride parade on the street
on which the Stonewall Inn is located: Christopher Street. This website was very helpful
in researching my short term effects, or the immediate effects of the Stonewall Riots, and
how the homosexual community took responsibility onto themselves to take back their
rights. I used several pictures from this website in my short term effects.

Off the Straight & Narrow - Lesbian, Gays, Bisexuals & Television. Produced by Katherine
Sender and Sut Jhally. Directed by Katherine Sender. Narrated by C. A. Griffith. 1998.
There has been a drastic change in society's perception of homosexuals since the
Stonewall Riots and the subsequent homosexual rights movement. One of the most
apparent sources of changes in society is what is broadcasted on television; this movie,
about the change in the amount of homosexuality portrayed on television, directly
contrasts the television clips I presented in my website that denounced
homosexuals. This movie helped me see how drastic the changes were in society's
perception of homosexuality since the Stonewall Riots.

Outed - Sexual Identity in America. "Outed - Sexual Identity in America." BackStory with the
American History Guys - Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. First broadcast
January 31, 2014.
This is a radio broadcast about sexual identity, specifically homosexuals, and their
history in America. It told about the beginnings of the homosexual rights movement,
and why the homosexual rights movement was necessary in the first place. This radio
broadcast helped me see why the homosexuals had to take responsibility to regain their
human rights; the heterosexual community restricted the homosexuals' rights previous to
the Stonewall Riots.

outhistory.org. http://outhistory.org/.
This site was recommended to me by John D'Emilio as an excellent source for research
on my topic. This website is very helpful in finding information about the history of
homosexuals in America, and it offers great sources such as pictures, digitized
magazines, and many other sources. This website helped me further my research of my
topic in most all areas.
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Remembering Stonewall. Weekend All Things Considered. First broadcast July 1, 1989.
Produced by David Isay, Michael Scherker, and Amy Goodman.
This is a radio broadcast including multitudes of firsthand accounts of the Stonewall
Riots. This radio broadcast gave me multiple valuable insights from both sides of the
Stonewall Riots, including the position of the police and the position of the rioters. It
helped me wrap my head around the Stonewall Riots as a whole.

Screaming Queens: The Riot at Compton's Cafeteria. Directed by Victor Silverman and Susan
Stryker. Frameline, 2005.
This movie was about how, previous to the Stonewall Riots, homosexuals were treated
unfairly by the majority of the heterosexual society, particularly the police. The police
performed frequent raids on homosexual establishments to unfairly persecute
homosexuals for unrelated charges such as "public indecency" for cross-dressing or
"disturbing public peace" for dancing with a member of their same sex. One raid at
Compton's Cafeteria in San Francisco, California led to a large protest of the homosexual
patrons of the establishment against unfair treatment by police. This was one of the first
fights by homosexuals against their rights being disregarded or not given. This movie
detailed the Compton's Cafeteria Riot and events leading up to the riot as well as events
becoming of the riot. It helped me learn about actions taken by homosexuals previous to
the Stonewall Riots and the official beginning of the homosexual rights movement.

"Sexual Orientation Discrimination: Your Rights." Nolo. http://www.nolo.com/legal-
encyclopedia/sexual-orientation-discrimination-rights-29541.html.
An issue that continues to plague the homosexual community to this day is workplace
discrimination, or being able to not hire someone based on their sexual preference or
gender identity. This website details the rights homosexuals have if they are a victim of
workplace discrimination of homosexuals. This helped me learn about how homosexuals
still face some of the discrimination they faced in the 1950s and 1960s in America.

Six out of 10 Americans Say Homosexual Relations Should Be Recognized as Legal. Last
modified May 15, 2003. Accessed March 8, 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/8413/six-
americans-say-homosexual-relations-should-recognized-legal.aspx.
Ever since the Stonewall Riots and its role as a catalyst for the homosexual rights
movement,public opinion has been becoming more tolerant and accepting of
homosexuality. This website displayed several polls taken regarding homosexuality,
beginning in 1977. These polls showed me how effective the Stonewall Riots were in
advancing the rights of homosexuals in America.







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State of Connecticut. "Timeline of LGBT History." Connecticut Department of Children and
Families. http://www.ct.gov/dcf/lib/dcf/wmv/pdf/timeline_of_lgbt_history.pdf.
This is a timeline of homosexual history. Homosexual history is filled with fluctuations
regarding their acceptance and respect as a part of society. In the ancient times,
homosexuals were generally accepted, however the dawn of the Christian Era brought
persecution to the environment homosexuals were living in. This remained until the
amount of persecution began to lessen following the Stonewall Riots. The history of
homosexuals creates a visible timeline of social and legal acceptance in society. This
timeline was exactly that, and it was very helpful in understanding how the Stonewall
Riots were the turning point in the rights of homosexuals.

Stonewall and Beyond: Lesbian and Gay Culture. Accessed January 20, 2014.
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/eresources/exhibitions/sw25/.
This is a digitized museum exhibit hosted by Columbia University. This exhibit included
many pictures and a lot of valuable information relating to pre-Stonewall homosexuality
and how homosexuals were viewed after Stonewall. This exhibit helped me understand
my topic as a whole and also how Stonewall changed the civil rights of homosexuals.

Winer, Anthony S. "Hate Crimes, Homosexuals, and the Constitution." Mitchell Open Access.
Accessed March 7, 2014.
http://open.wmitchell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1178&context=facsch.
The charge of hate crime entailing motivations of sexual preference or gender identity is
one example of a modern issue that plagues the homosexual community. This is a paper
detailing the issue of the legality of the issue. This paper helped me learn about one
example of an issue that continues to plague the homosexual community still today.

"Witness - Stonewall Riots." BBC iPlayer. Audio file, 9:00. Accessed January 30, 2014.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/p0087s22/Witness_Stonewall_Riots/.
This is a radio broadcast that included an interview of a participant of the Stonewall
Riots. The Stonewall Riots were integral in the beginning of the homosexual rights
movement. The riots didn't last just one night, but, rather, they lasted over the course of
several nights. During this duration the riots gained multiple homosexual participants
living in Greenwich Village and surrounding areas joined the fight at the Stonewall Inn
that would soon start the homosexual rights movement. This radio broadcast was an
interview with a participant of the Stonewall Riots. This radio broadcast gave me
valuable insight into the nights of the Stonewall Riots.